English for Specific Purposes (ESP

)

LEARNING-CENTERED APPROACH

LEARNER-CENTERED

•It is based on the principle that It is seen as a process in which the learning is totally determined by the
learner use what knowledge or skills learner even though Teachers can they have to make sense of the
flow ofinfluence what is taught new information. •It is an internal process, which is•The learner is one
factor to consider crucially dependent upon thein the learning process, but not the knowledge the
learner already haveonly one. and their ability an motivation to use it. •It is a process of negotiation
between individuals and the society. Society sets the target and the individuals must do their best to get
as close to that target as is possible.

4. WHY LEARNING-CENTERED APPROACH?

5. A learning-centred approach says: ‘we must look beyond the competence that enables students to
perform, because what we really want to discover is not the competence itself, but how student acquires
that competence.’ Identify target situation A lg- centred approach considers the learner to here. Analyse
target situation Analyse learning situation A skills- centred approach considers the learner to here. Write
syllabus Write materials Teach materials Evaluate learner achievements A learning- centred approach
must consider the learner at every stage

6. Target situation analysis vs. analysis of learning needs• Target situation analysis • Analysis of
learningWhy is the language needed? needs Why are the Ls taking the course? (e.g. (e.g., for study,
work) their attitudes)How will the language be used? How do the Ls learn (what methodology (speaking
on the phone) will appeal to them?)What will the content areas be? What resources are available?
(materials,(e.g., medicine) trained ESP teachers?Who will the Ls use the language with? Who are the Ls?
(age, nationality, subject (native/non-native speakers, knowledge) customers/colleagues) Where will the
ESP course take place?Where will the language be used? (classroom features) (meetings abroad) When
will the ESP course take place?When will the language be used? (every day/once a week) (concurrently
with ESP course/afterwards; frequently) 15

7. The learning-centred course design process is shown in this diagram: Identify learners Theoretical
Analyse learning Analyse target Theoretical views of learning situation situation view of lg Identify
attitudes/ Identify skills and wants/ potential of knowledge needed learners to function in the target
situation dentify needs/ potential/ constraints of learning/ teaching situation Write syllabus/ materials to
exploit the potential of the learning Evaluation situation in the acquisition of the Evaluation skills and
knowledge required by the target situation.

8. This approach has 2 implications:1. Course design is a negotiated process. The ESP learning situation
and the target situation will both influence the nature of the syllabus, materials, methodology and
evaluation procedures.2. Course design is a dynamic process. It doesn’t move in a linear fashion. Needs
and resources vary with time. The course design, therefore, needs to have built-in feedback channels to
enable the course to respond to developments.If we took a learning-centred approach, we would need
to ask further questions and consider other factors, before determining the content and methodology of
the course:1. What skills are necessary to be taught?2. What are the implications for methodology of
having a mono-skill focus?3. How will the students react to doing tasks involving other skills?4. Do the

If we took a learning-centered approach. wewould need to ask further questions and considerother factors. If we took a learning-centered approach. before determining the content andmethodology of the course 12. CONCLUSION 17. before determining the content andmethodology of the course. 9. A learning-centered syllabus requires that you shift from what you. p. EXAMPLE 10. If we took a learning-centered approach. wewould need to ask further questions and considerother factors. before determining the content andmethodology of the course 15. .resources in the classroom allow the use of other skills?5. wewould need to ask further questions and considerother factors. 13. xi). before determining the content andmethodology of the course 11. before determining the content andmethodology of the course 14. How do students feel about reading as an activity? The important point is that these questions must be asked and the results allowed to influence the course design. If we took a learning-centered approach. wewould need to ask further questions and considerother factors. If we took a learning-centered approach. are going to cover in your course to a concern for what information and tools you can provide for your students to promote learning and intellectual development" (Diamond. wewould need to ask further questions and considerother factors. wewould need to ask further questions and considerother factors. the instructor. If we took a learning-centered approach. How will the learners react to discussing things in the mother tongue?6. before determining the content and methodology of the course 16. How will the students’ attitudes vary through the course? Will thy feel motivated?7.