Running head: SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 1

 

Supplemental Materials Development for MTM Pathway Program

Yuanyuan Sun, Courtney Van Evera & Sarah van Nostrand,

Colorado State University
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 2

Introduction

Using the results of the needs analysis that was conducted on the Natural Resources,

Recreation, and Tourism 320 course (NRRT 320), within the Master of Tourism Management

(MTM) Pathways program at INTO CSU (the intensive English program at Colorado State

University), analysts developed a series of supplemental materials, in the form of five modules or

mini lessons, to specifically target the identified gaps in student performance. The following

report will provide a brief literature review discussing the main principles underlying the needs

analysis as well as the major outcomes of that report. Additionally, a justification for how

supplemental materials were chosen and developed will be provided as well the presentation of

the five developed modules including all materials.

Literature Review

Needs analyses are not only beneficial to creating effective English for specific purposes

(ESP) courses, they are a necessity, as discussed by Johns and Price-Machado (2001, p.49).

Needs analyses are viewed as an integral part of the development of ESP courses, as well as a

valuable tool to be utilized as an ongoing process to assess student progress. Over time, needs

analyses have grown in complexity. While target language use was the primary focus in earlier

needs analyses, they have evolved to include other analyses such as discourse analysis and

learner factor analysis (Basturkmen, 2010). The target situation, present situation, learner factor,

and discourse factor analysis were all analyses that the analysts described in detail in the needs

analysis report of NRRT 320.

Nation (2010) describes needs analyses as revolving around two major components: target

needs and learning needs. While target needs focus on what the student needs to be able to

achieve in the target situation, learning needs refer to what the student must do to be able to
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 3

learn. These needs can be further subdivided into lacks, needs, and wants. What does the student

need to know in order to be successful in the course? What knowledge or information are

students lacking when they enter the course? What do students want to get out of the course?

These are all questions that can be asked to address these components. In order to answer these

questions, various types of information must be gathered and analyzed. Conducting observations,

interviews, corpus analysis, and formal and informal assessments are just a few possible ways to

gather data.

While the goal of a needs analysis is ultimately intended to address the needs of the target

population, it is important to note that needs analyses are not completely objective in their goals.

Benesch (2001) explains that they are often used by institutions to get students to “…conform to

established communicative practices.” To further this point, there has been criticism that needs

analyses encourage the idea of ‘teaching to the test’, or in other words, that needs analyses value

language training over language education (Widdowson, 1983). It is here that the reliability of

needs analyses come into question.

Nation (2010) also discusses the importance of evaluating whether or not a needs analysis

is practical and reliable. In order for a needs analysis to be reliable, data must be collected from

several different sources. Moreover, methods of collecting data must be systematic. For example,

during one-on-one interviews with current students, analysts should use checklists and be sure to

ask the same questions to every student in order to ensure consistency and reliability. With

regard to practicality, Nation (2010) considers how it may be worth creating a method for

ranking the types of data being gathered in order to guarantee that the most important

information has the time and resources required to be collected. Nation warns against falling into
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 4

the trap of collecting data simply because it is convenient. Every piece of data gathered during

the needs analysis process should have a clear purpose.

Jasso-Aguilar (2005) discusses the importance of utilizing multiple sources and methods

in a needs analysis, as well as employing triangulation, in order to provide a well-rounded, multi-

sided assessment of student needs. Triangulation, a much more current and encompassing

approach to needs analysis, is a process involving “systematic comparison” between multiple

sources that can aid tremendously in eliminating institutional or other outsider bias from the

analysis (Jasso-Aguilar, 2005). Triangulation was used in Jasso-Aguilar’s study of Waikiki hotel

maids by comparing various sources (workers, guests, and administrators) to determine the most

and least reliable sources.

Currently, there are no published needs analyses conducted that apply to the specific

MTM domain being targeted in this report. Therefore, the analyses conducted in the needs

analysis project stand alone and are not intended to expand upon results of previous studies. The

results gathered from the NRRT 320 needs analysis were used to address the specific needs of

current and future Pathway students entering the MTM Pathways program through the

development of intensive supplemental materials, to be presented in great detail later on in this

report.

It is important to note, however, that the activity templates presented in the modules

largely reflect that of Huhta, Vogt, Johnson, Tulkki, & Hall (2013) from their work on

developing needs analyses for language course design. Although their activities are built within a

course design developed specifically for an engineering TLU domain, the framework in which

their activities are presented was very much applicable to the nature of the modules developed,

and therefore it was deemed appropriate to translate Huhta et al. (2013) activity scaffolding into
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 5

the MTM TLU domain. Additionally, Ward’s (2007) study on developing a basic word list for

undergraduate students studying engineering was also referenced by the researchers for the

authors’ work in developing a 299-word list for engineering students that offers broad and

comprehensive coverage of the type of textbook materials that engineering students will

undoubtedly need to know. Ward’s semi-technical vocabulary word list greatly influenced the

development of a (much smaller) MTM semi-technical word list that will be incorporated

throughout the modules to help better prepare Pathways students for the rigor of MTM textbook

material (Ward, 2007).

Overview of Needs Analysis

The needs analysis was on Pathways Master of Tourism Management program (Pathways

MTM), specifically regarding the Natural Resources, Recreation, and Tourism 320 class (NRRT

320). For the needs analysis, the focus was on four sub-areas. These sub-areas were present

situation analysis, target situation analysis, learner factor analysis, and discourse analysis. To

locate the most significant gaps and challenges which hinder students’ success in NRRT 320, the

analysts conducted class observations on both NRRT 320 and EAP 152 (an Academic English

course provided by IEP for international graduate students with emphasis on both academic

reading and research) which students usually take simultaneously with NRRT 320, interviews

with content teachers, language teachers, former and current students in MTM pathway program,

discourse analysis on NRRT 320 class materials including class readings and students’ writing

assignments.

Based on the outcomes of need analysis, three main concerns with MTM pathway

students’ performance in NRRT 320 can be seen: cultural issues of adapting to the U.S.

classroom as well as communicating with teachers and classmates who are native speakers;
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 6

language drawbacks in terms of semi-technical words and collocates; and deficiency in

completing writing assignments. These underlying needs provide the guidance to the modules

design to remedy these concerns for the students, so that they stand a better chance of achieving

academic success in NRRT 320 and the Pathways graduate program.

Regarding the writing challenges of MTM Pathways students, a move analysis was

completed on an assignment taken directly from NRRT 270, a content course which is part of the

Pathways program. Writing assignments in all NRRT (270 and 320) content courses in the

Pathways program follow the same protocol. This moves analysis was used to guide the writing

portion of the adjuvant modules in determining which tasks students need to have the ability to

complete. The moves analysis is as follows:

Wallace Principles Writing Assignment Moves Analysis

I.   Define Wallace Principles

a.   Understand given definitions

b.   Understand given indicators of Wallace Principles

II.   Recognize Wallace Principles in the context of a company

a.   Write examples of indicators of Wallace Principles in matrix form

b.   Rate the presence of indicators of Wallace Principles from 1-5 in matrix

III.   Convert to paragraph form

a.   Write a topic sentence of paragraph

b.   Write examples of indicators of Wallace Principles in complete sentences

i.   Use connecting words to help flow of sentences

ii.   Use content vocabulary

c.   Write a conclusion sentence
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 7

Pedagogical Discussion

To begin, considering the current situation that NRRT 320 is not a ESP language class in

nature, there is very limited feasible condition to adapt the course itself to meet International

students’ specific needs. Because the main concerns are comparatively specific and niche

targeting, it is challenging and impractical to design a whole course to dispel them. Through the

proposal from the Pathways Program Administrator, a more flexible form of curriculum was

pursued. Targeting the needs of the MTM Pathways Program, five modules were designed. Each

module takes the form of a 45-minute mini lesson, divided into three sections titled culture,

language (vocabulary), and writing. These will be discussed in greater detail later on in the

report. To support these modules, the researchers will establish an account on the free online

platform Word Press. This site will host the five complete modules including all necessary

materials. Students, tutors, and professors alike will then be able to access the modules for free

and when it is most convenient for them. Additionally, all of the semi-technical words and

collocates focused in the modules will be gathered and translated to develop an online word list

with both English and Chinese definitions (see Appendix A) that will be made available on the

Word Press site.

The major characteristics of the modules are designed to be very flexible. The modules

can be used by the INTO Pathways Program in a variety of contexts. For example, all of the

modules can be used as supplemental workshop materials for NRRT 320 Pathways students as

well as students enrolled in EAP 152. The needs analysis identified that EAP 152 in particular

was lacking specific materials to target the MTM student population. Therefore, teachers will be

able to use the modules to address these concerns in the classroom. The option to extract

materials from the modules, e.g. vocabulary activities, would be another mode of use for the
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 8

modules by EAP teachers in particular. The modules can be also adopted by the faculty of the

MTM program to be implemented where they see fit in the content classes. For example, the

word list can be treated as a supplemental resource that the instructors could provide to the

Chinese international students. Again, MTM professors as well as international students, whether

they matriculated from the INTO Pathways program or not, will be able to access these

supplemental materials for their learning or teaching purposes on the free online platform Word

Press.

All five modules employ Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) which focuses on

learners with opportunities to practice English for communicative purposes. There are two

strong version categories of communicative approach: content-based instruction and task-based

language teaching (Larsen-Freeman & Anderson, 2013). With regards to content-based

instruction, the activities are designed to address both content and language. In addition,

discourse organization of the targeted content, as well as specific language use in a particular

subject, in this case tourism management, are emphasized. Meanwhile, authentic texts and

materials are used in the activities (Larsen-Freeman &Anderson, 2013). All the activities in the

modules have clear content focus. Through the culture activities, students will learn about

academic culture in the U.S. For example, students will engage and culturally consider

interacting with native speakers or American classmates in small groups. Through the language

activities, students will learn eleven significant and challenging semi-technical words and

collocates within the context of tourism management. All the words and collocates are chosen

from discourse analysis in the needs analysis for NRRT 320, and are the most frequent in texts

and challenging for students in writing assignments. Through the writing assignments, students

will be familiarized with the typical key concept and case analysis assignments in the tourism
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 9

management classes. The writing assignment focused on the modules is similar in structure to all

the major writing assignments in NRRT 320: key course concepts comprehension, application

and analysis of concepts in specific cases and the final product of analysis writing piece.

Furthermore, thinking skills are taught in the process to benefit students in various academic

tasks (Larsen-Freeman & Anderson, 2013).

The five modules are also task-based. A variety of tasks were chosen based on students’

needs, so that they see the reasons of completing them in the possible situations in the

classrooms. Additionally, all the tasks have clear outcomes for both students and teachers to see

if they are successfully completed (Larsen-Freeman & Anderson, 2013). In culture activities,

students will be able to accomplish tasks such as communicating with native speakers in the

group projects. In vocabulary activities, students should be able to comprehend, internalize and

apply the semi-technical words and collocates in their class readings and assignments. In writing

activities, students should be able to complete all the steps and moves to produce a final written

work successfully.

Lastly, the five modules aim to develop students’ integrated skills. The integrated skills are

incorporated into the activities and tasks. All the activities require students to practice reading,

writing, speaking and listening in the academic context, at the same time, students should realize

the importance and acquire strategies of critical thinking and communication skills, for example,

in culture and writing activities. Most importantly, the outcome of the modules for the students

should include takeaways which facilitate their study outside of the classroom to accomplish

various tasks such as communicating with teachers, comprehending and using major concepts

from a specific classroom, and analyzing necessary steps to accomplish a writing assignment

according to syllabus requirements.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 10

Evaluation and Assessment

The five modules are evaluated using two formative strategies. Because the modules

created are auxiliary in nature, there is no need for a formal evaluation. The type of evaluation

needed would be to see if the modules are fulfilling the targeted needs. Therefore, formative

student evaluation will be of the most importance.

The culture sections utilized evaluations that could be interpreted as both summative and

formative in nature. These evaluations are task-oriented and are focused on teacher observations

and feedback. For example, section 1.1 uses teacher feedback on a reflective writing task as

evaluation. In section 3.1, the evaluation is optional, and the teacher may follow up with

students on the task of forming and carrying out a goal. In section 5.1, the evaluation is the

completion of the task of giving a presentation, and possible teacher feedback, if strengths and

weaknesses are observed.

For the writing sections of the modules, students are asked to write a “ticket to

leave.” This means they will write a short sentence or two on a slip of paper. This can be

observed in sections 1.3, 2.3, 3.3, and 4.3, which are the first four sections of the writing sections

of the modules. The prompts include: what was one thing you learned today, for how many of

the Wallace Principles were you able to write comments, and which principle received the

highest rating and why. This technique was chosen as the mode of evaluation because it is a

quick way to check for understanding of content just covered. Since these modules are short in

nature, the evaluation also cannot take up too much time. The ticket to leave provides a valid

assessment of what the students are actually earning in the writing sections of modules, and they

help to continue learning. Students are not likely to retain everything in these modules, although

they are highly specialized and in according with their needs. However, students are more likely
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 11

to remember what they write down for their ticket out the door as it involves reviewing content

and producing a thought that was novel.  

  The main assessment of the course is an achievement assessment, which takes the form

of an analysis written paragraph. Students are asked to complete the task of writing an analysis

paragraph using the words they’ve learned in the lessons. Students are evaluated by whether or

not and to what degree they complete the task. The results of this assessment can be used to

indicate whether the Modules are successful in meeting its goals and objectives. The evaluation

points of this assessment can be seen in the Rubric of Analysis Paragraph under Module 5

materials section. The categories of evaluation for the paragraph are structure, use of indicators

to analyze the Wallace Principles (content vocabulary), grammar and using connecting phrases,

and use of vocabulary. This paragraph is the summation of an actual assignment from NRRT

270, used by permission from the instructor. This assessment is important because it addresses

whether the skills have been obtained to successfully complete a typical and important

assignment in the Target Language Use Domain. The remainder of the paper is presentation of

the modules.

Scope and Sequence of Modules

Culture Vocabulary Writing

Topic Skills Item Activities Competency Outcomes

1 Academic Identifying Semi- Vocabulary Understand Students
cultural cultural technical House definitions of will
comparison differences vocabulary; principles understand
collocations and apply
e.g. the
sustainable, Wallace
community Principles
development
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 12

2 U.S. academic Identifying Semi- Vocab. Applying Students
culture academic technical Jeopardy principles; will apply
overview cultural vocabulary; Vocab. Class the
expectation collocations House presentation Wallace
s in U.S. cont. Principles
to a
company;
Students
will give a
small
presentation

3   Appropriate Raising Semi- Vocab. Analyzing a Students
ways to hands in technical Bingo company will
approach class, vocabulary; Vocab based on a set analyze a
instructors; talking to collocations House of principles company
professor cont. against the
after class; Wallace
Principles

4 Interacting in Taking Semi- Vocab. Rating a set Students
small groups turns technical Taboo of principles will apply
with speaking in vocabulary; Vocab. with an a
American group collocations House internal scale numerical
classmates discussions cont. value to
the
presence of
a Wallace
Principle in
a company

5 Class Giving a Semi- Vocab. Writing an Students
presentations presentation technical Back- to- analysis will take
vocabulary; the-board paragraph data from a
collocations Vocab matrix and
House write it in
cont. paragraph
form

Modules and Materials

Module 1, Activity 1 (1.1)

Learning activity description Reflecting on cultural similarities and differences;
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 13

considering different academic cultures, part one.

Communication Challenge This activity raises awareness of academic cultures and
gives learners tools to engage in culture transfer.

Language Aims Practice in identifying differences in academic
cultures
Putting cultural observations into words

Procedure Learners are asked to think of the ideal university student in
their culture. Then, they are asked to write a paragraph
describing this student, and how the student would behave
or perform in a classroom in their home countries. The
students are given five to seven minutes to write.

Then, the teacher asks the students to write their
observations of how U.S. classrooms are different. The
teacher asks the students to write a paragraph about this as
well. The students are given five to seven minutes.

If time allows, students may suggest their cultures and
observations in pairs or small groups.

At the end of the activity, the teacher collects the students’
writing.

Teacher Input The teacher introduces the activity orally

Learner Output Reflection of contrast of academic cultures: students’ own
versus U.S.

Learner Outcomes The learner develops an awareness of differences in
academic cultures

Evaluation Teacher feedback on writing (optional).

Preparation and materials None.

Duration 15 minutes

Activity 2, Exercise 1 (1.2.1) VOCABULARY HOUSE (Pollard & Herron, 2001)

Learning activity description Ongoing word association exercise

Communication Challenge Students struggle to commit fundamental concepts and
vocabulary to memory.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 14

Language Aims Practice committing vocabulary to memory via word
association/memory aid.

Procedure Write a list of a mix of four semi-technical vocabulary
words or collocations on the whiteboard and go over them
with the students. Such as:
-local
-ecotourism
-sustainable development
-Millennium Development Goals

Give each student a large piece of blank paper (such as
newsprint) and tell them to draw a basic floor plan of a
house where they have many memories such as a childhood
home. Tell students to leave the rooms/yard/gardens etc.
empty so they have plenty of space to write in them.

Tell students to take the words/collocations from the board
and write them in different room/spaces in/around their
house where they associate them with. (It will be helpful to
demonstrate this first on the whiteboard.)

After students have had several minutes to work on this,
have students share with one another in partners or small
groups to discuss where and why they placed the words
where they did.

Teacher Input Teacher introduces and contextualizes exercise.

Learner Output Critical listening; speaking and writing skills; critical
thinking.

Learner Outcomes Students will associate important vocabulary with places in
their childhood home, helping to commit the words to
memory; students will get to know classmates better (team
building)

Evaluation Students share their houses with one another.

Preparation and Materials Large sheet of blank paper (such as newsprint) for each
student; access to a whiteboard/markers.

Duration 15 minutes
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 15

Activity 3 (1.3)

Learning activity description Understanding definitions of the Wallace Principles.
Recognizing the principles in the context of a tourism
company (Vail Resorts).

Academic Challenge This activity helps the student complete a typical
assignment in NRRT 320. Most assignments utilize the
same format. Typically, students must analyze an issue in
tourism against a set of given principles. This type of
analysis is usually written in paragraph form.

Communication Challenge This activity was designed specifically to remedy a cultural
imbalance of writing expectations. It is the first part of a
process of writing with the final product of a paragraph
analysis. For the first part of this activity students must
understand the Wallace Principles in English, in the
tourism context.

Language Aims Practicing the first stage of writing an analysis
paragraph about tourism: understanding the given
principles in the tourism context

Procedure This activity works best for at least five students. The
teacher gives students the handout with the five Wallace
Principles and indicators, and also a handout of the writing
assignment. The teacher informs the students that the end
goal is an analysis paragraph, similar to part of a writing
assignment from an NRRT class. Then, the teacher assigns
each student a principle (1-5) and asks the students to read
the definitions and underline words they do not know. If
there are less than five students the teacher divides the
principles accordingly, and students address as many
principles as the time segments allow. Explanation and
reading time should take 3-5 minutes.

Teacher directs students to look up words they do not know
to complete their understanding of the Wallace principles.
Students may use our developed semi-technical word list or
other materials not provided (see Module 1
materials). Students write these definitions on their
handouts or somewhere else that is useful. Students are
given 5 minutes to complete this task.

Lastly, students apply the principles to Vail Resorts by
looking for the indicators. Students use the website
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 16

www.vail.com. Students have five minutes to complete
this task, and have the option to continue unfinished work
after the lesson.

Teacher Input The teacher introduces the writing assignment of an
analysis paragraph
The teacher introduces the activity
The teacher gives instructions for each segment of the
activity

Learner Output Reading definitions
Identifying unknown words within definitions
Looking up definitions of unknown words
Recording definitions of unknown words
Applying principles/indicators to Vail Resorts

Learner Outcomes The learner gains an understanding of the Wallace
Principles
The learners practice applying a principle to a real context

Evaluation Student ticket to leave: What was one thing you learned
today? (students will write on slips of paper)

Preparation and materials Wallace principles handout and writing assignment sheet.

Duration 15 minutes

Module 1 Materials

Wallace Principles and Randomly Selected Indicators &Wallace Evaluation Matrix

1.   Entails a type of use that minimizes negative impacts to the environment and to local
people

Indicators: Group size; equipment; type of information given visitors before and during
field trips; measures of biophysical change; methods of waste disposal.

2.   Increases the awareness and understanding of an area’s natural and cultural systems and
the subsequent involvement of visitors in issues affecting those systems.

Indicators: Donations to local projects or NGOs; increased support for
conservation/development projects; educational and interpretive experience for visitors;
continued correspondence between locals and visitors.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 17

3.   Contributes to the conservation and management of legally protected and other natural
areas.

Indicators: Collaborative efforts between operators and protected area managers; tours
that encourage visitor interaction with protected area personnel; adherence to area
regulations; development of management plans and subsequent actions on private
reserves; payment of established entrance fees and additional donations.
4.   Maximizes the early and long-term participation of local people in the decision-making
process that determines the kind and amount of tourism that should occur.

Indicators: Strength and duration of local advisory and planning groups; development of
local ecotourism ventures and tour itineraries that conform to local needs and schedules;
the attitude that local people have towards ecotourism.

5.   Directs economic and other benefits to local people that complement rather than
overwhelm or replace traditional practices.

Indicators: Increases or decreases in the diversity of economic activity, the variety and
value of items produced and purchased locally; services provided by concessionaires to
locals; management zones for limited harvesting and other sustainable uses of an area’s
resources by locals that compliment traditional activities.

6.   Provides special opportunities for local people and nature tourism employees to visit
natural areas and learn more about the wonders that other visitors come to see.

Indicators: Use of multi-tiered fee structures; use of the area for environmental education
by local schools; number of opportunities for employees to occasionally accompany
visitors on field tours; number of special days, events, transportation arrangements for
locals each year.

Using the Wallace Principles, select an ecotourism company website and complete the following

matrix – giving a score of 1 to 5 with 5 being the highest. Using the scoring you gave, explain

your score for each principle based on what you noted on the website of the organization you

selected.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 18

Criteria / principle Scoring Comments

Minimize Impacts

Increase Awareness/ Understanding

Contribute to conservation/mgmt of local resources

Maximize stakeholder participation in DM

Economic benefits

Provides special opportunities for locals

Module 2, Activity 1 (2.1)

Learning activity description Reflecting on cultural similarities and differences;
considering different academic cultures, part two.

Communication Challenge This activity raises awareness of academic cultures and
gives learners tools to engage in culture transfer.

Language Aims Practicing identifying differences in academic cultures
Putting cultural observations into words

Procedure Learners are given copies of the worksheet Academic
Culture Comparison: United States. Students
independently follow the T/F exercise. U.S. academic
culture points are taken from the NRRT 320 Needs
Analysis (2016). This should take five minutes.

After students have completed the worksheet, the teacher
explains each point more thoroughly and answers
questions. This will take five to ten minutes.

Teacher Input The teacher introduces the activity
The teacher gives a debriefing of the activity

Learner Output questions and clarifications about U.S. academic culture
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 19

Learner Outcomes The learner becomes acquainted with U.S. academic
culture

Evaluation None.

Preparation and materials Academic Culture Comparison: United States worksheet
(see Module 2 Materials)

Duration 10-15 minutes

Activity 2 (2.2.1) VOCAB JEOPARDY

Learning activity description Fun and competitive memorization exercise.

Communication Challenge Students struggle with being assertive in class; memorizing
key concepts within MTM TLU domain.

Language Aims Build vocabulary; listening and speaking skills

Procedure The teacher draws a miniature jeopardy board with two
columns and four rows on the whiteboard so that there are a
total of eight squares (this can be done prior to the lesson
beginning to save time).

The teacher labels all of the squares in the left column
“semi-technical vocabulary” and all of the squares in the
right column “collocations”. The top row will have a $200
amount written and it will increase by 100 until the bottom
row is worth $500.

The teacher calls on a student to pick a box. The teacher
then reads the definition that pertains to that specific box
(see premade card templates below) and the student has to
guess which word or collocation it is. If the student gets it
wrong, another students gets to go. If they answer correctly,
they get another turn.

Teacher Input Teacher introduces and leads the activity.

Learner Output Students practice listening, speaking, and reading skills.

Learner Outcomes Students become more familiar with key concepts and
vocabulary pertaining to the MTM TLU domain.

Evaluation None.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 20

Preparation and Materials Minimal preparation; access to whiteboard and markers
necessary.

Duration 10 minutes

Activity 2 (2.2.2) VOCAB HOUSE
Students pull out the Vocabulary House that they began in the first module. The teacher will
provide two new vocabulary words, two new collocations OR one of each. The students will add
these to their houses and, if time allows, share with a partner or small group. If possible, share
with someone new.

*Adaptation: If there is only one student, share with the teacher.

Duration 5 minutes

Activity 3 (2.3)

Learning activity description Applying the Wallace Principles to Vail Resorts.
Presenting/communicating to students and teacher whether
or not Vail Resorts follow the Wallace Principles.

Academic Challenge This activity helps the student complete a typical
assignment in NRRT 320. Most assignments utilize the
same format. Typically, students must analyze an issue in
tourism against a set of given principles. This type of
analysis is usually written in paragraph form.

Communication Challenge This activity was designed specifically to remedy a cultural
imbalance of academic expectations through a process of
writing. For the second part of the process, students will
apply a Wallace Principle to a company in the tourism
context. Following, the students will share this analysis
with the teacher and/or other students. This will also
address the cultural challenge of speaking in small groups
in class.

Language Aims Practicing applying principles to a tourism context.

Procedure The teacher asks the students to retrieve the Wallace
Principles handout. The teacher asks the students what
they did with the principles in the last lesson. The
student(s) answer(s), reviewing that they were taking at
least one principle and applying it to Vail Resorts to see if
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 21

it were present based on the indicators noted on the
Wallace Principles handout. This warm up takes three
minutes.

Then, the teacher allows students time to make sure they
are ready to share about their principle in relation to Vail
resorts. The teacher allows five minutes.

Lastly, students share with the teacher and with other
students if applicable about whether their principle is
present in Vail Resorts and how they know based on the
indicators. Allotted time is five to seven minutes.

Teacher Input The teacher gives feedback about whether the students
successfully completed the task of applying a Wallace
Principle to Vail Resorts

Learner Output Review previous lesson
Applying principles/indicators to Vail Resorts
Sharing analysis with teacher, other students

Learner Outcomes The learners gain an understanding of the Wallace
Principles
The learners practice applying a principle to a real-life
context
The learners practice speaking in small groups
The learners practice presenting their analyses

Evaluation Student ticket to leave: What was one thing you learned
today? (Students will hand in slips of paper)

Preparation and materials Wallace principles handout, writing assignment, computer
access, and slips of paper needed.
(See Module 2 Materials)

Duration 15 minutes

Module 2 Materials
Activity 1 (2.1)
Academic Culture Comparison: United States

Look at the following statements and decide if they are true (mark T) or false (mark F) in your
academic culture.

1.   It is perfectly normal to ask an instructor a question when he or she is in the middle of a
lecture.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 22

2.   It is acceptable by my peers to seek help outside of class.

3.   Group projects are common in my university classes.

4. Students are comfortable speaking in front of the whole class.

5. Students strive to stand out in class.

6. It is acceptable for students to disagree with or challenge the instructor.

7. It is common for the powerpoint to include only the main points of the lecture.

8. Instructors usually tell personal stories to make their points.

9. It is acceptable to ask the instructor a question after class.

10. I can have a friendly relationship with my instructor and feel comfortable to
communicate my needs.

11. I will receive praise for thinking “outside the box.”

Activity 3:

Wallace Principles and Randomly Selected Indicators
1.   Entails a type of use that minimizes negative impacts to the environment and to local
people

Indicators: Group size; equipment; type of information given visitors before and during
field trips; measures of biophysical change; methods of waste disposal.

2.   Increases the awareness and understanding of an area’s natural and cultural systems and
the subsequent involvement of visitors in issues affecting those systems.

Indicators: Donations to local projects or NGOs; increased support for
conservation/development projects; educational and interpretive experience for visitors;
continued correspondence between locals and visitors.

3.   Contributes to the conservation and management of legally protected and other natural
areas.

Indicators: Collaborative efforts between operators and protected area managers; tours
that encourage visitor interaction with protected area personnel; adherence to area
regulations; development of management plans and subsequent actions on private
reserves; payment of established entrance fees and additional donations.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 23

4.   Maximizes the early and long-term participation of local people in the decision-making
process that determines the kind and amount of tourism that should occur.

Indicators: Strength and duration of local advisory and planning groups; development of
local ecotourism ventures and tour itineraries that conform to local needs and schedules;
the attitude that local people have towards ecotourism.

5.   Directs economic and other benefits to local people that complement rather than
overwhelm or replace traditional practices.

Indicators: Increases or decreases in the diversity of economic activity, the variety and
value of items produced and purchased locally; services provided by concessionaires to
locals; management zones for limited harvesting and other sustainable uses of an area’s
resources by locals that compliment traditional activities.

6.   Provides special opportunities for local people and nature tourism employees to visit
natural areas and learn more about the wonders that other visitors come to see.

Indicators: Use of multi-tiered fee structures; use of the area for environmental education
by local schools; number of opportunities for employees to occasionally accompany
visitors on field tours; number of special days, events, transportation arrangements for
locals each year.
Using the Wallace Principles, select an ecotourism company website and complete the following
matrix – giving a score of 1 to 5 with 5 being the highest. Using the scoring you gave, explain
your score for each principle based on what you noted on the website of the organization you
selected.
Wallace Evaluation Matrix

Criteria / principle Scoring Comments

Minimize Impacts

Increase Awareness/ Understanding

Contribute to conservation/mgmt of local resources

Maximize stakeholder participation in DM

Economic benefits

Provides special opportunities for locals
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 24

Module 3, Activity 1 (3.1)
Learning activity description Reflecting on cultural similarities and differences;
considering how to thrive in small group discussions.

Communication Challenge This activity raises awareness of academic cultures and
gives learners tools to engage in culture transfer.

Language Aims Practice in identifying differences in academic cultures
Practice U.S. academic cultural expectations

Procedure Learners discuss in small groups or with the teacher their
concerns about raising hands in class, speaking in class,
and approaching the professor. This could include past
concerns and ways they’ve changed and current
concerns. This discussion will take five minutes.

Learners brainstorm ways to address professors and make a
list on the board or on a piece of paper.
Ex. - raise my hand in class
Ask a question after class
This activity will take five to seven minutes.

The teacher introduces other resources to the students like
the writing center, and INTO tutors. The teacher hands this
information out to learners. Learners set a goal for their
next content class period, write it down, and share with a
fellow student or the teacher. This activity will take five
minutes.

Teacher Input The teacher guides discussion and activities
The teacher notes the goals of the students

Learner Output Learners engage in small group discussion
Learners brainstorm ways to approach professors for help
and for communication in general
Learners set a goal for communicating with their professors
for the next content class period

Learner Outcomes Learners become acquainted with U.S. academic
culture regarding hand raising, asking for help, etc.
Learners develop strategies for approaching professors
in U.S. classrooms

Evaluation Follow up with student goals.

Preparation and materials White board and markers or paper and pencils
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 25

Duration 15 minutes

Activity 2 (3.2.1) VOCAB BINGO

Learning activity description Vocabulary bingo game.

Communication Challenge Students struggle to commit fundamental concepts and
vocabulary to memory.

Language Aims Practice committing fundamental semi-technical
vocabulary and collocations in the MTM TLU domain to
memory. Students will practice the following nine semi-
technical words/collocations:
-Ecotourism
-Community
-Sustainable
-Responsible
-Industry
-Millennium Development Goals
-Community development
-Sustainable development
-Local development

Procedure Teacher defines and discusses the nine semi-technical
vocab words/collocations, one at a time, writing them out
and clearly numbering them 1-9 on the whiteboard.

Teacher distributes one bingo sheet to each student (square
piece of paper or even printer paper will work for this).
Each student is responsible for numbering their own board
1-9 in whatever order they choose. Encourage them not to
copy their neighbor!

Teacher then reads definitions of the vocabulary
words/collocations one at a time, and students must find the
word it is associated with on the board and match its
corresponding number with the one on their board and
cover it with a bingo chip (any small item, including paper
clips can work here).

The first person to get jeopardy wins, and the game ends
when everyone’s board is filled up and the teacher has read
all of the definitions.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 26

Teacher Input Teacher introduces and leads the activity.

Learner Output Students demonstrate listening and reading skills; thinking
quickly in their L2.

Learner Outcomes Help students memorize key vocabulary/collocations

Evaluation None.

Preparation and Materials Square piece of cardstock (or printer paper) divided into a
3x3 grid, one per student; bingo chips (paper clips will also
work).

Duration 10 minutes

Activity 2 (3.2.2) VOCAB HOUSE
Students pull out the Vocabulary House that they began in the first module and are continuing to
add to. The teacher will provide two new vocabulary words, two new collocations OR one of
each. The students will add these to their houses and, if time allows, share with a partner or small
group. If possible, share with someone new. Remember not to repeat a vocabulary
word/collocation that the students have already added.

*Adaptation: If there is only one student, share with the teacher.

Duration 5 minutes

Activity 3 (3.3)
Learning activity description Applying the Wallace Principles to local tourism
companies. Presenting/communicating to students and
teacher whether or not local companies follow the Wallace
Principles.

Academic Challenge This activity helps the student complete a typical
assignment in NRRT 320. Most assignments utilize the
same format. Typically, students must analyze an issue in
tourism against a set of given principles. This type of
analysis is usually written in paragraph form.

Communication Challenge This activity was designed specifically to remedy a cultural
imbalance of writing expectations through a process of
writing. After analyzing a local tourism company based on
the indicators a Wallace Principle, students will now write
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 27

specific observed indicators for all six of the Wallace
Principles in the comment section of the matrix.

Language Aims Practicing applying principles to a tourism context.
Developing on internal scale by which to measure a
principle in the tourism context.

Procedure The teacher asks the students to retrieve the Wallace
Principles handout. The teacher passes out the Wallace
Principles writing assignment handout. The teacher asks
the students what they did with the principles in the last
lesson. The teacher asks how many of the Wallace
Principles were present in Vail Resorts. Students
respond. This warm up takes three minutes.

The teacher tells the students they are going to apply all six
principles to another local tourism company. The teacher
has already chosen the companies. They are: New Belgium
Brewery, Winter Park Resort, Copper Mountain Resort,
Colorado Parks and Wildlife, Colorado River Rafting. The
teacher will write these on the board and the students can
look up the websites. Students will choose one company to
analyze.

The teacher explains that first, the students are going to
look for indicators of each principle on the website of the
company they chose. They are to write the specific
indicators they see for each principle in the Comments
section on the matrix. This is exactly what they did with
Vail Resorts. However, now, they will look for indicators
of all six principles.

Then, the teacher allows students time to research the
company they chose, and write down specific indicators of
the Wallace Principles they find on the company websites.
Students are given seven minutes to do this task. If they do
not finish, more time will be given for this in the next
module.

Teacher Input The teacher introduces the task of locating indicators of
Wallace Principles on local tourism company websites
The teacher reviews and relates the task of the previous
lesson

Learner Output Review content from previous lessons
Applying principles/indicators to local tourism company
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 28

Learner Outcomes The learners practice applying the Wallace principles to
local tourism companies
The learners practice researching companies using their
websites

Evaluation Student ticket to leave: For how many of the Wallace
Principles were you able to write comments? (students will
write on slips of paper)

Preparation and materials Wallace principles handout, writing assignment sheet,
computer access, and strips of paper.
(See Module 3 Materials)

Duration 15 minutes

Module 3 Materials

Wallace Principles and Randomly Selected Indicators &Wallace Evaluation Matrix

1.   Entails a type of use that minimizes negative impacts to the environment and to local
people

Indicators: Group size; equipment; type of information given visitors before and
during field trips; measures of biophysical change; methods of waste disposal.

2.   Increases the awareness and understanding of an area’s natural and cultural systems and
the subsequent involvement of visitors in issues affecting those systems.

Indicators: Donations to local projects or NGOs; increased support for
conservation/development projects; educational and interpretive experience for
visitors; continued correspondence between locals and visitors.

3.   Contributes to the conservation and management of legally protected and other natural
areas.

Indicators: Collaborative efforts between operators and protected area managers;
tours that encourage visitor interaction with protected area personnel; adherence
to area regulations; development of management plans and subsequent actions on
private reserves; payment of established entrance fees and additional donations.
4.   Maximizes the early and long-term participation of local people in the decision-making
process that determines the kind and amount of tourism that should occur.

Indicators: Strength and duration of local advisory and planning groups;
development of local ecotourism ventures and tour itineraries that conform to
local needs and schedules; the attitude that local people have towards ecotourism.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 29

5.   Directs economic and other benefits to local people that complement rather than
overwhelm or replace traditional practices.

Indicators: Increases or decreases in the diversity of economic activity, the variety
and value of items produced and purchased locally; services provided by
concessionaires to locals; management zones for limited harvesting and other
sustainable uses of an area’s resources by locals that compliment traditional
activities.

6.   Provides special opportunities for local people and nature tourism employees to visit
natural areas and learn more about the wonders that other visitors come to see.

Indicators: Use of multi-tiered fee structures; use of the area for environmental education
by local schools; number of opportunities for employees to occasionally accompany
visitors on field tours; number of special days, events, transportation arrangements for
locals each year.
Using the Wallace Principles, select an ecotourism company website and complete the following
matrix – giving a score of 1 to 5 with 5 being the highest. Using the scoring you gave, explain
your score for each principle based on what you noted on the website of the organization you
selected.

Criteria / principle Scoring Comments

Minimize Impacts

Increase Awareness/ Understanding

Contribute to conservation/mgmt of local resources

Maximize stakeholder participation in DM

Economic benefits

Provides special opportunities for locals

Module 4, Activity 1 (4.1)

Learning activity description Reflecting on cultural similarities and differences;
considering how to participate in small group discussions.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 30

Communication Challenge This activity raises awareness of academic cultures and
gives learners tools to engage in culture transfer.

Language Aims Practice in identifying differences in academic cultures
Practice U.S. academic cultural expectations

Procedure The teacher asks students what is the most challenging
thing about small group discussions in U.S.
classrooms. Learners reply. Warm up takes five minutes.

The teacher introduces the idea of taking turns in small
group discussions. Everyone is expected to share their
opinions. Have the students practice this with their
findings so far on their matrices. Have them share the
comments they wrote in Module 3. The group of students
can take turns sharing as this will model a small group
discussion in an MTM class.

Teacher Input The teacher guides discussion and activities

Learner Output Learners give feedback about challenges of small group
Discussion
Learners practice the cultural act of taking turns for a small
group discussion

Learner Outcomes Learners become acquainted with U.S. academic culture
regarding small group discussion
Learners practice taking turns in a small group discussion
Learners practice discussing MTM content

Evaluation None.

Preparation and materials None.

Duration 15 minutes

Activity 2 (4.2.1) VOCAB TABOO

Learning activity description Interactive exercise

Communication Challenge Students struggle with finding alternative ways to
communicate main ideas and define key terms.

Language Aims Develop critical thinking skills in English; use different and
previously learned vocabulary to describe core
concepts/vocabulary in the MTM TLU domain.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 31

Procedure Teacher picks one volunteer to begin exercise. Teacher
gives student volunteer a small stack of cards. Each card
has a word written in bold at the top which is the target
word the volunteer wants the rest of the class to guess.
Below the target word are two to three previously learned
vocabulary words that the student cannot use to describe
the target word.

Teacher sets timer. The student has one minute to try and
get the class to guess as many target words/collocations as
possible. Student take turns.

*Adaptation: If only one student is present (such as in a
tutoring format) the teacher can play with the student.

**Adaptation: If Taboo cards are too difficult, use only two
of the three forbidden words.

Teacher Input Teacher introduces and explains exercise.

Learner Output Students practice listening, speaking, and reading skills.

Learner Outcomes Students use previously learned vocabulary to describe and
practice core MTM vocabulary and collocations.

Evaluation None.

Preparation and Materials 3x5 notecards with target word/collocation written in bold
on top of card with 2-3 ‘forbidden’ words written below
(See sample taboo card in Module 4 Materials) .

Duration 10 minutes

Activity 2 (4.2.2) VOCAB HOUSE
Students pull out the Vocabulary House that they began in the first module and are continuing to
add to. The teacher will provide two new vocabulary words, two new collocations OR one of
each. The students will add these to their houses and, if time allows, share with a partner or small
group. If possible, share with someone new. Remember not to repeat a vocabulary
word/collocation that the students have already added.

*Adaptation: If there is only one student, share with the teacher.

Duration 5 minutes
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 32

Activity 3 (4.3)

Learning activity description Applying the Wallace Principles to local tourism
companies. Presenting/communicating to students and
teacher whether or not local companies follow the Wallace
Principles.

Academic Challenge This activity helps the student complete a typical
assignment in NRRT 320. Most assignments utilize the
same format. Typically, students must analyze an issue in
tourism against a set of given principles. This type of
analysis is usually written in paragraph form.

Communication Challenge This activity was designed specifically to remedy a cultural
imbalance of writing expectations through a process of
writing. After applying the Wallace Principles to a local
company, students will rate the presence of these
principles, with an internal individual scale, from one to
five. Students will write these numerical ratings in a
matrix.

Language Aims Practicing applying principles to a tourism context.

Procedure The teacher asks the students to retrieve the Wallace
Principles handout. The teacher passes out the Wallace
Principles writing assignment handout. The teacher asks
the students what they did with the principles in the last
lesson. The teacher asks how many of the Wallace
Principles were present in Vail Resorts. Students
respond. This warm up takes three minutes.

The teacher tells the students they are going to apply all six
principles to another local tourism company. The teacher
has already chosen the companies. They are: New Belgium
Brewery, Winter Park Resort, Copper Mountain Resort,
Colorado Parks and Wildlife, Colorado River Rafting. The
teacher will write these on the board and the students can
look up the websites. Students will choose one company to
analyze.

The teacher explains that the students are not provided with
a scale to determine the measure of the presence of the
principle. One means there is little to no presence. Five
means the principle is present quite observably through the
indicators. For example, if the students observe one or two
indicators of the principle within the company, they can
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 33

rate the company a one to three. If the students see that the
company embodies almost all of the indicators related to a
principle, then the company would score a four or a five
according to that principle. This explanation takes five
minutes.

Then, the teacher allows students time to research the
company they chose, and rate the company in terms of the
Wallace Principles, based on the indicators, in the matrix
given. Students are given seven minutes to do this task.

Teacher Input The teacher explains the idea of an internal scale to
measure the presence of the Wallace Principles in a tourism
company
The teacher introduces the assignment of rating the
presence of the Wallace Principles in a matrix

Learner Output Review previous lesson
Applying principles/indicators to local tourism company

Learner Outcomes The learners practice applying the Wallace principles to
local tourism companies
The learners practice researching companies using their
websites

Evaluation Student ticket to leave: Which principle received the
highest rating? Why do you think this is? (students answer
on a slip of paper)

Preparation and materials Wallace principles handout, writing assignment sheet,
computer access, and slips of paper. (See Module 4
Materials)

Duration 15 minutes

Module 4 Materials

Activity 2 (4.2.1)

Sample Taboo Cards
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 34

Local Development

Small Build

Town Business

Tourist Make

Ecotourism Community

Forest Family

Animal Location

Protect Together
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 35

Sustainable Responsible

Pollution Protect

Healthy Safe

Protect Future

Industry Millennium Development Goals

Leader Planet

Build Build

Successful Poverty
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 36

Community development Sustainable development

People Build

Build Future

Pollution People

Local development

Neighborhood

Small

Build

Activity 3(4.3)
Wallace Principles and Randomly Selected Indicators &Wallace Evaluation Matrix

1.   Entails a type of use that minimizes negative impacts to the environment and to local
people
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 37

Indicators: Group size; equipment; type of information given visitors before and during
field trips; measures of biophysical change; methods of waste disposal.

2.   Increases the awareness and understanding of an area’s natural and cultural systems and
the subsequent involvement of visitors in issues affecting those systems.

Indicators: Donations to local projects or NGOs; increased support for
conservation/development projects; educational and interpretive experience for visitors;
continued correspondence between locals and visitors.

3.   Contributes to the conservation and management of legally protected and other natural
areas.

Indicators: Collaborative efforts between operators and protected area managers; tours
that encourage visitor interaction with protected area personnel; adherence to area
regulations; development of management plans and subsequent actions on private
reserves; payment of established entrance fees and additional donations.
4.   Maximizes the early and long-term participation of local people in the decision-making
process that determines the kind and amount of tourism that should occur.

Indicators: Strength and duration of local advisory and planning groups; development of
local ecotourism ventures and tour itineraries that conform to local needs and schedules;
the attitude that local people have towards ecotourism.

5.   Directs economic and other benefits to local people that complement rather than
overwhelm or replace traditional practices.

Indicators: Increases or decreases in the diversity of economic activity, the variety and
value of items produced and purchased locally; services provided by concessionaires to
locals; management zones for limited harvesting and other sustainable uses of an area’s
resources by locals that compliment traditional activities.

6.   Provides special opportunities for local people and nature tourism employees to visit
natural areas and learn more about the wonders that other visitors come to see.

Indicators: Use of multi-tiered fee structures; use of the area for environmental education
by local schools; number of opportunities for employees to occasionally accompany
visitors on field tours; number of special days, events, transportation arrangements for
locals each year.
Using the Wallace Principles, select an ecotourism company website and complete the following
matrix – giving a score of 1 to 5 with 5 being the highest. Using the scoring you gave, explain
your score for each principle based on what you noted on the website of the organization you
selected.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 38

Criteria / principle Scoring Comments

Minimize Impacts

Increase Awareness/ Understanding

Contribute to conservation/mgmt of local resources

Maximize stakeholder participation in DM

Economic benefits

Provides special opportunities for locals

Module 5

Activity 1 (5.1)

Learning activity description Reflecting on cultural similarities and differences;
preparing to give class presentations on MTM content.

Communication Challenge This activity raises awareness of academic cultures and
gives learners tools to engage in culture transfer.

Language Aims Practice in identifying differences in academic cultures
Practice U.S. academic cultural expectations

Procedure Give learners five minutes to look over their matrices. Tell
them they will be giving a short explanation to the group
about their findings of the Wallace principles. They just
need to communicate to the class their findings of
indicators within their companies, and the number that they
rated the company.

Randomly choose a student to begin presenting. The more
students involved, the shorter the presentations will
be. Direct the learners to clap for each learner as they sit
down to make the experience more fun. There will be 10
minutes total for presentations.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 39

Teacher Input The teacher guides discussion and activities

Learner Output Learners give a short presentation on their completed
matrix from Module 4.

Learner Outcomes The learner becomes acquainted with U.S. academic
culture regarding presentations
The learner practices giving a short presentation

Evaluation Student presentation - teacher can note strengths and
weaknesses, if any are expressed.

Preparation and materials Students need to bring completed matrices from Module 4;
computer access or paper.

Duration 15 minutes

Lesson 5, Activity 2, Exercise 1 (5.2.1) VOCAB BACK-TO-THE-BOARD

Learning activity description Similar to Taboo, this is a fun team-building
exercise.

Communication Challenge Students struggle to commit fundamental concepts
and vocabulary to memory.

Language Aims Solidify core MTM TLU domain
vocabulary/collocations to memory.

Procedure Divide students into two groups (can be a single
group if numbers are low). Have one student
volunteer from each group sit in a chair with their
back to the board so that they’re facing their group.

Write a target word or collocation on the board
(without the definition) so that the student volunteer
cannot see what it is. The student’s group must give
hints so that the student volunteer guesses the word.
The first one to guess the word wins the round.

Teacher Input Teacher introduces the activity.

Learner Output Students practice listening, speaking, and reading
skills.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 40

Learner Outcomes Students will become more familiarized with
important vocab in the MTM TLU domain

Evaluation None.

Preparation and Materials Minimal prep; access to whiteboard necessary.

Duration 10 minutes

Lesson 5, Activity 2, Exercise 2 (5.2.2) VOCAB HOUSE
Students pull out the Vocabulary House that they began in the first module and are continuing to
add to. The teacher will provide two new vocabulary words, two new collocations OR one of
each. The students will add these to their houses and, if time allows, share with a partner or small
group. If possible, share with someone new. Remember not to repeat a vocabulary
word/collocation that the students have already added.

*Adaptation: If there is only one student, share with the teacher.

Duration 5 minutes

*For additional supplemental vocabulary materials, to be implemented as the administrator sees
fit, please see Appendix B.

Activity 3 (5.3)

Learning activity description Applying the Wallace Principles to local tourism
companies. Presenting/communicating to students and
teacher whether or not local companies follow the Wallace
Principles. Putting analysis in a paragraph form.

Academic Challenge This activity helps the student complete a typical
assignment in NRRT 320. Most assignments utilize the
same format. Typically, students must analyze an issue in
tourism against a set of given principles. This type of
analysis is usually written in paragraph form.

Communication Challenge This activity was designed specifically to remedy a cultural
imbalance of writing expectations through a process of
writing. After completing an analysis of a local tourism
companies in terms of the Wallace Principles, in the form
of a matrix, students will transfer this analysis to a
paragraph format.

Language Aims Practicing applying principles to a tourism context.
Practicing writing an academic paragraph.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 41

Procedure The teacher asks the students to retrieve the assignment
sheet with the completed matrix on it. The teacher asks
which principle scored the highest and lowest ratings and
why. This warm up takes three to five minutes.

The teacher tells the students they are going to take the
information from the matrix and write it in a
paragraph. The teacher passes out a sheet of common
phrases used to link thoughts. The teacher explains that
these phrases will be useful for students to write their
paragraphs and to complete all academic writing. The
teacher models on the board a hypothetical sentence pair:

“Vail resorts scored very highly for the third Wallace
Principle, which is ‘contributes to the conservation of
natural areas.’” For example, “Vail Resort puts boundaries
on ski areas to help preserve natural areas that are not
needed for skiing.”

Read through these phrases and see if you have any
questions of meaning. This introduction/modeling process
will take 5+ minutes.

Give students the remainder of the time to work on their
paragraph. Hand out a rubric and explain that paragraphs
need to include all of the information from their
matrices. Students also need to include three vocabulary
words from the vocab sections. Students will use the
remainder of the module to write paragraphs. They may
take them home to complete them if they choose. The
teacher must collect these paragraphs as they are the main
assessment for the modules.

Teacher Input The teacher re-introduces the paragraph writing
assignment
The teacher briefly introduces some connecting phrases
The teacher explains the criteria for the analysis paragraph

Learner Output Review previous lesson
Transferring matrix to an analysis paragraph

Learner Outcomes The learners practice transferring a matrix analysis to a
paragraph form as a final product
The learners practice connecting phrases in their final
products
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 42

The learners practice using content vocabulary in their final
products

Evaluation Final Product Analysis Paragraph

Preparation and materials Wallace principles handout and writing assignment sheet,
computer access, list of connecting phrases, grading rubric.
(See Module 5 Materials)

Duration 15 minutes

Module 5 Materials
Activity 3 (5.3)
Wallace Principles and Randomly Selected Indicators
1.   Entails a type of use that minimizes negative impacts to the environment and to local
people

Indicators: Group size; equipment; type of information given visitors before and
during field trips; measures of biophysical change; methods of waste disposal.

2.   Increases the awareness and understanding of an area’s natural and cultural systems and
the subsequent involvement of visitors in issues affecting those systems.

Indicators: Donations to local projects or NGOs; increased support for
conservation/development projects; educational and interpretive experience for
visitors; continued correspondence between locals and visitors.

3.   Contributes to the conservation and management of legally protected and other natural
areas.

Indicators: Collaborative efforts between operators and protected area managers; tours that
encourage visitor interaction with protected area personnel; adherence to area regulations;
development of management plans and subsequent actions on private reserves; payment of
established entrance fees and additional donations.
4.   Maximizes the early and long-term participation of local people in the decision-making
process that determines the kind and amount of tourism that should occur.

Indicators: Strength and duration of local advisory and planning groups;
development of local ecotourism ventures and tour itineraries that conform to
local needs and schedules; the attitude that local people have towards ecotourism.

5.   Directs economic and other benefits to local people that complement rather than
overwhelm or replace traditional practices.

Indicators: Increases or decreases in the diversity of economic activity, the variety
and value of items produced and purchased locally; services provided by
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 43

concessionaires to locals; management zones for limited harvesting and other
sustainable uses of an area’s resources by locals that compliment traditional
activities.

6.   Provides special opportunities for local people and nature tourism employees to visit
natural areas and learn more about the wonders that other visitors come to see.

Indicators: Use of multi-tiered fee structures; use of the area for environmental
education by local schools; number of opportunities for employees to occasionally
accompany visitors on field tours; number of special days, events, transportation
arrangements for locals each year.
Using the Wallace Principles, select an ecotourism company website and complete the following
matrix – giving a score of 1 to 5 with 5 being the highest. Using the scoring you gave, explain
your score for each principle based on what you noted on the website of the organization you
selected.

Criteria / principle Scoring Comments

Minimize Impacts

Increase Awareness/ Understanding

Contribute to conservation/mgmt of local resources

Maximize stakeholder participation in DM

Economic benefits

Provides special opportunities for locals
Connecting Phrases list (taken from Robinson, Stoller, and Jones, 2008)

To Provide Additional Information:
Additionally
Furthermore
In addition
Moreover

To Add Emphasis or Clarify:
In particular
More specifically
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 44

Specifically

To Give Examples
For example
For instance

Rubric for Analysis Paragraph

Criteria Great Good Needs Improvement

Paragraph structure The paragraph includes The paragraph has an The paragraph lacks an
an introduction and introduction. introduction and
conclusion. conclusion.
Use of Indicators to The paragraph includes There are one or two The presence of the
Analyze Principles many specific specific examples of Wallace principles is
examples of indicators indicators for the spoken about
that prove presence or Wallace Principles in generally, with no
lack thereof of the the paragraph. specific examples.
Wallace principles.
Grammar, use of Grammar is correct. There are some There are many
connecting phrases There are several grammatical mistakes. grammatical mistakes.
instances of connecting One connecting phrase No connecting phrase
phrases to introduce is used. are used.
new or related
information.
Use of vocabulary Three or more One or two vocabulary No vocabulary words
vocabulary words are words are used in the are used in the
used in the paragraph. paragraph. paragraph.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 45

References

Basturkmen, H. (2010). Developing courses in English for specific purposes. Houndmills,

Basingstoke, Hampshire, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for Academic Purposes: Theory, Politics and Practice. New

Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Huhta, M., Vogt, K., Johnson, E., Tulkki, H., & Hall, D. R. (2013). Needs analysis for language

course design: A holistic approach to ESP. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Larsen-Freeman, D., & Anderson, M. (2013). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching.

New York: Oxford university press.

Jasso-Aguilar, R. (2005). Sources, methods, and triangulation in needs analysis: A critical

perspective in a case study of Waikiki hotel maids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johns, A. M., & Price-Machado, D. (2001). English for specific purposes: Tailoring courses to

student needs—and to the outside world. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign

Language, 3, 43-54.

Nation, I. S., & Macalister, J. (2010). Language curriculum design. New York, NY: Routledge.

Pollard, L., Hess, N., & Herron, J. (2001). Zero prep for beginners: Ready-to-go activities for the

language classroom. Burlingame, California: Alta Book Center.  

Robinson, S., Stoller, F., & Jones, J. Using the ACS journals search to validate assumptions

about writing in chemistry and improve chemistry writing instruction. Journal of Chemical

Education, 2008, 85(5): 650-654.

Ward, J. (2007). Collocation and technicality in EAP engineering. Journal of English for

Academic Purposes, 6(1), 18-35.

Widdowson, H.G. (1983). Learning purpose and language use. Oxford: Oxford University.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 46

Appendix A

Word List with English and Chinese Definitions

Local: Any tourism operation taking place on a small scale, often low impact.  规模小且对环境
负面影响小的旅游运营如公司,企业,项目或组织。  
 
Development: The creation of a tourism enterprise.  创建旅游企业。  
 
Ecotourism: Tourism directed toward natural environments, especially to support conservation
efforts and observe wildlife.  生态旅游,  旨在保护自然环境,尤其是支持生态环境保护及野
生动植物。  
 
Community: A group of people in a small, spatial unit with similar needs and interests.  在一个
小的空间区域内享有共同需求及利益的一群人。  
 
Sustainable: Able to be maintained at a certain rate or level, often thought of as having a net-
zero impact.  保持在一定的水平程度上, 对环境没有负影响。比如景区限制参观人数以 保
证生态环境不被过度破坏。  
 
Responsible: An approach using long-term, sustainable thinking.  行为可以保证长期可持续发
展。  
 
Industry: Businesses, organizations, etc.  企业,组织等。  
 
Millennium development goals: The world's time-bound and quantified targets for addressing
extreme poverty in its many dimensions.  千年发展目标是在世界范围内有时限的量化的目
标,从各方面如教育,医保,环境保护等着手,解决极端贫穷问题。  
 
Community development: Process where community members come together to take collective
action and generate solutions to common problems.  在社区发展过程中,社区成员积极参与,
互助合作来解决社区共同问题。  
 
Sustainable development: Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.  可持续发展是在不损害
未来一代需求的前提下,满足当前一代人的需求的发展。  
 
Local development: The identification and use of resources by a small group or community.  小
的群体或社区开发和利用社区的资源。  
 
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 47

Appendix B

Additional supplemental vocabulary materials

1.   Multiple choice
2.   True/False
3.   Match the collocation/semi-technical vocab with the definition
4.   Write an original sentence

See templates below:

Multiple Choice Worksheet

Multiple Choice (circle correct letter)
Community development is…

a) Process where community members come together to take collective action and generate
solutions to common problems.
 
b) A group of people in a small, spatial unit with similar needs and interests.

c) Any tourism operation taking place on a small scale, often low impact.

Responsible can be defined as…

a) The identification and use of resources by a small group or community.
 
b) Able to be maintained at a certain rate or level, often thought of as having a net-zero
impact.

c) An approach using long-term, sustainable thinking.

Sustainable development is…

a) Tourism directed towards natural environments, especially to support conservation efforts
and observe wildlife.
 
b) The world’s time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its
many dimensions.

c) Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 48

True or False worksheet

True or False

1. Sustainable development = development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. T/F

2. Local community = Able to be maintained at a certain rate or level, often thought of as
having a net-zero impact. T/F

3. Industry = Any tourism operation taking place on a small scale, often low impact. T/F

4. Ecotourism = Tourism directed towards natural environments, especially to support
conservation efforts and observe wildlife. T/F

Matching worksheet

Matching
(draw a line to connect the word with the correct meaning)

Sustainable The identification and use of resources by a small
group or community.
Responsible The world’s time-bound and quantified targets for
addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions.
Local development Process where community members come together to
take collective action and generate solutions to
common problems.
Sustainable development Able to be maintained at a certain rate or level, often
thought of as having a net-zero impact.
Community development Development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs.
Ecotourism Tourism directed towards natural environments,
especially to support conservation efforts and observe
wildlife.
Millennium Development Goals An approach using long-term, sustainable thinking.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 49

Write an original sentence worksheet

Write an original sentence for each of the following:

ecotourism community development sustainable

1.   ____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________.

2.   ____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________.

3.   ____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________.

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