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Modernizations and upgrades for industrial steam turbines

and power generation. Competitive solutions to meet new requirements Industrial steam turbines can have service lives of 30 or more years and are important components in many industrial processes. come along. 2 . such as ­environmental standards. It is very likely that the operating parameters of turbines will change along with market conditions over such long periods. as well as when new processes and laws. the oil and gas industry.

systems. your turbine can be optimized What is more.Modernization programs by Siemens help ■■ Existing parts. Siemens’ stringent analysis in terms of efficiency or steam consumption of your plant’s operation allows to by implementing state-of-the-art technology ­implement tailored solutions for specific and innovative solutions. reliability. and availability – requires less downtime than installing with OEM-quality services. since: 3 . and com­ponents operators conserve precious resources while can be reused. a new turbine Operational and economic benefits ■■ You continue to work with familiar Thoroughly planned modernizations and equipment and may even have ­relevant upgrades help you to keep downtime and spare parts in store production losses to a minimum. Apart from this. ­operational conditions. At the same time. reducing investment costs always keeping their systems at peak levels ■■ Retrofitting or upgrading a machine of efficiency. modernizations and upgrades are cost-­ effective.

OEM service provider for: ■■ ABB/Alstom Industrial Steam Turbines ■■ ABB První brněnská strojírna ■■ AEG Kanis ■■ AEG/KWU ■■ ASEA STAL ■■ Austrian Energy ■■ BBC Industrial Steam Turbines ■■ Delaval ■■ GMB Görlitzer Maschinenbau ■■ Hamburger Turbinenfabrik ■■ Kanis Turbinenbau ■■ Kühnle. and servicing steam turbines for extremely diverse applications for over a century now. 4 . as well as offer a great opportunity to reduce costs its ­all-round experience in developing and and boost the performance of your plants. As a result. anywhere in the world differences in operating parameters or other Siemens’ globally integrated service orga­ constraints. and then develop- themselves. folio. implementing innovative solutions. it will be worthwhile to modern- nization is available 24/7 around the clock. ize steam turbines and adapt them to new With corresponding Centers of Competence. A partner with a thorough knowledge of turbines Siemens has been developing. Especially since upgrades can Siemens is fully capable of reviewing all do more than simply optimize processes inquiries related to steam turbine modifica- and can also extend the life of the turbines tions on very short notice. Kopp & Kausch (KK&K) ■■ MAN Industrial ■■ STAL LAVAL ■■ Westinghouse Staying competitive Siemens acquired many other manufacturers No operator can allow its competitive position and integrated their equipment into its port- to be weakened in an era of global competi. it usually takes less ing the most suitable recommendations for time to modernize than to manufacture a the application. Moreover. That’s the reason for constant invest. Siemens can now offer tion. OEM services for turbines manufactured ments in new technology and optimization under another brand name. Industrial steam turbines manufacturers and industries. As it developed into one of the world’s lead- ing suppliers of industrial steam turbines. If the original requirements change due to A reliable partner. new steam turbine. building. conditions. too. You can directly of processes – and conditions on the market profit from ­Siemens’ knowledge of multiple keep changing.

Custom steam turbine service No two plants are alike – their components are just as individualized – so Siemens ­offers  tailor-made services of the highest quality. taken into account. S ­ iemens A footprint turbine is a replacement ­turbine starts with a comprehensive analysis of the that may have slight changes to the base condition of both the ­turbine and the entire frame or foundation. Siemens changes. Your specific requirements are state-of-the-art technology. One argument for using a footprint turbine out additional shutdowns of production. the system. and parts can still be used and which operating parameters or be used without any will have to be adapted and replaced. At the same time. ciency. As existing components can still be used. com. and/or ments will quickly show which systems. the investment expense is lower than for the purchase of a completely new turbine system. so you get a steam turbine that is precisely customized for maximum effi. Whenever possible. The last step is a feasi- when modifications must be made for bility analysis that lets you evaluate the costs new operating data or when the service of retrofits or upgrades for your existing tur- life of highly stressed components has bines and the system. From a thorough analysis to a tailored solution Analysis comes first Footprint solutions When a plant is to be re-engineered. A look at current and future require. is the increase in plant availability resulting from minimized production downtimes. the gear unit can be adapted according to new ponents. 5 . The More power pays off components in the new turbine are designed Modernizations and upgrades by Siemens will and manufactured according to the latest quickly pay off. existing oil system. modernization is scheduled so that all work can be done during planned downtime with. been exhausted. proposes solutions to fulfill your requirements A footprint turbine is especially appropriate based on that analysis. the driven machine.

and optimizing the pressure portion. in high exhaust wetness conditions for the reducing temperature-related voltage peaks turbine. Waste incineration and biomass plants It may be necessary to make t­ urbosets flexible may operate with relatively low live-steam enough to be able to respond to changes para­meters to protect the boiler against in loads on the power grid. Siemens offers high-temperature corrosion. Decisive improvements for more efficient and cost-effective operation State-of-the-art blade design and Adaptation to more flexible operating seal technologies parameters / optimization of the ­turbine Siemens offers ultramodern blade technology low pressure (LP parts) that combines robustness and the highest For operators of condensing steam turbines efficiency. ing the quantity of low ­pressure steam to a Improved turbine operation under complete conversion of a condensing turbine high exhaust wetness conditions into a back-pressure turbine. it may become uneconomical to produce electricity due to changes in the market. Options range from cutting back/optimiz- consumption. including the end-stage steam channel. and lower emissions. That results ­solutions for improving fast start capability. A comprehensive portfolio of services Siemens’ modernizations and upgrades for steam turbines have been specially ­developed to meet the requirements for all different types of steam turbines and their applications. 6 . A Brush seals on the balance piston labyrinth reduction in power output or an increase in and improved thermodynamic configu­ration process steam are ways to restore profitabil- of the blades improve efficiency. reduce fuel ity. ­Hollow guide vanes to suction away excess moisture from the exhaust steam are also available for certain types of blades. This can be addressed by resistant materials and changes in geometry of the end-stage blades to reduce erosion protec- tion. which increases erosion of the low in ­turbine components. blades.

shorter startup and shutdown times. Siemens offers a modular approach to Some practical examples of Siemens’ ­modernizing turbine controls – from simple. In addition. Wear and tear on components and auxiliary systems. ­comprehensive portfolio of modernization cost-effective retrofitting to comprehensive solutions are shown on the next few pages. reducing the use of fuels and oper- tion. And it isn’t always possible to integrate ating materials. and availability. 7 . systems. The positive effects of modernizing t­ urbine controls include greater availability. Disre­ garding low-cost or high-end solutions API conformity can be realized. and lower maintenance costs. lower consumption of on- into a higher-ranking modern process control site power. Siemens mechanical-hydraulic or older ­electronic is also an expert at optimizing steam turbine ­controls. and enhanced plant efficiency system. That includes optimum an uncertain supply of spare parts for older adjustment and integration of turbine-related electronic systems can impair smooth opera.Retrofitting control systems to enable System-related view of steam remote monitoring and diagnostic turbine auxiliary systems services (RDS) Thanks to decades of experience with turbine Many steam turbines are still operated using production and plant construction. full-scope turbine control systems. remote diagnostic services (RDS) can be offered provided that corresponding com­ ponents are installed. a longer service life.

The following components Case studies were modernized: n High-pressure nozzles n Guide blade carrier n Shaft labyrinth bushing for increased n Rotor n Balance piston bushing efficiency Higher efficiency in a very short time The challenge The benefits A customer in the paper industry had to This modernization project offered numerous modernize the rotor of a BBC steam turbine advantages to the customer. done after taking stock. The overhaul was completed within the agreed time frame of no more than three weeks. Finally. tional repair. within the shortest possible time the customer had The solution a turbine with new internals that was well A complete damage and error analysis was equipped for the challenges of the future. an improvement of 7 to 10 per- seals had been destroyed with corresponding cent compared with the old rotor that was losses in efficiency. Siemens supplied a new rotor with three guide blade carriers and gland bushings. BBC steam turbine after retrofitting. and the system was online again as scheduled. the customer was able to upcoming complete overhaul while strictly choose the best solution based on specific limiting down time. The aim of the enced partner for overhauling the turbine ­modernization was to restore the technical helped reduce the length of the project. 8 . The analysis showed That includes the fact that today it is again that over the years the rotor blades and operating at its original very high level of guide vanes had eroded and sheet metal efficiency. In addition to conven- damaged by erosion. cost and process parameters. the customer chose the new rotor. After evaluating all of the options. Using an experi- and turned to Siemens. At performance of the turbine during an the same time. the alternative of a completely new rotor was suggested.

turbine performance increased by repairs. a root cause analysis revealed severe damage The benefits that called for an overhaul of the turbine. (option 2). the outage The solution period for the modernization was much Dismantling the turbine revealed that the shorter than it would have been for the entire turbine was severely corroded and installation of a new turbine. A BBC steam turbine in a waste incineration better efficiency. and plant had been in use for almost 40 years the expected return on investment led the when a fatal defect occurred at start-up. advanced ­performance of 14 MW. shorter delivery time. thanks ters. Dominant consequences of pitting corrosion Pitting corrosion Peaks of stresses at pitting areas Micro cracks based on notch effects Bending stress Design Existing Regaining state-of-the-art efficiency The challenge The costs for repair. driving a generator with maximum to the application of highly reliable. preferably with state-of-the-art 880 kW (or 6. To repair the turbine. the improved reliability. The unit tional profit for the customer. Siemens developed a modernization concept with two options for the exchange of turbine blading: ■■ Option 1: using the original free-standing blading design ■■ Option 2: using state-of-the-art ­shrouded  blading Heavy corrosion of rotor 9 . customer to select the state-of-the-art blading Although the unit was tripped immediately. leading to addi- design and improved efficiency. and existing a suspected rotating blade failure in one components could be reused.3 percent). row had damaged all subsequent ­stationary and rotating blades. the customer benefited from improved steam turbine with low live steam parame­ availability and reliability of the plant. turbine components. In addition. At the same in question is a back-pressure industrial time. After the modernization project was com- The biggest demand was for short-term pleted.

steam path to the new process/boiler condi- The benefits tions in order to increase turbine efficiency The pulp and paper plant profits from a and the total number of MWh produced ­number of benefits realized in their retrofit annually. Siemens focused on redesigning the tions. Siemens knew the turbine inside and out because they were the o ­ riginal manufac- turer – and this significantly speeded up the entire process. the retrofit was cost-efficient by about 20 percent compared to the design because the existing rotor could be used for data. As a consequence. Secondly. and the sealing design along with adopting electricity through a generator. First of all. whereas inlet pressure and tempera. ­state-of-the-art diaphragms and blading bine operated off its original design point in order to give the customer the best resulting in lower efficiency and a loss of ­possible output for the new steam condi- power. After a pro. other new features that have been devel- cess update. the flow through the turbine oped since the turbine was built. Siemens optimized the steam path at a paper mill. the tur. the power output for The solution the new steam conditions was increased by An assessment of the actual process parame. Its main purpose is to provide for the new site conditions and upgraded steam for the pulp and paper process. the optimized blading. Case studies Inlet nozzle plate Diaphragm #2–9 Extraction nozzle plate for process optimization Rotating blades #2–9 Retrofitting for higher earnings The challenge ture remained more or less constant. project. For changed because less steam was required stages #2 to #9 this meant using new by the process. six percent compared with the original steam ters showed that the inlet flow had decreased path. And most ­importantly. Before overhaul: Broken sealing After overhaul: Remake sealing strips strip due to wear and tear 10 . As a Siemens installed an SST-900 steam ­turbine result.

pressure steam from the incineration plant. turbine control. That required new process. The customer The benefits asked Siemens to modernize its plant with a The customer benefits from significantly footprint turbine. Both machines were successfully load. which markedly worsened its efficiency started up in October 2010. The split view shows the ­turbine before and after Before modification. Control Guide The retrofit in detail valve blade The condensing turbine carrier Turbine was extensively modified rotor and successfully adapted to the new steam parameters. because the footprint steam from the turbine of a waste incinera- turbine is optimally adapted to the new tion plant located four kilometers away ­process steam parameters. Following a monitoring system to the new speeds and change in process steam parameters. At the same time. The turbine control uses the Turloop system. The only work that had to be done on site was to adapt the internal steam and oil p ­ ipelines to the new turbine. At the incineration plant. exhaust higher power output. Siemens converted the existing con- 11 . Thanks to the injection of back- incineration plant into a back-pressure t­ urbine. greatly reducing its CO2 modern shrouded rotors that was an excel. lent fit with the new process steam parame- ters. The solution the customer was also able to stop purchas- Siemens developed a footprint turbine with ing primary fuel. With the double- would be used to supply additional steam extraction system precisely modified for the for the customer’s process. the performance data in order to optimize effi- ­turbine had to be operated under partial ciency. The use of a double-extraction system in place of the previous bleed extraction system means the turbine can handle the customer’s steam requirements at all times throughout the entire operating range. and turbine to generate electricity. while brush seals increase the effi- ciency. the machine works much more converting the condensing turbine at the efficiently. and was also unprofitable. emissions. modifica- tion After modifica- tion Guide blade carrier Engineering for lasting improvements The challenge densing turbine to a back-pressure turbine A chemical company uses a Siemens steam and adapted the gears.

a turbine had been running with no operational utility company in ­Sweden asked Siemens to disturbances. and Siemens’ start of this LTE program. Finite element (FE) calcu­ future inspections and replacements in lations were made and an extended non- the most economical way. Case studies for lifetime extensions More decades of profitable operation The challenge and to re-inspect the most critical parts in The high invest­ment cost and long delivery the hot areas more frequently in a systematic time of new equipment make it worth con. In addition. The challenge was to ensure presented in the first LTE analysis were imple- the turbine’s ongoing operation beyond the mented. sidering the alternative of lifetime extension By the time of the next major overhaul. destructive testing process (NDT) based on the customer can expect to benefit from the theoretical study was performed during reduced operating costs for a substantial the overhaul. and then compared with the previous Before the planned overhaul. Siemens results in order to keep track on the turbine performed a theoretical study with the aging process. The NDT activities were repeated at end of its normal design lifetime. The turbine’s history. way. the same locations and using the same meth- The solution ods. fewer critical components than before the original design calculations. the for existing turbine parts. nents during the next planned overhaul 12 . The detailed knowledge of the conduct a Life Time Extension (LTE) analysis condition of specific components from the LTE on a district-heating turbine. For that reason. further analysis was recommended all available information was also delivered to reduce uncertainty and limit the number by Siemens. goal of identifying critical components The benefits for which a reduced operating lifetime After the second overhaul the turbine had could be projected. The LTE study resulted in a period of time. All recommendations operating hours. as well as detail unique experience with similar units were knowledge of the components’ condition.000 the overhaul in advance. thanks to the measures ­recommendation to replace some compo- taken by Siemens. study made it easy to establish the scope of the turbine had accumulated about 70. The client is now able to plan of replacements. all part of the evaluation. By that time. For some compo- A customized maintenance plan based on nents.

using special involved wholesale changes to an already adapters. further radial seals were added to control leakage losses in the steam path. Also. larger exhaust end journal bearing. this ­retrofit original internals as spares. Because the ammonia a set of mechanical improvements. double-acting Kingsbury thrust bearing in less operating hours. Combined with the machine’s efficiency and augment the equipment improvements. a heavier increasing the turbine’s efficiency had top shaft. energy savings were achieved. the turbine’s designers started the upgrade process with steam rate improved by approximately an empty casing. The upgrade The solution also offers the possibility to reinstall the Due to the focus on cost savings. Siemens added one stage – an overall attractive payback. Siemens’ Thanks to Siemens’ upgrades. As a result of design improve- technical expertise. this provides reheat effect. After 25 years of service and count. many improvements place of the existing ­single-acting one. and a priority. The benefits To achieve the best result possible. Additionally. In addition. Valve pressure losses were 13 . incorporated the latest six percent. Siemens used a full arc of blad- ing and axial entry blading to eliminate the losses for missing blades now found in the steam turbine. considerable step function improvement package. a larger exhaust end oil drain.Tailored efficiency increase The challenge reduced by removing the center pilot valve An ammonia plant operator had to upgrade his in the valve gear. raising the number of stages to three – and also slightly raised reaction and velocity ratio. the overall plant mature design steam turbine. and came up with a ments and aging loss recovery. such as a market is particularly driven by gas prices. To improve capacity was increased. Siemens also implemented topping steam turbine. and upgrades had already been implemented.

Twofold monitoring: The turboset at a textile processor 14 . inexpensive remote support The challenge secure connection via the common Remote Following a fire. The customer Thanks to the cRSP connection. The its industrial steam turbine and replace its system records all accessible process and control technology. Siemens also wanted to get quick. precise support was able to provide support to the people in the future whenever questions arose working on the startup the first time the about operation or fault management. The solution This included simultaneous (online) work In addition to the mechanical repair work. visualization. by the TURLOOP development engineer components for remote support and a (at ­Siemens) during adjustment or expansion remote monitoring system (RMS) were of the control technology to fulfill additional installed during replacement of the control customer requirements. since this allows remote error detection and increases the availability of the system. more quickly and less expensively on all issues and requested changes related to ­control technology. and opera- tion. Some of the user stations needless coordination costs. All work had to be done in the monitoring and diagnostics. Case studies on controls upgrades & RDS* * Remote Diagnostic Services Fast. The online availability of all relevant operating data is vital for keeping response times as short as possible. including switchgear operating data and transmits it daily for ­cabinets. ­shortest possible time to recommission the The benefit turbine as soon as possible. a textile finisher had to repair Service Platform (cRSP) from Siemens. It offered superior technology with the modular TURLOOP S7 support for the customer – and avoided control system. In the future. new control technology went online. were designed as engineering stations and ­Siemens will be able to advise the customer linked to the OEM service using a highly.

new hardware for speed/axial displacement and vibration and relative extension monitoring was installed for high operational safety and simplified trouble- shooting. The solution Siemens installed the modular TURLOOP S7 turbine control system and Siemens S7 PLC hardware. daily monitoring service support and the feasibility to plan ■■ the old speed and axial displacement and diagnostics proactive and preventive maintenance measuring system is no longer available ­measures. The connection to higher-level control systems is established via serial ­interfaces with Modbus and Ethernet ­protocol – and for optimum online support. and record all operating parameters. ­designed as engineering issues. display) (mounted in cubicle door) Turbine Hard-wired signal exchange from/to TCC/field hall Better performance through optimized controls The challenge The benefits Modernization measures: An Indonesian pulp mill customer relied Apart from the improved control functions. a new Remote Monitoring System (RMS) was implemented. The controls all relevant spares through the international ­monitoring ■■ Some user stations were upgrade was urgent due to availability Siemens service organization. ■■ Recording of all accessible ■■ no spares and support available for tion to the Siemens experts results in quick process and operating the installed visualization system data. (TURLOOP) Turbine Touchscreen PC for operation control cubicle and visualization 15 . most importantly.200 mm x 1. ■■ Replacement of control on Siemens’ expertise for implementing a the customer also enjoys the peace of ­technology with components turbine controls upgrade during a major mind brought about by the availability of for remote support and overhaul of the entire plant. In addition. control. display) ­protection (incl. the remote connec. for example: easy implementation of new operating ­stations and connected to parameters and functions as well as easy ■■ the old programmable logic controllers OEM service over a highly-­ adaptation to new processes was feasible.200 mm x 600 mm Power supply Power supply RMS – router for remote SITOP SITOP Signal exchange monitoring services from/to MCCs S7-400 PLC for S7-400 PLC for turbine governor turbine protection equipment All 24-V DC consumer in cubicle Electrical Profibus and ET200 or S7 400 IO modules ET200 or S7 400 IO modules hard-wired signal room exchange with generator protection and Profibus Profibus AVR System 3-channel speed measurement for 3-channel axial position governor and overspeed protection measurement for Emergency stop push button (incl. secure cRSP ­connection (PLCs) have been phased out And. A new process visualization allows the operators to analyze. Turbine and process control as well as protection functions were adapted to the existing plant process. Control system topology Serial connecton to existing DCS Operator station 1 control Ethernet WIN CC room Main Junction box with emergency stop push button Redundant 230-V AC power supply 50 Hz/60 Hz DSL/LAN connection Redundant 110-V AC/DC power supply 50 Hz/60 Hz Turbine control cubicle (H/W/D) 2. In addition.

. descriptions of the technical options available. USA For more information.Published by and copyright © 2013: Siemens AG Energy Sector Freyeslebenstrasse 1 91058 Erlangen. FL Energy Service Division Order No. Printed on elementary chlorine-free bleached paper. E50001-W510-A238-X-7600 | Printed in Germany | Dispo 34803. Germany Siemens Energy. or their respective owners. which Trademarks mentioned in this document may not apply in all cases. Subject to change without prior notice. please contact our Customer Support Center. its options should therefore be specified in the contract. The required technical are the property of Siemens AG. Phone: +49 180/524 70 00 Fax: +49 180/524 24 71 (Charges depending on provider) E-mail: support. c4bs No. 1386 TH 288-120818 | WÜ | WS | 03133. Inc. 4400 Alafaya Trail Orlando. The information in this document contains general All rights reserved.