Designation: E213 − 14

Standard Practice for
Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation E213; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope* 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
1.1 This practice2 covers a procedure for detecting discon-
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
tinuities in metal pipe and tubing during a volumetric exami-
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
nation using ultrasonic methods. Specific techniques of the
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ultrasonic method to which this practice applies include
pulse-reflection techniques, both contact and non-contact (for
2. Referenced Documents
example, as described in Guide E1774), and angle beam
immersion techniques. Artificial reflectors consisting of 2.1 ASTM Standards:3
longitudinal, and, when specified by the using party or parties, E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive
transverse reference notches placed on the surfaces of a Testing
reference standard are employed as the primary means of E1065 Practice for Evaluating Characteristics of Ultrasonic
standardizing the ultrasonic system. Search Units
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
1.2 This practice is intended for use with tubular products
E1774 Guide for Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers
having outside diameters approximately 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) and
(EMATs)
larger, provided that the examination parameters comply with
E1816 Practice for Ultrasonic Testing Using Electromag-
and satisfy the requirements of Section 12. These procedures
netic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) Techniques
have been successful with smaller sizes. These may be speci-
fied upon contractual agreement between the using parties. 2.2 ASNT Documents:
These procedures are intended to ensure that proper beam Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A for Nondestructive
angles and beam shapes are used to provide full volume Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification4
coverage of pipes and tubes, including those with low ratios of ANSI/ASNT CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certifi-
outside diameter-to-wall thickness, and to avoid spurious cation of Nondestructive Testing Personnel4
signal responses when examining small-diameter, thin-wall 2.3 ISO Standards:
tubes. ISO 9712 Non-destructive Testing— Qualification and Cer-
1.3 The procedure in Annex A1 is applicable to pipe and tification of NDT Personnel5
tubing used in nuclear and other special and safety applica- 2.4 Aerospace Industries Association Document:
tions. The procedure in Annex A2 may be used to determine NAS 410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive
the helical scan pitch. Testing Personnel6
1.4 This practice does not establish acceptance criteria; they
must be specified by the using party or parties. 3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions—For definitions of terms used in this
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded
practice, see Terminology E1316.
as standard. The SI equivalents are in parentheses and may be
approximate.
3
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
--`,`,,,`,``````,`,,`,`,,,``,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
1
This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E07 on Nonde- Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
structive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.06 on the ASTM website.
4
Ultrasonic Method. Available from American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc., 1711
Current edition approved June 1, 2014. Published June 2014. Originally Arlingate Lane, Columbus, OH 43228.
5
approved in 1963. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as E213 - 09. DOI: Available from International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1, ch. de
10.1520/E0213-14. la Voie-Creuse, CP 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, http://www.iso.org.
2 6
For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Practice Available from Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc., 1250 Eye St.
SE-213 in the Code. NW, Washington D.C. 20005.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard
Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

Copyright ASTM International
Provided by IHS under license with ASTM
1Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST

achieved through higher allowable scan index or “pitch.1. and number of artificial reflectors to be placed on the reference tinuities.. surface contact or immersion method shall be used. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST . shall be specified in the contractual 5. 6.5 Surface condition. 6. 6.1. material will be examined. into the wall of a pipe or tube in the circumferential direction 6.1.3 For efficient examination of large quantities of material.7 Type. Fig. 6. method of manufacture. if required. the using party or parties.1.10 Reexamination of repaired/reworked items. 6. party or parties. to detect longitudinal discontinuities using a single search unit.. wheel search units. in both axial directions for transverse discon. 6.`.`. Basis of Application 4. E213 − 14 4.3 Items that affect examination coverage may also be Fig.1. cracks. flectors and tolerance limits if different than specified in multiple search units and instruments may be used simultane- Section 11.4 The stage(s) in the manufacturing process at which the NOTE 1—The immersion method may include tanks. standard.`.1 Size and type of pipe or tubing to be examined.`.`--- FIG. 2 illustrates the characteristic angle beam ultrasound entry specified such as scan overlap.1. Multiple search units may be employed for “interlaced” scanning in 6.`. splits.`. for transverse discontinuities using a single search unit. location. inclusions.`. scanning shall be tolerance to be applied to a standardization check. if re- quired or permitted. voids.9 Criteria for reportable and rejectable indications (ac- each required direction to enable higher examination rates to be ceptance criteria). 5. --`.1.1 A pulsed ultrasonic angle beam by means of non.`. or systems that use streams or columns of liquid to couple the ultrasonic energy from the search unit to the material.1 The purpose of this practice is to outline a procedure for 6.6 Maximum time interval between equipment standard- 4.1.2 and the provide a favorable response from one side.8 Method(s) for measuring dimensions of artificial re- 4. etc.2 To ensure detection of discontinuities that may not ization checks.. if different from that described in 13. if applicable.1.. from each tube.13 Operator qualifications and certification.``..12 Contents of examination report.2 Additional scanning for transverse discontinuities.-`-`...1.11 Requirements for permanent records of the response detecting and locating significant discontinuities such as pits. Significance and Use agreement.1.``````. dimensions. ously to perform scanning in the required directions.`. 1 Circumferential Propagation of Sound in a Pipe or Tube Wall Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 2Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.1. 6. reflection method.1 The following are items that must be decided upon by contact. 6. by the ultrasonic pulse. 1 illustrates the characteristic ultrasonic angle beam entry 6. performed in both circumferential directions for longitudinal discontinuities and when an axial scan is specified by the using 6..1.. pulse density and maximum into the wall of a pipe or tube in the axial direction to search search unit size.. Summary of Practice 6.” 6.

If speci. individually monitor the responses from the longitudinal and. value is desirable and may be specified by the contracting The practice or standard used and its applicable revision shall agency.1 Select a search unit size.. Apparatus a stable manner and at the desired scan “pitch” (helix).1 For piezoelectric-based search units (non-contact tech- sufficiently high value to ensure notch detection at the scanning niques do not require couplant). a lower refracted angle (or paint.15 Level of personnel qualification. capable of conducting ultrasonic vibrations be- repetition rate without false indications due to spurious reflec.`.2. The instrument 10.``. oil. An independent chan. Excessive surface roughness or scratches can produce signals that interfere with the examination. The methods used for used to ensure intersection with the inside surface.`--- FIG.1. personnel ness. dirt.`. rate employed.`. a couplant such as water.`. NDT agencies shall be being used for simultaneous examinations in other directions or qualified and evaluated as described in Practice E543. as applicable.1.`. This does cleaning and preparing the surfaces for ultrasonic examination not ensure detection of midwall discontinuities (See Reference shall not be detrimental to the base metal or the surface finish...14 Qualification of Nondestructive Agencies.``````. applicable edition of Practice E543 shall be specified in the 9.-`-`. (See 7. If larger material that is tion procedure described in Section 12.1 Instruments shall be of the pulse echo type and shall be small tubes..`. be identified in the contractual agreement between the using 9. 5).2 Search unit frequency shall be selected to produce a accordance with a nationally recognized NDT personnel quali. grease. A S/N value of at least 3 SNT-TC-1A.. NAS-410.`. Personnel Qualification from irregularities such as grain boundaries and surface rough- 7. desirable “signal-to-noise” ratio (S/N). nation station to prevent any transverse motion with respect to scribed in Section 11 to the extent required in the standardiza. or other foreign material that could interfere with corresponding parameters for non-contact techniques) must be interpretation of examination results.1. or a similar document and to 1 is usually considered to be minimum. ISO 9712. 9. the search unit beam during scanning. transverse oriented search units. tions or interference from other instruments and search units fied in the contractual agreement. performing examinations to this standard shall be qualified in 9.. For material with an outside diameter- 8. not straight is to be examined the search units may have to be nel (or channels) of instrumentation shall be employed to supported in a “follower” mechanism to compensate for this. support mechanisms must be used in the exami- capable of detecting the reference notches of the types de. at the specified sensitivity.. The instrument shall be capable of this pulse or glycerin. from the material to be fication practice or standard such as ANSI/ASNT-CP-189. when required..3 The positions of all conveyor and drive mechanisms must be set to support and feed the material to be examined in 9. (or corresponding parameters for non-contact techniques) to 8. tween the search unit and the pipe or tube being examined shall Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 3Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`.1 All surfaces shall be clean and free of scale. 2 Axial Propagation of Sound in a Pipe or Tube Wall 6.. frequency and refracted angle parties.`. search unit shall be capable of being selected to produce a 6. A higher minimum certified by the employer or certifying agency. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST . E213 − 14 --`.1 If specified in the contractual agreement.1) satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of the re- quired notches as compared to background “noise” response 7. to-thickness ratio less than 7.1 The frequency and bandwidth of the instrument and contractual agreement. Surface Condition produce an approximate 45 degrees beam-center shear wave in the tube or pipe wall. The along other scan paths. examined. Couplant pulse repetition rate shall be capable of being adjusted to a 10. For 9.

Rust inhibitors. etc. is never reduced below a specified minimum value. softeners. care must be taken to 11.. depth. 11. intercepting beam width to notch length. wall thickness. the sharp corners are for ease of of the pipe or tube. diameter. provided that concurrence is obtained from the contracting agency. 3 Common Notch Shapes Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 4Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. frequency. or + 10. and 11. or both. tolerances may often include only negative cumferentially or axially. 3 (a). shallower notches may be used to provide a more stringent cal properties as the material to be examined. --`. − 15 % of the specified value for notches over prepared from a length of pipe or tube of the same nominal 0. but should not exceed twice the depth. 11. notches shall be removed.. boundaries. and width (and for V-notches. This depends upon the common notch configurations and the dimensions to be mea.13 mm) or less in depth.1.`. 3 illustrates the may not be linearly proportional to notch depth.`..-`-`. additives should not to be detrimental to the surface condition NOTE 3—In Fig. which are length.2 Longitudinal and. modification (b) may be 11.`. however.. burrs. Reference Standards depth shall be within 60. in depth. ( b).1 The notch depth shall be an average measured from avoid the presence of air bubbles in the couplant. Fig.`--- FIG.. signals or loss of sensitivity. E213 − 14 be used..`. whichever is greater.005 in.`. − 15 % ensure satisfactory examination sensitivity near each of these of the specified depth. The use of 11. or other agreed upon techniques.3 Reference notches shall be separated sufficiently (cir.4 All upset metal. Reflection amplitudes from V-.`.001 in.``. The reference examination. (0.5. surface finish. when required by the contracting used unless otherwise specified. the included angle) must be decided NOTE 5—The amplitude of indications obtained from reference notches upon by the using party or parties. sured (Note 3).013 mm) of the specified value for notches 0. square-. or both) to preclude interference and values with zero positive deviation allowed so that sensitivity interpretation difficulties. Modification (a) is preferred. specified otherwise by the using party or parties.. or (b) The notch depth shall be within ±0. and shall wet the surface of the material to illustration. and acousti. transverse reference notches shall be placed on both (a) The circular pipe or tube surface may be smoothed or prepared in the the outside and inside surfaces of the reference standard to notch area. (0. agency.`. it may be necessary to modify 11. and wetting agents may be depending on the angle..5 The notch dimensions. Measurements may be made by ultrasonic transmission when the tubing is precoated several hours before optical.005 in. adjacent to the reference smaller notches by the examination agency is permissible. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST . Unless the examination. the notch 11. The couplant liquid with all the interrogating sound beam.`. and (d). material.025 mm). some couplants result in better penetration of the notch. party or parties. a radius provide adequate coupling efficiency. (0.``````. To prevent spurious will be generated. replicating.`..2 When notch tolerances are specified by the using 11. It is recognized that in normal machining practice. At the option of the testing agency. and vibrational mode of the added to the couplant. below. pipe or tube shall be free of discontinuities or other conditions producing indications that can interfere with detection of the NOTE 4—For as-rolled or scaly pipe or tube surfaces..5.1 A reference standard of a convenient length shall be within + 10. and 11.5.3 The width of the notches shall be as small as U-shaped notches of comparable dimensions may vary widely practical. the circular tubing surface to the maximum and minimum NOTE 2—In the contact method.0005 in. Two acceptable modifications are listed reference notches.5.

information as is mutually considered adequate to document (b) Each pipe or tube is passed through a two-channel examination station twice.. of the material specification such as wall thickness.`. once in each direction. the material shall be con- sidered as having passed the ultrasonic examination. adjust the equipment to produce clearly or tubing examined since the last acceptable standardization identifiable indications from both the inner and outer surface after restandardization has been accomplished. no 13. 12.. but not gated. and at shall be obtained for pipe or tube examined. form of a strip chart recording or computerized data of the --`. make more frequent equipment standardization checks. twice in each direction. noted in 13. Standardization of Apparatus upon with the contracting agency.2. reexamine all pipe specified in Section 11. The response from the inner and outer surface notches 13. in the contractual agreement. when specified. If.2. clearly indicate the extent each other such that a helical scan path will be described on the of this effect. sensitivity established during standardization.`.2 may be specified by the using party or parties. in the examination report. nation. This signal may be observed. as a distance and inside diameter curvature.`.. Coverage shall Alternatively. or that the examination of the pipe or tubes supplied meets the (c) Each pipe or tube is passed through a four-channel examination requirements of this practice.`--- Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 5Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. a separate rejection supplement to the required checking of the reference standard level may be established for the inner and outer surface to provide increased assurance that the equipment is function- notches.2 When a “third party” examination is required.-`-`. liquid couplant.6 Other types and orientations of reference reflectors Restandardize the equipment in accordance with 12. When this condition exists. and any modifications specified station once. This may be in the least every four hours during continuous equipment operation.. described in Section 12 is performed after any such adjustment.1 All indications that are equal to or greater than the coverage. record containing objective evidence of the examination results prior to equipment shutdown after an examination run. E213 − 14 11.2. unless the complete standardization procedure establish and apply the distance-amplitude correction (DAC) curve shall be established by the using party or parties. the using party or parties may specify specific be based upon the maximum effective size of the search unit. and any other factors that affect the performance of the length. outer surface of the pipe or tube. surface finish. Maintain the speed of rotation 14. notches. if the inner and outer surface notch there will be a reflection from the entry surface of the pipe or amplitude cannot be made equal because of material soundpath tube. NOTE 11—Care should be exercised to ensure that reworking a pipe or NOTE 7—Identical conditions include all instrument settings. a permanent with 12. except as 13. examination..``.`.. ovality.1 Examine the pipe or tubing with the ultrasound trans. upon further examination of the pipe or tube. search unit position and alignment relative to the pipe or tube.3 The pitch of the feed helix shall be small enough to described in 11.5. per tube.3 For many tubular sizes and examination arrangements. ing properly. no rejectable indications are detected. NOTE 8—If a requirement exists for both longitudinal and transverse 15.1 When a report is required. Axial scanning with circumferential indexing may be used to provide equivalent 14.2 If. responses to establish the rejection level. any time the equipment fails to produce the signal amplitudes or other conditions for rejection within the tolerances agreed 12. On large diameter or 13. 15.1 Static Standardization—Using the reference standard equipment does not meet this requirement. as might namic standardization of the equipment by passing the refer. the pulse density for each instrument channel and the helix. The pipe or tubing to be examined and the search unit NOTE 9—Some traversing mechanisms do not allow examination of assembly shall have a rotating translating motion relative to pipe or tube ends.. Details of the procedures used to examination.`. should be considered as having passed the ultrasonic examination. using the agreed upon reference indicators 12.`. the material equipment standardization (see Note 7). be performed by an independent examination facility. Interpretation of Results and translation constant within 610 %.. mitted in both circumferential directions for longitudinal dis- continuities and.`. heavy wall pipe and tubing. upon ultrasonic reexamination of the transverse discontinuities.2 Standardization Checks—Periodically check the dy. acceptance criteria. more specific re- should be as nearly equal as possible. Make these checks prior to any examination run. Use the lesser of the two standardization criteria may be specified. If such a signal does not exist.. Documentation notches the following three options are available: (a) Each pipe or tube is passed through a single-channel examination 15. under identical conditions used for reworked pipe or tube. and to ence standard through the examination system in accordance the extent specified in the contractual agreement. mechani- tube does not change its acceptability with respect to other requirements cal motions. shall be considered as representing defects ensure at least 100 % coverage at the examination distance and and may be cause for rejection of the pipe or tube. in both axial directions for NOTE 10—Rejected pipe or tubes may be reworked in a manner acceptable to the purchaser. it shall contain such station four times. In the event that the 12.`.``````. and the like. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST .1 When required by the purchaser. 13.4 Do not make any equipment adjustments. NOTE 6—Distance-Amplitude Correction— A method of compensating for the reduction in ultrasonic signal amplitude as a function of material 13.`. during sound-path distance may be employed. or tubing unless otherwise specified. rejection level established during standardization as described in Section 12.5 The examination shall be applied to 100 % of the pipe under dynamic conditions that simulate the production exami.2 Dynamic Standardization—Standardize the equipment 13.1 and 12. Procedure rejectable indications are detected. 14.

.``. a report of the examination on file. refraction angle may be achieved with a beam incidence angle of about 18 to 19 degrees.2 Summary of Practice—Pulsed ultrasonic angle beams path length so that it may be focused on the pipe or tube by either the surface contact or immersion method shall be centerline (See (3)).1 Although contact search units may be used for small from a perpendicular to a tangent of the surface by a distance quantity and field examinations of pipes and tubes. Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 6Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.3 Additional Apparatus Requirements immersion method by parallel offsetting the beam centerline A1. to-wall thickness.`.1). heat treatment. and included beam angle of focused search units shall be such as field examination or where part contact with water is suitable for complete through-wall coverage (See (4)). A1.2. including those with low ratios of outside diameter.1 Identification of the material by type.2 Identification of the examination equipment and 16. provided that proper that is no less than the “pitch” (linear advance per revolution) procedures. When requested by the 15. or non-contact technique.1 Introduction—When the end use of pipe or tubing (1). In some instances. as described herein..-`-`.2. lot.2. the point of beam incidence. by an amount ucts of any diameter and wall thickness. should equal the pipe or tube radius plus a convenient water A1. In A refraction angle of 45 degrees is typically used when pipes and tubes with diameters several times larger than the examining pipe or tubes with a diameter-to-wall thickness ratio length of a contact search unit. and tubes.. Fig. The immersion method is almost always pipes and tubes is required the focal length.. certain additional ultrasonic examina.`--- beam shapes are used to provide full volume coverage of pipes spite of their random locations with respect to the scan path. size.2. including the tion between examination record for each reject pipe or tube actual (measured) dimensions of the artificial reference reflec- and the corresponding pipe or tube.`. when required. The incident suitable refraction angle in the pipe or tube wall to provide and refracted beams in these cases are pictured as being complete coverage of the pipe or tube wall thickness (See (4))..3 The focal length of a focused immersion search unit examining small-diameter. the general beam shapes are of no less than about 10 to 1. For many materials a 45 degree approximately the same. defects equivalent in size to the reference notches at the tion procedures are required to assure that the required quality scanning pitch or index used.`. thin-wall tubes.1.`. The supplier shall maintain tors.6 Examination results. These proce.`. are followed.3. 16. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST . This may be achieved in the A1. undesirable.1 angle beam. customer.3 Details of the examination technique. cylindri. for A1.3. This is cally (line) focused immersion search units are preferred for often a convenient initial adjustment during system standard- critical examinations and for larger quantities (See References ization.. used..1 This practice is intended for use with tubular prod. and any other pertinent information. When examination of heavy-wall standards are met.``````. longitudinal notches in the reference standard. examination frequency. 15.`.4 The angle of the central beam of the search unit.2. E213 − 14 ultrasonic instrument output during the examination. The report shall include at least the following information: 15.4 Description of the reference standard. the contact method. 15. EXAMINATION OF PIPE AND TUBING FOR SPECIAL AND SAFETY APPLICATIONS A1. This is necessary to ensure dures are intended to ensure that proper refraction angles and detection of discontinuities that are as long as the notches in --`. refraction angle required for examining tubes for these uses.3. of the helical scan path (see A2. and end effects if any. shall be adjusted to produce a tion to detect transverse defects. may be employed. tubing.2. pipe. accessories.3. a report of the examination shall be submitted to the procedure. and to avoid spurious signal responses when A1. ultrasonic examination ANNEXES (Mandatory Information) A1. (See Annex A2).`.`. nondestructive examination. material must be either longer or shorter than the length of A1. (2) and (3)). equal to 1⁄6 of the outside diameter of the pipe or tube. including ex- contain recordings of all standardizations and standardization amination speed.1 illustrates characteristic angle beam ultrasound A1. if used.. Keywords 15. Search unit element size and focused beam depends critically upon freedom from discontinuities over a length shall be suitable for achieving reliable detection of certain maximum size.. entry into the wall of a pipe or tube in the circumferential with respect to a perpendicular to the tangent to the surface at direction to detect longitudinal defects and in the axial direc.2 The beam length of the search unit in the wall instance as described in Guide E1774.`.5 Description of the distance-amplitude correction customer. It shall 15. checks and should be annotated to provide a positive correla. generated by a cylindrically focused immersion search unit.

E213 − 14 FIG....`...-`-`.`.`--- Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 7Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`.`. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST . A1..`.1 Beam Propagation in Pipe or Tube Walls --`.`.`.``.`...`..``````.

inner surface which is beyond the interface signal on the This procedure becomes less critical for material of larger display screen of the instrument. move the search unit to the identifiable indications from both the inner and outer surface vicinity of the inner surface longitudinal notch and repeat the notches. immersion technique is employed..``````.5. or. select a cylindri- (d) Maintenance problems may result from wear of the cally focused (line focused) search unit (2) of appropriate search unit face plates. A1. transverse outer surface and inner surface reference to the surface of the reference standard in the vicinity of the notches are typically placed in the same manner near the longitudinal reference notches..5 Using the guidelines listed below. move it toward and away support of the material end nearest the search unit(s) during from the outer surface longitudinal notch to achieve the --`. notch should be nearer the end of the pipe or tube. opposite circumferential direction.`.`. and the inner surface notches to be near ends to maximum signal response from it by a beam reflection from the facilitate insertion of the fabrication and verification means. thick-wall pipe or tubes. in this case. with a suitable film of couplant. The relative responses from both the inner and outer scanning procedure until the signal from that notch. a separate rejection important to note however that it is more difficult to obtain level may be established for the inner and outer surface repeatable and accurate results with this technique because notches. It is distance and inside diameter curvature. If it is determined that a required in scanning from one to other to achieve good signal lower refraction angle would be beneficial. Use the lesser of the two responses to establish the rejection level. Record the peak amplitude of the signal from the described below. Adjust the gain control to set diameters and stiffness. depending upon whether the contact or inner surface notch. required. frequency and wedge angle from the end to preclude interference and interpretation and shape to produce an approximately 45 degree beam-center difficulties.1 Outer surface and inner surface longitudinal refer- unless an alternate procedure is approved by the contracting ence notches may be placed near one end of the reference agency.3 When contact examination is performed. as maximum. standard separated by a sufficient distance from each other and (a) Select a search unit size...5.5.1) may be used for this purpose. material dimensions or other properties make the Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 8Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.5 Static Standardization—Using the reference standard (d) Without changing the gain control setting from that specified in Section 11. the inner surface that angle may be used.`--- set-up. considering surface notches shall be as nearly equal as possible by selection conditions for achieving satisfactory “worst case interception” of the pair of adjacent inner surface and outer surface notch and required scan path overlap. is practical.5. The outer surface and inner surface notch targets or to lower the following selection and standardization procedure shall be used incidence angle to obtain good through-wall coverage on unless an alternative is approved by the contracting agency. (See Annex A2. notches.4.`. the follow- ing selection and standardization procedure shall be used A1. and. if the inner and outer surface notch signal examination.4 Additional Reference Standard Requirements A1. a wedge to produce balance during set-up.`. the contact technique may be employed.`. scanning due to lack of constant pressure on the search unit and (e) Repeat steps (a) through (d) while scanning from the inconsistent couplant coverage..5.`. The relative response from the inner and outer stable manner and at the desired scan “pitch”.. A1. lower the gain to bring it to 80 % FSH and move again to the A1. In cases where the type of scan overlap has been achieved. beam length and focal length for the material to be (e) When manual scanning is employed it is difficult to examined and to the sensitivity level (notch sizes) specified by insure that total surface coverage or any prescribed amount of the user or contracting agency.. or similar. at a node surface notches should be as nearly equal as possible and adjacent to that used for the outer surface notch signal. Direct the search unit beam in opposite end of the reference standard from the longitudinal one circumferential direction. which results from the production of constant refraction angles throughout the width of the beam. but close enough to each other to minimize the time shear wave in the tube or pipe wall.`. E213 − 14 A1. this practice enables all (c) While carefully maintaining uninterrupted coupling and notches to be placed far enough from the ends to insure good constant pressure on the search unit. If this signal is higher than 80 % FSH. examination. A1.2 Contact Examination Technique—For field wall pipe and tubing. (b) Unless special “involute” (5). Some differences in this procedure are required. adjust the equipment to produce clearly determined in Step (c) above. the peak response at this reflection location (node) to 80 % of full screen height (FSH)..`..-`-`. search units (f) Repeat the above steps while scanning in both axial are used it is impossible to obtain the primary benefit of directions if detection of transverse notches and discontinuities focusing which is the uniformity of sensitivity versus thickness is required by the user or contracting agency.`. Any of the apparatus the incident angle to achieve good balance of the signals from types listed in Note 1 (4. DAC may be used to balance the (See (1)): signal amplitudes from the outer surface and inner surface (a) It is difficult to maintain uniform sensitivity during notches.) signal nodes are observed. When (b) Apply the search unit.1 Set the positions of all conveyor and drive mecha. Although not mandatory. outer surface notch and record its peak amplitude at the new nisms to support and feed the material to be examined in a gain setting. On large-diameter or heavy- A1. frequency. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST .4 Immersion Examination Technique—This is the pre- (c) With a given search unit wedge it is impossible to vary ferred technique whenever practical (1).``. For ease of fabrication. or in other cases where immersion examination is amplitudes cannot be equalized because of material sound path not practical.

``````. A higher minimum value (i) Move the reference standard to center the inner surface is desirable and may be specified by the contracting agency. standardization should then be from the node immediately (a) The frequency shall be selected to produce a desirable beyond the inner surface notch signal to obtain the best signal-to-“noise” ratio (S/N) from the material to be examined condition for attempting to equalize both gated signals in the at the specified sensitivity. (k) Repeat the above steps while scanning in the opposite (e) With the water path length adjusted to focus the beam circumferential direction. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST . Adjust the gain to set the amplitude of the signal at examined and the search unit(s). The outer surface notch signal subsequently used for focused units. usually considered to be a minimum. search unit may be angulated in a plane perpendicular to the tube axis to produce the incidence angle.`.``. Alternatively. as measured between -3 dB points on surface notch signal amplitudes. then the other axial direction and using translation (f) Change the water path so that it is equal to the focal rather than rotation of the reference standard to select response length of the search unit minus the radius of the tube. set-up on the inner surface notch through the examination station at full speed and scan pitch and may be performed before set-up on the outer surface notch. Select a convenient node well away from material.`. under dynamic conditions that simulate the production exami- (g) Offset the search unit in a direction that is parallel to its nation. Readjust nodes from outer surface and inner surface notches. Record all search unit position settings. the “direct-in” intersection of the beam on the outer surface is for the examination system to produce a rotating and notch (which coincides with the position of the interface translating relative motion between the pipe or tubing being signal). the angulation and offset if necessary to renormalize by A1. The reference notches and the minimum beam length of the search units. must be signals to 80 % FSH and use the lesser of the two signals to either longer or shorter than the length of the longitudinal establish the rejection level.`. scan path.`--- Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 9Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.. This inner surface notch signal the gated alarm signals from all notches in the reference --`. Run the reference standard 80 % FSH and note its horizontal position on the display. beam is aligned with the long axis of the pipe or tube. A S/N value of at least 3 to 1 is following step (i). Rotate the pipe or tube as for the outer (b) The focal length must be equal to the pipe or tube surface notch and note the amplitude of the inner surface notch radius plus a convenient waterpath length so that the search signal that appears just before the selected outer surface notch unit may be focused on the central axis of the pipe or tube after signal.1 The pitch of feed helix shall be small enough to (h) Move the reference standard to center the outer-surface ensure 100 % coverage at the examination distance and sensi- notch in the search unit beam. This is necessary to ensure consistent examinations that require stopping and evaluating or marking “worst case” interception of discontinuities that are as long as all relevant indications. Rotate the tube without tivity established during static standardization per A1.. (For many materials and translation constant within 610 %. to provide equivalent coverage.2 A preferred method for dynamic scanning. approximately on the outer surface of the pipe or tube. during multiple runs of the standard. as observe. For pitch to be employed. normalization (3). the ing the required conditions is described below.`.) instrument control settings and standardization signal levels on (d) Position the search unit so that the length of its focused an examination record sheet. with random initial translational and angular orientation Note— Alternatively. repeat the above steps with the search unit angled in to peak its response from the surface.5. especially on larger For thick-wall tubes a lower refraction angle may be required material..6.`. For very large-diameter material where this (j) Make small adjustments to the offset (or angulation) and requirement is found to be impractical search units of other to the water path length while alternately observing and focal lengths or unfocused units may be used. set the alarm activation the notches in spite of their random location with respect to the threshold at 40 % FSH. Set the higher of the two a pulse-echo profile as described in Guide E1065. Axial scanning with a satisfactory initial offset distance is 1⁄6 of the tube diameter. A method for achiev- for examination of the entire thickness (4). the stability of described in step (h) above.`..) circumferential indexing may be used..`. E213 − 14 use of spherically or flat focused search units more appropriate must be well beyond the direct-in signal from the outer surface either of these types may be used in place of cylindrically notch.. (l) When axial scanning for transverse indications is normalize the search unit by adjusting its angulation and offset required. A1.. amplitude should decrease and increase as successive reflec- tions of the beam from the inner and outer surfaces intersect the A1. appli- outer surface notch as it moves to various node positions away cable to all diameters but especially for smaller diameter from the search unit.. less than 4 inches (100 mm) in diameter. attempting to equalize the outer surface and preceding inner (c) The beam width.`. Annex translation (that is. Maintain the speed of rotation circumferential direction in the tube wall. (See Annex A2. The pipe or tubing to be examined and the search unit centerline and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tube assembly shall have a rotating translating motion relative to by the amount required to establish a beam-center incidence each other such that a helical scan path will be described on the angle that will produce the desired refraction angle in one outer surface of the pipe or tube. without motion along its longitudinal axis) A2 describes how maximum allowable pitch for stable detec- and observe on the instrument display screen the motion of the tion may be determined from the length of the longitudinal notch signal away from any residual interface signal.6 Dynamic Standardization—Standardize the equipment repeaking the interface signal. first one.. or both.6. Set the position and duration of the notches in the reference standard by the amount of the scan instrument alarm gate to include both of these signals. notch in the beam.`. for example.-`-`.

3 It is seen from these equations that if the pitch is of the random initial location of the notch with respect to the equal to either the beam length (if it is greater than N) or to the scan pattern.``.6 shall be any recorded notch signal amplitude is found to have increased repeated until satisfactory operation is obtained. I wc 5 $ N1B 2 P % /2 however generated.1.. I wc/B 5 1/21 ~ N 2 P ! /2B fore defects of that length) by the search unit beam..`. ization signal exceeds 10 % of that amplitude.`--- prior to any examination run. an alternate procedure approved by the contracting agency.``````.5 Decrease of Recorded Notch Signal Amplitude of continuous equipment operation.1.`. prior to equipment shutdown before examination is resumed.`.`.3 Failure of Alarm Actuation—When alarm actuation 20 % no rerun of material is required..`. and therefore signal amplitude. the percentage change may be represented by: between best and worst case random interceptions of the notch Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 10 Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST .. restan- standardization of the equipment by passing the reference dardization shall be performed to bring the signal amplitude to standard through the examination system..-`-`. level to within that range. depending upon the nature of values.7.. the entire lot of material check. Then the by more than 10 % above the average of the initially recorded following steps shall be taken.`. Make these checks within 10 % of the average of the initially recorded values --`.2 Restandardization—If any notch in the reference greater than 50 % of the average initial standardization standard fails to actuate an alarm. regardless A2. that is: N 5 Notch Length I wc/N 5 1/21 $ B 2 P % /2N B 5 Beam Length or A2. If the increase is between 10 % and A1.. it shall provide consistent operation for the specified number of runs.. between 10 % and 20 % and there are unrejected indications of A1.`. restandardization shall be performed to bring the signal the failure. the A1. RESTRICTION ON THE SELECTION OF SCAN PITCH A2.1 Determination of Scan Pitch—The helical scan pitch. However. This requirement on which is longer. Restandardize and reexamine Over 20 % or of Between 10 and 20 % With Indications—If the the material if necessary.7. E213 − 14 standard on a strip-chart recorder or other means for observing standardization check shall be reexamined after the system has signal amplitude stability or alarm function. restandardization.4 Decrease of Recorded Notch Signal Amplitude of peak signal amplitudes must remain constant within 10 % FSH Between 10 and 20 % and No Recorded Indications—In the for the number of successive runs specified in an approved case of a recorded examination wherein the signal amplitude examination procedure (a minimum of six is suggested) or.1 Standardization Checks—Periodically check the amplitude of the initially recorded signals. must not exceed the absolute difference A2. or.6 Increase of Recorded Notch Signal Amplitude—If static and dynamic standardization procedures of A1. In the absence of been successfully restandardized. after an examination run. no rerun of parts is criteria shall apply. A2. and there have been indications rejected since the standard fails to actuate the flaw alarm during a standardization last satisfactory standardization check.2 The length of the “best case” random interception of between the length of the longitudinal reference notches and the notch by the beam is equal either to “N” or “B”.`.7 Additional Mandatory Procedure Requirements signal indications that were greater than 50 % of the average A1.7.7. since the last satisfactory standardization check. the entire lot of material examined since the last made from a strip chart recording of signal amplitudes. if the satisfactory standardization check shall be reexamined after deviation from the recorded amplitude of the initial standard. in accordance with the following rerun recorded value is less than the average of the initial procedures. if a notch in the reference than 20 %.. where defect analysis is amplitude. the same stability verification procedure and more than 10 % but less than 20 %. there were no recorded unrejected A1. between P# N2B ? ? worst and best interceptions may be obtained by dividing Iwc where: by either “N” (if “B” is longer) or by “B” (if “N” is longer).1 This restriction arises from consideration of the “worst case interception” of the longitudinal notch (and there. and at least every hour during A1. if from any notch in the rerun reference standard has decreased another defect alarm device is used. all lengths of material run since the last satisfactory run since the last standardization check shall be reexamined.7. If indexed axial from the average value of the initially recorded amplitudes by scanning is used. The fractional percentage change in notch may be stated as: interception length. depending the effective length of the search unit beam.`. The actual length of the worst case interception notch length (if it is greater than B).1. unless otherwise specified by the contracting recorded amplitudes by more than 20 %. If the increase is greater is the only defect indication used. portions of the A1. required after restandardizing if.7. or if the decrease is agency.

... Vol. 2nd Ed. 2nd Ed.5 or 6 dB. “Introduction to Ultrasonic Testing.`.. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards. pp 220. Vol.” Materials Evaluation. No.49. K. at the address shown below. No acceptable standardization interception is 1. the ratio of worst to best case REFERENCES --`. or P = B . which you may attend.1..J. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International.H.`..`--- (1) Bar-Cohen.`. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www. Soc.. No. Columbus. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. pp 828-833. (2) Ensminger. and the risk of infringement of such rights. No. PO Box C700.0. pp 607-612.” Nondestructive (4) Beck. N.`. either reapproved or withdrawn. Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM 11Licensee=RMIT University/5935953001 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. are entirely their own responsibility. Vol.. PA 19428-2959.org).``````.221. 39.” Materials Evaluation.astm. if P = N . Inc. Basel. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). pp 876 . ASNT. or service@astm.. random alignment and is the prescribed condition for maxi- B is substituted in the first of the above equations. K. Ohio. 610-832-9555 (fax).882.`.. 1981. 7. “Ultrasonic Refraction Angles for Inspection Throughout Testing Handbook . Ultrasonics ..M. and B. Vol. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. D. Aug. May 1993. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. mum pitch if “invariant” notch detection is to be assured. and in the Ultrasonic Inspection of Pipe. July 1991. Technology. SUMMARY OF CHANGES Committee E07 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (E213–09) that may impact the use of this standard.Y. (3) Beck. Am. p 296. Ross.astm.Fundamentals.`.. for the Total Wall Thickness of Tubes and Pipes. N is substituted in the second.-`-`.`.`.. West Conshohocken. E213 − 14 by the beam will be 0. 01/07/2015 03:04:27 MST . (5) Toth. J. Y. 51. 1988. 5. “The Involute Search Unit-A New Concept Applications. 1991.org (e-mail). or through the ASTM website (www.. Nondestructive Testing.” Materials Evaluation. (1) Deleted MIL-STD-410 from Section 2. This indicates no signal variation due to repeatability can be provided in that case. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. United States. 7. 9.`. ASNT. “Ultrasonic Transducer Focusing for Inspection of Cylindrical Material.``. Marcel Dekker.H. (2) Added ISO 9712 to 2 and 7. However.org/ COPYRIGHT/)... This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised.