Justine Paul M.

Luz
BSEd III-C
ANALYTICAL APPLICATION ON IMPORTANCE
METHOD BIOLOGY
QUALITATIVE “DYNAMIC MODEL  The model describes the
ANALYSIS OF A LAGOON” relations between biotic
(phytoplankton,
The main contribution of this paper zooplankton) and abiotic
is that of synergyzing the (oxygen, nutrients)
identification stage with the components of a lagoon.
qualitative analysis of the dynamics The first step of the paper is
of the model, in order to gain a to derive estimates for the
better understanding of the system model parameters through
behavior and obtain more reliable an identification procedure
estimates for the model parameters using real data. The second
and exogenous inputs. step is to perform a
In particular, the complete model is qualitative analysis of the
reduced to a second order model, model dynamics, via the
which depends on two biologically introduction of a
meaningful parameters. These parameterized reduced order
parameters are used to perform the model. The main
bifurcation analysis on the reduced contribution of the paper is
model. The analysis of the system to make an effort in the
qualitative behavior in the two direction of synergizing the
parameter plane allows one to identification stage with the
improve the results of the qualitative analysis of the
parameter estimation procedure. model dynamics, in order to
This approach may prove useful in gain a better understanding
contexts where the a priori of the system behaviour and
information on the system structure obtain more reliable
and the available data do not allow estimates for the model
for sufficiently accurate model parameters and exogenous
identification. inputs.

 The proposed identification
procedure may also be
useful when more
complicated models are
considered, which the case
is when modelling
environmental systems is
often.

g. computer science.g. bonds are formal models of biological represented by shared names systems. in silico (e. stochastic simulations). Qualitative They analyzed the expressive analysis like reachability and power of some of these dialects symbolic model checking. Languages like Petri nets.QUALITATIVE “Drosophila Germline Stem Cell ANALYSIS Regulation” In recent years we are witnesses of The k-calculus is formalism for an increasing interest in modelling molecular biology applications of specification where molecules are terms with languages used in concurrency as internal state and sites. general purpose decision procedures are not always applicable to validate formal models of biological systems. for excluding the used by biologists for experiments genesis of dangerous substances. detection of dead rules and This analysis may be used. However. labelling sites. and reactions are term rewriting. reachability and coverability. the level of granularity used in modelling biological mechanisms can dramatically influence the expressive power of the resulting formal languages. thus becoming Turing- complete). . and process calculi represented by rewriting rules. for dependencies) of models that are instance. a lattice of researchers working in biology and dialects of k can be obtained. Indeed. are becoming common idioms for Depending on the shape of the fostering the cooperation between rewriting rules. as in the case of the passage from basic chemistry (that may be modelled by Petri nets) to bio- chemistry (that requires binding sites. and by focusing on the thin boundary static analysis like abstract between decidability and interpretation [8] can be used for undecidability for problems like validation and optimization (e.

column length and fulfil demands in forensic. there is a need for more manuscript gives comprehensive sensitive analytical tools to detect analytical review. (SIM. toxicological studies as well as in pharmaceutical analysis. stimulant LC–MS/MS has been used for addiction among teenagers and pharmacokinetic studies. focusing on and confirm these classes of drugs chromatographic separation in biological fluids.QUANTITATIVE “GLUCOCORTICOIDS AND ANALYSIS STIMULANTS IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS” Corticosteroids and stimulants are Liquid chromatography tandem the class of compounds that are mass chromatography (LC– illicitly used by professionals MS/MS) is an important owing to their anti-inflammatory hyphenated technique for and mood elevating as well as quantitative analysis of drugs in euphoric properties respectively. Newer methods can be developed for routine analysis of target analytes in biological fluids with shorter run time and good detectability. This Hence. With the advancement of hyphenated techniques. plasma and urine. biological fluids. quantitative analysis of glucocorticoids and stimulants can be achieved with good sensitivity. deliberate counterfeiting in herbal metabolites identification in the products to enhance their effects. Because of They are wide spread abused high sensitivity and selectivity. This review is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to provide a general overview for detection and confirmation of target drugs using LC–MS/MS and thus useful in the doping analysis. These approaches (column packing analytical tools would serve to materials. Application of . MRM) for quantitative analysis of glucocorticoids and stimulants. high resolution mass analyzers as well as high through put separation approaches. mobile phase) as well as toxicological and food safety different acquisition modes departments. among sports persons.

a relational of small inhibitory RNAs etc. OME microscopy for large-scale aims to automate image analysis. new fused core columns for their effectiveness and use of both positive and negative polarities in a single run need to explore. bioinformatics tools required for combining computer vision and hypothesis-driven analysis of speckle microscopy makes it digital images are still immature. For example. The information obtained in biochemistry and biotechnology. a first step toward biological image informatics. of the interactions of biological understanding the thermodynamics macromolecules. However. possible to test specific mechanistic We are developing the Open models of actin flow during cell Microscopy Environment (OME) movement. to database. “screening by imaging” in which modelling and mining of large cells or organisms are treated with sets of images and specifies a libraries of small molecules. from ITC studies should aid in One of the most powerful molecular design in general and techniques to obtain precise drug design in particular as well information about the energetics of in the elucidation of factors . OME provides cellular behaviour or appearance. sensitive and accurate interaction is a very interesting area tool. process by virtue of a change in With this design. TITRIMETRIC “ISOTHERMAL TITRATION ANALYSIS CALORIMETRY” Most of the biological phenomena Isothermal Titration Calorimetry are influenced by intermolecular provides a thorough description recognition and interaction. and an XML-encoded identify chemicals or genes that file standard usable by affect a particular biological potentially any software tool. QUANTITATIVE ”INFORMATICS AND ANALYSIS QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS IN BIOLOGICAL IMAGING” Recent excitement in optical Biological imaging is now a microscopy centers on the quantitative technique for extraction of quantitative numerical probing cellular structure and information from digital images to dynamics. the hypotheses. banks flexible data model. The potential for as an informatics solution for the automation in digital imaging is storage and analysis of optical also driving interest in the use of microscope image data. and it is a of biomacromolecule ligand reliable. and increasingly for generate and test specific scientific cell-based screens. Thus.

(bio) molecules binding to other determining the specificity of biological macromolecules is macromolecular interactions. In this review article. In a typical ITC experiment. we describe the ITC approach briefly and review some applications of ITC for studying protein-ligand interactions. exchanged heat of the reaction is measured. protein- protein interactions. enzyme kinetics using ITC is a macromolecule solution is titrated growing as a consequence of by a solution containing a reactant improvements in sensitivity of at a constant temperature. TITRIMETRIC ANALYSIS . self- association. and calorimeters. binding affinity and stoichiometry) of molecular interactions. and drug design processes. entropy change. isothermal titration calorimetry Moreover. determination of the (ITC). allowing determination of thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy change. change in Gibbs free energy.