The Indo-European wordlists.

These are the parallel wordlists of 24 Indo-European (IE) languages used in Ringe,
Warnow, and Taylor 2002. The first section (through page 42) is a 207-word version of the
Swadesh 200-word list with five of the characters (‘day’ and the 1st- and 2nd-person pro-
nouns) split into two characters each. The second section (numbered 301 to 421) is a list of
120 other basic words and words which appear to be culturally significant in many ancient
IE languages, plus the noun ‘tear’, which exhibits an interesting and potentially significant
phonological irregularity.
In a number of cases the meaning given in the Swadesh lists is ambiguous or vague.
We have specified the meanings more precisely as follows. Note that items separated by
semicolons in the right-hand column of this table are separated by semicolons in the word-
lists; apparent synonyms in the wordlists are separated by commas.
character notes on the meaning
10 belly external; internal (in that order, when the distinction is made)
19 breathe breathe in; breathe out (in that order, when the distinction is made)
28a day period of daylight
38 earth most general term available
94 lie stative
114 old of things (rather than people), if a distinction is made
116 other of more than two
117 person human being (most general term)
118 pierce by stabbing (or the like)
125 right correct
131 round spherical (rather than circular), if a distinction is made
144 sit stative
145 skin human: inner skin; outer skin (in that order, when the distinction is
made)
158 stand stative
171 thick dimension (not density)
172 thin dimension (not density)
173 think ratiocinate (not opine)
187 wash body or body parts; clothes (in that order, when the distinction is
made)
303 ask ask questions (rather than request)
313 bow weapon for shooting

2

character notes on the meaning
318 brother-in-law husband’s brother
336 father-in-law husband’s father
371mother-in-law husband’s mother
379 ox draft bovine (usually castrated)
395 sister-in-law husband’s sister
401 stay stay in a place (not continue to exist)
Lexemes are listed as far as possible in comparable citation forms, as follows.
Verbs are given in the present indicative 3sg. active unless that form does not exist (e.g. in
the case of deponents and perfecta tantum) or does not express the relevant meaning (e.g.
when the meaning in the list is expressed by a passive). If the present system of a verb is
suppletive, forms representing the other stems are given in parentheses. Suppletive non-
present stems are not usually given because they introduce too much additional polymor-
phism into the database. Nouns are normally given in the nominative singular; numerals are
normally given in the masculine nominative (if inflected), and other nominals that express
gender are normally given in the masculine nominative singular.
If the usual citation form of a word is not attested and cannot be inferred with confi-
dence (because the grammar of the language in question is too poorly known), another form
of the word is given with an identification of its grammatical category in parentheses. For
further grammatical information, as well as for the spelling conventions of each language,
the standard grammars of the languages should be consulted.
In the Old Prussian wordlist, “E” marks items from the Elbing vocabulary and
“G” items from the vocabulary of Simon Grunau; unmarked items are from the cate-
chisms.
There are numerous gaps and uncertainties in the lists for the more poorly attested
ancient languages. Occasionally related words, or forms from closely related dialects, are
adduced (with appropriate identification) in an attempt to extract as much information as
possible from marginally adequate data.

3

Hittite Armenian Greek
⁄ all (pl.) h5mantes amenekhean pãntew
¤ and -Ca ~ -ya ew ka€
‹ animal suppalas anasown z«ion
› ashes h3s, h3ss- moxir t°fra
fi at — a‡ §p€
fl back (nn.) iskis thikownkh n«ton
‡ bad id3lus çhar kakÒw
° bark (nn.) — ke¬ew floiÒw
· because kuit zi ˜ti
⁄‚ belly —; sarhuwanz phor; orovayn gastÆr
⁄⁄ big sallis mec µ°gaw
⁄¤ bird suwais (?) th‡çhown ˆrniw
⁄‹ bite w3ki xacanê dãknei
⁄› black hanzanas, dankuis seaw µ°law
⁄fi blood 2shar ariwn aµa
⁄fl blow [wind] parai ßnçhê pne›
⁄‡ bone hast3i oskr ÙstoËn
⁄° breast [wmn’s] t2tan stin µastÒw
⁄· breathe — phçhê pne›
¤‚ burn (intr.) ur3ni ayri ka€etai
¤⁄ child h3ssas manowk pa›w
¤¤ claw kaddu (?) magil ˆnuj
¤‹ cloud alp3s amp n°fow
¤› cold ekunanz chowrt cuxrÒw
¤fi come u2zzi gay pros°rxetai (-i°nai)
¤fl count kappuezzi thowê ériyµe›
¤‡ cut ku2rzi hatanê t°µnei
¤° day [¤› hrs] s1waz awr ≤µ°ra
¤°a day s1waz tiw ≤µ°ra
¤· die aki me‡ani époynÆskei
‹‚ dig paddai brê, phorê ÙrÊttei, skãptei
‹⁄ dirty iskunanz a¬te¬i =uparÒw, aÈxµhrÒw
‹¤ dog (kuwas ?) ßown kÊvn
‹‹ drink ekuzi ∑mpê p€nei
‹› dry h3tanz çhor, gaws, chamakh jhrÒw
‹fi dull alpanz bowth éµblÊw
‹fl dust — phoßi kÒniw
‹‡ ear ist3man ownkn oÔw
‹° earth t2kan erkir g∞
‹· eat 2z’zi owtê §sy€ei
›‚ egg — jow »iÒn
›⁄ eye s3kuwa (pl.) akn ÙfyalµÒw
›¤ fall mauszi ankani p€ptei
›‹ far (adv.) duw3n he‡i µakrãn, pÒrrv
›› fat (nn.) sakan çarp dhµÒw

kraketstse — ‹¤ dog qen ku Ωv£ ‹‹ drink pi yokäµ píbati ‹› dry thatë as3re Ωúßkas ‹fi dull — m3lle (?) — ‹fl dust pluhur tweye. dhe ßp ca ‹ animal kafshë.) dhjamë ßalype p!vas. m@das . mäkte hí ⁄‚ belly bark k3tso udáram ⁄⁄ big madh orotstse mah£n ⁄¤ bird zog salamo luwo v@s ⁄‹ bite kafshon — dáΩati ⁄› black zi erkent. £ gacchati ¤fl count njeh ßäµßtär — ¤‡ cut pret karsnaµ. fëlliqur sal. ne -ne — fl back (nn. 4 Albanian Tocharian B Vedic Sanskrit ⁄ all (pl. taur r2ƒús ‹‡ ear vesh klautso kárƒas ‹° earth dhe keµ kߣs ‹· eat ha Ωuwaµ átti ›‚ egg vezë — (aƒ∂am) ›⁄ eye sy ek ákßi ›¤ fall bie kloyotär pádyat2 ›‹ far (adv. shpinë sark p#߆hám ‡ bad keq yolo. pälketär dahyát2 ¤⁄ child kalama.) larg lau.) gjithë poñc víΩv2 ¤ and e. √ilimi ΩamaΩke kum3rás. latkanaµ k#ntáti ¤° day [¤› hrs] ditë kauµ dyáus ¤°a day ditë kauµ áhar ¤· die vdes sruketär mriyát2 ‹‚ dig gërmon rapanaµ khánati ‹⁄ dirty ndyrë. 3sta) ásthi ⁄° breast [wmn’s] gji. sisë päΩcane (du.) digjet tsakßtär. sat3ßßäµ ániti ¤‚ burn (intr. lauke d5r@ ›› fat (nn. m2ghás ¤› cold ftohët kroΩce Ω1tás ¤fi come vjen känmaßßäµ £ 2ti.) kurriz. shtazë luwo paΩús › ashes hi taur. ΩíΩus ¤¤ claw thua — nakhás ¤‹ cloud re tarkär nábhas.) shkëlbozë enmetre (?) tvák · because sepse kuce. pakw3re p3pás ° bark (nn. tweye (?) £sas fi at te.) stánas ⁄· breathe merr frymë an3ßßäµ. k#߃ás ⁄fi blood gjak yasar ás#k ⁄fl blow [wind] fryn pinaßßäµ v£ti ⁄‡ bone kockë 3y (pl.

sùterßtas ‹¤ dog sp3 p¡s∞ ßuõ ‹‹ drink v x araiti pijet∞ g¶ria ‹› dry hußk4 sux∞ sa•sas ‹fi dull — toπp∞ atßìpe®s. a©4 z∞l∞ blõgas ° bark (nn. ast. r$Ωia ¤° day [¤› hrs] aiiar∑ d¡n¡ dienà ¤°a day azan. 3 a2iti pridet∞. bùkas ‹fl dust pa«snuß prax∞ dùlk£s ‹‡ ear gaoß4 uxo ausìs ‹° earth zå zemlja Ω¶m£ ‹· eat v x araiti jast∞ válgo ›‚ egg — (j)aj¡ce kiaußìnis ›⁄ eye çaßma oko akìs ›¤ fall pataiti padet∞ kreñta ›‹ far (adv. çr∞n∞ júodas ⁄fi blood vohuni kr∞v¡ kra•jas ⁄fl blow [wind] v3iti v™jet∞. kost¡ káulas ⁄° breast [wmn’s] fßt3n4 s∞s∞. gryzet∞. ski¤vis ⁄⁄ big maza. iΩde nès. gre®det∞ ate§na ¤fl count — çitet∞ skaiçiúoja ¤‡ cut k∑r∑ntaiti s™çet∞. Slavonic Lithuanian ⁄ all (pl.) nog∞t¡ nãgas ¤‹ cloud ma2©∑m. sii3uua. snao∂4 oblak∞ debesìs ¤› cold aot4. d¡n¡ dienà ¤· die miriiete (u)m¡ret∞ mìrßta ‹‚ dig kanaiti kopajet∞.) — — Ωiev% · because z1 ponjeΩe. dußet∞ pùçia ⁄‡ bone as.) d5ra2 daleçe tolì ›› fat (nn.) p1uu4. tod%l. dyxajet∞ kv£púoja ¤‚ burn (intr.) daΩiiete gorit∞ d¶ga ¤⁄ child ap∑r∑n3iiuk4 d™t¡ va§kas ¤¤ claw (nail) srauu4 (pl. sar∑t4 studen∞ ßáltas ¤fi come 3 ∆asaiti.) parßt4 (xrib¡t∞) nùgara ‡ bad ak4. *koπsajet∞ kánda ⁄› black s3m4. ryjet∞ kãsa ‹⁄ dirty 3hit4 neçist∞ pu‹vinas. r™Ωet∞ ke‹ta. kadángi ⁄‚ belly udar∑m çr™vo pi¤vas. 5 Avestan Old Ch. mas. velij¡. s∞s¡c¡ kr5tìs ⁄· breathe an. jel¡ma. a∫r∑m. 3z5itiß tuk∞ riebala§. tauka§ . velik∞ dìdelis ⁄¤ bird v1ß p∞ta.) vispe v¡si visì ¤ and ça i i‹ ‹ animal — Ωivot∞ g!volis › ashes 3trii∑m popel∞ pelena§ fi at — pri pri¶ fl back (nn. p∞tica pa•kßtis ⁄‹ bite da«s.

) birn† loscair 3rdet ¤⁄ child bearn. tele† rímid numerat ¤‡ cut scir†. 6 Old English Old Irish Latin ⁄ all (pl. horig salach sordidus ‹¤ dog hund cú canis ‹‹ drink drinc† ibid bibit ‹› dry dr6ge tírim siccus ‹fi dull 3stynt máel hebes ‹fl dust d5st lúaithred pulvis ‹‡ ear 2are clúas auris ‹° earth eor†e talam terra ‹· eat itt ithid edit ›‚ egg 7g og 4vom ›⁄ eye 2age súil oculus ›¤ fall fiel† do‚tuit cadit ›‹ far (adv.) feor in chéin procul ›› fat (nn.) ealle uili omn2s ¤ and and ocus et ‹ animal d2or anmandae animal › ashes asce lúaith cinis fi at æt oc ad fl back (nn. cild lelap puer ¤¤ claw cl2aw ingen unguis ¤‹ cloud wolcen nél n5b2s ¤› cold ceald úar fr1gidus ¤fi come cym† do‚tét (do‚tíagat) venit ¤fl count r1m†.) smeoru blonac adeps . druimm tergum ‡ bad yfel olc malus ° bark (nn. bæc cúl. laithe di2s ¤°a day dæg lae. blæc dub 3ter ⁄fi blood bl4d fuil sanguis ⁄fl blow [wind] w7we† sétid flat ⁄‡ bone b3n cnáim os ⁄° breast [wmn’s] br2ost cích mamma ⁄· breathe or†a†. 2†a† do‚beir anál sp1rat ¤‚ burn (intr.) rinde crocenn cortex · because for†6 †e úare quod ⁄‚ belly wamb brú venter ⁄⁄ big micel mór magnus ⁄¤ bird fugol én avis ⁄‹ bite b1tt — mordet ⁄› black sweart.) hrycg. laithe di2s ¤· die stierf† at‚baill moritur ‹‚ dig græf†. dilf† claidid fodit ‹⁄ dirty f5l. sn1†† tescaid secat ¤° day [¤› hrs] dæg lae.

) ak ›¤ fall — — klawatär ›‹ far (adv. twe (?) fi at — — -aµ fl back (nn.) ‹⁄ dirty — — (kr3ke.) — — ßälyp . tanimminzi huwedri. kuyalte ⁄‚ belly — — k3ts ⁄⁄ big urazzas — tsopats (pl. 7 Luvian Lycian Tocharian A ⁄ all (pl.) — — — ‡ bad 3dduw3lis — omäskeµ.) — — lo.) — — — · because kuiza — kucne. nn.) — — tsäknäßtär ¤⁄ child nimuwizas tideimi Ωom ¤¤ claw — — — ¤‹ cloud — — tärkär ¤› cold — — kuraΩ ¤fi come aw1ti — kumnäß ¤fl count — — — ¤‡ cut kuwarti. puk ¤ and -ha -ke. se Ωkaµ ‹ animal huitarsa — lu › ashes — — tor. lok ›› fat (nn. karsti — kärßn3ß.) ⁄· breathe — — wärsäß ¤‚ burn (intr. Ω3we) ⁄¤ bird — — salat lu ⁄‹ bite — — — ⁄› black dakku1s.) ‹¤ dog zuwanis — ku ‹‹ drink 5tti — yokäß ‹› dry — — 3sar ‹fi dull — — — ‹fl dust pas5riyas (?) — twe. marw3y. umpar ° bark (nn. tor ‹‡ ear tumm3n — klots ‹° earth tiyammis — tkaµ ‹· eat azti — Ωw3ß ›‚ egg — — — ›⁄ eye t3w1s tawa (coll. punemedezi poñΩ. l3tä∫k3ß ¤° day [¤› hrs] halli — koµ ¤°a day halli — koµ ¤· die *walati lati wälläßtär ‹‚ dig — — rpeñc (‹pl.) p5natinzi. — arkant- ⁄fi blood 3sharsa — ys3r ⁄fl blow [wind] — — piw3ß ⁄‡ bone h3ssa — 3y ⁄° breast [wmn’s] t1tan — päΩΩäµ (du.

) acs ›¤ fall — kr5t (inf. truls ‹fl dust — — pîßl÷i.) li¶ls ⁄¤ bird — pippalins (apl.) — — de®g ¤⁄ child — malnijks. instran.) — ta<u>kis.) dzer ‹› dry ußka saus3 (acc.) dìena ¤°a day rauça — dìena ¤· die mariyataiy aul3ut (inf. padebesis ¤› cold — salta (G) a•ksts. G) õla ›⁄ eye çaßma ackis (pl. putekl÷i ‹‡ ear gaußa 3usins (apl. per2it nãk ¤fl count — — skàita ¤‡ cut *kart. mynsis (all E) tàuki . 3-∆am. alne (E) dzîvnieks › ashes — pelanne (E) pè®lni fi at — pr2i pìe fl back (nn. maldenikis (E) b8®rns ¤¤ claw — — nags ¤‹ cloud — wupyan (E) mãkônis.) sàuss ‹fi dull — — neass. wolgeit (iptv. p5ton (inf. G) ê®d ›‚ egg — paute (pl.) — rikisnan (E) mugura ‡ bad gasta wargan (?. pepelis (E) putns ⁄‹ bite — — kôΩ ⁄› black — kirsnan (E) me®¤ns ⁄fi blood — krawia asins ⁄fl blow [wind] — — pùß ⁄‡ bone — kaulan ka•ls ⁄° breast [wmn’s] — kraclan (E) pups.).) slikts.. nelabs ° bark (nn.) d5raiy — tâlu ›› fat (nn. apl. -ç3 bhe ùn ‹ animal — sw1rins (?. acc.).) vis3 wissay visi ¤ and ut3. tàpêc ka ⁄‚ belly — weders (E) vê®de®rs ⁄⁄ big — deb1kan (acc.). e®¤põ ¤‚ burn (intr.) mi‹st ‹‚ dig kantiy — ròk ‹⁄ dirty — — net§rs ‹¤ dog — sunis (E) suns ‹‹ drink — po5t.) — saxtis (E) miza · because — beggi tàd¶l÷ ka.) àuss ‹° earth b5miß semm2 zeme ‹· eat — 1st (inf.(?) — griêΩ ¤° day [¤› hrs] rauça deinan (acc.) krìt ›‹ far (adv.. 8 Old Persian Old Prussian Latvian ⁄ all (pl. krùts ⁄· breathe — — dvaßõ. sa›ts ¤fi come 3itiy.

durri ‹fi dull — sljór sl2o ‹fl dust mulda. stoub. úhreinn uns5biri.) — smjoπr feizti . meitr sn1dit ¤° day [¤› hrs] dags dagr tag ¤°a day dags dagr tag ¤· die gaswilti†.) — boπrkr rinta · because unt2 fyrir †ví at bi diu wanta ⁄‚ belly wamba kvi∂r.) faírra fjarri. voπmb wamba. 9 Gothic Old Norse Old High German ⁄ all (pl. b5h ⁄⁄ big mikils stórr. melm ‹‡ ear aus4 eyra 4ra ‹° earth aír†a joπr∂ erda ‹· eat matji†. touwit ‹‚ dig grabi† grefr grebit ‹⁄ dirty unhrains. gadau†ni† deyr stirbit.) brinni† brennr brinnit ¤⁄ child barn barn kind ¤¤ claw — kló cl3wa ¤‹ cloud milhma sk§ wolcan ¤› cold kalds kaldr calt ¤fi come qimi† kømr quimit ¤fl count gara†ji† telr zelit ¤‡ cut maiti† skerr. unreini ‹¤ dog hunds hundr hunt ‹‹ drink drigki† drekkr trinkit ‹› dry †aúrsus †urr trocchan. iti† etr izzit ›‚ egg — egg ei ›⁄ eye aug4 auga ouga ›¤ fall driusi† fellr fellit ›‹ far (adv. stubjus dust stuppi. w3it ⁄‡ bone — bein bein ⁄° breast [wmn’s] brusts brjóst brust ⁄· breathe ºani† andar 3tum4t ¤‚ burn (intr. sní∂r.) allai allir alle ¤ and jah ok inti ‹ animal dius d§r tior › ashes azg4 aska asca fi at at at zi.) — bak rucki ‡ bad ubils illr. az fl back (nn. mikill mihhil ⁄¤ bird fugls fugl fugal ⁄‹ bite beiti† bítr b1zit ⁄› black swarts svartr swarz ⁄fi blood bl4† bló∂ bluot ⁄fl blow [wind] waii† blæss bl3sit. langt fer(ro) ›› fat (nn. un†wahans saurigr. vándr ubil ° bark (nn.

pl.). comp.?) — ‹› dry sych — — ‹fi dull p¢l — — ‹fl dust llwch — — ‹‡ ear clust — — ‹° earth daear teras (gen.) cefn — — ‡ bad drwg mallom (acc. acc. am fod.) — ‹· eat bwyta edum (inf. fut.) ⁄¤ bird aderyn — avif (acc. fem. pl.) rhysgl — — · because achos. iúkleí (loc. sup.) benust (fut.) — ›‚ egg wy — — ›⁄ eye llygad — — ›¤ fall cwympo. fem.) — ° bark (nn.) i gyd súllus — ¤ and a ~ ag íním et ‹ animal anifail — — › ashes lludw — — fi at yn az -afl. syrthio — — ›‹ far (adv. cloddio — — ‹⁄ dirty brwnt.) -sekatu (iptv. pf. ¤sg.) ymhell — — ›› fat (nn. oherwydd i — — ⁄‚ belly bol(a).) .) (mestru.) ti√el (?) ¤°a day dydd — — ¤· die marw — — ‹‚ dig palu. pf. pass. abl. budr — — ‹¤ dog ci — — ‹‹ drink yfed pibisus (?.) ¤° day [¤› hrs] diwrnod zicolom (acc. 10 Welsh Oscan Umbrian ⁄ all (pl. subj.) llosgi — — ¤⁄ child plentyn — — ¤¤ claw crafanc — — ¤‹ cloud cwmwl — — ¤› cold oer — — ¤fi come d(yf)od cebnust (fut.) bloneg. pl.) ⁄fi blood gwaed — — ⁄fl blow [wind] chwythu — — ⁄‡ bone asgwrn — — ⁄° breast [wmn’s] bron — — ⁄· breathe anadlu — — ¤‚ burn (intr.) ¤fl count cyfrif — — ¤‡ cut torri lamatir (?. gen. -kum fl back (nn. pf. braster — aflepes (?.) ⁄‹ bite cnoi — — ⁄› black du — atru (nt. tor — — ⁄⁄ big mawr (maimas. pf.

Ùp≈ra fl¤ full suus li plÆrhw fl‹ give p3i tay d€dvsi fl› good 3ssus bari égayÒw flfi grass w2lku xot pÒa flfl green hahlawanz kanaçh xlvrÒw fl‡ guts garates ∑nderkh. pa¬i pÆgnutai fl⁄ fruit sesan ptow¬ µ∞lon. kard. aÈtÒn) ‡⁄ head harsar glowx kefalÆ ‡¤ hear istamaszi lsê ékoÊei ‡‹ heart k2r. kunhgete› °⁄ husband pis2nas ayr énÆr °¤ I 5k es §g≈ °¤a me (acc.) pittai th‡çhi p°tetai fi‡ fog kammaras mêg Ùµ€xlh fi° foot patas otn poÊw fi· four meyawes çhorkh t°ttarew fl‚ freeze (intr. paterazmi µãxetai fi‚ fire pahhur howr pËr fi⁄ fish parhus (?) jowkn fixyÊw fi¤ five — hing p°nte fi‹ float — lo¬ay ple› fi› flow 3rszi he¬ani =e› fifi flower alil ca¬ik ênyow fifl fly (vb.) ammuk is §µ° °‹ ice ekan sa‡n krÊstallow °› if takku ethe efi °fi in andan (adv.) i §n °fl kill ku2nzi spananê épokte€nei °‡ knee g2nu cownr gÒnu °° know [facts] s3kki gitê o‰de .) ek3izzi sa‡i. nakkis canr barÊw ‡fi here k3 ast §ntaËya ‡fl hit walhzi harkanê tÊptei ‡‡ hold harzi. sirt kard€a ‡› heavy suw3rus. 11 Hittite Armenian Greek ›fi father attas hayr patÆr ›fl fear (vb. harkanzi owni ¶xei ‡° horn kar3war e¬∆ewr k°raw ‡· how m3hhan orpês p«w °‚ hunt huwarniskezzi orsay yhrçi. a¬ikh ¶ntera fl° hair [head] tetanas her tr€xew fl· hand kissar je‡n xe€r ‡‚ he -as na (obl. pl. d°doike ›‡ feather — phetowr pterÒn ›° few t2pawes sakawkh Ùl€goi ›· fight hullezzi martnçhi.) n3hi erknçhi fobe›tai.

druan pr3skaµ bibh£ya ›‡ feather pendë paruwa (pl.) Ω¢∫gam ‡· how qysh.) yúdhyati fi‚ fire zjarr puwar agnís fi⁄ fish peshk laks mátsyas fi¤ five pesë piΩ páñca fi‹ float plevat plußäµ právat2 fi› flow rrjedh reßßäµ srávati.) j£nu °° know [facts] di aiΩtär. kßárati fifi flower lule py3pyo púßpam fifl fly (vb. si mäkte kath£ °‚ hunt gjuan Ωer1tsi (inf. kärsanaµ v@da .) friket. ‹pl. po krui. bhárt3 °¤ I unë ñäΩ ahám °¤a me (acc. ente yát °fi in në -ne — °fl kill vret kaußäµ hánti °‡ knee gju keni (du.) m#gáyat2 °⁄ husband burrë petso pátis.) parƒám ›° few pak totka álp3s ›· fight lufton wit3re (pret.) ngrin — — fl⁄ fruit pemë oko phálam fl¤ full plotë ite p5rƒás fl‹ give jep aißßäµ dád3ti fl› good mirë kartse (krent-) vásus flfi grass bar atiyai (obl.) fluturon plußäµ pátati fi‡ fog mjegull — mih- fi° foot këmbë paiyye p£t fi· four katër Ωtwer catv£ras fl‚ freeze (intr. 12 Albanian Tocharian B Vedic Sanskrit ›fi father atë p3cer pit£ ›fl fear (vb.) t¢ƒam flfl green gjelbër motartstse háritas fl‡ guts zorrë — 3ntrám fl° hair [head] flok matsi k@Ωas fl· hand dorë ßar hástas ‡‚ he ai su sá ‡⁄ head kokë 3Ωce Ωíras ‡¤ hear dëgjon klyaußäµ Ω#ƒ$ti ‡‹ heart zemër arañce h£rdi ‡› heavy rëndë kramartse gurús ‡fi here këtu tane ihá ‡fl hit godit karnäßßäµ hánti ‡‡ hold mban — dh3ráyati ‡° horn bri kror1yai (obl.) mua ñäΩ m£m °‹ ice akull — himás °› if në.

mali maΩa§ ›· fight p∑r∑taite. je. teΩ¡k∞ sunkùs ‡fi here i∂a s¡de çià ‡fl hit ∆ainti udarit∞ mùßa. zan3iti v™st∞.) noga kója fi· four ça†∫3r4 çetyre keturì fl‚ freeze (intr. p¡rit∞ se® kovója. ali jéigu °fi in — v∞ §÷ °fl kill ∆ainti ubijet∞ ùΩmußa. znajet∞ Ωìno. da•Ωia.) — mr∞znet∞ ßáldo.) frauuaite (pataiti.) ma«m mene manè °‹ ice a2x∑m led∞ l¶das °› if yat aßte. paßã«la fl⁄ fruit — ovoßt¡ va§sius fl¤ full p∑r∑n4 ispl∞n∞ pìlnas fl‹ give da∂3iti dast∞ dúoda fl› good vaµhuß dobr∞ g¶ras flfi grass — trava Ωol% flfl green — zelen∞ Ωãlias fl‡ guts — jelito viduria§ fl° hair [head] var∑s4 vlas∞ pláukas fl· hand zast4 roπka rankà ‡‚ he h4 on∞. Slavonic Lithuanian ›fi father pita ot¡c¡ t$vas ›fl fear (vb.) bi∫3iia bojit∞se• bìjo ›‡ feather par∑n∑m pero plùnksna ›° few kamna. kol™no k¶lis °° know [facts] va2∂a.) rog∞ rãgas ‡· how ç5 kako ka§p °‚ hunt — lovit∞ medΩiója °⁄ husband paitiß moπΩ∞ v!ras °¤ I az∑m az∞ àß °¤a me (acc. Daevic) poletit∞ l¶kia fi‡ fog dunma m¡gla miglà fi° foot p3∂a (du. paΩí÷sta . cv™t¡c¡ g£l% fifl fly (vb. jìs ‡⁄ head sar4 glava galvà ‡¤ hear surunaoiti slyßit∞ gi‹di ‡‹ heart z∑r∑d. káunasi fi‚ fire 3tarß ogn¡ ugnìs fi⁄ fish masii4 ryba Ωuvìs fi¤ five pança pe®t¡ penkì fi‹ float — plovet∞ pla•kia. 13 Avestan Old Ch. pl7duriuoja fi› flow ©Ω3raiti. rao∂aiti teçet∞ t¶ka fifi flower — cv™t∞. sr∞d¡ce ßirdìs ‡› heavy gouru. (ißtiñka) ‡‡ hold d3raiieiti dr∞Ωit∞ la§ko ‡° horn sruiie (du. Ωùdo °‡ knee Ωnu. y5i∂iieiti borjet∞.

m2 °‹ ice 1s aig glaci2s °› if gif ma. flota† snaïd fluitat fi› flow fl2w† rethid fluit fifi flower bl4stma bláth.) m2 -m. daig ignis fi⁄ fish fisc íasc piscis fi¤ five f1f cóic qu1nque fi‹ float fl1ett.) fyrht. †earm — intest1na fl° hair [head] h7r folt capillus fl· hand hand lám manus ‡‚ he h2 é is ‡⁄ head h2afod cenn caput ‡¤ hear h1er† ro‚cluinethar audit ‡‹ heart heorte cride cor ‡› heavy sw7r. forhta† ad‚ágathar timet ›‡ feather fe†er cleitte penna ›° few f2awe úath.) fr1est — gelat fl⁄ fruit ofett torad p4mum fl¤ full full lán pl2nus fl‹ give gif† do‚beir dat fl› good g4d maith bonus flfi grass græs fér gr3men flfl green gr2ne úaine viridis fl‡ guts guttas. úathad pauc1 ›· fight fieht. 14 Old English Old Irish Latin ›fi father fæder athair pater ›fl fear (vb. s1 °fi in in i in °fl kill slieh† marbaid interficit °‡ knee cn2ow glún gen5 °° know [facts] w3t ro‚fitir scit . w1g† fichid pugnat fi‚ fire f6r tene.) fl1eg† fo‚luathar volat fi‡ fog mist céo nebula fi° foot f4t traig p2s fi· four f2ower cethair quattuor fl‚ freeze (intr. scoth fl4s fifl fly (vb. hefig tromm gravis ‡fi here h2r sund h1c ‡fl hit slieh†. b2att benaid. búalid ferit ‡‡ hold hielt con‚gaib tenet ‡° horn horn adarc corn5 ‡· how h5 cía cruth qu1 (qu4 mod4) °‚ hunt hunta† ad‚claid v2n3tur °⁄ husband wer fer mar1tus °¤ I ic mé ego °¤a me (acc.

ñuk °‹ ice — — — °› if m3n ¶ kuprene °fi in 3nta ñte -aµ °fl kill — — koß °‡ knee — — kanweµ (du.) ‡‹ heart z3rza — 3riñc ‡› heavy suw3rus.) — — plawar (pret. ebñn¶ (acc.) säm ‡⁄ head harmahis — lap ‡¤ hear t5mmantitti — klyoßtär (pass.) fifi flower — — py3pi fifl fly (vb.) näß.) — — — fl⁄ fruit alattarsa — oko fl¤ full — — ypic fl‹ give piyai pije. ñuk °¤a me (acc.) ‡‡ hold — — — ‡° horn zurni (HL) — kror (?) ‡· how — — mänt °‚ hunt — — — °⁄ husband zitis sidi pats °¤ I (a)mu ¶mu näß. fem. ‹pl.) fi‡ fog — — — fi° foot pat3s (p3tas?) pede pe fi· four m3winzi — Ωtwar fl‚ freeze (intr. kärsn3ß . pibiti eß fl› good w3sus — k3su (krant-) flfi grass zuhri — 3ti flfl green hahhaluwantis — motarci (fem. 15 Luvian Lycian Tocharian A ›fi father t3tis tedi (?) p3car ›fl fear (vb. — kn3naß.) kuwaya. ap3s -¶. kuwanzus — kr3märts ‡fi here z3wi(n) ebei tßaµ ‡fl hit d5piti tubidi kärnäsm3µ (ptc. — praskatär ›‡ feather — — — ›° few — — tsru ›· fight — zxxati — fi‚ fire p3h5r — por fi⁄ fish — — — fi¤ five — — päñ fi‹ float — — — fi› flow 3rsi(ya). fem. ‹pl.) (a)mu emu (dat. — tsn3ntr-äµ (?.) °° know [facts] un(a)i.) fl‡ guts — — weßkiñc (?) fl° hair [head] tapp3nis — Ω3ku fl· hand 1ssaris izre tsar ‡‚ he -as.

ba§dâs ›‡ feather — — spa¤va ›° few kamn3 — mazi ›· fight -∆antiy 5lint (inf.). rel. schien te.) tarsatiy bia bîstas. — te®k. plûst fifi flower — — puk÷e.). naiba (?) labs labs flfi grass — schokis (E) zâle flfl green — saligan (E) zal÷ß fl‡ guts — grobis (E) zafina fl° hair [head] — scebelis (E) mats fl· hand dasta r3nkan (acc.) zina . G) sit ‡‡ hold d3rayatiy l3iku tur ‡° horn — ragis (E) rags ‡· how — [kai. es es °¤a me (acc.) pi¤ns fl‹ give dad3tiy d3st dôd fl› good *vahu-. glawo (E) ga›va ‡¤ hear xßnautiy (?) k1rdeiti (iptv.) — — laîΩas (skrìen ?) fi‡ fog — kupsins (E) migla fi° foot p3da nage (E) kãja fi· four — [kettwirts ‘›th’] çetri fl‚ freeze (intr.] kâ °‚ hunt — [medies ‘hunter’ E] med§ °⁄ husband — wijrs v§rs °¤ I adam as.) m3m mien mani °‹ ice — ladis (E) le®dus °› if yadiy ickai ja °fi in — 2n — °fl kill ava∆antiy gallintwei (inf. ße§t ‡fl hit ∆antiy kyrteis (iptv. suckis (E) zivs fi¤ five — [pi2ncts ‘fith’] pìeci fi‹ float — — pludõ fi› flow danu(va). panno (E) uguns fi⁄ fish — suckans (apl. seyr (E) sifids ‡› heavy — — smags ‡fi here id3 schai. ziêds fifl fly (vb.) — — sa›st fl⁄ fruit — — aûglis fl¤ full — pilnan (acc.) ròka ‡‚ he hauv(am) t3ns vin÷ß ‡⁄ head — gall5.) nònâv¶.) cìnâs (kaûjas ?) fi‚ fire *3√i. nògalina °‡ knee — klupstis (E) celis °° know [facts] d3n3tiy (xßn3-) waist (inf.) dzìrd ‡‹ heart — s1ran (acc. 16 Old Persian Old Prussian Latvian ›fi father pit3 t3was t¶®vs ›fl fear (vb..

afdau†ei†. hoπfugr sw3ri. fl§tr fliuzit. blómstr bluomo fifl fly (vb. berr. pl.) — fl§gr fliugit fi‡ fog — †oka nebul fi° foot f4tus fótr fuoz fi· four fidw4r fjórir fior fl‚ freeze (intr. stauti†. drepr (ar)slehit.) 4g. bliggwi† slær. fahs fl· hand handus hoπnd hant ‡‚ he is hann er ‡⁄ head haubi† hoπfu∂ houbit ‡¤ hear hausei† heyrir h4rit ‡‹ heart haírt4 hjarta herza ‡› heavy kaúrus †ungr. sweb2t fi› flow rinni† rennr. faúrhtei† hræ∂isk forhtit ›‡ feather — fjoπ∂r federa ›° few fawai fáir f4he. vegr fihtit fi‚ fire f4n eldr fiur fi⁄ fish fisks fiskr fisc fi¤ five fimf fimm fimf fi‹ float — fl§tr fliuzit. drepr slehit ‡‡ hold habai† heldr hab2t ‡° horn haúrn horn horn ‡· how ¬aiwa hvé. 17 Gothic Old Norse Old High German ›fi father atta fa∂ir fater ›fl fear (vb. hef1g ‡fi here h2r hér hier ‡fl hit slahi†. git4tit °‡ knee kniu kné cneo °° know [facts] wait veit weiz .) blóm. rinnit fifi flower bl4mans (acc.) mik mik mih °‹ ice — íss 1s °› if jabai ef oba. skopt h3r.) ºfriusi† fr§ss friusit fl⁄ fruit akran aldin obaz fl¤ full fulls fullr fol fl‹ give gibi† gefr gibit fl› good g4†s gó∂r guot flfi grass hawi gras gras flfl green — grœnn gruoni fl‡ guts — †armr. l§str. luzzile ›· fight weihi† bersk. hversu wuo / wio °‚ hunt — vei∂ir jag4t. skuft hár. ibu °fi in in í in °fl kill usqimi†. goπrn darm fl° hair [head] tagl. weid(en)4t °⁄ husband aba verr gomman °¤ I ik ek ih °¤a me (acc. afslahi† dey∂ir.

) mi. ¢yr — — .).) flfi grass glaswellt — — flfl green glas — — fl‡ guts coluddion — arvia fl° hair [head] gwallt (coll.) ofni — — ›‡ feather pluen — — ›° few ychydig — — ›· fight ymladd — — fi‚ fire tân — pir.) rhewi. iâ — — °› if os. nt. sup. (f)i — mehe (dat. pl.) fl› good da (ualaemom.) fl‹ give rho(dd)i didet [Vestinian] tefla.) pefli (abl. fem. gen. 18 Welsh Oscan Umbrian ›fi father tad patir patre (dat.) °‹ ice rhew.) ehedeg — — fi‡ fog niwl — — fi° foot troed pedú (?.) cubrar (gen.) ‡° horn corn — — ‡· how (pa) sut — — °‚ hunt hela — — °⁄ husband g¢r — — °¤ I (f)i íív — °¤a me (acc. ‹sg. fferru — — fl⁄ fruit ffrwyth — — fl¤ full llawn — plener (abl. pl.) fi· four pedwar pettiur petur- fl‚ freeze (intr. blewyn — — fl· hand llaw manim (acc. dirsa (subj. pe svaí sve °fi in yn -en -en °fl kill lladd — — °‡ knee pen-lin — — °° know [facts] gwybod.) manf (acc. pl. pres.(?) — fifl fly (vb.) ›fl fear (vb. pur- fi⁄ fish pysgodyn — — fi¤ five pump *púmpe *pumpe fi‹ float nofio — — fi› flow llifo — — fifi flower blodeuyn *fluus.) ‡‚ he (f)e izic erek ‡⁄ head pen — — ‡¤ hear clywed — — ‡‹ heart calon — — ‡› heavy trwm — — ‡fi here yma — — ‡fl hit taro — — ‡‡ hold dal — tenitu (iptv.

spãrton ⁄‹‚ rotten harranz nexeal saprÒw ⁄‹⁄ round — bolorak stroggÊlow ⁄‹¤ rub peszi ßphê tr€bei ⁄‹‹ salt — a¬ ëlw .) huiszi keay z∞i ·fl liver lissi leard ∏par ·‡ long dalukis erkayn µakrÒw ·° louse — o∆il fye€r ·· man [male] pis2nas ayr énÆr ⁄‚‚ many m2kkies bazowmkh pollo€ ⁄‚⁄ meat — mis kr°aw ⁄‚¤ moon armas lowsin selÆnh ⁄‚‹ mother annas mayr µÆthr ⁄‚› mountain — lea‡n ˆrow ⁄‚fi mouth ais.) manninkuwanz (adj. covak l€µnh ·‚ laugh halwammar (noun) cica¬i gelçi ·⁄ leaf hurpastas terew fÊllon ·¤ left(hand) — jax.) mawt. plhs€on ⁄‚· neck (kuttar ?) paranoch aÈxÆn ⁄⁄‚ new n2was nor kainÒw ⁄⁄⁄ night ispanz gißer nÊj ⁄⁄¤ nose tititan ownçhkh =€w ⁄⁄‹ not natta oçh oÈ ⁄⁄› old miyahwanz hin palaiÒw ⁄⁄fi one º3s mi eÂw ⁄⁄fl other damais ayl êllow ⁄⁄‡ person antuhsas mard ênyrvpow ⁄⁄° pierce isk3ri xoçhê. 19 Hittite Armenian Greek °· lake lulis (?) liç. çhowan kãlvw. merj §ggÊw. aheak éristerÒw ·‹ leg egdu srownkh sk°low ·› lie [recline] kitta kay edeal ke›tai ·fi live (vb. to‡n.) h2us anjrew ÍetÒw ⁄¤‹ red mitas karmir §ruyrÒw ⁄¤› right(hand) kunnas a∆ dejiÒw ⁄¤fi right 3ra ow¬i¬ ÙryÒw ⁄¤fl river hapas get potaµÒw ⁄¤‡ road palsas çanaparh. iss. jgê ßlkei ⁄¤⁄ push suwezzi m¬ê »ye› ⁄¤¤ rain (nn. mxê kente› ⁄⁄· play duskzi. ne¬ stenÒw ⁄‚° near (adv. ßawi¬ ıdÒw ⁄¤° root s5rkas armat =€za ⁄¤· rope ishimas paran. malowx. beran stÒµa ⁄‚fl name l3man anown ˆnoµa ⁄‚‡ narrow hatkus anjowk. hinganiskezzi xa¬ay pa€zei ⁄¤‚ pull huettiezzi kharßê.

tërkuzë — rájjus.) jeton. depërton tsopäµ Ωnáthiti. 20 Albanian Tocharian B Vedic Sanskrit °· lake liqen lyam sáras. ysape. hradás ·‚ laugh qesh ker.) afër akartte.) já∫gh3 ·› lie [recline] rri shtrirë lyaΩäµ Ω@t2 ·fi live (vb. rron Ωaiµ j!vati ·fl liver mël√i wästarye yák#t ·‡ long gjatë pärkare d1rghás ·° louse morr pärΩeriñ (pl.) (?) (y5k3) ·· man [male] burrë e∫kwe n£ ⁄‚‚ many shumë m3ka bahávas ⁄‚⁄ meat mish misa m£s. RV⁄x) ⁄⁄¤ nose hundë meli n£s3 ⁄⁄‹ not nuk. ádhv3 ⁄¤° root rrënjë witsako m%lam ⁄¤· rope litar. mëngjër Ωw3lyai (adv. vídhyati ⁄⁄· play luan k3ñmäµ kr!∂ati ⁄¤‚ pull heq sla∫ktär kárßati ⁄¤⁄ push shtyn nätkanaµ tudáti.) dákßiƒas ⁄¤fi right drejtë — #tás. síndhus ⁄¤‡ road rrugë yt3rye pánth3s. d£ma ⁄‹‚ rotten kalbur 3mpau p%tis ⁄‹⁄ round rrumbullak — (vartulas) ⁄‹¤ rub fërkon lyuwetär. s m3 ná ⁄⁄› old vjetër (ktsaitstse ?) sánas ⁄⁄fi one një ße @kas ⁄⁄fl other tjetër alyek anyás ⁄⁄‡ person njeri Ωaumo mánus ⁄⁄° pierce ther. m3µsám ⁄‚¤ moon hënë meñe m£s ⁄‚‹ mother mëmë m3cer m£t3 ⁄‚› mountain mal ßale girís ⁄‚fi mouth gojë koyµ £s ⁄‚fl name emër ñem n£ma ⁄‚‡ narrow ngushtë — aµhús ⁄‚° near (adv. hásati ·⁄ leaf gjethe pilta parƒám ·¤ left(hand) majtë. nudáti ⁄¤¤ rain (nn. etsuwai antik@ ⁄‚· neck qafë — gr1v£ ⁄⁄‚ new ri ñuwe návas.) shi swese varßám ⁄¤‹ red kuq ratre r$hitas ⁄¤› right(hand) djathtë saiwai (adv. #jús ⁄¤fl river lumë cake nad!.(nák. kantanatär (gharßati) ⁄‹‹ salt kripë salyiye (lavaƒam) .) savyás ·‹ leg këmbë ck3ckai (obl. návyas ⁄⁄⁄ night natë yßiye kßap.

in∞ kìtas ⁄⁄‡ person maßii4. v1r4 moπΩ¡ v!ras ⁄‚‚ many parauu4 m∞nog∞ da•g(el) ⁄‚⁄ meat — me®so m£sà ⁄‚¤ moon må luna. sme§gia. usta burnà ⁄‚fl name n3ma ime® va‹das ⁄‚‡ narrow — oπz∞k∞ sia•ras ⁄‚° near (adv. pérduria ⁄⁄· play — (igrajet∞) Ωa§dΩia ⁄¤‚ pull †an∆aiiete vl™çet∞ tráukia ⁄¤⁄ push — — stùmia ⁄¤¤ rain (nn. ßija kãklas ⁄⁄‚ new nauu4 nov∞ na•jas ⁄⁄⁄ night xßap.) asne bliz∞ artì ⁄‚· neck manao†ri. maßii3k4 çlov™k∞ Ωmogùs (pl. d∞Ωd¡ lietùs ⁄¤‹ red raoi∂it4 çr∞m¡n∞ raudónas ⁄¤› right(hand) daßin4 desn∞ d¶ßinas ⁄¤fi right ∑r∑ßuu4 prav¡d¡n∞ teisùs ⁄¤fl river †raot4.) ∆uuaiti Ωivet∞ g!vas yrà ·fl liver y3kar∑ je®tro k¶penos ·‡ long dar∑©4 dl∞g∞ ìlgas ·° louse — — ut£l% ·· man [male] n3. list∞ lãpas ·¤ left(hand) haoii4 ßuj¡ kairùs ·‹ leg paitißt3n∑m gol™n¡ kója ·› lie [recline] sa2te leΩit∞ gùli ·fi live (vb.) v3r. 21 Avestan Old Ch. noßt¡ naktìs ⁄⁄¤ nose nåµha nos∞ nósis ⁄⁄‹ not n4it ne nè ⁄⁄› old han4 vet∞x∞ s¶nas ⁄⁄fi one a2uu4 jedin∞ víenas ⁄⁄fl other ainii4 drug∞. Ωmón£s) ⁄⁄° pierce — bodet∞ pérveria. m™se®c¡ m£nùlis ⁄‚‹ mother m3ta mati mótina ⁄‚› mountain gairiß gora kálnas ⁄‚fi mouth åµh. a∂∫a poπt¡ k¶lias ⁄¤° root var∑ßa∆iß koren¡ ßaknìs ⁄¤· rope — vr∞v¡ vi‹v£. vi‹Ωis ⁄‹‚ rotten p5t4 gnil∞ supùve®s ⁄‹⁄ round skar∑n4 (o)krugl∞ apvalùs ⁄‹¤ rub — t¡ret∞ trìna ⁄‹‹ salt — sol¡ druskà . gr1uua vyja. rauua r™ka ùp£ ⁄¤‡ road pantå. Slavonic Lithuanian °· lake vairiß jezero ¶Ωeras ·‚ laugh — sm™jet∞ se® juõkiasi ·⁄ leaf var∑ka.

bróen pluvia ⁄¤‹ red r2ad rúad.) n2ah i n-ocus prope ⁄‚· neck heals brágae collum ⁄⁄‚ new n1owe nue novos ⁄⁄⁄ night niht adaig nox ⁄⁄¤ nose nosu srón n3sus ⁄⁄‹ not ne ní n4n ⁄⁄› old eald sen vetus ⁄⁄fi one 3n óen 5nus ⁄⁄fl other 4†er aile alius ⁄⁄‡ person mann duine hom4 ⁄⁄° pierce prica† sáidid pungit. dræg† srengaid trahit ⁄¤⁄ push sc6f† — tr5dit ⁄¤¤ rain (nn. loman f5nis ⁄‹‚ rotten f5l morgthae putridus ⁄‹⁄ round sinwealt cruind rotundus ⁄‹¤ rub gn1tt con‚meil fricat ⁄‹‹ salt sealt salann sal . manige ili mult1 ⁄‚⁄ meat fl7sc féuil car4 ⁄‚¤ moon m4na ésce l5na ⁄‚‹ mother m4dor máthair m3ter ⁄‚› mountain beorg slíab m4ns ⁄‚fi mouth m5† giun 4s ⁄‚fl name nama ainm n4men ⁄‚‡ narrow nearu. 22 Old English Old Irish Latin °· lake mere. fodit ⁄⁄· play plega† im‚beir. s3l.) liofa† is béo v1vit ·fl liver lifer óa iecur ·‡ long lang fota longus ·° louse l5s míl p2diculus ·· man [male] wer fer vir ⁄‚‚ many fela. derg ruber ⁄¤› right(hand) sw1†ra dess dexter ⁄¤fi right riht cert. str7t slige. streng súanem. enge cóel. s7 loch lacus ·‚ laugh hlieh† tibid r1det ·⁄ leaf l2af duille folium ·¤ left(hand) winestra clé sinister ·‹ leg scanca coss cr5s ·› lie [recline] lig† laigid iacet ·fi live (vb. cóir r2ctus ⁄¤fl river 2a aub fl5men ⁄¤‡ road weg. tét. cluchigidir l5dit ⁄¤‚ pull t1eh†.) regn flechud. cumung angustus ⁄‚° near (adv. bóthar via ⁄¤° root wyrttruma frém r3d1x ⁄¤· rope r3p.

23 Luvian Lycian Tocharian A °· lake — — lyäm ·‚ laugh — — kar- ·⁄ leaf — — pält ·¤ left(hand) ipalis — Ω3lyi ·‹ leg p3rtas (?) — — ·› lie [recline] z1yari sij¶ni lalku (?.) ñom ⁄‚‡ narrow — — — ⁄‚° near (adv.) 3lak ⁄⁄‡ person z1tis — napeµ ⁄⁄° pierce — — tsopäß ⁄⁄· play — — — ⁄¤‚ pull — — tsäkn3ß ⁄¤⁄ push — — nätk3.) — — Ωoß ·fl liver — — — ·‡ long 3rr3yis — pärkär ·° louse — — — ·· man [male] z1tis — o∫k.(?) ⁄¤¤ rain (nn. 3täl ⁄‚‚ many — — m3k ⁄‚⁄ meat — — Ωw3l ⁄‚¤ moon *armas ar⁄ma mañ ⁄‚‹ mother 3nnis ¶ni m3car ⁄‚› mountain *ariyattis — ßul ⁄‚fi mouth 3ssa — koy- ⁄‚fl name atamanza (?) adãma (pl. pret.) — — swase ⁄¤‹ red — — rtär ⁄¤› right(hand) isarwilis — p3ci ⁄¤fi right — — — ⁄¤fl river h3pis — — ⁄¤‡ road harwas — yt3r ⁄¤° root — — tsm3r ⁄¤· rope — — sparp ⁄‹‚ rotten — — — ⁄‹⁄ round — — — ⁄‹¤ rub k5s3ti — — ⁄‹‹ salt — — s3le .) ·fi live (vb.) — — k3tse ⁄‚· neck — — kñuk ⁄⁄‚ new n3wis — ñu ⁄⁄⁄ night — — wße ⁄⁄¤ nose — — malañ ⁄⁄‹ not n3wa ne m3 ⁄⁄› old — — ktsets (?) ⁄⁄fi one — — sas ⁄⁄fl other — kbi (acc. ptc.

24

Old Persian Old Prussian Latvian
°· lake — assaran (E) e®ze®rs
·‚ laugh — — smejas
·⁄ leaf — — lapa
·¤ left(hand) — — krèiss
·‹ leg — nage (E) kãja
·› lie [recline] — — gul÷
·fi live (vb.) ∆1vatiy giwa dzîvõ
·fl liver — <j>agno (E) aknas
·‡ long darga [ilgi, adv.] garß
·° louse — — uts
·· man [male] *nar- wijrs v§rs
⁄‚‚ many parava — da•dzi
⁄‚⁄ meat — mens3 gal÷a
⁄‚¤ moon *m3ha- (?) menig (E) m¶ness
⁄‚‹ mother *m3t3 m5ti mãte
⁄‚› mountain kaufa grabis (E) ka›ns
⁄‚fi mouth — austo (E) mute
⁄‚fl name n3m3 emmens v9rds
⁄‚‡ narrow — — ßàurs
⁄‚° near (adv.) aßnaiy — tuvu
⁄‚· neck — winsus (E) kakls
⁄⁄‚ new — nawans jaûns
⁄⁄⁄ night xßap- nacktien (loc.?) nakts
⁄⁄¤ nose n3h(a)- nozy (E) de®guns
⁄⁄‹ not naiy ni ne
⁄⁄› old — urs (?) ve®cs
⁄⁄fi one aiva ains viêns
⁄⁄fl other aniya kittans (apl.) cits
⁄⁄‡ person martiya smunents, smonenawi<n>s (E) cìlv¶®ks
⁄⁄° pierce — [boadis ‘puncture wound’ (E)] dur
⁄⁄· play — — rõtal÷ãjas, sp¶l¶jas
⁄¤‚ pull — — vè®lk
⁄¤⁄ push — — stumj, b§da
⁄¤¤ rain (nn.) — aglo (E) liêtus
⁄¤‹ red — urminan (acc.), wormyan (E) safikans
⁄¤› right(hand) — tickray (fem. dat.) laba§s
⁄¤fi right r3sta tickars (?) pare§zs
⁄¤fl river rauta ape (E) upe
⁄¤‡ road *pa†i- [pintis ‘path’ (E)] cel÷ß
⁄¤° root — sagnis (E) sakne
⁄¤· rope — wirbe (E) vìrve, ta•va
⁄‹‚ rotten — — sapuvis, satrun¶jis
⁄‹⁄ round — — apal÷ß
⁄‹¤ rub — — befiΩ
⁄‹‹ salt — sali (G) s9ls

25

Gothic Old Norse Old High German
°· lake (mari)saiws vatn s2o
·‚ laugh hlahji† hlær lehhit
·⁄ leaf laufs (lauf)bla∂ blat, loub
·¤ left(hand) hleiduma vinstri winistar
·‹ leg — leggr, fótr bein
·› lie [recline] ligi† liggr ligit
·fi live (vb.) libai† lifir leb2t
·fl liver — lifr lebara
·‡ long laggs langr lang
·° louse — lús (º)l5s
·· man [male] waír, guma karl(ma∂r) man
⁄‚‚ many managai, filu margir manage, filu
⁄‚⁄ meat mims kjoπt fleisc
⁄‚¤ moon m2na tungl m3no
⁄‚‹ mother ai†ei mó∂ir muoter
⁄‚› mountain faírguni fjall berg
⁄‚fi mouth mun†s munnr mund
⁄‚fl name nam4 nafn namo
⁄‚‡ narrow aggwus, †raíhans †roπngr, oπngr engi
⁄‚° near (adv.) n2¬(a) nær n3h
⁄‚· neck hals hals, svíri hals
⁄⁄‚ new niujis n§r niuwi
⁄⁄⁄ night nahts nótt naht
⁄⁄¤ nose — nasar nasa
⁄⁄‹ not ni eigi ni
⁄⁄› old faírneis forn alt, firni
⁄⁄fi one ains einn ein
⁄⁄fl other an†ar annarr ander
⁄⁄‡ person manna ma∂r man, mennisco
⁄⁄° pierce — stingr (ana)stihhit
⁄⁄· play — leikr spil4t
⁄¤‚ pull at†insi† dregr, togar dinsit, ziuhit
⁄¤⁄ push afskiubi† sk§fir sciubit
⁄¤¤ rain (nn.) rign regn regan
⁄¤‹ red rau†s rau∂r r4t
⁄¤› right(hand) taíhswa hœgri zeso
⁄¤fi right garaíhts réttr reht
⁄¤fl river a¬a, fl4dus á aha, fluz
⁄¤‡ road wigs vegr, gata weg
⁄¤° root waúrts rót wurzala
⁄¤· rope — reip, taug, strengr, síma seil, strang, stric
⁄‹‚ rotten f5ls fúinn f5l
⁄‹⁄ round — sívalr sinwelb
⁄‹¤ rub bnaui† gn§r r1bit, gn1tit
⁄‹‹ salt salt salt salz

26

Welsh Oscan Umbrian
°· lake llyn — —
·‚ laugh chwerthin — —
·⁄ leaf deilen — —
·¤ left(hand) chwith, aswy nertrak (fem. abl.) nertru (abl.)
·‹ leg coes — —
·› lie [recline] gorwedd — —
·fi live (vb.) byw — —
·fl liver afu — —
·‡ long hir, maith — —
·° louse lleuen — —
·· man [male] g¢r — —
⁄‚‚ many llawer — —
⁄‚⁄ meat cig — —
⁄‚¤ moon lleuad, lloer — —
⁄‚‹ mother mam maatreís (gen.) matrer (gen.)
⁄‚› mountain mynydd — —
⁄‚fi mouth genau, ceg — —
⁄‚fl name enw numneís (gen.) numem, nome
⁄‚‡ narrow cul, cyfyng — —
⁄‚° near (adv.) yn agos (nessimas sup. fem. pl.) (nesimei sup. adv.)
⁄‚· neck mwnwgl, gwddf — —
⁄⁄‚ new newydd — —
⁄⁄⁄ night nos — —
⁄⁄¤ nose trwyn — —
⁄⁄‹ not d-… d(d)im (< nid …), na nei neip
⁄⁄› old hen — —
⁄⁄fi one un — —
⁄⁄fl other arall allo (fem.) —
⁄⁄‡ person dyn humuns (pl.) homonus (dat. pl.)
⁄⁄° pierce gwanu — —
⁄⁄· play chwarae — —
⁄¤‚ pull tynnu — —
⁄¤⁄ push gwthio — —
⁄¤¤ rain (nn.) glaw anafríss (?; dat. pl.) —
⁄¤‹ red coch, rhudd — rufru, rofu (acc. pl.)
⁄¤› right(hand) de(au) destrst ‘d. est’ destram (fem. acc.)
⁄¤fi right iawn, cywir — mersto (acc.), rehte (adv.)
⁄¤fl river afon — —
⁄¤‡ road ffordd víú via (abl.)
⁄¤° root gwreiddyn — —
⁄¤· rope rhaff — —
⁄‹‚ rotten pwdr — —
⁄‹⁄ round crwn — —
⁄‹¤ rub rhwbio — —
⁄‹‹ salt halen — salu (acc.)

nÆxetai ⁄fl‡ tail (sisai ?) towtn. toµÒw ⁄›¤ short manninkuwanz karç braxÊw ⁄›‹ sing ishamai ergê êidei ⁄›› sit 2sa nsti kãyhstai ⁄›fi skin — morth xrÒa.) — hototi ˆzei ⁄fi‚ smoke tuhhuwais cowx kapnÒw ⁄fi⁄ smooth mius harth le›ow ⁄fi¤ snake — awj ˆfiw ⁄fi‹ snow (nn. taranzi asê l°gei ⁄‹fl scratch ºarrirrai kherê kn∞i ⁄‹‡ sea arunas cov yãlatta ⁄‹° see auszi tesanê ırçi ⁄‹· seed warwalan sermn sp°rµa ⁄›‚ sew — karê =ãptei ⁄›⁄ sharp alpus sowr. 5ssiezzi ∑nkenow. vêm l€yow ⁄fl¤ straight — ow¬i¬ eÈyÊw ⁄fl‹ suck u(n)hzi ccê.) kuiesqa okh ¶nioi ⁄fifi spit (vb. chelow sx€zei ⁄fi‡ squeeze sai khamê pi°zei ⁄fi° stand arta kay ßsthke ⁄fi· star hast2rz ast¬ éstÆr ⁄fl‚ stick pahhis (?) bir. k°rkow ⁄fl° that ap3s ayn §ke›now ⁄fl· there apiya and §ke› ⁄‡‚ they -e nokha (obl. =€ptei . aÈtoÊw) ⁄‡⁄ thick — stowar paxÊw ⁄‡¤ thin maklanz anawsr leptÒw ⁄‡‹ think — xorhi front€zei ⁄‡› this k3s ays otow ⁄‡fi thou z1k dow sÊ ⁄‡fia thee (acc. ∆in =ãbdow. d°rµa ⁄›fl sky n2pis erkinkh oÈranÒw ⁄›‡ sleep seszi nn∆ê kayeÊdei ⁄›° small kappis phokhr µikrÒw ⁄›· smell (intr. 27 Hittite Armenian Greek ⁄‹› sand — awaz êµµow ⁄‹fi say t2zzi. pl.) — jiwn xi≈n ⁄fi› some (pl. jet oÈrã. bakthr€a ⁄fl⁄ stone passus khar. diê yhlãzei ⁄fl› sun istanus arew ¥liow ⁄flfi swell suwattari aytnow.) tuk khez s° ⁄‡fl three t2ries erekh tre›w ⁄‡‡ throw pessiezzi. ow‡now ofide› ⁄flfl swim — lo¬ay ne›. arkanê bãllei.) allappahhi thkhanê ptÊei ⁄fifl split iskallai herjow. chich ÙjÊw.

bahulás ⁄‡¤ thin hollë — tanús ⁄‡‹ think mëndon pälskanaµ mányat2. Ωäkt3lye b!jam ⁄›‚ sew qep — s!vyati ⁄›⁄ sharp mprehtë m3tre. káßati ⁄‹‡ sea det samudtär samudrás ⁄‹° see sheh lk3ßßäµ páΩyati ⁄‹· seed farë s3rm.) ⁄fi‚ smoke tym — dh5más ⁄fi⁄ smooth lëmuar ßmare Ωlak߃ás ⁄fi¤ snake gjarpër arß3klo. s%ryas ⁄flfi swell ënjtet staukkanatär Ωváyati ⁄flfl swim noton n3ßßäµ právat2 ⁄fl‡ tail bisht — Ω@pas ⁄fl° that ai su. kruan — k߃áuti. bráv1ti ⁄‹fl scratch gërvish. Ωiñcatstse) himás ⁄fi› some (pl. samp sá ⁄fl· there aty. ásyati . auk áhis ⁄fi‹ snow (nn. d!dh2ti ⁄‡› this ky se ayám ⁄‡fi thou ti tuwe tvám ⁄‡fia thee (acc. cf.) borë (*Ωiñc….) ty ci tv£m ⁄‡fl three tre trey tráyas ⁄‡‡ throw hedh karßßäµ. ca ßemi k@ cit ⁄fifi spit (vb.) disa.) daƒ∂ás ⁄fl⁄ stone gur kärweñe áΩm3 ⁄fl¤ straight drejtë — #jús ⁄fl‹ suck thith — dháyati ⁄fl› sun diell kauµ svàr. yetse tvák ⁄›fl sky qiell iprer dyáus ⁄›‡ sleep fle kläntsaµ sásti ⁄›° small vogël lykaΩke.) ߆h!vati ⁄fifl split √an kautanaµ bhinátti ⁄fi‡ squeeze shtrëngon klupn3tär. akwatse t1k߃ás ⁄›¤ short shkurtër — (hrasvas) ⁄›‹ sing këndon piyaµ g£yati ⁄›› sit rri ndenjur ßamäµ. shufër Ωak3tai (obl. 3ßßäµ £st2 ⁄›fi skin lëkurë ewe. saläßßäµ kßipáti.) pështyn pitke (nn. omp tátra ⁄‡‚ they ata cey t@ ⁄‡⁄ thick trashë — sth5rás.) lëshon erë. adj.) síkat3s ⁄‹fi say thotë weßßäµ vívakti. atje tane. kundërmon warßßäµ gandhás (nn. 28 Albanian Tocharian B Vedic Sanskrit ⁄‹› sand rërë warañc (obl. nuskaßßäµ p1∂áyati ⁄fi° stand rri më këmbë kaltär tí߆hati ⁄fi· star yll Ωcirye star- ⁄fl‚ stick shkop. totka árbhas ⁄›· smell (intr.

opaß¡ (oçes∞.) pljujet∞ spiáuna ⁄fifl split dar∑dairii3t (opt. §÷dreskia ⁄‹‡ sea zraii4 morje j6ra ⁄‹° see va2naiti vidit∞ mãto ⁄‹· seed taoxma.) sp3ma. vr∞Ωet∞ m¶ta . gludùs ⁄fi¤ snake aΩiß zmija gyvãt£ ⁄fi‹ snow (nn.) vafra. on∞. Slavonic Lithuanian ⁄‹› sand — p™s∞k∞ sm%lis. krat∞k∞ tru⁄pas ⁄›‹ sing — pojet∞ dainúoja ⁄›› sit 3ste s™dit∞ s$di ⁄›fi skin suri koΩa óda ⁄›fl sky asma (diiau-. oßib∞) uodegà ⁄fl° that h4 t∞. tàs ⁄fl· there — tu teñ ⁄‡‚ they t2 oni.) — jeteri. pla•ko ⁄fl‡ tail duma. pov™st∞ sãko. çiu¤pia ⁄fl› sun huuar∑ sl∞n¡ce sául£ ⁄flfi swell sispimn4 (ptc. Daevic) nebo dangùs ⁄›‡ sleep xvafsaiti s∞pit∞ mi¶ga ⁄›° small kasuß mal∞ mãΩas ⁄›· smell (intr.) — tìna. smiltìs ⁄‹fi say mraoiti. tãria ⁄‹fl scratch — struΩet∞ i÷br$Ωia. çi†r∑m s™me® s$kla ⁄›‚ sew — ßijet∞ siùva ⁄›⁄ sharp ti©r4 ostr∞ aßtrùs ⁄›¤ short m∑r∑zu. d5mója ⁄‡› this a2m s¡. je. je. ov∞ ßìs ⁄‡fi thou t5m ty tù ⁄‡fia thee (acc.(nn. ji¶ ⁄‡⁄ thick — debel∞ stóras ⁄‡¤ thin — t¡n∞k∞ plónas ⁄‡‹ think mainiiete myslit∞ galvója. brìnksta ⁄flfl swim — plovet∞ pla•kia.) †∫a«m tebe tanè ⁄‡fl three †r3ii4 tr¡je tr@s ⁄‡‡ throw aµhiieiti.) — vonjajet∞ kv¶pia ⁄fi‚ smoke — dym∞ d6mai ⁄fi⁄ smooth — glad∞k∞ glõdnas.) (c™pit∞) sk¶lia ⁄fi‡ squeeze — t™ßtit∞ suspáudΩia ⁄fi° stand hißtaiti stojit∞ stóvi ⁄fi· star st3r4 (pl. n™kyji ka§ kuri¶ ⁄fifi spit (vb. aoxte reçet∞. 29 Avestan Old Ch.) zv™zda ΩvaigΩd£ ⁄fl‚ stick — — lazdà ⁄fl⁄ stone asma kamy akmuõ ⁄fl¤ straight ∑r∑zuß prav∞ tiesùs ⁄fl‹ suck — s∞set∞ Ωìnda. spaiieiti metet∞. sn™g∞ sni¶gas ⁄fi› some (pl.

nædre. súigid s5git ⁄fl› sun sunne grían s4l ⁄flfi swell swil† attaid tumet ⁄flfl swim swim† snaïd nat ⁄fl‡ tail tægl err cauda ⁄fl° that s2 sin ille ⁄fl· there †7r tall ibi ⁄‡‚ they h1e é e1 ⁄‡⁄ thick †icce tiug. hwæs gér. scindit ⁄fi‡ squeeze †ring† fáiscid premit ⁄fi° stand stent do‚airisethar stat ⁄fi· star steorra rétglu st2lla ⁄fl‚ stick sticca. scrip† scrípaid scabit ⁄‹‡ sea s7 muir. do‚léici iacit . smúainid c4gitat ⁄‡› this †2s so hic ⁄‡fi thou †5 tú t5 ⁄‡fia thee (acc. smoca dé f5mus ⁄fi⁄ smooth sm2†e réid l2vis ⁄fi¤ snake wyrm. t2 ⁄‡fl three †r1e trí tr2s ⁄‡‡ throw wierp† fo‚ceird. 30 Old English Old Irish Latin ⁄‹› sand sand ganem har2na ⁄‹fi say sæg† as‚beir d1cit ⁄‹fl scratch plicge†.) spuit ⁄fifl split cl1ef† dlongid findit.) stinc† bolad (nn.) sn3w snechte nix ⁄fi› some (pl.) sume araile aliqu1 ⁄fifi spit (vb. berr brevis ⁄›‹ sing sing† canaid canit ⁄›› sit sitt saidid sedet ⁄›fi skin h6d cnes cutis ⁄›fl sky heofon nem caelum ⁄›‡ sleep sl7p† con‚tuili dormit ⁄›° small l6tel. cloch lapis ⁄fl¤ straight riht díriuch r2ctus ⁄fl‹ suck s6c†. smæl bec parvos ⁄›· smell (intr.) olet ⁄fi‚ smoke r2oc. sreïd. snaca nathir anguis ⁄fi‹ snow (nn. hyg† im‚rádi. séim tenuis ⁄‡‹ think (ge)†enc†.) sp7tt. s6g† denait (pl.) †2 -t.). cumair. fairrge mare ⁄‹° see sieh† ad‚cí videt ⁄‹· seed s7d síl s2men ⁄›‚ sew s1wa† úaigid suit ⁄›⁄ sharp scearp. remor crassus ⁄‡¤ thin †ynne tanae. spitt saile (nn. áeth ac5tus ⁄›¤ short scort gerr. stæf slatt baculum ⁄fl⁄ stone st3n lie.

) cem ⁄‡⁄ thick — — — ⁄‡¤ thin — — — ⁄‡‹ think maliti — pältsä∫k3ß ⁄‡› this z3s ebe säs ⁄‡fi thou t1 — tu ⁄‡fia thee (acc.). apinzi -¶ (acc.) — — wräß ⁄fi‚ smoke — — — ⁄fi⁄ smooth — — — ⁄fi¤ snake — — 3rßal ⁄fi‹ snow (nn. tsru ⁄›· smell (intr.) — — — ⁄fi› some (pl.(?) ⁄›› sit asti — ßmäß ⁄›fi skin — — —.) . ebtte (dat. yats ⁄›fl sky tappassa — eprer ⁄›‡ sleep — — klisn3ß ⁄›° small — — lykäly.) — — ßome ⁄fifi spit (vb.) t5 — cu ⁄‡fl three tarris tri tre ⁄‡‡ throw — — worta-µ (pret. 31 Luvian Lycian Tocharian A ⁄‹› sand — — w3ry3ñc ⁄‹fi say 3ssatti (?) — trä∫käß ⁄‹fl scratch — — — ⁄‹‡ sea alasammis (?) — s3mudtär ⁄‹° see man3ti — lk3ß ⁄‹· seed warwalan — s3rm.) tapp3tti — — ⁄fifl split — — kotnaß ⁄fi‡ squeeze wisiti — — ⁄fi° stand t3i sttati kälytär ⁄fi· star — — Ωreñ (pl. Ωäkt3lyi ⁄›‚ sew — — — ⁄›⁄ sharp — — — ⁄›¤ short mannakunas — — ⁄›‹ sing — — piy3.) ⁄fl‚ stick winal — ßtop ⁄fl⁄ stone — — p3reµ ⁄fl¤ straight — — — ⁄fl‹ suck — — — ⁄fl› sun tiwaz — koµ ⁄flfi swell — — — ⁄flfl swim — — — ⁄fl‡ tail — — — ⁄fl° that ap3s — säm ⁄fl· there — — tmaµ ⁄‡‚ they -ata.

) *kaiçiy (?) — daΩi ⁄fifi spit (vb.. stabis (E) akmens ⁄fl¤ straight — — tàisns. ptc. saka ⁄‹fl scratch — — kasa. tûkst ⁄flfl swim — — pe›d ⁄fl‡ tail — — aste ⁄fl° that ava stas tas ⁄fl· there avad3 stwen tùr ⁄‡‚ they — tennei vin÷i ⁄‡⁄ thick — — bìezs.) îss ⁄›‹ sing — gr1mons (pret. [t1rts ‘‹rd’] trîs ⁄‡‡ throw ahiyatiy [metis (nn.) tèic. E) spi¶k÷is. stall3 stãv ⁄fi· star — lauxnos (pl. E)] me®t. dangus (E) debess ⁄›‡ sleep — meicte (inf. sviêΩ . kaßã ⁄‹‡ sea draya i5rin (loc.) — — spl÷a•j.) redz ⁄‹· seed — semen (E) s¶®kla ⁄›‚ sew — — ßuj ⁄›⁄ sharp tigra — ass ⁄›¤ short — 1nsan (acc. inf.?).) — — ôΩ. hauv schis ßis ⁄‡fi thou tuvam to5 tu ⁄‡fia thee (acc. seΩ ⁄›fi skin — keuto (E) âda ⁄›fl sky asm3 dangan (acc.) sê®d.) dziêd ⁄›› sit — syndens (ptc. spl÷a•da ⁄fifl split — — ska›da. re®sns ⁄‡¤ thin — — tiêvs ⁄‡‹ think maniyataiy pom1rit (?. <j>uriay (E) j•ra ⁄‹° see vainatiy widdai (pret. tìeßs ⁄fl‹ suck — — zîΩ ⁄fl› sun — saule (E) sa•le ⁄flfi swell — — pàmpst. a†anga.) dõmã ⁄‡› this iyam.) — snaygis (E) snìegs ⁄fi› some (pl. ßk÷el÷ ⁄fi‡ squeeze — — spiêΩ ⁄fi° stand st3.) †uv3m tien tevi ⁄‡fl three *√i. smifid ⁄fi‚ smoke — dumis (E) d•mi ⁄fi⁄ smooth — — glude®ns ⁄fi¤ snake — angis (E) ç•ska ⁄fi‹ snow (nn.).. 32 Old Persian Old Prussian Latvian ⁄‹› sand — sixdo (E) smìlts ⁄‹fi say †3tiy (†ah-) gerdawi (⁄sg. G) gul÷ ⁄›° small — likuts mazs ⁄›· smell (intr. E) zvàigzne ⁄fl‚ stick — laxde (?. n•ja ⁄fl⁄ stone as3..

) †uk †ik dih ⁄‡fl three †reis †rír dr1 ⁄‡‡ throw waírpi† verpr. skinn h5t. was ⁄›¤ short — skammr kurz. fra†ji† hugsar. 33 Gothic Old Norse Old High German ⁄‹› sand malma sandr sant ⁄‹fi say qi†i† segir.) sumai sumir sume ⁄fifi spit (vb. skarpr scarf. na∂r n3tra. gelr singit ⁄›› sit siti† sitr sizzit ⁄›fi skin ºfill hú∂. hyggr denkit ⁄‡› this sa sjá. skemmi ⁄›‹ sing siggwi† syngr. kastar wirfit .) speiwi† hrækir. s2o ⁄‹° see saí¬i† sér sihit ⁄‹· seed fraiw fræ / frjó s3mo ⁄›‚ sew siuji† saumar n3it ⁄›⁄ sharp º¬ass hvass. ruota ⁄fl⁄ stone stains steinn stein ⁄fl¤ straight raíhts réttr.) snaiws snær / snjór sn2o ⁄fi› some (pl. †rútnar swillit ⁄flfl swim — svimmr swimmit ⁄fl‡ tail — hali zagal ⁄fl° that sa sá der ⁄fl· there †ar †ar d3r ⁄‡‚ they eis †eir sie ⁄‡⁄ thick — †ykkr dicchi ⁄‡¤ thin — †unnr dunni ⁄‡‹ think hugji†. smal ⁄›· smell (intr. wurm ⁄fi‹ snow (nn. sær / sjór meri.) — †efr stinkit ⁄fi‚ smoke — reykr rouh ⁄fi⁄ smooth slaíhts sléttr sleht. fel ⁄›fl sky himins himinn himil ⁄›‡ sleep sl2pi† søfr sl3fit ⁄›° small leitils lítill. sag2t ⁄‹fl scratch — skefr crazz4t ⁄‹‡ sea marei haf. speltit ⁄fi‡ squeeze †reihi† †ryngr drucchit ⁄fi° stand standi† stendr stentit. kve∂r quidit. st2t ⁄fi· star staírn4 stjarna sterro ⁄fl‚ stick hrugga kefli gerta. eban ⁄fi¤ snake waúrms. sp§tir sp1wit ⁄fifl split — kl§fr kliubit. †essi dese ⁄‡fi thou †5 †ú d5 ⁄‡fia thee (acc. beinn reht ⁄fl‹ suck — s§gr s5git ⁄fl› sun sauil. (?) nadrs ormr. smár luzzil. sunn4 sól sunna ⁄flfi swell — svellr.

bychan malaks (?.) ⁄fl· there yna ifei (?) ife. nt.) ⁄‹fl scratch crafu — — ⁄‹‡ sea môr — — ⁄‹° see gwel(e)d — uirseto (ptc.) ⁄›› sit eistedd — sersitu (iptv. maen — vapefle (abl. huno — — ⁄›° small bach. di — tiu.) ti. acc. eruk ⁄‡‚ they nhw iusc eaf (fem.) uru (abl. ulu (adv.). cwta — — ⁄›‹ sing canu — kanetu (iptv.) arogli — — ⁄fi‚ smoke mwg — — ⁄fi⁄ smooth llyfn — — ⁄fi¤ snake neidr.) eira — — ⁄fi› some (pl.) ⁄‡‡ throw taflu — — .) rhai — — ⁄fifi spit (vb.) ⁄fi· star seren — — ⁄fl‚ stick ffon. ef.) — ⁄›· smell (intr. sarff — — ⁄fi‹ snow (nn.) ⁄fl⁄ stone carreg. acc. miniog — — ⁄›¤ short byr.) ⁄‹· seed hedyn — — ⁄›‚ sew gwnïo — — ⁄›⁄ sharp llym. 34 Welsh Oscan Umbrian ⁄‹› sand tywod — — ⁄‹fi say dweud (dywedyd) deíkum (inf. dyfnu — — ⁄fl› sun haul — — ⁄flfi swell chwyddo — — ⁄flfl swim nofio — — ⁄fl‡ tail cynffon — — ⁄fl° that hynny úlleis (gen.) poeri — — ⁄fifl split hollti — — ⁄fi‡ squeeze gwasgu — — ⁄fi° stand sefyll staít stahitu (iptv. tiom ⁄‡fl three tri trís trif (acc. pl.) ⁄‡⁄ thick tew — — ⁄‡¤ thin tenau — — ⁄‡‹ think meddwl — — ⁄‡› this hyn ekík (nt. acc.) ⁄‡fi thou ti tiium — ⁄‡fia thee (acc. gwialen — percam (?.) deitu (iptv.) ⁄›fi skin croen — — ⁄›fl sky wybren — — ⁄›‡ sleep cysgu.) ⁄fl¤ straight union — — ⁄fl‹ suck sugno.) eso (fem.

) huwanz ho¬m êneµow ⁄·· wing partawar. n2a da‡nay tr°petai. handerj sÊn ¤‚¤ woman ºkuwanz kin gunÆ ¤‚‹ woods tiessar anta‡. noterÒw ⁄·⁄ what kuit zi t€ ⁄·¤ when kuwapi erb pÒte ⁄·‹ where kuwapi owr poË ⁄·› white harkis spitak leukÒw ⁄·fi who kuis o t€w ⁄·fl wide palhis layn eÈrÊw ⁄·‡ wife ºkuwanz kin gunÆ ⁄·° wind (nn. 35 Hittite Armenian Greek ⁄‡° tie ishai. warpzi lowanay loÊei. tari ¶tow. str°fetai ⁄°‹ two d3n (adv.) erkow dÊo ⁄°› vomit — orcay §µe› ⁄°fi walk iyatta ßr∆i peripate› ⁄°fl warm 3nz ∆erm yerµÒw ⁄°‡ wash 3rri.) sum3s jez ͵çw ¤‚fl year w1z am. hamanki kapê de› ⁄‡· tongue lalas lezow gl«tta ⁄°‚ tooth gagas atamn ÙdoÊw ⁄°⁄ tree t3ru ca‡ d°ndron ⁄°¤ turn (intr. n€zei. plÊnei ⁄°° water w3tar ∆owr Ïdvr ⁄°· we w2s mekh ≤µe›w ⁄°·a us (acc. §niautÒw ¤‚‡ yellow hahlawanz de¬in janyÒw . mayri Ïlh ¤‚› worm — ordn sk≈lhj ¤‚fi ye sum2s dowkh ͵e›w ¤‚fia you (acc.) anz3s mez ≤µçw ⁄·‚ wet hurniyanz xonaw ÍgrÒw. pattar thew pt°ruj ¤‚‚ wipe 3nssi ∆n∆ê époµãttei ¤‚⁄ with katti.) wehzi.

kím ⁄·¤ when kur ente kad£ ⁄·‹ where ku — kvà. Ωv2tás ⁄·fi who kush kuse kás ⁄·fl wide gjerë aurtstse p#thús.) sillet. kar3Ω vánam ¤‚› worm krimb yel k¢mis ¤‚fi ye ju yes y5yám ¤‚fia you (acc. kútra ⁄·› white bardhë 3rkwi árjunas.) ju yes yußm£n ¤‚fl year vit pikul vatsarás ¤‚‡ yellow verdhë tute háris . sahá ¤‚¤ woman grua klyiye ján1 ¤‚‹ woods pyll wartto.) erë yente v£tas.) ne wes asm£n ⁄·‚ wet lagët. parƒám ¤‚‚ wipe fshin lyy3stär m£r߆i ¤‚⁄ with me Ωle smát. ján1 ⁄·° wind (nn. sporttotär vártat2. urús ⁄·‡ wife grua Ωana pátn1. 36 Albanian Tocharian B Vedic Sanskrit ⁄‡° tie lidh Ωanmästär. kärkaßßäµ náhyati. syáti. kthehet klutta∫ktär. dyáti ⁄‡· tongue gjuhë kantwo jihv£ ⁄°‚ tooth dhëmb keme dán ⁄°⁄ tree dru st3m v#kßás ⁄°¤ turn (intr. badhn£ti. v#∫kt@ ⁄°‹ two dy wi dv£ ⁄°› vomit villet a∫kaiµ yamaßßäµ vámiti ⁄°fi walk ecën yaµ gácchati ⁄°fl warm ngrohtë emalle u߃ás ⁄°‡ wash lan laikanatär n@n2kti ⁄°° water ujë war v£r (ud(á)n-) ⁄°· we ne wes vayám ⁄°·a us (acc. j3y£. v3yús ⁄·· wing fletë — pakßás. njomë *kar1tstse 3rdrás ⁄·⁄ what √ kuse kád.

tapt4 topl∞ ßi¤tas ⁄°‡ wash snaiieiti.) vas∞ jùs ¤‚fl year y3r∑ l™to m¶tai ¤‚‡ yellow zairiß.). 37 Avestan Old Ch. n3ir1ka Ωena Ωmonà ⁄·° wind (nn. str1 Ωena móteris ¤‚‹ woods razur∑m l™s∞ mìßkas ¤‚› worm — çr∞v¡ kirm£l% ¤‚fi ye y5Ω∑m vy j7s ¤‚fia you (acc. bljujet∞ v¶mia ⁄°fi walk ∆asaiti idet∞. ha∂a s∞ sù ¤‚¤ woman ∆ainiß. n3iri. auruß4 b™l∞ báltas ⁄·fi who k4 k∞to kàs ⁄·fl wide p∑r∑†uß. bandaiieiti s∞ve®Ωet∞. zoπb∞ dantìs ⁄°⁄ tree vana dr™vo. pa†an4 ßirok∞ platùs ⁄·‡ wife n3iri.) ahma nas∞ mùs ⁄·‚ wet napt4 mokr∞ ßlãpias ⁄·⁄ what kat ç¡to kàs ⁄·¤ when ka∂a kogda kadà ⁄·‹ where k5.) v3t4 v™tr∞ v$jas ⁄·· wing par∑n∑m krilo spa‹nas ¤‚‚ wipe — t¡ret∞ ßlúosto ¤‚⁄ with mat. na2niΩaiti myjet∞ mazgója ⁄°° water 3fß voda vanduõ ⁄°· we va2m my m¶s ⁄°·a us (acc.) v4 (encl.) uruuisiieiti obratit∞ se® ve‹çiasi ⁄°‹ two duua d∞va dù ⁄°› vomit vam. zairit4 Ωl¡t∞ geltónas . d3t3. doπb∞ m¶dis ⁄°¤ turn (intr. xodit∞ e§na ⁄°fl warm gar∑m4. Slavonic Lithuanian ⁄‡° tie hiß3iia (pf.). ku†ra k∞de ku‹ ⁄·› white spa2ta-. povr∞zet∞ rìßa ⁄‡· tongue hizuua je®zyk∞ lieΩùvis ⁄°‚ tooth dant3n4 (pl.

naiscid. téit (tíagait) ambulat ⁄°fl warm wearm té tepidus ⁄°‡ wash †wieh†. w1d lethan l3tus ⁄·‡ wife w1f. 38 Old English Old Irish Latin ⁄‡° tie bint. g7† cingid.) wind gáeth ventus ⁄·· wing fi†eru ette.) 5s -n. scíath 3la ¤‚‚ wipe w1pa† — terget ¤‚⁄ with mid co cum ¤‚¤ woman w1f ben mulier ¤‚‹ woods weald. cenglaid ligat ⁄‡· tongue tunge tengae lingua ⁄°‚ tooth t4† dét d2ns ⁄°⁄ tree tr2ow crann arbor ⁄°¤ turn (intr. ross silva ¤‚› worm wyrm cruim vermis ¤‚fi ye g2 sí v4s ¤‚fia you (acc. n4s ⁄·‚ wet w7t.) went sóïd vertitur ⁄°‹ two tw2gen dáu duo ⁄°› vomit sp1w† sceïd vomit ⁄°fi walk gange†.) 2ow -b. bán albus ⁄·fi who hw3 cía quis ⁄·fl wide br3d. sétig uxor ⁄·° wind (nn. fid. t1g† con‚rig. f5ht fliuch 5midus ⁄·⁄ what hwæt cid quid ⁄·¤ when hwonne cuin quand4 ⁄·‹ where hw7r cairm ubi ⁄·› white hw1t find. wudu caill. cw2n ben. wæsc† nigid lavat ⁄°° water wæter uisce aqua ⁄°· we w2 sní n4s ⁄°·a us (acc. v4s ¤‚fl year g2ar blíadain annus ¤‚‡ yellow geolu buide fl3vos .

) ¤‚⁄ with — ese Ωla ¤‚¤ woman wanattis. 39 Luvian Lycian Tocharian A ⁄‡° tie hishiti.) 3nza — was ⁄·‚ wet — — wipo ⁄·⁄ what ku1 ti kus ⁄·¤ when kuwati — änt3.) kuwal1ti (?) — sparcwatär ⁄°‹ two — kbi wu ⁄°› vomit — — — ⁄°fi walk — — yäß ⁄°fl warm — — s3t ⁄°‡ wash 1lh3ti. k3r3Ω ¤‚› worm — — walyi (pl. kupre ⁄·‹ where kuwar(i) (?) teli t3 ⁄·› white — — 3rki ⁄·fi who kuis ti kus ⁄·fl wide — — wärts ⁄·‡ wife — lada Ωäµ ⁄·° wind (nn.) 5nza(s) — yas ¤‚fl year ussis uhi pkul ¤‚‡ yellow hahhaluwantis — — . l3hunti — likäß ⁄°° water w3rsa — wär ⁄°· we — — was ⁄°·a us (acc.) ¤‚fi ye — — yas ¤‚fia you (acc. h3piti — kärk- ⁄‡· tongue l3lis — käntu ⁄°‚ tooth — — kam ⁄°⁄ tree — — ßt3m ⁄°¤ turn (intr.) — — want ⁄·· wing aruti — — ¤‚‚ wipe ammassiti — ly3señc (‹pl. w3nas — kuli ¤‚‹ woods — — wärt.

G) vemj ⁄°fi walk — — iêt. wundan (E) ûdens ⁄°· we vayam mes m¶s ⁄°·a us (acc. genno (E) si¶va ⁄·° wind (nn.) sìen ⁄‡· tongue haz3na. perr2ist (inf. mettan (E) gads ¤‚‡ yellow — gelatynan (E) dze®›te®ns . dwai divi ⁄°› vomit — wimbmis (form??.) — wetro (E) v¶jß ⁄·· wing — — sp9rns ¤‚‚ wipe — — sla•ka ¤‚⁄ with had3 sen ar ¤‚¤ woman — gennan (acc. 40 Old Persian Old Prussian Latvian ⁄‡° tie band. genno (E) si¶vi¶te ¤‚‹ woods — median (E) meΩs ¤‚› worm — [slayx ‘earthworm’ (E)] t9rps ¤‚fi ye — io5s j•s ¤‚fia you (acc. sta§gã ⁄°fl warm — — sìlts ⁄°‡ wash — [aum5snan (nn.). grìeΩ ⁄°‹ two *duva. no5mas) m•s ⁄·‚ wet — — slapjß ⁄·⁄ what — ka kas ⁄·¤ when — kadan kad ⁄·‹ where — quei kùr ⁄·› white — gaylis (E) ba¤ts ⁄·fi who ka kas kas ⁄·fl wide — — plats ⁄·‡ wife — gennan (acc.) — mans (dat.) — wans j•s ¤‚fl year †ard. insuwis (E) mèle ⁄°‚ tooth — dantis (E) zòbs ⁄°⁄ tree — garian (E) kòks ⁄°¤ turn (intr.)] mazgã ⁄°° water 3piß unds.).) vartataiy wartinna v8rß.

) uns(is) oss unsih ⁄·‚ wet ºnats vátr naz.) wandei† hverfr. f5hti ⁄·⁄ what ¬a hvat waz ⁄·¤ when ¬an hvenær wanne ⁄·‹ where ¬ar hvar w3r ⁄·› white ¬eits hvítr w1z ⁄·fi who ¬as hverr wer ⁄·fl wide brai†s ví∂r. a†n(s?). holz ¤‚› worm ma†a ormr. w1t ⁄·‡ wife q2ns kona quena.) winds vindr wint ⁄·· wing — vængr federah ¤‚‚ wipe biswaírbi† — swirbit ¤‚⁄ with mi† me∂ mit ¤‚¤ woman qin4 kona w1b ¤‚‹ woods — vi∂r. ata†ni ár j3r ¤‚‡ yellow — gulr gelo . g2t ⁄°fl warm ºwarms varmr warm ⁄°‡ wash †wahi† †vær waskit ⁄°° water wat4 vatn wazzar ⁄°· we weis vér wir ⁄°·a us (acc. gimahha ⁄·° wind (nn. brei∂r breit. 41 Gothic Old Norse Old High German ⁄‡° tie bindi† bindr bintit ⁄‡· tongue tugg4 tunga zunga ⁄°‚ tooth tun†us toπnn zan ⁄°⁄ tree bagms tré boum ⁄°¤ turn (intr. ma∂kr wurm ¤‚fi ye j5s †ér ir ¤‚fia you (acc. k2rit ⁄°‹ two twai tveir zw2ne ⁄°› vomit — sp§r sp1wit ⁄°fi walk gaggi† gengr gengit. moπrk.) izwis y∂r iuwih ¤‚fl year j2r. sn§r wentit. skógr wald.

). abwydyn — — ¤‚fi ye chwi uus [Paelignian] — ¤‚fia you (acc. pf.) — ¤‚‹ woods coedwig. gw#dd — — ¤‚› worm pryf. nt.) — ⁄°‚ tooth dant dunte[s] (abl.) ni — — ⁄·‚ wet gwlyb — — ⁄·⁄ what (pa) beth píd pifle ⁄·¤ when pryd (< pa bryd) — — ⁄·‹ where ble (< pa le) puf pufe ⁄·› white gwyn. un- ⁄°· we ni — — ⁄°·a us (acc.) troi — couertu (iptv. gwraig usurs (?.) ⁄°° water d¢r aapam (acc. pl.) gwynt — — ⁄·· wing asgell. clymu — — ⁄‡· tongue tafod fangvam (acc.) ⁄°‹ two dau — dur ⁄°› vomit chwydu.) ⁄°fl warm cynnes — — ⁄°‡ wash golchi — vutu (iptv.) utur.) ¤‚‡ yellow melyn — — . acc. vurtus (fut. cyfogi — — ⁄°fi walk cerdded — amboltu (iptv. pl.) ⁄·fi who pwy pís pisi ⁄·fl wide llydan — — ⁄·‡ wife gwraig — — ⁄·° wind (nn. can — alfu (pl. adain — — ¤‚‚ wipe sychu — — ¤‚⁄ with gyda com com ¤‚¤ woman menyw. 42 Welsh Oscan Umbrian ⁄‡° tie rhwymo.?) — ⁄°⁄ tree coeden.) chwi — — ¤‚fl year blwyddyn akeneí (loc. pren — — ⁄°¤ turn (intr.) acnu (acc.

aga‡ak égrÒw ‹‹° finger kalulupas matn dãktulow ‹‹· fly (nn. arthown kay §grÆgore (pf. 5nnai. tarupzi Ωo¬ovê. çanç µu›a ‹›‚ follow 3ppanda paizzi z-het (z-kni) gnay ßpetai. summittanz tapar éj€nh.) — sandr kte€w ‹¤fi cook (vb. phßrê katarrÆgnusi.) duwarnizzi bekanê.ß À terippi art. hasowchanê p°ttei ‹¤fl cow — kov boËw ‹¤‡ darkness dankuyatar xawar. b°low.) ‹‚fl ax ates.) hartaggas ar∆ êrktow ‹⁄‚ beard zamankur mawrowk h p≈gvn ‹⁄⁄ bee — me¬ow µ°litta ‹⁄¤ be born hassanz 2szi cnani g€gnetai ‹⁄‹ bow (nn. and. 43 Hittite Armenian Greek ‹‚⁄ arm ishunau (?) bazowk brax€vn ‹‚¤ arrow n3tas net ofistÒw.) liszi. p°lekuw ‹‚‡ axle — — êjvn ‹‚° be 2szi ê. harsn nuÒw ‹‹‚ door arasas (-is ?) dowrk h yÊra ‹‹⁄ drive (tr. udai berê.) pennai. tÒjeuµa ‹‚‹ ask punuszi harchanê §rvtçi ‹‚› autumn z2nanz aßown fyinÒpvron ‹‚fi be awake arriezzi (h)skê. aner penyerÒw ‹‹‡ field [plowed] A.) — a¬e¬n tÒjon ‹⁄› branch alkistas ko¬r. nannai — §laÊnei ‹‹¤ duck lahanz — n∞tta ‹‹‹ eight — owth Ùkt≈ ‹‹› elbow — armowk(n) égk≈n ‹‹fi eyebrow ineras yawnkh ÙfrÊw ‹‹fl father-in-law gaenas (s)kesrayr. zowarak taËrow ‹¤‚ buy w3si gnê »ne›tai ‹¤⁄ carry p2dai.) zanu.) — mΩi¬. krê f°rei ‹¤¤ cattle (pl.) — ar∆a‡k h bÒew ‹¤‹ collect (tr. ékolouye› ‹›⁄ free arawas azat §leÊyerow ‹›¤ furrow — — aÔlaj ‹›‹ go paizzi erthay. mowth skÒtow ‹¤° daughter — dowstr yugãthr ‹¤· daughter-in-law (gaenas ?) now. kha¬e sull°gei ‹¤› comb (nn. gnay ¶rxetai (fi°nai) ‹›› goat — ayc x€µaira ‹›fi gold — oski xrusÒw . ost klãdow ‹⁄fi break (tr. kay §st€ ‹‚· bear (nn. katãgnusi ‹⁄fl bronze — p¬inj xalkÒw ‹⁄‡ brother negnas e¬bayr édelfÒw ‹⁄° brother-in-law gaenas taygr daÆr ‹⁄· bull — chowl.

tunxh — l4hám (áyas ?) ‹⁄‡ brother vëlla procer bhr£t3 ‹⁄° brother-in-law kunat — d2v£ ‹⁄· bull ka kauurße ukߣ. tsaiµ íßus.) b3hús ‹‚¤ arrow shigjetë prere. gácchati ‹›› goat dhi (*3s. Ωárus ‹‚‹ ask pyet prekßäµ p#ccháti ‹‚› autumn vjeshtë — Ωarát ‹‚fi be awake është i zgjuar 3ksau nesäµ j3g£ra (pf.) mbledh kraupnaµ.) bhr%s ‹‹fl father-in-law vjehër(r) — ΩváΩuras ‹‹‡ field [plowed] arë miße urvár3. kß@tram ‹‹° finger gisht pr3ri a∫gúris ‹‹· fly (nn.) ‹⁄¤ be born lindet tänmastär j£yat2 ‹⁄‹ bow (nn.) ‹‚fl ax sëpatë peret paraΩús ‹‚‡ axle bosht ßem ákßas ‹‚° be është nesäµ (ßey). flori yasa híraƒyam .) nget kalßtär ájati ‹‹¤ duck rosë — — ‹‹‹ eight tetë okt a߆£ ‹‹› elbow bërryl — aratnís ‹‹fi eyebrow vetull pärw3ne (du.) thyen kautanaµ bhanákti ‹⁄fl bronze bronc.) sám / pári cin4ti ‹¤› comb (nn. v#ßabhás ‹¤‚ buy blen kärn3stär kr1ƒ£ti ‹¤⁄ carry bart.) ari — ¢kßas ‹⁄‚ beard mjekër — ΩmáΩru ‹⁄⁄ bee bletë kro∫kΩe mákßas (pl.) mákßik3 (?) ‹›‚ follow ndjek koloktär sácat2 ‹›⁄ free lirë — sv3dh!nas ‹›¤ furrow brazë.) ‹‹⁄ drive (tr.) (?) dhánva ‹⁄› branch degë kar3k Ω£kh3. terr orkamñe támas ‹¤° daughter bijë tk3cer duhit£ ‹¤· daughter-in-law nuse — snuߣ ‹‹‚ door derë twere dv£r3 (du.) gatuan pakßäµ pácati ‹¤fl cow lopë keu gáus. mäsketär ásti ‹‚· bear (nn.) mizë tanaulykañ (pl.) (h)ark wäntalyi (obl. √on paräµ bhárati ‹¤¤ cattle (pl. hulli — s!t3 ‹›‹ go vete. aßiye) ajás ‹›fi gold ar. oksaiñ g£vas ‹¤‹ collect (tr. cf. shkon yaµ @ti.) krehër seriñ (?) ká∫katas ‹¤fi cook (vb. adj. k3ratsi (inf. 44 Albanian Tocharian B Vedic Sanskrit ‹‚⁄ arm krah pokai (obl. vay£ ‹⁄fi break (tr.) gjedha kewi. vaΩ£ ‹¤‡ darkness errësirë.

) hançaiieiti s∞beret∞ reñka ‹¤› comb (nn.) arß4 medv™d¡ lok@s.) b∞dit∞ nemi¶ga. meßkà ‹⁄‚ beard — brada barzdà ‹⁄⁄ bee — b¡çela bìt£.) azaiti Ωenet∞ vãro.) maxßi m∞xa mus% ‹›‚ follow haçaite v∞ sl™d∞ idet∞ s¶ka ‹›⁄ free — svobod¡ la§svas. çesl∞. ∆asaiti idet∞ e§na ‹›› goat — koza oΩkà ‹›fi gold zaranim zlato áuksas . v™ja ßakà ‹⁄fi break (tr.) paçaiti varit∞ vérda ‹¤fl cow g3uß krava kárv£ ‹¤‡ darkness t∑m4 t¡ma. liúosas ‹›¤ furrow karß4 brazda vagà ‹›‹ go a2iti. la•kas ‹‹° finger ∑r∑zuß pr∞st∞ pi‹ßtas ‹‹· fly (nn. Slavonic Lithuanian ‹‚⁄ arm b3z3uß myß¡ca rankà ‹‚¤ arrow ißuß str™la str£l%. v™tv¡.) †anuuar∑ loπk∞ lañkas ‹⁄› branch fraspar∑©4.) — greben¡. v@lyçia ‹‚‹ ask p∑r∑saiti v∞prosit∞ kláusia ‹‚› autumn — jesen¡ ruduõ ‹‚fi be awake ∆a©3ra (pf.) g3uu4 *gove®do (nuta) galvìjai ‹¤‹ collect (tr. bitìs ‹⁄¤ be born zaiiete raΩdajet∞ gìmsta ‹⁄‹ bow (nn. sváinis ‹⁄· bull uxßa byk∞ bùlius ‹¤‚ buy — kupit∞ pe‹ka ‹¤⁄ carry baraiti nosit∞ n¶ßa ‹¤¤ cattle (pl. çesalo ßùkos ‹¤fi cook (vb. frauu3xß. vr∞tograd∞ dirvà. bùda ‹‚fl ax taß4 s™kyra (brady) ki‹vis ‹‚‡ axle — os¡ aßìs ‹‚° be asti jest∞ yrà (es-) ‹‚· bear (nn. 45 Avestan Old Ch.) sçandaiieiti lomit∞ láuΩia ‹⁄fl bronze aii4 (?) m™d¡ brònza ‹⁄‡ brother br3ta brat(r)∞ brólis ‹⁄° brother-in-law — d™ver¡ ßvógeris. br∞v¡ añtakiai ‹‹fl father-in-law v x asur4 svekr∞ úoßvis ‹‹‡ field [plowed] karßuß vr∞t∞. mrak∞ tamsà ‹¤° daughter du©∂a d∞ßt¡ dukt% ‹¤· daughter-in-law — sn∞xa martì ‹‹‚ door duuar∑ dv¡r¡ dùrys ‹‹⁄ drive (tr. g¶na ‹‹¤ duck — oπty ántis ‹‹‹ eight aßta osm¡ aßtuonì ‹‹› elbow ar∑†n4 lak∞t¡ alk6n£ ‹‹fi eyebrow bruuat.

4stium ‹‹⁄ drive (tr.) gadera†. rumpit ‹⁄fl bronze 3r umae aes ‹⁄‡ brother br4†or bráthair fr3ter ‹⁄° brother-in-law t3cor cliamain l2vir ‹⁄· bull fearr tarb taurus ‹¤‚ buy byg† crenaid emit ‹¤⁄ carry bir† beirid fert ‹¤¤ cattle (pl. forbrú supercilium ‹‹fl father-in-law sw2or cliamain socer ‹‹‡ field [plowed] æcer gort arvom ‹‹° finger finger mér digitus ‹‹· fly (nn. n2at boí bov2s ‹¤‹ collect (tr.) hr1†eru. b2on/wesan) is.) bera math ursus ‹⁄‚ beard beard fésóc barba ‹⁄⁄ bee b2o bech apis ‹⁄¤ be born wier† geboren gainithir n3scitur ‹⁄‹ bow (nn. 3sca† imm‚comairc.) boga fidbocc arcus ‹⁄› branch b4g. con‚boing frangit.) dr1f† ad‚aig agit ‹‹¤ duck ened lachu anas ‹‹‹ eight eahta ocht oct4 ‹‹› elbow elnboga uilenn cubitus ‹‹fi eyebrow ofarbr5 brú. túag sec5ris ‹‚‡ axle eax fertas axis ‹‚° be is (bi†. dóe bracchium ‹‚¤ arrow earh saiget sagitta ‹‚‹ ask frign†. gange† téit (tíagat) it ‹›› goat g3t gabor capra ‹›fi gold gold ór aurum . fær†.) camb cír pecten ‹¤fi cook (vb. samna†. telga. géc. lis† do‚inóla. do‚ecmalla colligit ‹¤› comb (nn. 46 Old English Old Irish Latin ‹‚⁄ arm earm lám.) gegearwa† fo‚noí coquit ‹¤fl cow c5 bó vacca ‹¤‡ darkness †2ostru temel. twig cráeb. géscae r3mus ‹⁄fi break (tr.) fl2oge cuil musca ‹›‚ follow folga† sechithir sequitur ‹›⁄ free fr2o sóer l1ber ‹›¤ furrow furh etarche sulcus ‹›‹ go g7†. atá (biid) est (fu-) ‹‚· bear (nn. iarmi‚foig rogat ‹‚› autumn hærfest fogamar autumnus ‹‚fi be awake waca† — vigilat ‹‚fl ax æcs bïail. dorchae tenebrae ‹¤° daughter dohtor ingen f1lia ‹¤· daughter-in-law snoru — nurus ‹‹‚ door duru dorus foris.) bric† brisid. i3nua.

) ‹›⁄ free — (arawa ‘freedom’) — ‹›¤ furrow — — — ‹›‹ go 1ti — yäß ‹›› goat — — 3s ‹›fi gold — — wäs .) — — pkäß ‹¤fl cow w3w1s wawa ko ‹¤‡ darkness — — orkäm ‹¤° daughter duttariyatis kbatra ck3car ‹¤· daughter-in-law — — — ‹‹‚ door — — — ‹‹⁄ drive (tr. 47 Luvian Lycian Tocharian A ‹‚⁄ arm — — poke ‹‚¤ arrow — — pär ‹‚‹ ask — — prakäß ‹‚› autumn — — yäpsant (?) ‹‚fi be awake — — w3wru naß ‹‚fl ax — — porat ‹‚‡ axle — — — ‹‚° be 3sti esi naß (ße).) paprai — — ‹‹¤ duck — — — ‹‹‹ eight — aitãta okt ‹‹› elbow — — — ‹‹fi eyebrow kuwannanis — pärw3µ ‹‹fl father-in-law — — — ‹‹‡ field [plowed] — — mißi (?*) ‹‹° finger — — pr3r ‹‹· fly (nn.) — — añcäl ‹⁄› branch — — karke ‹⁄fi break (tr.) m3lh5ti. tatarhti — kotnaß ‹⁄fl bronze — — — ‹⁄‡ brother n3nais n¶ni pracar ‹⁄° brother-in-law — — — ‹⁄· bull — — kayurß ‹¤‚ buy — ije — ‹¤⁄ carry patzati (?) — pärtär ‹¤¤ cattle (pl. mäskatär ‹‚· bear (nn.) — — kowi ‹¤‹ collect (tr. ptc.) — — — ‹⁄‚ beard — — — ‹⁄⁄ bee — — kro∫Ωe ‹⁄¤ be born — — tämnäßtär ‹⁄‹ bow (nn.) — — kropnaß ‹¤› comb (nn.) — — — ‹¤fi cook (vb.) — — — ‹›‚ follow — — säkn3m3µ (?.

E) uzacs ‹‹fl father-in-law — tisties (E) v§rat¶®vs. lasa.(?) lonix (E) bu¤lis ‹¤‚ buy — — p8®rk ‹¤⁄ carry baratiy p1dai ne®s ‹¤¤ cattle (pl. — lòks (stõps ?) ‹⁄› branch — wipis (E) zars ‹⁄fi break (tr. vàr§ ‹¤fl cow *gav.) — gunnimai (⁄pl. 48 Old Persian Old Prussian Latvian ‹‚⁄ arm — irmo (E) ròka ‹‚¤ arrow — — bu¤ta ‹‚‹ ask parsatiy — ja•tã. pl. warto (E) dùrvis ‹‹⁄ drive (tr. wartin (acc. la•ks ‹‹° finger — pirsten (E) pìrksts ‹‹· fly (nn. pìedzìmst ‹⁄‹ bow (nn. prasa ‹‚› autumn — assanis (E) rudens ‹‚fi be awake — bud2 ir nõmôdã ‹‚fl ax isuv3 (?) bile (E) cìrvis ‹‚‡ axle — assis (E) ass ‹‚° be astiy est ir (e®smu) ‹‚· bear (nn.) ve®de®kla ‹‹‚ door duvar. *va√a.) — — vàra.) — coysnis (E) k÷e⁄me ‹¤fi cook (vb.).) pìedze®m. va§cã.) dze®n ‹‹¤ duck — antis (E) p§le ‹‹‹ eight — [asmus ‘°th’] astôn÷i ‹‹› elbow — alkunis (E) è®lkonis ‹‹fi eyebrow — wubri (?. klente (E) gòvs ‹¤‡ darkness — — tùmsa ‹¤° daughter — duckti meîta ‹¤· daughter-in-law — m3rtin (acc.) — pecku (sg.) — l1mauts (pret.) — senr1nka krãj. ptc.) se®kõ ‹›⁄ free — pow1rps br§vs ‹›¤ furrow — redo (E) vaga ‹›‹ go aitiy 2it iêt ‹›› goat — wosee (E) kaza ‹›fi gold daraniyam ausin (acc. ausis (E) zè®lts .).) li¶lõpi ‹¤‹ collect (tr.) — muso (E) mußa ‹›‚ follow — r1piaiti (iptv.) *†anuvan-.) — clokis (E) lâcis ‹⁄‚ beard — bordus (E) b9rda ‹⁄⁄ bee — bitte (E) bite ‹⁄¤ be born — gemmons (pret. si¶vast¶®vs ‹‹‡ field [plowed] — laucks.) laûΩ ‹⁄fl bronze — — bronza ‹⁄‡ brother br3t3 br3ti brãlis ‹⁄° brother-in-law — — sva§nis ‹⁄· bull *arßa(n). samye<n> (E) t§rums. pulcina ‹¤› comb (nn.

eisc4t ‹‚› autumn asans haust herbist ‹‚fi be awake (º)wakai† vakir wahh2t ‹‚fl ax aqizi øx acchus. haúrds dyrr. mágr swehur ‹‹‡ field [plowed] akrs akr acchar ‹‹° finger figgrs fingr fingar ‹‹· fly (nn. handleggr.) dreibi†. draibei† rekr. geiz ‹›fi gold gul† gull gold . keyrir tr1bit ‹‹¤ duck — oπnd anut ‹‹‹ eight ahtau átta ahto ‹‹› elbow — oπlnbogi elinbogo ‹‹fi eyebrow — brún br3wa ‹‹fl father-in-law swaíhra verfa∂ir.) — matb§r cohh4t ‹¤fl cow — k§r kuo ‹¤‡ darkness riqis myrkr finstarnessi. kvistr ast. bini ‹⁄¤ be born gabaírada er borinn ist giboran ‹⁄‹ bow (nn. hoπnd arm ‹‚¤ arrow ar¬azna oπr str3la ‹‚‹ ask fraíhni† spyrr. zwelga. boli far ‹¤‚ buy bugji† kaupir coufit ‹¤⁄ carry baíri† berr tregit ‹¤¤ cattle (pl. galei†i† gengr.) — fluga flioga ‹›‚ follow laistei† fylgir folg2t ‹›⁄ free freis frjáls fr1 ‹›¤ furrow — — furuh ‹›‹ go gaggi†. g2t. saman4t ‹¤› comb (nn.) — kambr camb ‹¤fi cook (vb.) (ga)lisi† samnar.) — bogi bogo ‹⁄› branch asts grein. fréttir fr3g2t. mágkona snura ‹‹‚ door daúr(4ns). ferr. hur∂ turi ‹‹⁄ drive (tr. lí∂r gengit.) — naut(fé) rindir ‹¤‹ collect (tr. barta ‹‚‡ axle — oπxull ahsa ‹‚° be ist (wisan) er (vera) is (bim. gra∂ungr. 49 Gothic Old Norse Old High German ‹‚⁄ arm arms armleggr. tunkal1 ‹¤° daughter daúhtar dóttir tohter ‹¤· daughter-in-law br5†s snor. less lisit. wesan) ‹‚· bear (nn. ferit ‹›› goat gaits geit ziga.) — bjoπrn bero ‹⁄‚ beard — skegg bart ‹⁄⁄ bee — b§fluga b1na.) briki† br§tr brihhit ‹⁄fl bronze ais eir 2r ‹⁄‡ brother br4†ar bró∂ir bruoder ‹⁄° brother-in-law — mágr sw3gur ‹⁄· bull — †jórr. zw1g ‹⁄fi break (tr.

iptv.) ‹¤‚ buy prynu emmens (pf. ‹sg. cludo feret (pl.) coginio — — ‹¤fl cow buwch — — ‹¤‡ darkness tywyllwch — — ‹¤° daughter merch futír — ‹¤· daughter-in-law m.) crib — *peten (?) ‹¤fi cook (vb. nt. pl.) ‹‹¤ duck hwyad — — ‹‹‹ eight wyth — — ‹‹› elbow penelin — — ‹‹fi eyebrow ael — — ‹‹fl father-in-law tad-yng-nghyfraith — — ‹‹‡ field [plowed] cae.) ‹⁄° brother-in-law brawd-yng-nghyfraith — — ‹⁄· bull tarw tauroµ (acc. ) turuf.) (ahesnes adj.) emantur (?. yw est (fut. portatu (iptv. fust) ‹‚· bear (nn. cynnull — — ‹¤› comb (nn.) torri — — ‹⁄fl bronze efydd (aizniv adj.] fertu. pl. pl. pl. pres.) ‹¤⁄ carry cario.-y.) ‹¤‹ collect (tr.).) [Pael.) gwartheg — buf (acc. pl.) bwa — — ‹⁄› branch cangen. subj.) ‹⁄‡ brother brawd fratrúm (gen.-ngh.) [Pael. abl. 50 Welsh Oscan Umbrian ‹‚⁄ arm braich — — ‹‚¤ arrow saeth — — ‹‚‹ ask gofyn. fust) est (fut.) ‹¤¤ cattle (pl. holi — ehueltu (?. cwys — — ‹›‹ go myn(e)d eite (iptv. gwaudd — — ‹‹‚ door drws — — ‹‹⁄ drive (tr.) frater (pl.) ‹›fi gold aur — — . pl. pl. cainc — — ‹⁄fi break (tr.] etu (iptv.) ‹‚› autumn hydref — — ‹‚fi be awake bod (mae) ar ddi-hun — — ‹‚fl ax bwyall — — ‹‚‡ axle echel — — ‹‚° be bod. maes — arvam (acc.) gwybedyn. mae.. toru (acc. ¤pl. cylionen — — ‹›‚ follow dilyn — — ‹›⁄ free rhydd loufir [Paelignian] — ‹›¤ furrow rhych.) casglu.] — ‹⁄‹ bow (nn. ager ‹‹° finger bys — — ‹‹· fly (nn.) arth — — ‹⁄‚ beard barf — — ‹⁄⁄ bee gwenynen — — ‹⁄¤ be born geni cnatois (ptc.) [Marruc. dat. pl.) ‹›› goat gafr — kaprum (acc.) gyrru — aituta (iptv. pass.

) halkis h c orean s›tow ‹›° grind mallezzi a¬ay éle› ‹›· half (adj. mtaberê µ°µnhtai ‹°fi roof suhha. y¬ê p°µpei ‹°° seven *siptan ewthn •ptã ‹°· shadow — hovani. *pikkus ? oçhxar prÒbaton . yißê. boskƵata ‹fl° make i2zzi a‡nê. ÙrofÆ ‹°fl row (vb. parn. ≤ge›tai ‹fl¤ leave (tr. tho¬ow le€pei ‹fl‹ lick lipzi. harkanzi owni ¶xei ‹fi⁄ hide (vb. stower skiã ‹·‚ sheep iyanz. sannai h h h t ak owc anê.) n3i varê. piezzi h a‡ak ê. gorcê poie› ‹fl· middle (adj.) munnaezzi. lelhuntaezzi he¬ow xe› ‹°‹ put d3i dnê t€yhsi ‹°› remember karta siya.) taksan kês ¥µisuw ‹fi‚ have harzi. cackê krÊptei ‹fi¤ honey milit me¬r µ°li ‹fi‹ horse — ji ·ppow ‹fi› house p2r. town ofik€a ‹fifi hundred — hariwr •katÒn ‹fifl jaw — cnawt gnãyow ‹fi‡ join hapzi zowgê sunãptei ‹fi° king hassus arkhay. thagawor basileÊw ‹fi· knot — hamboyc h ëµµa ‹fl‚ lamb — ga‡n.) d3lai lkhanê. xo›row ‹°⁄ plow (vb. tani êgei.) — — §laÊnei ‹°‡ send uppai. pl. 51 Hittite Armenian Greek ‹›fl goose — — xÆn ‹›‡ grain (coll. tanik h t°gow.) istarniyas mê∆ (noun) µ°sow ‹‡‚ milk — kathn gãla ‹‡⁄ mother-in-law (gaenas ?) h h (s)kesowr.) lalukkimas loys f«w ‹flfl lip puris ßowrthn xe›low ‹fl‡ livestock suppales eramak ktÆnh. yark. st°gh. suhhai. lilipai lizow le€xei ‹fl› lift karpiezzi ba‡nay a‡rei ‹flfi light (nn.) t2ripzi jlê éro› ‹°¤ pour l3hui. bowc érÆn ‹fl⁄ lead (vb. zok anç penyerã ‹‡¤ mouse kaperz mowkn µËw ‹‡‹ nail [of finger] sankuwais e¬owngn ˆnuj ‹‡› naked nekumanz merk guµnÒw ‹‡fi navel — — ÙµfalÒw ‹‡fl nine — inn §nn°a ‹‡‡ now kinun ard nËn ‹‡° orphan kurimmas orb ÙrfanÒw ‹‡· ox — ezn boËw ‹°‚ pig — xoz w. acê.

läkutsauña rúk. bh£s. n5nám ‹‡° orphan jetim — — ‹‡· ox ka okso gáus ‹°‚ pig derr. nyjë — granthís ‹fl‚ lamb qengj — úr3.) m%s ‹‡‹ nail [of finger] thua mekwa (pl.) vozit — — ‹°‡ send dërgon lyewetär prá ißyati ‹°° seven shtatë ßukt saptá ‹°· shadow hi(j)e skiyo ch3y£ ‹·‚ sheep dele Ωaiyye. caut3µ mádhu ‹fi‹ horse kalë yakwe áΩvas ‹fi› house shtëpi ost dámas.) prin. kß1rám ‹‡⁄ mother-in-law vjehër(r) — ΩvaΩr%s ‹‡¤ mouse mi maΩc1tsi (pl. jáh3ti ‹fl‹ lick lëpin — r@∂hi ‹fl› lift ngre musn3tär. ys3re yávas. pullaz ßim. raktsi chadís ‹°fl row (vb. 52 Albanian Tocharian B Vedic Sanskrit ‹›fl goose patë — haµsás ‹›‡ grain (coll. úraƒ- ‹fl⁄ lead (vb. tash ñake.) nakhás ‹‡› naked lakuriq — nagnás ‹‡fi navel kërthizë kele n£bhis ‹‡fl nine nëntë ñu náva ‹‡‡ now tani. r£† ‹fi· knot komb. k#ßáti ‹°¤ pour derdh kußäµ siñcáti ‹°‹ put vë taßäµ / t3ßäµ dádh3ti ‹°› remember mban mend epiyac käll3stär smárati ‹°fi roof √ati. tompok n%. udhëheq 3Ωäµ náyati ‹fl¤ leave (tr.) gjysmë yw3rtsa ardhás ‹fi‚ have ka — — ‹fi⁄ hide (vb. thi suwo s5karás ‹°⁄ plow (vb. drithë Ω3tre.) fsheh tukästär g%hati ‹fi¤ honey mjaltë mit. dh3n£s ‹›° grind bluan waltsanaµ piná߆i ‹›· half (adj. eye ávis . lidh tsuwäßßäµ yunákti ‹fi° king mbret walo (l3nt-) r£j3. g#hás ‹fifi hundred qind kante Ωatám ‹fifl jaw nofull wicuko hánus ‹fi‡ join bashkon.) bereqet.) mesmë ywarΩk3ññe mádhyas ‹‡‚ milk qumësht malkwer páyas.) lë 3rßäµ riƒákti.) $߆has ‹fl‡ livestock bagëti — paΩús ‹fl° make bën yamaßßäµ k#ƒ$ti ‹fl· middle (adj. taläßßäµ út sth3payati ‹flfi light (nn. jy$tis ‹flfl lip buzë lymine (du.) lëron rapanaµ kárßati.) dritë lyuke.

an!ta ‹‡¤ mouse — mys¡ pel% ‹‡‹ nail [of finger] sruua nog∞t¡ nãgas ‹‡› naked ma©n4 nag∞ núogas ‹‡fi navel n3f4 poπp∞(k∞) bámba ‹‡fl nine nauua deve®t¡ devynì ‹‡‡ now n5.) paiti. bandà ‹fl° make k∑r∑naoiti tvorit∞ (d™lajet∞) dãro ‹fl· middle (adj.g∑r∑∫n3iti v∞z-dvignet∞.) raoç4 sv™t∞ ßviesà ‹flfl lip aoßt4 ust¡na l6pa ‹fl‡ livestock pasuß skot∞ g!voliai.irinaxti ostavit∞ pali¶ka ‹fl‹ lick ra2zaite (‹pl. po-loΩit∞.) — grebet∞ ìria ‹°‡ send — s∞lajet∞ siuñçia ‹°° seven hapta sedm¡ septynì ‹°· shadow *saii3.) ‹fi‚ have — imat∞ tùri ‹fi⁄ hide (vb.) karßaiti orjet∞ ãria ‹°¤ pour hinçaiti l™jet∞ pìla. çeljust¡ Ωándas ‹fi‡ join yun∆inti (‹pl. -m¡nit∞ atsìmena ‹°fi roof — krov∞.) yauu4 Ωito gr5da§. med∞ medùs ‹fi‹ horse asp4 konj¡ arkl@s ‹fi› house nm3n∑m dom∞ bùtas ‹fifi hundred sat∑m s∞to ßi⁄tas ‹fifl jaw *z3nu.(pref. stãto ‹°› remember paitißmareite po-m™net∞. ma∂∑m4 sr™d¡nj¡ vidurìnis ‹‡‚ milk paii4. str™xa stógas ‹°fl row (vb.) guzaite s∞kryjet∞ sl¶pia ‹fi¤ honey *pa2na.) naiieiti. -stavit∞ d¶da. st™n¡ ßeß$lis ‹·‚ sheep anumaii4 ov¡ca avìs . avin%lis ‹fl⁄ lead (vb.) mai∂ii4.) s∞çetajet∞ sujùngia ‹fi° king xßaii4 c™sar¡ (kral¡) karãlius ‹fi· knot — (oπzl∞) mãzgas ‹fl‚ lamb — agne®. sirota naßláitis ‹‡· ox g3uß vol∞ jáutis ‹°‚ pig h5ß svinija kia•l£ ‹°⁄ plow (vb. -¡met∞ k¶lia ‹flfi light (nn. -neset∞. xßuu1s ml™ko píenas ‹‡⁄ mother-in-law — svekry úoßv£. s™n¡. 53 Avestan Old Ch. n5r∑m nyn™ daba‹ ‹‡° orphan — sir∞.) liΩet∞ la§Ωo ‹fl› lift us.) na2m4 pol∞ (nn. líeja ‹°‹ put da∂3iti kladet∞. Slavonic Lithuanian ‹›fl goose — *goπs¡ Ωa«sìs ‹›‡ grain (coll. agn¡c¡ £riùkas.) pùs. java§ ‹›° grind — meljet∞ mãla ‹›· half (adj. v3∂aiieiti vedet∞ v¶da ‹fl¤ leave (tr.

) r2w† ráïd r2migat ‹°‡ send sent foídid mittit ‹°° seven seofon secht septem ‹°· shadow sceadu. maca† do‚gní facit ‹fl· middle (adj. fo‚acaib relinquit ‹fl‹ lick licca† ligid lingit ‹fl› lift hef† con‚ocaib tollit ‹flfi light (nn. bed1egle† ceilid. abdit ‹fi¤ honey hunig mil mel ‹fi‹ horse hors ech equos ‹fi› house h5s tech domus ‹fifi hundred hund cét centum ‹fifl jaw c2ace.) l2oht soilse l5x.) corn ith.) l7tt feidid d5cit ‹fl¤ leave (tr. ceafl — m3la ‹fi‡ join f2g† ad‚comla iungit ‹fi° king cyning rí r2x ‹fi· knot cnotta snaidm n4dus ‹fl‚ lamb lamb úan agnus ‹fl⁄ lead (vb. l5men ‹flfl lip lippa. d1midius ‹fi‚ have hæf† táithai habet ‹fi⁄ hide (vb. fo‚lugai c2lat.) h6tt. crod pecus ‹fl° make wyrc†. arbor fr5mentum ‹›° grind grint meilid molit ‹›· half (adj. hr4f tugae t2ctum ‹°fl row (vb. middel medónach medius ‹‡‚ milk meolc blicht lac ‹‡⁄ mother-in-law sweger — socrus ‹‡¤ mouse m5s luch m5s ‹‡‹ nail [of finger] nægl ingen unguis ‹‡› naked nacod nocht n5dus ‹‡fi navel nafola imbliu umbil1cus ‹‡fl nine nigon noí novem ‹‡‡ now n5 indorsa nunc ‹‡° orphan st2opcild dílechtae orbus ‹‡· ox oxa dam b4s ‹°‚ pig sw1n mucc s5s. porcus ‹°⁄ plow (vb.) midd. labium ‹fl‡ livestock feoh indile.) l7tt léicid. sc5wa scáth umbra ‹·‚ sheep sc2ap cáera ovis . weler bél labrum. occulit. hele†. leg† fo‚ceird (‚cuirethar) p4nit ‹°› remember geman cuimnigidir meminit ‹°fi roof †æc.) healf leth. 54 Old English Old Irish Latin ‹›fl goose g4s géd 3nser ‹›‡ grain (coll.) ere† airid arat ‹°¤ pour g1ett do‚essim fundit ‹°‹ put sett.

) — — ws3r ‹›° grind — — — ‹›· half (adj..) ‹°¤ pour lil5wai — kuß ‹°‹ put duwai tadi.) — — 3räß ‹fl‹ lick — — — ‹fl› lift wallitti — musn3tär ‹flfi light (nn.) nan3i — 3Ωäß ‹fl¤ leave (tr. ypeñc) ‹fl· middle (adj.) — — — ‹fi‚ have — — — ‹fi⁄ hide (vb. ‹pl.) — — lkäΩ.) — — yw3rck3 (adv.) ‹fl‡ livestock — — — ‹fl° make 3ti adi yaß (‹pl. 55 Luvian Lycian Tocharian A ‹›fl goose — — — ‹›‡ grain (coll.) ‹°° seven — — ßpät ‹°· shadow — — — ‹·‚ sheep h3w1s xawa ΩoΩ (coll.) ‹‡‚ milk — — malke ‹‡⁄ mother-in-law — — — ‹‡¤ mouse — — — ‹‡‹ nail [of finger] — — maku (pl.) . lukΩone ‹flfl lip — — lymeµ (du.) ‹‡› naked — — — ‹‡fi navel — — — ‹‡fl nine — nuñtãta ñu ‹‡‡ now n3nun — t3pärk ‹‡° orphan — — — ‹‡· ox — — opsi (pl.) — — p3tar (pret.. waßt ‹fifi hundred — — känt ‹fifl jaw — — Ωanweµ (du.) — — — ‹°‡ send harwannitti — lawaß (subj.) ‹fi‡ join — — tsw3ß ‹fi° king handawatis (?) xñtawati wäl (l3nt-) ‹fi· knot — — — ‹fl‚ lamb — — — ‹fl⁄ lead (vb.) — — tpukäß ‹fi¤ honey malli — — ‹fi‹ horse azzuwas (?) esbe yuk ‹fi› house parnanza *prñn.) ‹°‚ pig — — — ‹°⁄ plow (vb. tuweti t3ß ‹°› remember — — opy3c käll3ß ‹°fi roof — — — ‹°fl row (vb.

patlaban ‹‡° orphan — — bãrenis ‹‡· ox — kurwan (acc. 56 Old Persian Old Prussian Latvian ‹›fl goose — sansy (E) zòss ‹›‡ grain (coll. syrne (E) lab§ba.) — [artoys ‘plowman’ (E)] ar ‹°¤ pour — pralieiton (pret. dad3tiy tickinnimai (⁄pl. ptc. nòglabã ‹fi¤ honey — meddo (E) me®dus ‹fi‹ horse asa camnet (G) zifigs ‹fi› house *m3na.) apagaudayatiy auklipts (pret.) — — a§r¶.) sùta.) — — puse ‹fi‚ have — turei — ‹fi⁄ hide (vb.) — — vid¶js ‹‡‚ milk — dadan (E) pi¶ns ‹‡⁄ mother-in-law — — v§ramãte.) — — atstãj.) — — gàisma ‹flfl lip — warsus (E) l•pa ‹fl‡ livestock gai†3 — lõpi ‹fl° make kunautiy.) ve®d ‹fl¤ leave (tr.) slèpj. curwis (E) v8rsis ‹°‚ pig — swintian (E) c•ka ‹°⁄ plow (vb. nams ‹fifi hundred — — sìmt(s) ‹fifl jaw — — Ωôklis ‹fi‡ join — send3uns (pret. ptc. si¶vasmãte ‹‡¤ mouse — — pele ‹‡‹ nail [of finger] — nagutis (E) nags ‹‡› naked — — kaîls. ir ‹°‡ send *aißayatiy pertengginnons (pret.) dara ‹fl· middle (adj. pame®t ‹fl‹ lick — — làiza ‹fl› lift — erl3ngi cel÷ ‹flfi light (nn.) nayatiy wedd2 (pret.) saviênõ ‹fi° king xß3ya†iya konagis (E) karalis.) — arrien (acc. ptc.). pav¶nis ‹·‚ sheep — camstian (E) àita . k÷¶nin÷ß ‹fi· knot — — me®zgls ‹fl‚ lamb — eristian (E) j¶®rs ‹fl⁄ lead (vb. graûds ‹›° grind — — mal÷ ‹›· half (adj. pliks ‹‡fi navel — nabis (E) naba ‹‡fl nine *nav3 [new1nts ‘·th’] devin÷i ‹‡‡ now n5ram t2nti paßla§k. buttan mãja. ptc.). ra§da ‹°° seven — [septmas ‘‡th’] septin÷i ‹°· shadow — — ¶®na.) lej ‹°‹ put dad3tiy saddinna lìek ‹°› remember — — atminas ‹°fi roof — stogis (E) jùmts ‹°fl row (vb.

aih hefir. (ga)lagji† setr. samtengir fuogit. leggr sezzit.) l2ti†. sc5wo ‹·‚ sheep lamb sau∂r sc3f .) — rœr — ‹°‡ send sandei† sendir sentit ‹°° seven sibun sjau sibun ‹°· shadow skadus skuggi scato. leynir gibirgit. hilit ‹fi¤ honey mili† hunang honag ‹fi‹ horse (ºaí¬s?) hross. hestr ros ‹fi› house gards. aúhsa oxi ohso ‹°‚ pig swein svín sw1n ‹°⁄ plow (vb. bilei†i† lætr.) kaúrn korn corn ‹›° grind mali† melr melit ‹›· half (adj. lamb lamb lamb ‹fl⁄ lead (vb. mágkona swigar ‹‡¤ mouse — mús m5s ‹‡‹ nail [of finger] — nagl nagal ‹‡› naked naqa†s nøkvi∂r nacchot ‹‡fi navel — nafli nabalo ‹‡fl nine niun níu niun ‹‡‡ now nu nú n5 ‹‡° orphan widuwaírna foπ∂urlauss weiso ‹‡· ox aúhsus. lyptir. minnisk gihugit ‹°fi roof hr4t †ak dah ‹°fl row (vb.) filhi† felr. wirkit.) arji† err erit ‹°¤ pour giuti† hellir giuzit ‹°‹ put (ga)satji†.) midjis mi∂r mitti(l) ‹‡‚ milk miluks mjoπlk miluh ‹‡⁄ mother-in-law swaíhr4 vermó∂ir. razn hús h5s ‹fifi hundred taíhunt2hund hundra∂ zehanzug ‹fifl jaw — kjoπptr kinnibahho ‹fi‡ join gawidi† samlagar. legit. skilr eptir. hylr.) liuha† ljós lioht ‹flfl lip waíril4m (dat. stelit ‹°› remember gaman. mahh4t ‹fl· middle (adj. 57 Gothic Old Norse Old High German ‹›fl goose — gás gans ‹›‡ grain (coll.) tiuhi† lei∂ir leitit ‹fl¤ leave (tr. reisir hefit ‹flfi light (nn. leifir l3zit ‹fl‹ lick bilaig4† sleikir lecch4t ‹fl› lift hafji† hefr. lefs ‹fl‡ livestock — (kvik)fé fihu ‹fl° make tauji†. spennit ‹fi° king †iudans konungr kuning ‹fi· knot — knútr cnopf ‹fl‚ lamb wi†rus.) halfs hálfr halb ‹fi‚ have habai†. pl. and†agkei† sik man. á hab2t ‹fi⁄ hide (vb. waúrkei† gørir tuot.) voπrr leffur.

) arwain. porca (acc.) hanner — — ‹fi‚ have — hipid (pf. pl.) ‹fl° make (gw)neud fakiiad (subj.) ‹fi⁄ hide (vb.) perstu (iptv. pl.). loc. 58 Welsh Oscan Umbrian ‹›fl goose g¢ydd — — ‹›‡ grain (coll. cern — — ‹fi‡ join cydio. dodi prúffed (perf. tywys — — ‹fl¤ leave (tr.) cuddio. subj. march — — ‹fi› house t# trííbúm (acc.) ‹‡‡ now nawr (< yn awr) — — ‹‡° orphan amddifad — — ‹‡· ox ych.) fa√ia (subj.) — ‹°fi roof to — — ‹°fl row (vb. eidion — — ‹°‚ pig mochyn — sim (acc.) #d — — ‹›° grind malu — kumaltu.) — ‹‡‚ milk llaeth — — ‹‡⁄ mother-in-law mam-yng-nghyfraith — — ‹‡¤ mouse llygoden — — ‹‡‹ nail [of finger] ewin — — ‹‡› naked noeth — — ‹‡fi navel bogail — — ‹‡fl nine naw — nuvis (adv. celu — — ‹fi¤ honey mêl — — ‹fi‹ horse ceffyl.) golau — — ‹flfl lip gwefus — — ‹fl‡ livestock da — pequo (acc.) habetu (iptv.) rhwyfo — — ‹°‡ send danfon — — ‹°° seven saith — — ‹°· shadow cysgod — — ‹·‚ sheep dafad — uvef. comoltu (iptv.) ‹°› remember cofio memnim (inf.) ‹fl· middle (adj. perfedd mefiaí (fem.) aredig — — ‹°¤ pour tywallt — — ‹°‹ put gosod.) gadael — — ‹fl‹ lick llyfu — — ‹fl› lift c(yf)odi — sumtu (iptv.) ‹°⁄ plow (vb.) . oui (acc.) ‹›· half (adj.) ‹flfi light (nn. cysylltu — — ‹fi° king brenin — — ‹fi· knot clwm — — ‹fl‚ lamb oen — — ‹fl⁄ lead (vb.) canol.) — ‹fifi hundred cant — — ‹fifl jaw gên.

owstr uflÒw ‹·° son-in-law kusas phesay gaµbrÒw ‹·· spin malkiezzi niwthê n∞i. plo›on ‹·¤ shoulder palta(na)s. kha¬chr glukÊw ›‚fl ten — tasn d°ka ›‚‡ thousand — hazar x€lioi ›‚° twenty — khsan e‡kosi ›‚· udder — — oÔyar. kuttar ows Œµow ‹·‹ silver — arcath êrgurow ‹·› sister negas khoyr édelfÆ ‹·fi sister-in-law (gaenas ?) nêr gãlvw ‹·fl six — vech ßj ‹·‡ son pullas ? ordi. 59 Hittite Armenian Greek ‹·⁄ ship — naw naËw. kay µ°nei ›‚¤ steal t3iezzi go¬anay kl°ptei ›‚‹ summer — ama‡n y°row ›‚› sweat (vb. kl≈yei ›‚‚ spring [season] hameshanz garown ∑r ›‚⁄ stay 3szi mnay. mata¬ n°ow ›¤⁄ tear [noun] ishahru artawsr dãkru . Ïlh ›⁄° wool hulana.) allaniezzi khrtni fldr«i ›‚fi sweet malittus anoyß. bowrd ¶rion ›⁄· yoke iukan lowc zugÒn ›¤‚ young ammiyanz nor. µastÒw ›⁄‚ wasp — brêt sfÆj ›⁄⁄ wear [clothes] w2sta zgecheal ê fore› ›⁄¤ weave — ankanê Ífa€nei ›⁄‹ wheel h5rkis aniw troxÒw ›⁄› widow kurimmas ayri xÆra ›⁄fi winter gimmanz jme‡n xeiµ≈n ›⁄fl wolf wetnas gayl lÊkow ›⁄‡ wood t3ru phayt jÊlon.

putrás ‹·° son-in-law dhëndër — j£m3t3 ‹·· spin tjerr — k#ƒátti ›‚‚ spring [season] prëndverë — vasantás ›‚⁄ stay rri (ndenjur). end w3patsi (inf. h2mantás ›⁄fl wolf ujk — v¢kas ›⁄‡ wood dru or d£ru ›⁄° wool lesh yok %rƒ3 ›⁄· yoke zgjedhë pyorye yugám ›¤‚ young ri maiwe yúv3 ›¤⁄ tear [noun] lot akr5na (pl. grerë — — ›⁄⁄ wear [clothes] mban yäßßitär (ipf.) cakrám ›⁄› widow ve — vidháv3 ›⁄fi winter dimër Ωimprai (obl.) dërsin sy3tsi (inf. vásati kaltär ›‚¤ steal vjedh karkatsi (inf. kolmai (obl.). tí߆hati. mjelm — %dhar ›⁄‚ wasp arëz. 60 Albanian Tocharian B Vedic Sanskrit ‹·⁄ ship anije olyi (obl. qëndron wsaßßäµ.) náus ‹·¤ shoulder sup 3ntse áµsas ‹·‹ silver ergjënd ñkante rajatám ‹·› sister motër ßer svás3 ‹·fi sister-in-law kunatë — nán3nd3 ‹·fl six gjashtë ßkas ßᆠ‹·‡ son bir soy s5nús. paräµ vást2 ›⁄¤ weave ven. kälyp1tsi (inf. woloktär.) gr1ßmás ›‚› sweat (vb.).).) áΩru .) sißv@da (pf.) váyati ›⁄‹ wheel rrotë yerkwantai (obl.) ›‚fi sweet ëmbël sw3re madhurás ›‚fl ten dhjetë Ωak dáΩa ›‚‡ thousand mijë yaltse sahásram ›‚° twenty njëzet ikäµ viµΩatís ›‚· udder gji.) mu߃£ti ›‚‹ summer verë ßm3ye (adj.) hím3.

Ωe®tva. móßa ‹·fl six xßuuaß ßest¡ ßeßì ‹·‡ son pu†r4 (hunuß. Daevic) syn∞ s5nùs ‹·° son-in-law z3m3ta ze®t¡ Ωéntas ‹·· spin — pre®det∞ ve‹pia ›‚‚ spring [season] zar∑ma2m. ai∫ig3m4 zima Ωiemà ›⁄fl wolf v∑hrk4 vl∞k∞ vi¤kas ›⁄‡ wood d3uru dr∞va m¶dis.) xv1saiti potit∞ se® prakaitúoja ›‚fi sweet — slad∞k∞ saldùs ›‚fl ten dasa dese®t¡ d¶ßimt ›‚‡ thousand hazaµr∑m tysoπßta t6kstantis ›‚° twenty v1saiti d∞va dese®ti dvìdeßimt ›‚· udder — — teßmuõ ›⁄‚ wasp *va∫Ωa. sl¡za ãßara . l™to vãsara ›‚› sweat (vb. Slavonic Lithuanian ‹·⁄ ship *n3uu. vi¤kia ›⁄¤ weave — t∞çet∞ áudΩia ›⁄‹ wheel çaxr4 kolo rãtas ›⁄› widow vi∂auua v¡dova naßl% ›⁄fi winter ziiå. málkos ›⁄° wool var∑na vl∞na vìlnos ›⁄· yoke — igo (jar¡m∞) jùngas ›¤‚ young yauua (*yuua) jun∞ jáunas ›¤⁄ tear [noun] asru. 61 Avestan Old Ch. suptiß ramo. ladij¡ la§vas ‹·¤ shoulder daoß. pleßte pet@s ‹·‹ silver ∑r∑zat∑m s¡rebro sidãbras ‹·› sister xvaµha sestra sesuõ ‹·fi sister-in-law — zl∞va sváin£. vaµhar∑ vesna pavãsaris ›‚⁄ stay — ostanet∞ se® li¶ka ›‚¤ steal t∑r∑fiieiti kradet∞ vãgia ›‚‹ summer ham.(?) — vapsvà ›⁄⁄ wear [clothes] vaste nosit∞ d%vi.

formnae umerus ‹·‹ silver siolfor airget argentum ‹·› sister sweostor sïur soror ‹·fi sister-in-law — — gl4s ‹·fl six siex sé sex ‹·‡ son sunu macc f1lius ‹·° son-in-law 3†um cliamain gener ‹·· spin spin† sníïd net ›‚‚ spring [season] lencten errach v2r ›‚⁄ stay b1tt anaid manet ›‚¤ steal stil† gataid f5r3tur ›‚‹ summer sumor sam aest3s ›‚› sweat (vb. long n3vis ‹·¤ shoulder eaxl. droch rota ›⁄› widow widuwe fedb vidua ›⁄fi winter winter gemred hiems ›⁄fl wolf wulf fáel lupus ›⁄‡ wood tr2ow. wudu fid lignum. sculdor gúalu. 62 Old English Old Irish Latin ‹·⁄ ship scip nau.) sw7tt allas (nn. m3teri2s ›⁄° wool wull olann l3na ›⁄· yoke geoc cuing iugum ›¤‚ young geong oac iuvenis ›¤⁄ tear [noun] t2ar dér lacrima .) s5dat ›‚fi sweet sw2te milis dulcis ›‚fl ten t1en deich decem ›‚‡ thousand †5sund míle m1lle ›‚° twenty twentig fiche v1gint1 ›‚· udder 5der uth 5ber ›⁄‚ wasp wæfs — vespa ›⁄⁄ wear [clothes] were† — gerit ›⁄¤ weave wif† figid texit ›⁄‹ wheel hw2ol roth.

) — — — ›‚fi sweet mitgaimis — sw3r ›‚fl ten — — Ωäk ›‚‡ thousand — — wälts ›‚° twenty — kbisñtãta (?) wiki ›‚· udder — — — ›⁄‚ wasp — — — ›⁄⁄ wear [clothes] wassatari — wäs- ›⁄¤ weave — — wpatär ›⁄‹ wheel — — wärkänt ›⁄› widow — — — ›⁄fi winter — — Ωärme ›⁄fl wolf ulipnis — — ›⁄‡ wood t3ru — or ›⁄° wool *hulanis — — ›⁄· yoke — — — ›¤‚ young — — wir ›¤⁄ tear [noun] — — 3kär . koläm ‹·¤ shoulder — — es ‹·‹ silver — — nkiñc ‹·› sister *n3nas(a)ris — ßar ‹·fi sister-in-law — — — ‹·fl six — — ßäk ‹·‡ son nimuwizas tideimi se ‹·° son-in-law — — — ‹·· spin — — — ›‚‚ spring [season] — — yus3r ›‚⁄ stay — — sakatär. 63 Luvian Lycian Tocharian A ‹·⁄ ship — — olyi. kälytär ›‚¤ steal — — kärn3ß ›‚‹ summer — — ßme ›‚› sweat (vb.

va¤kã ›⁄¤ weave — [tuckoris ‘weaver’ (E)] aûΩ ›⁄‹ wheel — kelan (E) ritenis. — pavasaris ›‚⁄ stay — pol1nka palìek ›‚¤ steal — r3nctwei (inf.) zòg ›‚‹ summer — dagis (E) vasara ›‚› sweat (vb.) jaûns ›¤⁄ tear [noun] — — asara . siraplis (E) sudrabs ‹·› sister — swestro (E) mãsa ‹·fi sister-in-law — — svaîne ‹·fl six — [wuschts ‘flth’] seßi ‹·‡ son pu√a so5ns dê®ls ‹·° son-in-law — — znõts ‹·· spin — — v8rpj ›‚‚ spring [season] *v3hara.). — ku˙is ‹·¤ shoulder — pette (E) ple®cs ‹·‹ silver ardatam sirablan (acc. rats ›⁄› widow — widdew5 atra§tne ›⁄fi winter — semo (E) zìema ›⁄fl wolf *varka.) t•kstoß ›‚° twenty — — divdesmit ›‚· udder — — tesmenis ›⁄‚ wasp — wobse (E) lapsene ›⁄⁄ wear [clothes] — — n¶®sã.) — [prak3isnan (nn.)] svîst ›‚fi sweet — — sa›ds ›‚fl ten — dessimpts desmit ›‚‡ thousand — t5simtons (apl. wilkis (E) vìlks ›⁄‡ wood d3ruv malko (G) kòks ›⁄° wool — — vi¤na ›⁄· yoke — — jûgs ›¤‚ young — maldai (pl. 64 Old Persian Old Prussian Latvian ‹·⁄ ship *n3v.

vi∂r holz. stili† stelr stilit ›‚‹ summer asans sumar sumar ›‚› sweat (vb.) oπxl scultira. vargr wolf ›⁄‡ wood triu tré. witu ›⁄° wool wulla ull wolla ›⁄· yoke jukuzi ok joh ›¤‚ young juggs ungr jung ›¤⁄ tear [noun] tagr tár zahar . pl.) — sveitisk swizzit ›‚fi sweet — sœtr suozi ›‚fl ten taíhun tíu tehan ›‚‡ thousand †5sundi †úsund d5sunt ›‚° twenty twai tigjus tuttugu zweinzug ›‚· udder — júgr 5tar ›⁄‚ wasp — — — ›⁄⁄ wear [clothes] wasji† hefir w3tit sih ›⁄¤ weave — vefr wibit ›⁄‹ wheel — hvél / hjól rad ›⁄› widow widuw4 ekkja wituwa ›⁄fi winter wintrus vetr wintar ›⁄fl wolf wulfs ulfr. 65 Gothic Old Norse Old High German ‹·⁄ ship skip skip skef ‹·¤ shoulder amsans (acc. ahsala ‹·‹ silver silubr silfr silabar ‹·› sister swistar systir swester ‹·fi sister-in-law — mágkona geswige ‹·fl six saíhs sex sehs ‹·‡ son sunus sonr sun ‹·° son-in-law m2gs mágr eidum ‹·· spin spinni† spinnr spinnit ›‚‚ spring [season] — vár lenzo ›‚⁄ stay wisi† dvelsk bil1bit ›‚¤ steal hlifi†.

picwnen — — ›⁄⁄ wear [clothes] gwisgo — — ›⁄¤ weave gwau — — ›⁄‹ wheel olwyn. daw — — ‹·· spin nyddu — — ›‚‚ spring [season] gwanwyn — — ›‚⁄ stay aros — — ›‚¤ steal lladrata — — ›‚‹ summer haf — — ›‚› sweat (vb.) ‹·‹ silver arian aragetud (abl.) — ‹·° son-in-law mab-yng-ngh.) chwysu — — ›‚fi sweet melys — — ›‚fl ten deg — desen- ›‚‡ thousand mil — — ›‚° twenty ugain — — ›‚· udder pwrs — — ›⁄‚ wasp cacynen.. rhod anei (?. pl.) — ›⁄› widow gweddw — — ›⁄fi winter gaeaf — — ›⁄fl wolf blaidd — — ›⁄‡ wood pren. coed — — ›⁄° wool gwlân — — ›⁄· yoke iau — — ›¤‚ young ifanc — iouie (acc. loc.) — ‹·› sister chwaer — — ‹·fi sister-in-law chwaer-yng-ngh. 66 Welsh Oscan Umbrian ‹·⁄ ship llong — — ‹·¤ shoulder ysgwydd — uze. — — ‹·fl six chwech — — ‹·‡ son mab puklum (acc.) ›¤⁄ tear [noun] deigryn — — . onse (loc.

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