Technology and Language Learning

Eng 3, Level 6
(4)
Technology Supports for Second Language Learning
• Roles of Technology in Second Language Learning
• When Internet emerged in 1990s, technology became ubiquitous.
• Technology as a provider of content.
• Technology as a learning management tool.
• Technology as a communication tool.
When the computer presents learners with authentic listening and reading input, and
information on pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar, it is acting as a carrier of
content.
When the computer provides opportunities for learners to practice a language by
doing spoken and written drills, completing comprehension questions, carrying out
grammar exercises, and so on, it is acting as an instructional tool.
The second major role for technology in classrooms is as a learning management tool
(Blackboard, Moodle).
 They enable teachers to carry out many learning management tasks more
efficiently and effectively than more traditional face-to-face methods.
 They administer and collate needs analysis data from students
 They allow teachers to post course information, handouts, and other materials
for student to download;
 They enable students to submit assignments, and teachers to grade and return
assignments, electronically;
 They document student achievement and archive learner portfolios containing
samples of spoken and written language;
 They administer, analyze, collate, and store the results of classroom quizzes;
 They administer, collate, and present student evaluations of teachers.
The third major role for technology in language learning is as a communication tool.
One of the greatest frustrations for learners attempting to acquire another language in
a foreign-rather than second-language context is finding opportunities to activate or
modernize their language by interacting with other people in that language. One of the
greatest benefits of technology is that it can bridge distance and time, enabling
learners to interact with native speakers and other learners who are living, working

and learning in a wide range of cultural contexts in different parts of the world. • Frequent updates. A lot of people are talking about it. well-known celebrities and stars. text chat. or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. to establish relationships and to seek assistance. comments. webcam. It makes people stay in touch virtually anywhere because it can work with either cell phones or a PC. In February 2009. messages in Twitterspeak).. . (email. among whom many teachers and students using the technology worldwide who got into the habit of sending and receiving “Tweets” (i. including some presidential candidates. Twitter is defined as a microblogging tool which combines features of SMS text messages and blogs. twitter builds online communities of people who share interests and activities. images. and plenty are using it. messages. Social networking (Twitter) Definition Social networking is a network of social interactions and personal relationships which enables users to communicate with each other by posting information. which posts new headlines with links to the full stories.e. Like Facebook. Studies in online second-language learning suggest that this approach has a number of benefits: • promotes a deep rather than surface approach to learning • stimulates active. skype). Also news agencies have a Twitter profile. It allows users to send very short messages (known as “tweet”) to each other that are also readable by the rest of the web. Function Twitter keeps connected with a select group of colleagues and acquaintances through a shared space. such as CNN. Twitter had more than 7 million visitors. constructivist learning rather than straight knowledge transfer • fosters students’ awareness of discourse-related aspects of communication • allows students to share perspectives and experiences. -What am I doing? -What am I thinking? • Conversational writing. etc.

• Think about and reflect on one’s own learning. Twitter helps to create a sense of cultural awareness and acquiring cultural competence via the interaction with either native or non-native speakers of English and the usage of English speaking Web-services. collaborating with previous tweets  Twitter as a tool for language teaching: • Following conversations • Tweeting in a community • Correcting Tweets • Twitter conversation in class • In addition to English skills. • Unique & practical communication. The benefits of twitter: • It facilitates active learning. . • Connect students beyond class. etc. and have your students select Tweeted stories to read. • It increases the feeling of community among people. • (b) “Follow” some major news organization like BBC. • Write summaries based on reading or listening activities and send the message to at least two other people in the class. Twitter's functions for language teaching & learning • Reading • (a) read the incoming messages of their fellow students. and then ask them to continue the story in tweets. • Writing • The students are asked to leave one Tweet question each before the beginning of or during a lesson. • Foster interaction about a given topic instead of simply listening to an instructor and taking notes. • Start an opening for a story to all followers. CNN. • It gets students thinking critically about the meaning of their message. • It can increase metacongitive works or help teacher realize what the students think about the lesson. with your students.

printed magazines and journals. Education Full Text. Each record contains all of the information in the database for an individual item. Why? Why use a database? Using a database allows users to search for information in an organized collection. Examples What are some examples of databases? Samples of databases include Academic Search Premier. Databases also provide information in known sources. and abstracts. Often databases provide access to full-text magazine and journal articles. writing. A database consists of individual records. and speaking. reviews. and limit their results using various criteria. such as author and title. listening. Users can also search for keywords in specific fields. Data Bases and Research Databases What is a database? A database is a large amount of information stored in a computer system in such a way that it can be easily looked at or changed. for example. The content of databases has undergone a review process and the information is more reliable than information found on the Internet. dissertations. Databases are usually collections of journal and magazine articles. through the use of subject headings and descriptors. which provides a brief description of that item.Academic OneFile. • Quick and easy to use for developing our language skills including reading. The user benefits from this organization because it provides more relevant results. A field defines the individual elements of each record. and PsycInfo. A more comprehensive list of databases can be found on the Online Journals and Databases page. Search Engines. . Each record is composed of fields.Conclusion • Relevance: Students are familiar with it.

while search engines are general.Search Engines What is a search engine? A search engine is a service that utilizes a computer program to search the Internet and identify items that match the characters and keywords entered by a user. For more information on how to use Google's Scholarly search engine. They can also be used for finding articles. but it can be difficult to narrow down results. Many studies have shown that between 40% and 80% of users found what they were looking for by using the search engine feature of the Internet. when using Internet sources. and personal web pages related to a topic. Yahoo. . groups. it can be said that: Databases are specific. and more reliable. and assess the legitimacy of information found on the Internet. as there is no quality control mechanisms that verify the validity of information on individual web pages. To conclude. Examples What are some examples of a search engine? Examples of search engines include Google. not well-organized as in databases. Why? Why use a search engine? Search engines are useful for finding information on organizations. well-organized. and Bing. It is used for finding information on the Internet by looking for words which you have typed it. and less reliable than databases. find relevant material. It is especially important to be wary. not completely trust.

Now even a non-technical user can actively interact & contribute to the web using different blog platforms.0 allows us to search for information and read it. e-learning. There was no active communication or information flow from consumer (of the information) to producer (of the information). Web 0. In Web 2.0 includes Facebook. Web 2. There was very little in the way of user interaction or content contribution. Definition Experts call the Internet before 1999 “Read-Only” web.0” is a term that is used to denote several different concepts: Web sites based on a particular set of technologies such as AJAX. Web 2. you can also provide a method for anyone in the world to purchase products. — “Web 2. centered around a top-down approach to the use of the web and its user interface. Web 1.0 – Developping the internet Web 1.0 (the early web) Web 1. users are able to interact with one another or contribute content. e-conference. such as a catalog or a brochure (booklet) does — only.0 The overall goal is to present products to potential customers. The year 1999 marked the beginning of a Read-Write-Publish era with notable contributions from LiveJournal (Launched in April. . The average internet user’s role was limited to reading the information which was presented to him.0. Web sites which encourage user–generated content in the form of text. e-shopping.0 — The lack of active interaction of common users with the web lead to the birth of Web 2. e- commerce. involving user profiles.0. Youtube. friend links. tags. Web sites which incorporate a strong social component. etc. video. Socially. Web 1. 1999). 1999) and Blogger (Launched in August. But the information age was born.[clarification needed] users could only view webpages but not contribute to the content of the webpages. and ratings.0 was an early stage of the conceptual evolution of the World Wide Web. Web 1. The newly-introduced ability to contribute content and interact with other web users has dramatically changed the landscape of the web in a short time. e-bill. Twitter.0 VS Web 2. It is closed to external editing.0 – The shopping carts & static web. and photo postings along with comments. with a website.

0 site telling you what . Web 2.0 sites build interaction and community and shared content. Web 2. Authoritarian: Too often Web 1. Instead of the New York Times 1.0 was authoritarian and top-down-"this is the way it is".0 is democratic and bottom-up.— Web 2.0 is the second-generation of web companies. the rebirth after the dot- com crash (collapse).0: — — Web 2.0 is subject to debate. What is. but here's a quick comparison to Web 1. and what is not. Democratic Pasive Active static dynamic close collaborative One-way: Most early sites were for one-way communication. Web 2.0 — Web 1 — Web 2 One-way (read only) Two-way (read-write) Authoritarian (control or no freedom). with a company describing itself in brochureware.0 VS Web 1.

0 sites were closed. iReport. Closed VS collaborative: Web 1.com. but Web 2. write product guides and edit wiki articles (Amapedia).com was letting you review books.0 sites are dynamic and change hourly or more often.0 sites invite participation: voting content up or down.com shows the stories users have voted the most important. Amazon now lets you list and sell your own new and used books and products through their site as well. Static VS Dynamic: Web 1. etc. where Web 2.com quickly became the leading Web 1.Yahoo. • Learners have sufficient time and feedback.). WEB 2.0/Language Learning Interaction and immersion simulate the environment in which native languages are learnt.com and Buzz. There are approaches that emphasize the importance of social interaction and collaboration in language learning. By 2000. • Learners work in an atmosphere with an ideal stress/anxiety level. Digg. rating it.the important stories of the day were. where videos are submitted by users. CNN. Amazon was using its sites to sell products it stocked. in the Web 2. Web 2.0 news web site. reflecting all of those user contributions. Amazon.0 world. .com. commenting on it. • Learners are exposed to and encouraged to produce varied and creative language. Where CNN. Passive VS Active: Web 1. CNN then supplies this content and fact-checks some videos for inclusion on CNN. • Learner autonomy is supported.0 sites were simply to be read passively. but these days you can participate in many more ways: create lists of products (top 10 lists. lists of classics by certain authors. Conditions for successful language learning: • Learners have opportunities to interact and to negotiate meaning. • Learners are involved in authentic tasks. In 2000. submitting new posts.0 sites are collaborative.0 sites were static and rarely changed (except for news sites). • Learners interact in the target language with an authentic audience.com now has a sister site.

empowerment. social interaction. comment.0 applications have democratized the web by prioritizing user- generated content. Web 2.0 applications has the following characteristic: Power to the user Web 2. ownership and social connectivity.0 refers to the emergence of a set of applications on the web which facilitate a more socially connected web where everyone is able to add to and edit information online (Anderson2007). with a time and date stamp for each entry. I want show how Web 2. and the majority noticed significant progress in their writing over time. and is teacher-centred (especially if classes are conducted in a country in which the target language is not spoken). Students also reported frequently looking back over their own and others students' earlier blog postings.0 technologies can enhance language learning by facilitating many of the key characteristics: intput/output. Blogging A blog is a web application that displays a series of entries in reverse chronological order. Language learners have two communities of learning: the learning community in the classroom. and learner autonomy. they provide an environment in which to reflect. and the target language community. communication occurs within the classroom. and provide a broader range of opportunities for authentic and varied language interaction. exposure. authenticity.0 applications can open up the classroom walls.0 Web 2. For language learners. feedback. reflection and autonomy.In this sense.0 is all about the user.0 was dominated by content provided in static pages. Whereas Web 1. Web 2. I hope to show how Web 2. In many cases. and/or to explore cultural dimensions of the target country (or countries). These Web 2. Blogs also include a facility to respond to blog posts using comments. . Blogging can be used either for writing practice in the target language. question and review progress outside the classroom in an authentic environment. Advantages of Blogging Blogging encourages learner independence.

For wikis. so changes can generally be attributed. The goal of wiki sites is to become a 'shared repository of knowledge. but can have an associated discussion/talk page. A wiki is a superset of a blog. and previous versions can be retrieved. when an article was published matters less. A blog is a Web site that maintains ongoing . While blogs tend to be written by an individual. Disqus) needs to be added to the page. which encourages students to focus on process.g. A wiki can host a blog. modify and organize web page content in a collaborative manner. with the knowledge base growing over time'. and are therefore personal in nature.com/Our+students'+blogs Wikis Wiki (derived from the Hawaiian wiki for 'fast') is online software for creating simple websites which support collaborative writing. Wiki articles represent consensus. A wiki is a platform that is meant for anyone to update in real time.blogspot. Blog posts are usually one persons' opinion. with the focus being on content and collaboration rather than design.The asynchronous nature of blogging enables students to take their time over postings in a low-pressure environment. Too emulate a blog in a wiki. http://eflinks. the most well-known of which is Wikipedia. http://blogging-learningenglish. A blog is owned by an individual whereas wiki is being updated by many people around the world. followed optionally by comments. rather than being inhibited by potentially inaccurate use of grammar. For this reason. A wiki allows multiple users to create. Another major feature of wikis is that the software usually tracks any changes. and they are 'expected to have some degree of seriousness and permanence' (Godwin-Jones 2003). but not vice versa. reflection and vocabulary. because articles are supposed to be updated as new information becomes available.wikispaces.com The personal blog is graded on content and relevancy rather than linguistic accuracy. The main differences between blogs and wikis A blog is a sort of online journal. and a comment widget (e. For blogs. It is updated daily or weekly or whenever the author desires. the timeline is more important. the wiki page needs to be protected against editing by other users than the author. wikis are more likely to be the result of a collaborative effort. the structure of wikis tends to be very simple.

Blogs: . .Author posts. . Sometimes can have multiple contributors. .Usually a single author. . . .Many-to-many communication.posts.Multiple Authors. A blog is frequently updated.one-to-many content. and .Edited by a group or team. user comments. .Continuously changing and growing rapidly.Contains links to other Wiki pages. a personal Web site featuring diary-type commentary and links to articles or other Web sites.Opinion sharing. Wiki: .

wikis are generally used for class projects. Additionally. . and finalized. and they learn from observing the communal work being drafted. or for a project based on an exchange between international classes. refined. One of the major benefits of using wikis is to empower students to become more autonomous in their learning.Pedagogical Benefits A wiki enables communication and knowledge construction beyond the classroom. Accountability is increased through exposure to peers or the wider internet audience. which leads to greater care for linguistic accuracy. they also learn to overcome traditional Western educational practices of promoting individual ownership (Guth 2007). In the foreign-language classroom. as students learn to author collectively. As with blogging. they are unlikely to see the full potential of using wikis as a learning device. wikis enable students to take part in distributed research communities that extend spatially and temporally beyond the classroom or class session (Mejias 2006). Students become contributors. rather than just recipients of knowledge. Students build a sense of community by collaborating on a shared goal. If tutors take too much control over input.