Documentation of the

Dutch refinery model
SERUM

G.J. Stienstra

ECN-E--06-029 November 2006

Acknowledgement
This report was written as part of the project ‘NEV-instrumentarium’ (project number 7.7753)
for the Ministry of Economic Affairs of The Netherlands.

Abstract
The refinery model SERUM is part of a wider array of models that are used for modelling the
Dutch National Energy Outlook. This combination of models and their common database is ap-
plied for projections and scenarios for future energy use and emissions.

The Dutch Refining industry is modelled with an LP model for the techno-economic analysis of
refining operations. Its applications lie in scenarios for future energy use, and assessing the ef-
fects of new regulatory standards for fuel emissions or new refining technologies. The effects on
refining energy requirements and emissions are the main goals in these analyses.

This report gives a model overview of SERUM, and its interactions with other models as well as
it provides some detailed information on the architecture of the refinery model.

2 ECN-E--06-029

2 The operational MS Excel Shell (SERUM.4 Overview of model operations 11 3. Model Purpose 7 2.Contents List of figures 4 1.2.2 Model Summary 5 1.1 Model objectives 7 2.2 Relationship to other Models 7 3.1 Additional calculations 16 References 18 Appendix A SERUM GAMS model 19 A.3 Masterlist of the energy producer labels 21 A. Introduction 5 1.2 Flow of Data 14 4.1 Introduction 14 4.1 Purpose of this Report 5 1.2.4.5 Fundamental Assumptions 12 4.XLS) 6 2.6 Masterlist of energy production processes 23 ECN-E--06-029 3 .4 Masterlist of energy production plants 21 A.1 SERUM GAMS model 5 1.1 Existing documentation on SERUM 10 3.2 Theoretical approach 10 3.2 Intermediate products 19 A.3 GAMS Model 15 4.1 Final products 19 A.5 Masterlist of energy production units 22 A. Model Structure 14 4.4 Excel shell 15 4.3 Inputs and outputs of SERUM GAMS model 10 3. Model Overview 10 3.

1 Typical Inputs and Outputs of the SERUM-GAMS model for scenario studies 11 Figure 3.1 Flow of data in individual files for the SERUM model 14 4 ECN-E--06-029 .2 Operational structure of the SERUM model 12 Figure 4.List of figures Figure 2.1 Overview of the Dutch National Energy Outlook Modelling System (NEOMS) 8 Figure 3.

1 SERUM GAMS model The SERUM GAMS model is an LP model that forms the operational backbone of the SERUM model. feedstocks. as well as more economically and policy driven changes such as: product specifications. In this report. 1. the scarce resources are the production facilities of the refineries of interest and the competing activities are the various processing operations in the refineries.1.2. The SERUM model is one of several models used for Dutch National Energy Outlook Model- ling System. a linear op- timalisation model written in GAMS. Chapter 3 presents a model overview and discusses the basic assumptions. First this report describes the model generally. and it is a techno-economical model of the petroleum refineries in the Netherlands. and provide some detailed information on its architecture. Introduction 1. and energy use and emission standards.1 Purpose of this Report The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the refinery model SERUM. In chapter two the purpose of the model and its relationships with other models is described. This report is in- tended as a reference document for model analysts and users. The model can be divided into three parts: an operational shell in Microsoft Excel. The Dutch Ministry of Economic affairs was inter- ested in an independent source of quantitative information on energy related issues concerning refining technology and operation. the term ‘SERUM-model’ applies to the elements combined. a mathematical technique for optimization for finding the best solution (in an economic sense) to complex problems involving the allocation of scarce resources across many competing activities. ECN-E--06-029 5 . product demand. describe its basic approach. Historically the SERUM model was developed to address policy issues related to the introduc- tion of lead-free gasoline in the early 1980s. In 1986 Lead-free gasoline was introduced in the Nether- lands ahead of EU-policy. and has a combined database for model inputs and results.2 Model Summary SERUM stands for ‘Static ESC Refinery Utility Model1’. 1. The model is able to calculate the effects of vari- ous changes in the refineries environment: e. and available technology. LP stands for linear programming.g. In refining analysis. 2 NEOMS stands for National Energy Outlook Modeling System (Dutch Acronym: NEV-RS). technical changes like different crude types. and the communication with the other databases of the scenario studies. and continued its work under the name ‘Policy Studies’. and is the former name of the organization that is now one unit within the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands. Finally in Chapter 4 the model structure is presented in detail. This collection of models is called the NEOMS2. 1 ESC stands for Energy Study Centre.

and SERUM GAMS op- timalisation is started. boilers. product yield.g. viz. gas turbines and ad- vanced fuel conversion technology and the fuels used to generate the required energy for refin- ing (i. This module includes data on generation costs. SERUM. and provides a user interface for the operation of the SERUM model. constraints and input data. data-files are pre-processed. It automates the generation of input-files for the SERUM GAMS model. A more detailed description of the model operations can be found in Chapter 3.e. hydrotreating and other refinery processes. type of fuel used. energy con- version efficiencies and SO2 and NOx emissions. Equations in the blending module represent the blending of intermediate product streams into oil products.2 The operational MS Excel Shell (SERUM.XLS) SERUM. The following steps can be discerned when executing the model. results are imported in excel-worksheets. 6 ECN-E--06-029 . catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. e.The SERUM GAMS model describes the conversion of three crudes (Brent Blend.XLS is a MS Excel Workbook that consists of several worksheets containing the basis assumptions. refining. Finally the utility module specifies different types of furnaces. The refining module specifies the processing of crudes in different processing units such as distilla- tion. steam.XLS is also the operational user interface of the model. For each process data is available on cost. Iranian Light and Arabian Heavy) into oil products. The Excel Shell also contains several calculation steps that are an addition to those within the GAMS-model. conform the product specifications identified in the model. blending and heat and power generation (utility function). In a separate operational procedure results can be transferred to the NEOMS database. energy requirements. Also several calculation steps are available to convert results in a format that is consistent with the other NEOMS models.2. In three modules the model distinguishes three separate refinery functions. and additional calculations are made. 1. emis- sions and qualities of the different output streams. heat and electricity). The input data is gathered for a specific run using Visual Basic routines. for the overall CO2 balance.

6 Results of the ‘transport model’ and the ‘SAVE Production’ model in the field of oil demand growth are not directly transferred into SERUM input. 4 See ECN-C--05-018 for the Dutch version.1 Model objectives The primary objective of SERUM is to calculate energy use of the Dutch refineries. • SELPE: Model that compiles the total energy picture for the Netherlands. 2.2. • Special Fuels: Delivers model input for the production of methanol. ethanol and hydrogen in the Netherlands. Every rectangle in this figure stands for a specific model. • Tariff gas & electricity: Calculates among others the gas and electricity prices. it also calculates the potential of combined heat and power production (CHP). • Renewables: Electricity production with renewable energy sources. • PIE: Here are data combined for used of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). • Transport: Energy Use data on transport from MNP are converted into model input6. as well as for analy- sis of the allocation of the CO2 emission rights for the refining sector. • SAVE production: The energy use of the industry and the agricultural sector (mostly green- houses).Four European energy scenarios5’. 5 To be published in autumn 2006. Model Purpose 2.1. and for parametric analysis of the Dutch refinery sector. the SERUM model can be used specifically to estimate energy saving in refineries3. which calculates a part of the Dutch energy demand and production system: • SAWEC/SAVE-HH: The energy use of households. Secondary to calculate the CO2 and SO2 emissions related to refining. • SAVE services: The energy use of government and services. • MONIT: In this system energy scenarios can be combined with energy statistics for analysis.2 Relationship to other Models An overview of the model interaction of SERUM is depicted in Figure 2. Model results are typically used in National and European scenario studies such as the ‘Referen- tieraming4’ (Van Dril. 2005) or ‘WLO . Combined with oil expert estimates this is done by hand. Additionally. • POWERS: Electricity production and electricity market including import and export to other countries. ECN-E--06-029 7 . • Natural Gas: Production of natural gas in the Netherlands. 3 The method for this type of calculation is described separately in the report ECN-E--06-005.

Input data such as electricity.1. or can be used as in- put for other models.g. 8 ECN-E--06-029 . and the MONIT model that calculates amongst others the sector specific energy use and saving.1. These interactions take place through the SELPE model as indicated in Figure 2. Database tools distribute the results from specific SERUM runs to the NEOMS database. Tariffs gas & electricity SAWEC/ SERUM Renewables SAVE-Services SAVE-HH Refineries Natural Gas Transport SAVE-Production CHP -Industry-Agro SpecialFuel Powers SELPE Monit/PIE conversion IEA MNP/PIE Protocol savings MONIT Output Tables Figure 2. the SELPE model starts from this database and compiles the total Dutch energy picture. the refinery gas that is delivered to the chemical industries in the SAVE industry model. 7 NEOMS stands for National Energy Outlook Modeling System. For sce- nario modelling of the Dutch national energy use and the related emissions a number of techno- economic models are used. Their results are combined for further analysis. These results can be used as inputs to other models: e. An overview of the NEOMS models and their interaction is given in Figure 2.1 Overview of the Dutch National Energy Outlook Modelling System (NEOMS) NEOMS The model is generally used in combination with other sector-models in the NEOMS7. and model results are stored in the NEOMS database. gas and oil prices are obtained from the database before each run. NEOMS has a central database which handles the storage and distributing of the data between the models. If al sub-models are ready.

the so-called SAVE- Production8 model. This is to be expected since in practise the electricity price has limited influence on refining op- erations. including those in the refineries. Although SERUM is part of this loop. Therefore this model is most important in the loop for gas and electricity prices. Moreover the allocation of CHP in the refineries is modelled in the ‘SAVE produc- tion’ model (see next paragraph). SAVE Production SERUM also interacts directly with an other model within the NEOMS. the influence of the SERUM model on the updated final electricity price is small within this loop.Energy Prices An iterative calculation with POWERS. which models the development of energy use and generation in the Dutch manufacturing industry as well as that of Dutch agriculture. ECN-E--06-029 9 . the tariff model and the SAVE models results in the electricity and gas prices used in the NEOMS models. This in- teraction for CHP calculations is illustrated by the dotted line in Figure 2. Other energy intensive industries have a much stronger dependency on electricity and gas prices. The steam demand of the refinery model is used in the SAVE production model to allocate the co- generation capacity in the whole Dutch power sector. 8 SAVE stands for Simulation and Analysis of Virtual energy use in Energy scenarios. In particular the interaction with the SAVE production model is present for the Combined generation of Heat and Power (CHP).1.

part of the constraints are inputs of the modelled refineries. its as- sumptions and the basic process data can be found in Van Oostvoorn (1989). The constraints for modelling energy use can be di- vided in the following groups: • Capacity constraints on Process. SERUM interacts with several other models in the Dutch National Energy Outlook Modelling System. are the result of the cost optimisation for producing the final product demand. its operations and a sensitivity analysis for scenario calculations is given in Kok (1996).1 gives more into detail the in- puts and outputs of the use of the SERUM GAMS model specifically for calculations for sce- nario studies.g. The interaction of SERUM with other SAVE models is described in more detail in Daniëls (2006).g. 3. and Plant Level • Energy balance constraints • Volume restrictions on intermediate streams • Quality constraints for oil products and intermediate streams or feedstocks • Other oil blending restrictions • Environmental constraints (e. 10 ECN-E--06-029 . The background data for the GAMS model is collected in Technika (1985). Recent modifications are documented in internal reports and documentation. when the SERUM model is used for scenario studies. total energy use and crude oil intake.3. 3.2 Theoretical approach The functional goal of the GAMS model is to minimise the total cost of the allocated refinery processes needed to produce certain amounts of several oil products at a specified quality. An overview of the SERUM GAMS model. while others are constraints on the outputs of the modelled refineries. SO2) • Crude oil and feedstock quality • Energy Efficiency. to- gether with an elaborate set of constraints. Figure 3. Model Overview 3. The latter dataset was externally au- dited by the Dutch refining industry in 1988. An overview of this systems can be found in Volkers (2006) (in Dutch). Unit. e. The model outputs.1 Existing documentation on SERUM A clear description of the SERUM GAMS model.3 Inputs and outputs of SERUM GAMS model More specifically.

viscosity. error messages appear with indications of the origin of the problem(s) encountered. . The energy system of the model is calibrated with data of historical years.4 Overview of model operations The SERUM model can be run for one set of input data.vapour Cost data pressure. results are transferred tot the XLS shell at which results can be examined. prices. It is also possible to open the SERUM. solves the model for the goal function. In this procedure a model run is created with a detailed set of model inputs. If needed the data in the XLS shell and the model SERUM model can be rerun. 2005.1 Typical Inputs and Outputs of the SERUM-GAMS model for scenario studies 3. time and whether the results are written into the database). The SERUM model is generally operated from within the NEOMS shell. Upon opening the XLS shell a dataset from NEOMS is imported. If a feasible solution is reached.Data: Individual Processes Goal function: Constraints: costdata Minimal cost for producing the Crude oil / feedstock quality conversion data final product demand Energy intake utilities utiliatation factor Product Quality crude oil / feedstock use Capacity on Unit-level energy requirements Capacity on Plant-level environmental effects Intermediate Flows Data: Unit-level Energy and Mass balances capital cost GAMS Model fixed cost capacity compiling data Data: Refinery-level change in energy efficiency compiling model assumptions Prices: Outputs: crude oils / feedstocks Checks on consistency Production of oil products primary energy carriers Feedstock demand Intermediate streams solve Data: Product Quality: Capacity data octane number. After finishing a run in the NEOMS environment. this operational cycle is repeated for a complete set of view years (for instance 1995. sulphur content. a specific evaluation data file appears on screen. can be deleted by hand using the NEOMS shell. If needed the imported data can be adapted and stored as input data for later use. ECN-E--06-029 11 . a Visual-BASIC script generates the necessary input files for the GAMS model. checks for in- ternal consistency. Old runs. and constraints of a specific year and the model results are matched with historical data. After closing the screen.lst text file that contains details of the model solutions. If not. For scenario models. pourpoint. which are no longer useful. The dataflow of one operation cycle of the SERUM model is made up of the subsequent steps: First the input data is gathered in the XLS shell. E100 point. Figure 3. generate outputs Energy requirments carbon content. constraints and energy effi- ciency of processes.g. Secondly. 2015 etc). and overwrites existing data on e.. Runs and/or complete projects can be stored on CD or DVD. The typical time frame that is calculated is one year. 2010. and generates a number of outputs to file and screen. In this step the GAMS software compiles the data and the model.. the files are automatically stored in a separated directory. outputs. density. cetane number. In the next step the results can be saved and a selection of the results can be stored in the NEOMS database. NEOMS automatically handles the status of run (user. parameters and constraints at the time. Every time the user starts or returns from the NEOMS shell a new directory is opened to facilitate storage and comparison of runs afterwards. upon execution. 2000.

as well as maximum exhaust concentration of SO2. 9 The wholesale electricityprices are the result of the POWERS model (Seebregts. These prices are the result of a market prices model for electricity9.e. The different properties are speci- fied for gasolines. Gas prices are based on an expert analysis of gas markets. other gas oil. The SERUM model can add the influence of a CO2 tax on fossil fuel prices for crude oil and natural gas. as well as for the total SO2 emission.5 Fundamental Assumptions Crude Price The global oil prices used by ECN Policy Studies in different scenarios are generally based on oil scenario’s from the CPB or international sources like IEA. Demand for final Oil products The demand for oil products for historical years is derived from several sources: • CBS oil statistics of the Netherlands • VNPI historical production • Expert knowledge. 12 ECN-E--06-029 . and price differences with crudes with different qualities (Iranian Light and Arabian Heavy) are a parameter in the model (i. Gas and Electricity Price The wholesale electricity prices for the refinery sector are imported from the NEOMS database. 2005). a set of specifications is used. heavy fuel oil and bunker oil. kersosene. The Brent Blend prices are as- sumed to be indicative of global prices.2. Product Quality For the different oil products. Environmental constraints The Dutch government uses a target ceiling level for SO2 emissions on individual installations.2 Operational structure of the SERUM model 3. XLS . See Chapter 2. in the XLS-shell of the model). diesels. In SERUM constraints are present for the sulphur content of emissions of individual processes and plants.shell operations GAMS Model Run specific data compiling data on constraints compiling model assumptions Executing SERUM GAMS Model Input Checks on consistency Changing Constraints/ Rerun Model solve Saving Results generate outputs Output Input Data Results NEOMS SELPE other Database model models Figure 3.

This allocation is needed to describe the Dutch refining activities in 2010. Hydrocarbon processes. other FCC-catalysts and several (co-)generation technologies in utilities. Examples of new processes are (deep) desulphurisation. ECN-E--06-029 13 . 10 Model Version 5. This collection of proc- esses is representative of the unit operations encountered in the Dutch refining industry. energy conversion. The energy efficiency of the com- bined refining processes is an input parameter in the model.g.2. The CBS oil statistics of final refinery products are converted into the more detailed SERUM input format. in terms of the quantity of steam heat or electricity that is net consumed or produced. expert knowledge from confidential discussions with the Dutch petroleum indus- try and international publications11. This conversion requires additional expert knowledge that is partly confidential. and the division of middle distillates between different gas oil qualities is confidential. Oil and Gas Journal. Technology and Processes The process descriptions originate from a 1989 report. which are bundled in 74 units and 32 plants. petrochemical sector and space heating are used. In a typical model run the number of allocated processes is around 160. The current model10 consists of 201 processes. Furthermore sce- nario data of the transport sector. The total energy use in the model is a combina- tion of the overall energy efficiency and the energy requirements of the allocated processes.The future developments in the demand for oil products are based on expert knowledge obtained form partly confidential discussions with oil companies and general literature. The constraints for the individual processes and plants are derived from VNPI publications VNPI (2005). and can have different values for the energy categories of steam heat and power. Petroleum Economist. March 2006 specific run for WLO calculations (GE5. and numerous processes that have been added in the years. Energy Efficiency All processes in the SERUM model have defined energy requirements. 11 E. For instance the division of heavy oil products in heavy oil and bunker oil. These individual requirements de- fine the technological baseline for the overall energy use. 2010).

inc Process compiling model assumptions results: Model Files: trad.ini Data Files: NEOMS SELPE Other models elekprijs. 4.txt olieprijs.shell Model Files: GAMS Model Model results: trad.1 illustrates the flow of data through the different files in the SERUM model. starting with the flow of data through the opera- tional cycle of the model.txt MODEL. Model Structure 4. XLS .inc eval. In this chapter the model structure is presented.txt ser_jaar.2 Flow of Data The model structure makes use of a number of individual files that contain both model equa- tions.INC generate outputs Results tables: tab#.txt on constraints coker. followed by an overview of the model structure of the two layers.lst solve Additional Calculation MESSAGE.txt Results: serumuit.INC SERUM. and the in- formation exchange with the NEOMS database.1 shows only the flow of data for the traditional (‘trad’) run. the GAMS model.INC & Saving Results RAFEVAL. ‘hycon’ and ‘coker’). Figure 4.txt Other models serumin. input data. the SERUM GAMS model runs three times and the XLS shell calculates the total of the three runs.INC INDEX.4.txt Figure 4.GMS List output: SERUM GAMS Model DISPLAY.ini Other models model status: info.1 Flow of data in individual files for the SERUM model 14 ECN-E--06-029 .txt Executing Checks on consistency SERUM.txt compiling data Run specific data hycon. or with three refineriy types (‘trad’. whereas the other input-files are unique for each model run.inc MESSAGE.1 Introduction The SERUM model consists of several layers: The Excel Shell. In case of three types of refineries. and output. The input files with a capital font are similar for each model run. Figure 4. As part of the procedure in NEOMS a model run is created in a separate directory for each simulated year.txt Database model gasprijs. It is possible to simulate the refining sector with one refinery type (for instance ‘trad’).

each unit is assigned to an energy plant and covers one or more energy production processes. 4.1 for details). With a separate visual basic script the results. a 'producer' is any organisation that handles energy and consists of one or more plants. process characteristics. blending relationships and quality data are defined and compiled into the model.4. (it includes intermediary flows as well as import-flows). Level 3 : Energy production units this is a classification that will be used for the description of investment costs and nominal capacities with their utilisation factors. The process data. a set of sub-models is defined in master lists that contains the label for energy producers. Level 4 : Energy production processes.4 Excel shell The Excel workbook SERUM. With a set of visual basic scripts the input data are imported from the NEOMS database. energy carriers and for blending specifications. as well as the list of the submodels within the SERUM GAMS model. and Technika (1985)). each plant is assigned to a producer and contains one or several units. several files are generated and included in the GAMS code (see Figure 4. Upon execution in the Excel shell. Furthermore.XLS is the operational shell for the SERUM model. A description of the SERUM GAMS model and model calculations can be found in several re- ports (Kok (1996). In this step existing code is over written with data and constraints from the excel shell. and it operates the execution of the calcula- tions. Level 2 : Energy plants this level is used for the description of the ''real-used'' production capacities in the Netherlands. Van Oostvoorn (1989). ECN-E--06-029 15 . the relationships between sub-models are defined over the different hierarchical levels. this classification will be used for the description of unique combinations of inputs and outputs in an energy production process. and the final model with run specific data is compiled.3 GAMS Model The layout of the SERUM GAMS program is as follows part 1: model structure (data dimensions and their relationships) part 2: data structure (data values and their relationships) part 3: algebraic model specification (equation specification) part 4: solve specification part 5: output reports The model is structured in four hierarchical levels: Level 1 : Energy producers this level will be used for the description of energy-flows. as well as the input data can be stored in the NEOMS da- tabase. It imports and lists the inputs and allows for changes thereof. with or without several abatement technologies. the SERUM GAMS model can be executed and additional calculations are automated. On each level. Appendix A includes several lists of Final and Intermediate Products.

where Co-generation of heat and power is excluded from the refinery-sector. As a consequence of the corrections the throughput of SERUM is lower than the CBS statistics indicates. used in the monitoring tool MONIT12. Several additional calculations are needed to maintain the consistency format used in the database. SO2 emissions The two desulpherisation plants in SERUM emit the remaining SO2. Contrary to the previous model version. Since the primary goal of SERUM is to model the energy use of refineries correctly.4. Feedstocks In practise.xls file. such as the refineries and the ser- vices sector. Also a mean CO2 emission factor for its own fuel use is calculated and stored in the NEOMS for further use by other models. Oil gasifier In SERUM an oil gasifier is defined that produces both hydrogen and electricity. CO2 emissions factors are used from the Dutch Cen- tral Bureau for Statistics (CBS). this has no consequence for the amount of CO2 emissions calculated with SERUM. This amount of SO2 emis- sion is related to the total H2S input of these Claus plants and exported as process emission to SELPE. the synthetic crude properties are constructed based on energy content of the constituents. For individual streams. 16 ECN-E--06-029 . Crude oil intake The amount of crude oil imported is calculated from the crude oil import and the onshore and offshore production. Light feedstocks are corrected on the bruto-production.1 Additional calculations The results from the SERUM GAMS model are post-processed for use in the NEOMS data- bases. CO2 emissions The CO2 emission of the refineries is derived from an overall mass balance of all streams to and from the refineries. and heavy fuel oil production to the SELPE model. in the following streams: the energetic content FCC gas. demand and emissions. In SERUM the heavy feedstock intake was therefore modelled as a synthetic crude that is a combination of the crude oil intake and heavy feedstocks. Save- production describes the development of energy use and generation in the Dutch manufacturing industry as well as that of Dutch agriculture. The perimeter of the refinery is used as the border in the CO2 balance. ‘SAVE production’ also includes the CHP of these and other sectors. corrections are made before ex- porting the results to SELPE. FCC gas The energy content of FCC-gas is defined differently in SERUM and CBS statistics. next to crude oil. emissions and energy saving. which is e. Steam demand for COGEN model In a separate model ‘SAVE production’ the cogeneration capacities are calculated. Details are described in sheet 1 of the SERUM. the heat- demand of the FCC-processes and the CO2. Scenario studies use a different border in the CO2 balance.4. Because this leads to a difference between the model and statistics. and SO2 emissions. 12 MONIT is an monitoring and analytic tool for energy use. To main- tain consistency in both energy output.g. it was later on decided to correct for heavy feedstocks as well. the feedstocks for refineries are also gas condensate and interme- diate products. Because of a thorough calibra- tion. NOx. and steam as a by-product. Several adjustments are made to transfer the correct electricity and steam demand.

ECN-E--06-029 17 . and the gas and electricity prices. subtracted by the steam production of the refining processes. For refineries the amount of steam that can be supplied by cogeneration is limited and is calculated as follows: The total amount of steam supplied by utilities.Inputs for this model are the steam and heat demands in different sectoral models.

internal ECN report.vpni. Petten. VNPI (2006): The Netherlands Petroleum Industry Association.69766/C. Petten.W. 2005.References Daniëls. ECN-E--06-005. in preparation. ECN-C--96-066.N. ESC-49. Oostvoorn F. Seebregts A.V. report number F407. Petten.A.. in preparation. M. ECN- C--05-089. ECN. A. R. (2006) Save Production: A bottom-up energy model for Dutch industry and agriculture.J. van. (2006): Energiebesparing Raffinaderijen: Beschrijving ‘bottom-up’ methodiek& toepassing voor de periode 1990-2003. B. C. P. 123-133. (2006) Save industry: Modelling of energy use and CHP production. J.J. P. Volkers. in preparation.. Petten. ECN. Bijlage B: Beschrijving POWERS-model. October 2006. (2006): NEV-RekenSysteem: Technische beschrijving.W. Technika. ECN. Kroon (1997): Raffinagemodel SERUM in hoofdlijnen. October 2005.nl.J. ECN-C--05-094/NRG 21264/05. B. Daniëls. Data Collection for the national refining sector model. www. Scheepers. al.F. accessed May 2006. ECN. A. March 1997.H. Kok I. Dril.W.J. Petten. Technika (1985).M. ECN/NRG. G.Gevolgen van beëindiging of voortzetting van de bedrijfsvoering. 18 ECN-E--06-029 . et. p.C. (2005): Reference Projection Energy and Emissions 2005-2020. Stienstra. October 1989. Internal ECN report. Kroon. de Lange (1989): SERUM: Een model van de Nederlandse raffinage-industrie. van Hienen (2005): Kerncentrale Borssele na 2013 . van. Jansma.

2 Intermediate products CRUDE CRUDE CONDENSATE NATURAL GAS CONDENSATE ATM-R-FEED ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE USED AS FEEDSTOCK NATURALGAS NATURAL GAS S-KEROSENE STRAIGHT-RUN KEROSENE D-KEROSENE DESULPHURISED KEROSENE S-KERO-DD STRAIGHT-RUN KEROSENE DEEP DESULPHURISED NAPHTA+LE STRAIGHT-RUN NAPHTHA & LIGHT ENDS SL-NAPHTA LIGHT STRAIGHT-RUN NAPHTHTA SH-NAPHTA HEAVY STRAIGHT-RUN NAPHTHTA CK-NAPHTA COKER-NAPHTHTA VB-NAPHTA VISBREAKER NAPHTHTA CR-NAPHTA1 CRACKED NAPHTHA SEVERITY 1 CR-NAPHTA2 CRACKED NAPHTHA SEVERITY 2 CR-NAPHTA3 CRACKED NAPHTHA SEVERITY 3 CR-NAPHDS1 CRACKED NAPHTHA DESULPHURIZED SEVERITY 1 CR-NAPHDS2 CRACKED NAPHTHA DESULPHURIZED SEVERITY 2 CR-NAPHDS3 CRACKED NAPHTHA DESULPHURIZED SEVERITY 3 CK-GASOLIN COKER GASOLINE VB-GASOLIN VISBREAKER GASOLINE ATM-RESID ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE VAC-RESID VACUUM RESIDUE ATM-RES-D DE-SULPHURISED ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE VAC-RES-D DE-SULPHURISED VACUUM RESIDUE RHC-RESID RESIDUE-HYDROCRACKING RESIDUE VBA-RESID VISBREAKER RESIDUE FROM ATMOSPHERIC FEED VBV-RESID VISBREAKER RESIDUE FROM VACUUM FEED SL-GASOIL LIGHT STRAIGHT-RUN GASOIL SH-GASOIL HEAVY STRAIGHT-RUN GASOIL DSL-GASOIL DESULPHURISED LIGHT STRAIGHT RUN GASOIL SL-GO-DD LIGHT STRAIGHT-RUN GASOIL DEEP DESULPHURISED DSH-GASOIL DESULPHURISED HEAVY STRAIGHT RUN GASOIL SH-GO-DD DEEP DESULPHURISED HEAVY STRAIGHT RUN GASOIL VAC-GASOIL VACUUM GASOIL DVC-GASOIL DESULPHURISED VACUUM GASOIL VAC-GO-DD VACUUM GASOIL DEEP DESULPHURISED FLX-GASOIL FLEXICOKER GASOIL ECN-E--06-029 19 .Appendix A SERUM GAMS model A.1 Final products PG-COKE PREMIUM GRADE COKE EVC-GASOIL EXPORT VACUUM-GASOIL PREMIUM-LD LEADED PREMIUM PREMIUM-LL LOW-LEADED PREMIUM PREMIUM-UL UNLEADED PREMIUM REGULAR-LD LEADED REGULAR REGULAR-LL LOW-LEADED REGULAR REGULAR-UL UNLEADED REGULAR AUTODIESEL AUTO DIESEL OTH-GASOIL OTHER GASOIL H-FUEL-OIL HEAVY FUEL OIL BUNKER-OIL HEAVY BUNKER FUEL OIL KEROSENE KEROSENE P-NAPHTA NAPHTHA FOR THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY REF-OIL REFINERY FUEL OIL (FOR OWN USE ONLY) REF-GAS REFINERY GAS (MOSTLY SELF-CONSUMPTION) ASPHALT ASPHALT LPG LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS A.

FLV-GASOIL FLEXICOKER VACUUM GASOIL DEL-GASOIL DELAYED COKER GASOIL DLV-GASOIL DELAYED COKER VACUUM GASOIL DCK-GASOIL DESULPHURISED COKER GASOIL DCK-GO-DD (COKER) GASOIL DESULPHURISED HCR-GASOIL HYDROCRACKER GASOIL HCR-GO-DD HYDROCRACKER GASOIL DEEP DESULPHURISED HCR-KEROSE (RESIDUE) HYDROCRACKER KEROSENE HCR-KER-DD (RESIDUE) HYDROCRACKER KEROSENE DEEP DESULPHURISED RHC-GASOIL RESIDUE HYDROCRACKER GASOIL RHC-GO-DD RESIDUE HYDROCRACKER GASOIL DESULPHURISED RDS-GASOIL RESIDUE HYDRODESULPHURISED GASOIL (RESID-HDS GAS OIL) VBA-GASOIL VISBREAKER GASOIL FROM ATMOSPHERIC FEED VBV-GASOIL VISBREAKER GASOIL FROM VACUUM FEED DVB-GASOIL DESULPHURISED VISBREAKER GASOIL L-CY-OIL LIGHT CYCLE OIL DL-CY-OIL DESULPHURISED LIGHT CYCLE OIL L-CY-DD LIGHT CYCLE OIL DEEP DESULPHURISED H-CY-OIL HEAVY CYCLE OIL L-CRACKATE LIGHT HYDROCRACKATE H-CRACKATE HEAVY HYDROCRACKATE ASPHALT-R ASPHALTIC RESIDUE DA-OIL DEASPHALTED OIL REFORM93 REFORMATE 93 RON REFORM100 REFORMATE 100 RON LUBR+WAXES LUBRICANTS + WAXES ALKYLATE ALKYLATE ALKYL-TAR ALKYLATION TAR ISOMERATE ISOMERATE RAFFINATE RAFFINATE COAL COAL FG-COKE FUEL GRADE COKE FCC-GAS FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING GAS (ALL CRUDES) DFC-GAS LOW SULPHUR FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING GAS (ALL CRUDES) FLX-GAS FLEXICOKER GAS (ONLY IL+AH-CRUDE) C1C2 REFINERY GASES C3 PROPANE NC4 N-BUTANE IC4 ISO-BUTANE C3-GP PROPANE-STREAM FROM GAS-PLANT NC4-GP NBUTANE-STREAM FROM GAS-PLANT IC4-GP ISOBUTANE-STREAM FROM GAS-PLANT PRO+BUTENE PROPENE + BUTENE POWER-P POWER PRODUCED IN THE REFINERY PROCESSES (OUTPUT) STEAM-P STEAM PRODUCED IN THE REFINERY PROCESSES (OUTPUT) S SULPHUR H2 HYDROGEN H2-P HYDROGEN PRODUCED IN C-REFORMER H2-PP HYDROGEN PURGE FROM SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION PROCESS H2S HYDROSULFIDE METH-TBA METHANOL AND TBA MIX MTBE MTBE1 MTBE-EXTR MTBE2 REF-OIL-U REFINERY FUEL OIL FOR UTILITIES (PJ) REF-GAS-U REFINERY GAS FOR UTILITIES (PJ) PG-COKE PREMIUM GRADE COKE EVC-GASOIL EXPORT VACUUM-GASOIL PREMIUM-LD LEADED PREMIUM PREMIUM-LL LOW-LEADED PREMIUM PREMIUM-UL UNLEADED PREMIUM REGULAR-LD LEADED REGULAR REGULAR-LL LOW-LEADED REGULAR REGULAR-UL UNLEADED REGULAR AUTODIESEL AUTO DIESEL OTH-GASOIL OTHER GASOIL H-FUEL-OIL HEAVY FUEL OIL BUNKER-OIL HEAVY BUNKER FUEL OIL KEROSENE KEROSENE 20 ECN-E--06-029 .

P-NAPHTA NAPHTHA FOR THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY REF-OIL REFINERY FUEL OIL (FOR OWN USE ONLY) REF-GAS REFINERY GAS (MOSTLY SELF-CONSUMPTION) ASPHALT ASPHALT LPG LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS A.3 Masterlist of the energy producer labels CRUDE-DIST ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL VAC-DIST VACUUM DISTILLATION OF ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE H2FINER PRE-HYDROTREATER FOR COKER PRODUCTS H2TREATING HYDROTREATER C-REFORMER CATALYTIC REFORMER HYDROGEN-P HYDROGEN PRODUCER C56-ISO C56 ISOMERATION GAS-PLANT GAS-PLANT (SEPARATES VARIOUS PROPANE & BUTANE STREAMS) C4-ISO C4 ISOMERATION CRACKERS CRACKING (HYDRO-CRACKERS AND CATALYTIC CRACKERS) RESID-UPGR RESIDUE UPGRADING ALKYLATION ALKYLATION AM-SULFREC AMINO TREATMENT AND SULPHUR RECOVERY UTILCLEAN SO2 REDUCTION OPTIONS FOR UTILITIES UTILITIES ENERGY UTILITIES BLENDING BLENDING PROCESS BLEND-CONV CONVERSION OF FINAL PRODUCTS FROM TON TO PJ A.4 Masterlist of energy production plants CRUDE-DIST Crude distillation VAC-DIST Vacuum distillation H2FINER Hydrogen Finer HTREAT-NAP Naphtha Hydrotreaters HTREAT-OTH Other Hydrotreaters C-REFORMER Catalytic Reformer HYDROGEN-P Hydrogen Plant IGCC Integrated Gasifier Combined Cycle H2-SEP-PUR H2 separator purifier C56-ISO C5 c6 isomerisation GAS-PLANT Gas plant C4-ISO C4 isomerisation CATCRACKER Catcrackers HYDCRACKER Hydrocrackers VISBREAKER Visbreakers FLEXICOKER Flexicokers DELAYCOKER Delayed cokers LUBEOIL-PL Lube oil plant SOLV-DEASP Solvent deasphalters RESID-HDS Residual Hydrodesulphurization RES-HCRACK Residual Hydrocrackers ALKYLATION Alkylation AM-SULFREC Sulphur Recovery Plant GASIFIER Gasifier CLEANCRACK Catalyst cleaner for Crackers BOILERS Boilers FURNACES Furnaces COGENERATE Cogeneration processes DISTRIBUTE Distribution process BLENDING Bending process BLEND-CONV Conversion of final products from Ton -> PJ ECN-E--06-029 21 .

5 Masterlist of energy production units CRUDE-DIST Crude Distillation VAC-DIST Vacuum distillation HT-FIN-FLX Hydrotreater finisher HT-FIN-DEL Hydrotreater HT-SR-NAP Hydrotreater Straight Naphtha HT-CK-NAP Hydrotreater Coker Naphtha HT-VB-NAP Hydrotreater Visbreaker Naphtha HT-KEROS Hydrotreater Kerosene HT-LSR-GO Hydrotreating Light Straight Gasoil HT-HSR-GO Hydrotreating Heavy Straight Gasoil HT-VAC-GO Hydrotreater Vacuum Gasoil HT-VIS-GO Hydrotreater Visbreaker Gasoil HT-CKR-GO Hydrotreater Cracker Gasoil HT-CY-OIL Hydrotreater Cycle Oil CREF-NAP-1 Catalytic Reformers Middle Destilates CREF-NAP-2 Catalytic Reformers Middle Destilates CREF-HCR-1 Catalytic Reformers HydroCrackate CREF-HCR-2 Catalytic Reformers HydroCrackate HYDROGEN-P Hydrogen Plant IGCC Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle H2-SEP-PUR H2 separator pure hydrogen C56-ISO c5-c6 isomerisation GAS-PLANT Gas plant C4-ISO C4 isomerisation CATCRACK-1 Catcracker 1 CATCRACK-2 Catcracker 2 CATCRACK-3 Catcracker 3 HYCRACK-MG Hydrocracker MG HYCRACK-MD Hydrocracker MD VB-ATMRES Visbreaker Atmospheric Residue VB-VACRES Visbreaker Vacuum Residue FLEXICOKER Flexicoker DELAYCK-1 Delayed Coker 1 DELAYCK-2 Delayed Coker 2 LUBEOIL-PL Lube oil plant SOLV-DEASP Solvent De-asphalter RES-HDS-AT Residual Hydrogen Desulphurisation Unit (Atmospheric) RES-HDS-VC Residual Hydrogen Desulphurisation Unit (Vacuum) RES-HCRACK Residual Hydro Cracker ALKYLATION Alkylation ATSR Sulphur Recovery Unit ATSR-TGU Sulphur Recovery Unit Advanced GAS-RO Gasifier of Refining-Oil CLEAN-FC SO2 Reduction option for FCC-gas HYCRACK-KE Kerosene Hydrocracker BOILER-NG Boiler Natural Gas BOILER-RG Boiler Refinery Gas BOILER-RO Boiler Refining Oil BOILER-FL Boiler Flexicoker Gas BOILER-CO Boiler Coal BOILER-PC Boiler Fuel Grade Coke BOILER-FC Boiler Flexicoker Gas FURNACE-RG Furnace Refining Gas FURNACE-RO Furnace Refining Oil FURNACE-NG Furnace Natural Gas FURNACE-FL Furnace Flexicoker Gas COMB-CYCLE Combined Cycle GASTURBINE Gas turbine BACKP-TURB Backup Power Turbine BACKP-RO Backup Power Refining Oil BACKP-CO Backup Power Coal COND-TURB Condensation Turbine DISTRIBUTE Distributing processes BLENDING Blending processes 22 ECN-E--06-029 .A.

REF-VBNAP1 REF-SRNAP2 . HT-KER-IL HT-KER-AH . HCR1-VC-IL . CAT2-VC-SB . DELAY-2-IL . HT-KERDDNT . BCKTURB-RO . HT-LCO-SB . HT-LGO-IL HT-LGO-AH . BOILER-RG . BOIL-DFCIL . HCR1-DA-IL . CAT1-DA-IL . CLEAN-FCIL CLEAN-FCAH . C56-ISO-SB C56-ISO-BB . CAT2-DA-IL .6 Masterlist of energy production processes CR-DIST-SB . CNDTURB-NG CNDTURB-RG . COMB-CY-NG COMB-CY-RG . HT-DCU-AH . HT-HGO-DDIL . VACDIST-AH . CAT3-VC-SB . HT-VBA-AH . HT-VBA-IL . HT-HGO-DDAH ATSR-SRU ECN-E--06-029 23 . C56-ISO-IL . HT-DCU-IL . CAT3-VC-BB . BCKTURB-CO . AR-DIST-AH . HCR1-VC-SB HCR1-VC-BB . HT-KER-BB . DELAY-2-AH . VACDIST-SB VACDIST-BB . HT-SRNAPIL . HCR3-VC-SB HCR3-VC-BB . HCR2-VC-IL HCR2-DA-IL . HCR3-DA-IL . HT-HGO-AH . DELAY-2-SB DELAY-2-BB . HT-CY-DDSB HT-CY-DDBB . GASPL-IC4 . CR-DIST-AH CR-DIST-CD . REF-HCR-1 REF-HCR-2 . VIS-VCR-IL VIS-VCR-AH . CAT2-VC-BB . HT-VAC-IL HT-VAC-AH . HT-SRNAPAH . RHDS-AT-IL RHDS-AT-AH . REF-CKNAP1 . ATSR-TGU GAS-RO . HT-HCRGO-IL . HCR2-VC-SB . HTF-FVG-IL HTF-FVG-AH . HCR2-VC-AH . HT-CY-DDAH . HYDROGEN-P . BOILER-CO . HT-LGO-BB . FURNACE-RG FURNACE-RO . HT-HCRGO-AH HT-DCKGO-IL . CAT2-AT-SB CAT2-AT-BB . HT-FCU-IL HT-FCU-AH . BOILER-NG . HTF-DVG-AH . HT-DCKGO-AH . CR-DIST-IL . HT-SRNAPSB HT-SRNAPBB . FURNACE-FL . HT-GO-DDAH . HT-HCRGO-BB . CR-DIST-BB . DELAY-1-SB DELAY-1-BB . GASTURB-RG . REF-SRNAP1 . REF-CKNAP2 . DISTRIB-P BLENDING . HCR3-VC-AH HCR3-DA-AH . C56-ISO-AH . HT-CRK-KER HT-HCRGO-SB . HT-LGO-SB . AR-DIST-IL . BOIL-DFCAH . VIS-ATR-IL . VACDIST-IL . HT-RHCGO-AH HT-VGO-DDIL . HT-LCO-BB . GASPL-C3 GASPL-NC4 . IGCCVBV-AH . HT-LCO-IL HT-LCO-AH . FURNACE-NG . HCR2-VC-BB . HT-CR-NAP3 . FLEXICO-AH . HT-VGO-DDAH . HT-RHCGO-IL . BOIL-DFCSB BOIL-DFCBB . BOIL-FCCAH . CAT1-VC-BB . CAT2-VC-IL CAT2-VC-AH . BOILER-PC . IGCCVBA-AH IGCCVBV-IL . DELAY-1-IL . HCR1-VC-AH HCR1-DA-AH . SOLV-DA-IL . HCR3-VC-IL . BLENCO-RO . CLEAN-FCSB . HT-VBV-IL HT-VBV-AH . BLENCO-RG . IGCCVBA-IL . CLEAN-FCBB . CAT2-DA-AH . REF-VBNAP2 . BOIL-FCCSB BOIL-FCCBB . CAT1-AT-SB CAT1-AT-BB . RES-HCR-IL RES-HCR-AH . ATSR . HTF-DVG-IL . BLEND-CONV Blending and Conversion processes HT-CR-NAP Hydrotreating of cracker Naphtha HT-GO-DD Hydrotreating deep desulpherisation of Gasoil HT-CY-DD Hydrotreating deep desulpherisation of Cycle Oil HT-KERO-DD Hydrotreating deep desulpherisation of Kerosene HT-HCR-KER Hydrotreating hydrocracker Kerosene HT-RESGO-DD Hydrotreating deep desulpherisation of residual Gas Oil HT-HGO-DD Hydrotreating deep desulpherisation of Heavy Gas Oil HT-VGO-DD Hydrotreating deep desulpherisation of Vacuum Gas Oil ATSR-SRU Sulphur Recovery Unit Deep desulphurization A. RHDS-VC-IL . HT-KER-SB . SOLV-DA-AH . HT-CR-NAP1 HT-CR-NAP2 . HCR2-DA-AH . HT-GO-DDBB HT-GO-DDIL . HT-CK-NAPH HT-VB-NAPH . HT-HGO-IL . BOIL-FCCIL . CAT3-AT-SB CAT3-AT-BB . BCKTURB-NG BCKTURB-RG . H2-SEP-PUR . HT-CY-DDIL . CAT3-DA-AH . FLEXICO-IL . CAT1-VC-IL CAT1-VC-AH . ALKYLATION . DELAY-1-AH . CNDTURB-RO . CAT3-DA-IL . CAT3-VC-IL CAT3-VC-AH . DISTRIB-ST . CAT1-DA-AH . HT-GO-DDSB . CAT1-VC-SB . RHDS-VC-AH . VIS-ATR-AH . BOILER-RO BOILER-FL . GASTURB-NG . LUBEOIL-IL LUBEOIL-AH . C4-ISO .