## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**CFD stands for computational fluid dynamics. It was introduced in 1960’s when it was only in
**

the field of aeronautics and astronautics, but now it is

becoming rapidly adopted methodology for solving

complex problems win modern engineering practices.

basically CFD is derived from disciplines off fluid

mechanics and heat transfer, but now it considered as an

important toll in the areas of chemical, civil and

environmental engineering.

**Modern CFD evolved as integration of disciplines of fluid
**

mechanics, heat transfer and computer science as shown

in figure. Now here in the section below all of these

individual discipline will be defined briefly.

FLUID MECHANICS.

**Fluid mechanics is study of behavior of fluids, either at rest or motion. Most of the times we are
**

interested in the fluids in motion, also called fluid dynamics. The behavior of fluid flow

influences processes that may include heat transfer and chemical reactions etc. Besides this

fluid behavior also shows the effect of flow on the forces and stresses generated in the conduit

in which fluid is flowing.

MATHEMATICS.

**Characteristics of fluid motions are described through fundamental mathematical equation,
**

usually in integral or differential form. These equations govern the flow of fluid and allow us to

calculate the effects of fluid motion on a system, these equations will be discussed in later

sections of this chapter. This is where we need mathematics to solve and understand the

governing equations of fluid mechanics and CFD.

COMPUTER SCIENCE.

In CFD all the governing equations are solved numerically and numerical method for these

equations need high computational power.

**In order to solve these equations computer scientists use computer programming languages to
**

convert the equations into computer program or software packages, which allows us to solve all

of the governing equations numerically while consuming less time and effort.

In order to make good use of CFD, user must have knowledge about fluid mechanics,

mathematics and all the other theory related to the problem he wants to simulate.

BASIC APROACHES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS.

**Traditionally experimental and analytical methods were used to study veracious aspects of fluid
**

dynamics. The arrival of high tech computers, CFD has emerged as third method which can be

used to study fluid dynamics. As shown in figure, all of these three approaches or methods are

strongly interlinked and cannot work in isolation.

**CFD needs verification of results either through
**

analytical methods or by experiments. Sometimes

results obtained from CFD can be ambiguous and

depicted picture could be unrealistic, the data from CFD

results must be verified to ensure that the result are not

defying physics.

**Advantage of use of CFD is it allows us to visualize the
**

whole process through different pictures and

animations. Besides that, some of the designing

processes are iterative, which means high manufacturing and setup cost. In this case CFD not

only reduces the project cost but also reduces the time and effort required to get final result.

CFD SOLUTION PROCEDURE:

**With the advent of high power computers and large variety of commercial software, CFD has
**

become is easy even for new comers to this field of study. Commercial software has inbuilt

codes for simulations which can be used to get the CFD solutions.

**These codes are usually structured around robust numerical algorithms that can tackle fluid-
**

flow problems. In order to get easy access to these codes CFD software are provided with use

interface called GUI, which allows us to get a sight into to the solutions as well as results.

The code that provides a complete CFD analysis consists of following three elements.

1) Pre-processor.

2) Solver.

3) Prost-processor.

**domain of all of these elements is shown in figure.
**

There are many commercial software available, which have all of these elements or any of these

elements. But the basic purpose of the software is to assist the user to get the final results by

requiring minimum effort, cost and time.

**One of the most commonly used commercial software is ANSYS. This package contains different
**

modules or solvers for different types of solution required, but for the fluid flows ANSYS FLUENT

or ANSYS CFX is used. Along with different solvers, different pre-processors and post-processor

are also available for the sake of user friendliness. This all is to be discussed in the coming few

paragraphs.

PRE-PROCESS.

Pre-processor is used to meet all the prerequisites for the solver. These include a well-defined

geometry and generation of mesh or grid generation.

Both the processes of geometry and grid generation will be discussed separately.

GEOMETRY GENERATION.

First step in any CFD analysis is the definition and creation of well-defined geometry. Geometry

that defines all the flow region, walls and solid regions. All the boundary conditions are

specified to the geometry before exporting to the solver.

ANSYS package have provides different modules for the geometry generation, which are.

1) Design modeler.

2) ICEM CFD.

3) BladeGen.

DESIGN MODELER.

**This module comes with the ANSYS package and is used to make the geometries or to modify
**

the existing geometries. Most of the people use this software to define different parts in the

geometry, parts like, walls, flow regions, solids and the other important features of the

geometry.

**Sole purpose of design modeler is to make or define different parts geometry. The geometry file
**

from design modeler can be exported to different file formats like, paralsolid, IGES and STEP etc.

**User interface of design modeler allows the access to different features and option on available
**

to carry out he required operation while making a geometry. Main window of design modeler is

shown in figure.

**After making the geometry, design modeler also allows us to name different parts of the
**

geometry. The process of naming different parts is called “named selection”. Named selection

makes it easy to specify boundary condition in the solver later on. Process of specifying

boundary conditions will be discussed in description of solvers.

ICEM CFD.

Like design modeler, ICEM CFD can also be used for making geometries. But its geometry

generation features are less user friendly than design modeler, but on the other hands it allows

us to generate mesh.

Most of the user make geometry in any other design software and then use ICEM CFD for grid

generation. Boundary condition types can also be specified within ICEM CFD before exporting

the mesh file to solver.

Figures shows some geometry features of a sample problem.

This geometry represents the setup for flow over to cylinders. The outer box represents fluid

flow zone and the cylinder represent solid domain. Rest of the features are labelled.

Besides using the software provided by ANSYS, one can use any other CAD software to make

geometry and export geometry file to ANSYS or any other solver. These CAD software include

SolidWorks, Catia, Proe, Creo and AutoCAD etc.

GRID GENERATION.

The is the second and most important step in the post-process stage. It is the process of division

of domain into number of small volumes. Each volume is called an element. The accuracy of

CFD results is highly effected by number, types and distribution of elements.

**Like geometry generation, ANSYS package gives numerous choices for grid generation as well.
**

Most commonly used are.

**1) ANSYS grid generator, also called Tgrid.
**

2) ICEM CFD.

Along with them other commercial software like Gambit, PointWise etc. can also be used for

grid generation.

As most of the users use ICEM CFD for grid generation, we have also used it for our project. So

only ICEM CFD will be discussed here.

GRID GENERATION IN ICEM CFD.

**It is software which come with ANSYS package. As described earlier, it is used not only make
**

geometry but also for grid generation. Advantage of ICEM CFD over other software is that it

gives authority to make changes to geometry and generate mesh at the same time. While along

with these tasks, all the types of boundary conditions can be assigned before exporting the

mesh file to solver.

TYPES OF MESHES IN ICEM CFD.

**ICEM CFD can be used to make both structured (Sometimes also called hexa mesh) and
**

unstructured mesh (Sometimes called tetra mesh). Structure mesh gives better results but it

demands time and experience. Structured mesh is mostly used for 2D problems or for simple

geometries. Figure shows the example of structured mesh.

On the other side tetra mesh is used when the geometries are complicated and intricate. It

consumes less time as compared to structured mesh but number of elements are increased for

same geometry to get same accurate results as compared to structured mesh. The problem

with tetra mesh is that is requires better local controls and it can give you unrealistic results. So

the interpretation requires more keen observation of results. Figure shows tetra mesh for the

domain in the problem discussed for the geometry generation.

**Sometimes geometry is much complicated for only structured or unstructured mesh. The
**

reason is that the structured mesh is very difficult to generate and tetra unstructured need very

small size mesh in local area. The example is capturing the boundary layer, where pressure and

temperature gradients etc. are very large. In this case we use combination of structured and

unstructured mesh, this type of mesh is called hybrid mesh. Hybrid mesh is shown in figure.

ASSIGNING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS.

**One of the advantage of ICEM CFD is that it allows users to assign the boundary condition to the
**

geometry before exporting it to solver. It makes our work easy when we are working in solver

and specifying different values to boundary conditions.

**Different boundary conditions like domains or volumes (Solid or fluid), walls, interfaces, inlets
**

and outlets, symmetry and periodicity etc. can be assigned.

SOLVER.

Solver is a software which solves the codes of CFD. These codes are the program which are used

to solve all the required equations in order to get the solution. As described earlier all of the

fundamental equation are solved numerically with help of a programming code. Solver allows

user to select and make use of required equations according to the physics of problem which is

being simulated.

**Steps to the solution are depicted in the figure.
**

Before initialization, some numeric values are given to the boundary conditions. This can be

done through GUI of solver. Boundary conditions for our problems are shown in the figure.

Before understanding the working of solver we need some knowledge of all the components of

flow figure shown earlier.

INITIALIZATION AND SOLUTION METHOD.

Initialization acts as some input values for solution methods to get the final solution.

INITIALIZATION.

Most of the CFD solvers are iterative solvers, they assume some value to each of the grid and

then start numerical iterations to get the final solution. The process of assigning this starting

values is called initialization. And these values are called initial conditions.

The value given as initial condition is purely arbitrary, it does not affect final results but the time

required to get final results of required accuracy can be increased or reduced by guessing

appropriate initial conditions.

If the initial conditions are close to the final solution, the time required to get result with

required accuracy will be reduced.

If given initial conditions are far away from reality, they time required to get the final

solution will be increased or in extreme cases the solution may crash.

**ANSYS FLUENT allows us the give more accurate initial conditions. Some methods of initializing
**

the solution are given as under.

1) Standard initialization.

2) Hybrid initialization.

3) FMG initialization.

**In standard initialization some initial condition, any of our choice, can be given to the solver.
**

This value is then assigned to every single element or grid. After assuming these values

numerical iterations start in order to get the final solution.

**While in the hybrid initialization, some value is assigned to every element and then few
**

iterations are performed to get some refined initial conditions. Rest of the iterative process for

getting solution is same.

**FMG initialization stands for full multigrid initialization. It is not used very often because it
**

requires more time in refining the initial conditions. It is used when standard and hybrid

initialization fail to give a reasonably stable input to solver, in other word solution crashes.

Unlike the other two, which can be applied by GUI of ANSYS FLUENT, FMG initialization is

applied ty TUI command “solve/initialize/fmg-initialization”.

SOLUTION METHODS.

**After giving initial conditions, solver solves the fundamental equations, particularly Navier Stoke
**

equation, which are in differential form. ANSYS FLUENT gives different methods to solve them,

methods like SIMPLE, SIMPLEC AND COUPLED.

**SIMPLE (Semi Implicit Method for pressure Linked Equations) solve pressure for the velocity
**

calculation for next step or iterations. In other word both pressure and velocity variables are

solved separately, first pressure and then velocity. SIMPLEC or SIMPLER is revised version of

SIMPLE with some pressure corrections added to get better results with reduced computational

time.

**Other method which is used to solve the Navier Stoke equations in COUPLED scheme or
**

method. This method calculates both pressure and velocities in single step for each iteration.

This requires more memory (RAM) to handle all the variables at the same time.

Usually SIMPLE or SIMPLEC method give very much good results but take more iteration steps

to get the final solution but require less memory, while COUPLED needs less iterations to get

final results but more memory. It takes more time per iteration as compared to SIMPLE or

SIMPLEC. COUPLED schemes also gives better accuracy and more stability.

CONVERGENCE AND RESIDUALS:

**This step is performed when solver is making calculations based on input data. Convergence is a
**

measure of imbalances in the results produced by calculations made by solver. Imbalance is

present in the variables which are dealt during calculations. Imbalances are also called as

residuals.

**In ANSYS FLUENT the measure of residuals is given on GUI, in the form of a graph or different
**

lines. Each line in the residual graph represents individual variable. These residual lines give a

track of imbalances in the solution, fall in the lines represents decay in imbalances while rise in

the residual line means increase in instability and imbalances.

**Sometime terms convergence or divergence are used to define the behavior or residual lines.
**

Fall in residuals is considered as convergence and rise is called divergence. Solution is

considered fully converged when residual lines become straight.

CHECKING CONVERGENCE:

**Usually only straightening of residual lines is not enough to judge the convergence of solution.
**

We give different values to residual line to set convergence criteria. These values are based

upon the type of problem which is being solved. For incompressible flows, energy residuals

should be order of 10-6 while rest of residual lines should be around 10 -3. Figure shows the way

to assign convergence criteria to residuals and to read them from the graph during the

calculations.

Besides these residual lines, different monitoring variables like drag, lift and static pressures etc.

can be used for further confirmation of convergence of solutions.

**Sometimes residual lines do not meet the criteria of convergence, in this case fluxes like masse
**

flow and heat transfer must be checked manually. The error for the surface of minimum flux

must be less than 2 percent to get reasonable results.

POST-PROCESSING.

**The process of extracting results is included in post-processing. Post-processing includes
**

obtaining final results in form of numeric values, graph, colors or animations etc.

**Different commercial software are available for post-processing, like TECHPlot, Ensight and
**

FIELDVIEW etc. by ANSYS have its own integrated module which is called CFD post. Or even

FLUENT has its own post-processing module, which can be accessed through FLUENT’s GUI.

- NUMECA Corporateuploaded byAdam Torby
- ms4-bodyfguploaded byHanniel Freitas
- CFD Lecture 01uploaded bySmart Ranjha
- Ms4 Probs Time Solnsuploaded byZakria Toor
- Concurrent CFD Analysis Methodsuploaded byVinay Nagnath Jokare
- Computational Mechanicsuploaded byAlexander Narváez
- Final Report Format 2014AAAAAAuploaded byAzmiHafifi
- 136-Smoke Management System Designuploaded byAmr Kamel
- TF 93 Reportuploaded byaeroprince
- Renato Skejicuploaded byLuis Enrique Yactayo Suller
- Concurrent CFD Analysis Methodsuploaded byAntonio Cruz
- Sam Lindop L018852A Assignment 2uploaded bysam_lindop
- Webinar Practical Cfd Analysis 2008uploaded byjohn_max03
- 10_2_1500uploaded bySharon Freeman
- T03 CFD Tutorial 3 - Flow Over a Space Shuttle.pptxuploaded byDrive space
- Sesam-CAESES-flier_tcm8-1130.pdfuploaded byJuniorJavier Olivo Farrera
- Outline 13uploaded byKelvin Sudani
- nourani2014uploaded byAnonymous aqUc5ZE5MB
- AA V6 I1 High Fidelity FSIuploaded bypriyankar007
- Rotational Effects on Lubricant Jet Flowuploaded byIan Rorke Sheeley
- CFD-4M050uploaded byÖzlem Yılmaz
- OTC-13216-MS-P (1)uploaded byRuben Ramirez
- ANSYS Multiphase Modellinguploaded byjoreli
- CFD Lockheeduploaded bybring it on
- OCR MEI GCE Unit 4753 C3 Numerical Methods Courseworkuploaded byJosh Baah
- Numerical Modelling of Blast Events to Design an Innovative Blast Resistant Textile Luggage Containeriuploaded byJan Scar
- CFD Analysis of Pelton Runneruploaded byIJSRP ORG
- Economizer Jurnal CFD Optimizeuploaded byAmirul Firdaus
- NumMeth12uploaded byAlexander Martin
- SGC2015_HatchMottMacDonald_Doddiuploaded bykad-7

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading