Module 1a - Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering

Global Perspectives
p
Fundamentals of
Arctic Engineering

“Y who
“You h this
hi faint
f i day
d the
h Hi
High
h North
N h iis lluring
i
Unto her vastness, taintlessly sweet;
You who are steel-
steel-braced, straight
straight--lipped, enduring,
Dreadless in danger and dire in defeat;
Honor the High North ever and ever,
ever
Whether she crown you, or whether she slay;
Suffer her fury, cherish and love her-
her-
He who would
UAA School of Engineering
rule he must learn to obey.”
Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 2
October 2010
Module 1a - Global Persepctives
Robert Service, “Men of the High North”

University of Alaska Anchorage 1

Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering Presenter Orson P.Module 1a . PE. Smith. Professor of Civil Engineering UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 3 October 2010 Module 1a . • Recognize climate parameters that define coldd regions co eg o s • Learn of public sources for climate information UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 4 October 2010 Module 1a . th – Heat balance of Earth and its atmosphere.Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 2 .D. Ph.Global Persepctives Learning Objectives • Understand primary physical reasons for –SSeasonall variations i ti in i weather. and – Long-term climate change.

Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 3 .Global Persepctives Solstices and Equinoxes Northern hemisphere summer solstice Vernal and autumnal equinoxes Northern hemisphere winter solstice UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 6 October 2010 Module 1a .Module 1a .Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 5 October 2010 Module 1a .

Module 1a .Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 4 .Global Persepctives Global Heat Balance • Low latitude areas receive excess solar energy • Polar areas have a deficit • North-South circulation responsible for global heat balance UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 8 October 2010 Module 1a .Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 7 October 2010 Module 1a .

Module 1a .Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 5 .Global Persepctives Air Circulation and Prevailing Winds UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 10 October 2010 Module 1a .Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering Wind cells Realistic Earth atmosphere circulation Hypothetical non-rotating Earth UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 9 October 2010 Module 1a .

Module 1a .Global Persepctives Sea Surface Circulation UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 12 October 2010 Module 1a .Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 6 .Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering Seasonal wind variations July mean pressures and winds January mean pressures and winds UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 11 October 2010 Module 1a .

Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering El Niño and La Niña •Redistribution of heat energy in the Pacific from relaxation of trade winds •Corresponding shift of warm water westward •Areas of monsoon rains and drought are changed with disastrous consequences •Tropical T i l andd extra-tropical t t i l storms are generated with extraordinary energy. UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 13 October 2010 Module 1a .Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 7 .Global Persepctives Emission and Absorption Spectra UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 14 October 2010 Module 1a .Module 1a .

Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 8 . D.Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering Greenhouse Effect UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 15 October 2010 Module 1a . J. April 2004. “Cold Regions Issues for Off-Road Autonomous Vehicles Vehicles.Module 1a .) B: Moderately cold (mean air temperatures during the coldest month are below 0°C) UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 16 October 2010 Module 1a .Global Persepctives Cold Regions of the World Diemand. maximum snow depths exceed 60 cm. Hanover. and lakes and rivers are ice covered for more than 180 days. and Lever.” ERDC/CRREL TR-04-6 TR-04-6. Hanover NH A: Severely cold (Mean annual air temperatures are below 0°C.

Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 9 .noaa.ncdc.Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering Average Annual Temperature http://www.noaa.gov/oa/documentlibrary/clim81supp3/clim81.com/World-Climate-Maps.html UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 17 October 2010 Module 1a .climate-charts.Module 1a .Global Persepctives Heating Index The integrated number of degree-days colder than a base figure (usually 18 C or 18ºC 65ºF) during a Degree-days are to the base 65 F heating season http://lwf.ncdc.gov/oa/documentlibrary/clim81supp3/clim81.html#temperature Mean annual air temperatures Permafrost abides where the average annual temperature is below freezing http://lwf.html UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 18 October 2010 Module 1a .

noaa.Module 1a .Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 10 .arh.gov/thawdd_all_sites.html UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 19 October 2010 Module 1a .php UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 20 October 2010 Module 1a .noaa.Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering Freezing Index Mean annual "freezing index" or “freezing degree days” The integrated number of degree-days colder than 0º C during a winter Anchorage Barrow http://aprfc.Global Persepctives Thawing Index the sum of differences between 0º C and the daily mean temperature of the days with means above 00º C Anchorage Barrow http://aprfc.gov/frzdd_all_sites.arh.

10%) Ilr glacier 500 0 500 Cartographic Illustration: Kilometers Wm.html UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 21 October 2010 Module 1a . Lee UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 22 October 2010 Module 1a .alaska.90%) Dhr Dlr Shf Smf Slf Sporadic Shr (10 .S.Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering Mean Monthly Snow Depth (inches) LOCATION JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Alyeska 26 31 35 25 3 0 0 0 0 2 7 21 Anchorage 9 10 10 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 8 Barrow 8 8 9 9 4 T 0 0 1 4 7 7 Bethel 8 8 8 4 T 0 0 0 0 T 3 7 Bettles 26 28 28 21 3 0 0 0 T 5 12 21 Valdez 31 41 45 30 2 0 0 0 0 T 7 21 Whittier 37 46 52 38 8 1 0 0 0 1 6 20 http://climate.Global Persepctives Extract of Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost Alaska Permafrost Map and Ground Ice Conditions 1997 Permafrost Chf Cmf Source Data U.edu/Climate/Precip_Snow/snowdepth_normals.Module 1a .gi. Geological Survey Clf Continuous International Permafrost Association (90 .100%) Chr Clr Dhf Dmf Dlf Discontinuous (50 .50%) Slr Ihf Imf Isolated Ilf Patches Ihr (0 .Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 11 . J.

Global Persepctives Polar Permafrost Map UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 24 October 2010 Module 1a .100%) 87 40811 Discontinuous (50 .Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering Alaska Community and Highway Permafrost Exposure $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $$$ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $$ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $$ $$ $ $ $ $$ $$ $$$ $ $ $$$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $$ $ $ $$$$ $ $ $ $ $$$ $ $ $$$ $$ $ $$$$$$$$ $ $ $$ $ $$$$$ $$$ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ $ $$ $$$ $ $ $$ $$ $ $ $$ $$ $ $ $$ $ $$ $$ $ $ $ $$ $$$$ $ $ $$ $$ $$ $$$ $ $ $$$ $ $$ $ $ $$ $ $ $$$ $ $$$$$ $$ $ $ $$ $$ $ $ $ $$$ $$ $$$ $$ 500 0 500 $ $$ $ $ $ Kilometers Source Data U.Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 12 .100%) Continuous (90 .100%) Permafrost Extent Total Communities Population $ Discontinuous ( 50 .90%) 1950 Sporadic (10 .90%) Continuous (90 .50%) 26 5235 $ Less than 10% Less than 10% 129 396821 Cartographic Illustration: Wm.90 79 47140 $ Sporadic ( 10 .S. J. Geological Survey International Permafrost Association and Alaska Department of Natural Resources GIS Database Summary of Alaska Highways Susceptible to Permafrost Highway Susceptibility Permafrost Extent Road Distance (km) Continuous (90 .50%) Less than 10% 452 Less than 10% Summary of Alaska Communities Susceptible to Permafrost Community Susceptibility $ Continuous (90 .Module 1a . Lee UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 23 October 2010 Module 1a .50%) 307 Sporadic (10 .100%) 734 Discontinuous (50 .50%) Sporadic (10 .90%) Discontinuous (50 .

gi.alaska.Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 13 .noaa.Global Persepctives http://climate.html UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 25 October 2010 Module 1a .gov/ol/climate/climatedata.Module 1a .edu/ UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 26 October 2010 Module 1a .Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering http://www.ncdc.

Module 1a .edu/ UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 27 October 2010 Module 1a .uaa.alaska.Global Persepctives University of Alaska Anchorage 14 .Global Persepctives Conclusion UAA School of Engineering Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering 28 October 2010 Module 1a .Global Perspectives Fundamentals of Arctic Engineering http://climate.

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