THEARUP Easing the

JOURNAL contractors' lot *
J. M. D. Anderson

Vol. 1 No. 7 November 1967 Published by
Ove Arup & Partners Consulting Engineers During my time with contractors the various large sheets
Arup Associates Architects and Engineers of paper covered in hieroglyphics (called drawings) and
13 Fitzroy Street, London W.1 small sheets of paper written in some foreign language
(called specifications) gave me the impression that the
individuals working under the collective nom-de-plume of
consulting engineeers and architects had very little idea
of tlie problems facing the contractors' staff on site. In my
two ye.ars with Arups the impression' has become a
Editor: conviction and the very little idea' has become no idea
Rosemary Devine at all!!
Art Editor:
Desmond Wyeth The above paragraph may seem over-critical of individuals
and I am prepared to accept this but collectively it is true.
Assuming you have not at this stage thrown your copy of
this article on the floor and dived for the internal phone to
blow your top at the author (assuming also that one of
the partners has not beaten you to it and the author is no
Contents longer about), then let me explain.
When you have read all the points you will probably say
2 EASING THE CONTRACTORS LOT* 'but I know 99~0 of that lot'. Fair enough, so you may,
J.M. D. Anderson but what about the other 1% ? From your point of view
the article is not wasted. Consider further. The individual
in front of you has probably said the same but his '1 %
4 TOWER HILL DEVELOPMENT didn't know' will in all probability be different from yours,
Tom Henry as may be the 1% of the individual on your right and
left and behind and over the other side of the gangway
8 FIRE DAMAGE and upstairs and downstairs and over in number 8 or 13.
TO A REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE There are some 700 members of our technical staff and
Ben Glover assuming there are 6 of them whose '1 % didn't know' is
the same as yours and that each 'I % didn't know' is
12 WAREHOUSE FOR PENGUIN BOOKS LTD. shared by 7 people, then by performing the sum
A. B. Gourlay
7oo x 1% of Arups = 100% of Arups
OF LORETTO SCHOOL CHAPEL we find that the first paragraph is proved.
J. Shipway Now read on and then return and re-read this introduction.

CONCRETE UNITS WITH RESIN ADHESIVES The object of this article is to try to define and detail all
Turlogh O'Brien those areas where standardizations and simplifications can
ease the contractors' site problems and we, as engineers,
should consider these wherever possible. Whereas the
specifications for the structural works in a project are the
province of rhe engineer, the shape is produced in varying
proportions by both the engineer and architect and although
we can deal with our own responsibilities in this respect
The cover shows Penguin Books Ltd., Harmondsworth. we can only offer the architect advice and this should be
Photo: A. B. Gourlay done in cases where we think it necessary, provided always
that the atmosphere is favourable.
Standardizations and simplifications should produce
economies in constructional costs although these will, in
the majority of cases, tend to stabilize prices rather than
reduce them. In addition, on those contracts where bills
are priced before the detailed drawings are available, the
number and amount of claims due to out of rhe ordinary
work will be reduced.
For the purpose of clarity I have divided the problem
into six main areas, namely:
* This article which A. Excavations and foundations
B. Standard shapes and modules
starts this issue of C. Concrete and formwork
D. Reinforcement and stressing
The Arup Journal E. Structural steel
will be discussed F . Services and finishes
Technical Staff Meeting. I.
The average shovel is 9 in. wide so trenches less than this
Everyone is welcome are impracticable.
Trenching machines and excavators have given bucket

widths. It is therefore better to detail long trenches which reduces the chance of honeycombing of the concrete at
are probably going to be machine dug to these widths. the joint due to loss of grout.
3. 20.
Deep narrow trenches are difficult to hand excavate, Expansion joints and watertight joints should be fully
particularly by labourers with large posteriors. Consideration detailed on the drawings and water bars, joint fillers
of any structural advantages from wider foundations and sealants specified.
should be made. 2I.
4. Column sizes, wall sizes and slab sizes should, where
In granular or similar material, boarding and strutting or possible, be detailed bearing in mind the standard
battered sides will be required. In the latter case backfill dimensions of the materials from which formwork is made.
will be necessary. It may be that concrete would be Plywood, hardboard, etc. is normally produced in
preferable and a lesser depth result. 8 ft. x 4 ft. sheets and a wall dimension of 8 ft. 2 in. x
5. 8 ft. 2 in. will necessitate considerable wastage and also
Small variations in the levels of the undersides of foundations produce undesirable joint marks.
of the order of 3 in. or less are dilficult to achieve and 22 .
usually cost more in setting out, bottoming up and In the same way as no. 21 above, timber is normally
checking than they save in concrete volume. supplied in multiples of I in. in width rough sawn and
6. between in. and t in. less if planed all round. Upstands,
Pile groups and piles within groups should be considered risers, etc. of 9t in. will produce wastage.
from the point of view of machine working positions and 23.
programming of subsequent work. The number of variable sizes of columns and beams
should be kept to a minimum since a higher number of
B. STANDARD SHAPES AND MODULES uses can be obtained from formwork.
7. 24.
Queer shapes invariably cost more to make and, unless Formwork to sharp comers is difficult to keep grout
absolutely necessary, should be avoided. tight and removing arrises by the insertion of a chamfered
8. piece in the corner of the form is easier and cheaper than
Shapes that are repetitive are cheaper and easier to grout-proof construction. In addition the likelihood of
construct since the labour gets into the swing easily. subsequent damage is minimized.
Modular construction is cheaper for the same reasons as D. REINFORCEMENT AND STRESSING
no. 8 above.
25 .
10. The number of different bar types and diameters should
Since levelling is invariably carried out in divisions be kept to a minimum.
of 1/ 100 ft. but taped measurements where used are in 26.
divisions of 1/96 ft. it is better that where levels are given Reinforcing rods are normally produced in 30 ft. and 40 ft.
they are to dimensions common to both methods, lengths. Where possible bars should be kept to fractions
i.e. 3 in. and .25 ft, 6 in. and .50 ft, 9 in. and .75 ft. of these. This minimizes wastage. It is more expensive
Other levels lead to discrepancies . usually to detail a bar 29 ft. 6 in. long as 30 ft. than cut
II. off 6 in. The 6 in. will be charged anyway as scrap.
Dimensions as a fraction of an overall dimension which is
not exactly divisible by the number of elements should be Laps should, where possible, be designed to anticipated
avoided. This is most common in stairs where something lift heights or slab sizes.
like 17 risers in 10 ft . 6 in. is asked for giving 7 7 / 17 in.
per riser. 28.
Bar centres should be simple measurements. 6 in. is better
12 .
Falls of drains and pipes and ditches should be kept to the than 5t in.
respective recommendations of the British Standards 29.
concerned but at the same time should lead to round The relative positions of longitudinal and vertical steel in
figures at manholes, interceptors, etc. It is probably better mats in narrow sections should be considered from the
on a 38 ft. run of drain with 1 in 40 fall to give a 1 ft. point of view of vibrators. In a 6 in. web of a prestressed
difference of level at each end than specify the fall which beam with two-way mats on each face of i in. bars the
leads to an inexact level. longitudinal bars are better on the inside to give space
between the mats and formwork for vibrator insertion.
Where floors and slabs have to be laid to falls for surface 30.
drainage the point of no. 12 above should be noted with Small diameter bars, in. and t in., are always detested
regard to screeds. by steelfixers. Bar fixing costs are more relative to length
than wei 5 ht. Therefore larger diameters at larger spacings
14. are to be preferred to smaller diameters at smaller spacings.
In addition, the soffit should wherever possible be kept
level since sloping formwork is comparatively more 31.
difficult to fix. Constant depth across bays can be Cover to reinforcement should be constant to minimize
maintained by stepping the soffit level although this is the manufacture of spacing blocks.
undesirable from the point of view of variable prop lengths. 32.
Support chairs in slab mats should be detailed where possible.
15. Congestion in small sections is always a problem and
The number of different concrete strengths or mixes in should be avoided . Sometimes vibrator insertion proves
the work should be kept to a minimum. This is particularly impossible.
necessary when ready-mixed concrete is to be used . 34.
16. Bars protruding through stop end formwork or starters for
Different concrete strengths in adjoining members which subsequent structures are extremely dilficult to
may be cast at the same time should be avoided at all times. accommodate particularly when striking formwork . These
17. bars should be kept to a minimum or detailed to be bent
The casting of large areas of bases, ground beams and up at the formwork face.
ground slabs in one pour is undesirable since it invariably 35.
leads to prolonged exposure of the ground to the elements. In prestressed members the contractor will invariably want
18. to suspend cable ducts from the reinforcement. Due
The positions of construction joints should be considered allowance should be made for this eventuality.
at the design stage and wherever possible detailed on the 36.
drawings. This saves innumerable arguments with In prestressed members access for threading strand and
contractors and delays while their proposals are considered. using jacks must be considered during detailing.
19. 37.
If possible a feature should be made at construction joints. Isometric views of congested and complicated corners
This avoids the difficulty of forming flush surfaces and would help steelfixers (and also detailers).

The tower block is 105 ft. One of the biggest problems with structural steelwork is the large variety of bolt djameters and lengths.E. do your drawings and Lower Thames Street to the south and falls 20 ft. approved by the Fine Art Commission. development All bolts have to be tightened. water pipe and t in. conduit DESIGN AND DET All. other at intersections. single decker buses carrying tourists to the Tower of 45. recesses etc. topping containing a ! in. and the S-block 55 ft. x 82 ft. general nature that comprise most run of the mill work but Pipes through water-tight walls must have puddle flanges. have Tower Hill Development. water pipes. crossing at right angles. More often than not Tower Hill opposite the Tower of London. They seldom end up in the exact 14 storeys hlgh. Two Fixings for finishes and holes. Below the podium are store rooms for the shops above. F. (Fig. Tom Henry The number of structural sizes should be kept to a mirumum. CONCLUSION TEMPORARY WORKS A great deal of the foregoing will apply on your contract. five storeys hlgh. by a width of 51 ft. are clear. STRUCTURAL STEEL 38. in cross check ? Have you included all possible information ? Are they clear ? Have you considered the contractor's possible method ? His crane position ? His access ? His huttage area? The standard of hls workers? Finally. The site is bounded by Great Tower Street to the north Have you considered it all ? In addition. heating pipes etc. The 44. with shops at podium level under the S-block. The podium area is approximately 360 ft x 220 ft. It is not uncommon to find 1t in. 39. SERVICES AND FINISHES The height of the tower block is 163 ft. to describe particular points of interest in the unusual. ) 4 . Because of its prominent position the scheme had to be 42. for services open courtyards are formed by the shape of the S-block should be detailed wherever possible on structural drawings. lowest car park level is for the use of the office personnel The positions of reinforcing rods should be such that the while the upper two parking levels are for car parking and fixings and holes etc. To thls end a Holding down bolts should be detailed to give proposed tower block lost six floors to become a mere horizontal play. Thls is not always possible but a maximum of information should be obtained. and the S-block 740 ft. Careful bolt group design and the use of a minimum number of bolt Tower Hill lengths with added washers makes stores and erection problems simpler. 40. Room must be given particularly for hlgh strength friction grip bolts. view looking north-west you done all you can to ease hls lot ? (Photo: Edwin Lewzey & Co. Also on the podium position and the 1/ 16 in. holding down bolts foul main rods. 1). 43. London. Topping slabs should be thlck enough to take electrical The buildings are of reinforced concrete construction with conduit. 41. oversize on holes is not slab stands an S-shaped office block. enough to take care of thls. above podium level. 6 in. INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The position of holding down bolts must be checked The site of thls development lies on the west side of against the reinforcement drawings . together with a three-level underground car park. It is not the intention to dwell on design or details of a 46. off the podium slab. one on top of the precast exposed aggregate mullions and cladding panels.

. thick timber sheeters were applied horizontally to the H piles and retained by Wimpey patent clips to the H piles (Fig. centres raking down to mass concrete buttresses. 2). '9 tb• UB. 3" Thick Timber Shn t u s Xf. 4 As hand excavation progressed down the face of the H piles. x 12 in. 3 Extent of excavation at erection at Larssen box piles ----• Onot ~ • • P'OOIUM SLAB. reinforced concrete 5 . The central 'dumpling' was then excavated. 6 in. below ground formation level at the south side.a.a Pilu: Wrth o. Excavation completed so successive sheeters were applied (Fig 4). ld\. Prior ·to Excowabon. Pit . WATERPROOFING OF BASEMENT This is generally obtained by use of an external membrane in the form of asphalting or internal membrane in the form of a waterproof cement rendering. wide x 10 in. In this case with difference in levels of 30 ft. around the perimeter were then removed and 3 in. creating a 30 ft . The following system was adopted. Find To u. below basement level. excavation. deep ducts carrying the water under the 5 in. centres around the north. east and west boundaries of the site to a depth of approximately 15 ft. north-south formation level. universal beam sections. We proposed using a sub-basement slab of 10 in. termed H piles. Box piles are 25 ft. Al T2'~trCtntru. 5 no-fines slab to an agricultural drain running the free Basement slab construction length of the south side of the site (Fig.. which are cast below basement level. ua Section Wddcd To ua Pit. discussions took place regarding the retention of Great Tower Street and the 30 ft. A flat jack was used between raking shore base plates and the concrete buttresses to stress the raking shores before excavation progressed too far on the retaining wall face. x 49 in. reinforced concrete basement slab through the Fig. Driven Wtmpc. Wimpey & Co.J Po tent Clips. the general flow of water found present at the north-west comer was from north to south towards the river. leaving the sides raked to a natural fall. 10 in.. To prevent cement grout from the 5 in. x 10 in. • Fig 2 t1'xttx92lbs. depth at Lower Thames Street (Fig. Cross section. On appointment of Geo. thick no-fines concrete with a herring-bone pattern of 12 in. 5). I Key plan "S" BLOCK Fig. The top 5 ft. were driven at 12 ft. The top of the H piles were retained in position by welding horizontal waling beams of 12 in. to the contract. below ground formation level at the north side and only 10 ft. Fig. deep basement against Great Tower Street and 10 ft. x 92 in. universal beam sections to the H piles with raking shores of Larssen BP 4 B. Fig... 3).

minimum depth and full corridor width of 5 ft. the basic structure chosen was a ribbed floor of 14 in. 6 in.'. Fig. The largest precast columns weighed just over 1t tons. ~ b.kt Sprinkler . • • ·. This prevented the use of within the corridor partitioning.·_·. 6 in.·. 6in. sprinkler supply pipes and the 9 in. 4 in.: -. x 2! in.:·~·:. Vt ntilotlng Upper Floors.. 6 in.e.. P ODIUM SLAB structural topping.:. Taylor Woodrow chose. .::. 6 in. The tiled presented problems for the sprinkler supply pipes and ceiling in the office floors was then sealed up to the rib drainage as the restriction on structural depth did not soffits to form a readymade duct in any rib void throughout allow these to pass under th. The largest of these on the tower block carrying 550 kips were 21 in... To Ta. 12 ft . Corridor Bt11m Into $p<1ct Bttwun Structur<1l Ribs.··...b. or 1t in.C... Outlclltls Provldtd Through RC. 6 in.. e.••.. all sprinkler pipes the office area.': : 'r. where economies were made on Provision was made to pass the 6 in. corridor beams to which metal trunking could be sealed The excessive width of 14 ft.. 6 in. •• ·. Fig. Rising Bc twun Twin Butt rtssu . i. •• . x 9 in.e beams. These at a similar price.·.:. a separating layer of visqueen sheeting was Because of the restriction in structural depth of the laid.e no-fines structure to be of minimum weight.g._:. meant that the The floor system evolved for the S block was also used beam soffits had to have sprinklers.. p ' . 6). reinforced concrete slabs spanning between beams.• ~.. Asbestos Pip ~ : . • ·:c. to ducts were in general formed by casting in asbestos pipes obtain the precast ribs from Stent Precast Concrete Ltd.. x 6 in. . 8 Cut away section showing corridor ducting in 'S' block Distribution of mechanical ventilation ducts 6 .. At 3 ft. The internal column section was made Maximum allowable overall depth of any podium structure 4 ft. EXTERNAL COLUMNS External columns to both blocks were also precast and were supplied by Stent Precast Concrete Ltd.. P /P .. · _• ::.-'C: ":..··o.•. 1:J.t:>. with beams of width 14 ft. cast iron In our design of the ribbed floors we considered a number drainpipes horizontally through the beams and at beam of proprietary floor systems.· Supply Pipes . x 18 in. • r>. spacing of sprink. and 4 in. The design then progressed The design of the in situ corridor beams of section 29 in. and 6 in. 1 in. and less. ribs at 3 ft.:. however. underneath. for the flow and return ducts (Fig. S prinkler Head.. diameter the piled foundations due to the weight saving on the floors. 6 in. · ·-\"~:. ~. on the tower block. R.. depending on the shear loads involved and generally centres holes 9 in.::c.-· :. This idea created beams. Fresh air conditioning to all office floors required contribution to the structure. to enable these columns to 'disappear' was restricted to 3 ft. ·... ~. Cost Into Concrete: !'. x 6 in. Fresh Air Ducting. 7). A further complication arose in that maximum considerable economy in the air conditioning.. u. spans.. Louvred tiles near the external elevation and drainage had to pass horizontally through the podium completed the duct system.: ~ · .. The majority with loads of 200-400 kips column spacing was chosen to suit the shop layout acted as point loads on 25 ft. P ierhead.:.:. cross section cast in th. shaped and had three pockets 5 in.J. 1t in.. wide evolved from the requirements of corridor elimination of those portions of the slab making no useful ducting. No-fines concrete was used to fill the working space podium structure and the need to carry the structure of between the north retaining wall and the temporary sheet the S block on a completely different layout of columns wall enabling any water that found its way up against the under the podium. To achieve our aim.basement slab filling the voids in the no-fines slab OFFICE BLOCK SUPERSTRUCTURE-S BLOCK underneath. / .. ~ . This is supported on external Of a total of some 200 columns carrying the S-block on columns or mullions. from a solid 3 ft. ~.:•. at the required spacing of the corridor side. • . The final structure ended a 2 ft.. diameter. >.•·•.r~. it was essential to design the S block north retaining wall to have a ready outlet via th.. Beam.· :. were formed in the in situ 9 in.ler heads at 8 ft. .·. 6 S ection through beam Pipe Offsets. and 12 ft.e base of the column to take six splice bars in pairs of I in.. ~ . sub-slab. _P •••• · : ~ ·• . beams of economical depth. . the spacing of which was an the podium slab only some 10% coincided with columns architectural requirement and the internal (corridor) under the podium. 7 Fig. centres and a 2 in. ~r-=--. 4 in.·•-. Omnia and centre lines vertical duct drops were made to tee off a Fram T-beam units all of which could be obtained sprinkler head to sprinkler the beam soffits (Fig. of the required dimensions and were held down by fixing to the shear links.·-':•:. reinforced concrete slab to deep x 6in.'--'. ~ c.·6.

ft.C. IN RETROSPECT Taylor Woodrow must have liked the structural scheme for the office blocks as they suggested this form of design to our Edinburgh office for one of their development schemes being built by Taylor Woodrow. The precast mullion system was again suggested by view looking north-west Taylor Woodrow in another multi-office block development (Photo: Edwin Lewzey & Co. diameter spun concrete pipes under the basement required free air ventilation. These of buttresses that occurred every 25 ft. in that as much free air ventilation as possible was to be By feeding similar large diameter spun concrete pipes as provided. the basis of the existing Fire Regulations of the L. could not be accommodated under the across the soffit of the floor slabs in smaller sized ducts floor slabs due to the restricted headroom of the coach (Fig. Building Byelaws at that time and due regard paid to the and 3 ft.C. Tower Hill Development. 7 . ducts along the north retaining wall at basement level with Mechanical ventilation was also quite extensive and ducts vertical risers to the upper two floors between the pairs with cross sections of 15-20 sq.MECHANICAL SERVICES This problem was overcome by: If the three-level underground garage were designed on I. were required. practically no podium slab left. and car park. there would have been slab and rising as small ducts up the column face. The placing of these ducts in the form of large 5 ft. and distributing sizes. 4 ft. 8). A compromise was reached 2. however.) in Victoria Street for which we were not the engineers..

Ben Glover The area is bounded on three sides by 9 in. to determine. the fire did not spread to the upper floor. The reinforcing steel was the extent of structural damage and the most economical high tensile Square Grip. 'One. The relevant part of the structure way of making it good. by means Although the timber planks in the stair opening were burnt of guniting. However. I Soffit first floor (Illustrator: Marion Raine) 8 . 6. under the canopy.t of the first floor slab. causing a flue. the anchoring back of the ends of the exposed main reinforcing steel and the rebuilding of the concrete.. out. x 10 ft. THE FIRE AT BLOCK 7 The structure The part of Block 7 at Cwmbran which was affected by the Fire damage fire is of reinforced concrete construction. has received a certain amount of attention. solid brick walls and the front face. flint and quartz with traces of shell. hollow pot cantilever canopy to a reinforced on the outer edge. in this instance. was 16 months old at the time of the fire. None of the columns was structurally affected.- DD D =··=·=·==-··= +-- DODD DDDDDD 22~ 21· 22°•22° 2f•2f 22•22 hollow pot canopy tollffll lfwaffll slab 12" solid slab cot111111 tdlml lf s«id slab lf waffll slab Clllumn Fig. SYNOPSIS The coarse aggregate used was a mixture of gritstone. The columns have a t in. columns supporting a 12 in. by a shop plate-glass window. chert. It was therefore decided to test the damaged materials Evidence of calcinating of concrete was found. Solid slab bays have a central 10 ft. with a 17 ft. 4 and Fig. comprising 22 in. A fire in a section of Block 7 at Cwmbran Town Centre sandstone. underside of the slab had been exposed over extensive areas due to the concrete exploding off. causing extensive damage should or should not be replaced in what appeared to to the soffi. individually and to load test a part of the structure. Where these openings are not used they are blanked off with prestressed concrete planks. the plaster From the results of these tests the repair work comprised having protected them satisfactorily. after only a visual inspection. x 22 in. The bay in concrete structure which the fire occurred was the only one where timber planks had been used. solid and waffle first floor slab. Carlite lightweight plaster finish . on 21 March 1967 presented the problems of assessing together with a dredged sand. DODD DDDDDD DDDDDD DDDDDD DDDDDD DODD D DD D===-=D=-. the burning for some hours before being brought under control. what The shop was completely gutted. The fire The effect of heat on the strength of concrete and steel The fire occurred in a ground floor linen shop at night.500 psi at 28 days. two. to its original line.. available information was insufficient to enable one. The reinforcing steel in the be border-line cases. Literature on assessing and making good fire damage to a reinforced concrete structure is lacking in specific detail. Fig.plenty'-Tasmanian method of counting The concrete design strength was 4. stair opening.

&" plm<s l'·D°'lc Undapter ~ ... reinforcement and rebuild the concrete to its original line was constructed over the load area. 1 and the props released to give t in. fractured or otherwise fire damaged concrete and 3 cleaned to a sound concrete face. I 2 loose. ft..059 in.059 Three sections of exposed reinforcing bars were also cut. The low recovery of position gauge I was attributed to the TABLE I. 120 lb. LOADTI!ST Tests Five 6 in.800 means of Lindapters (see Fig...6 Cube strength psi at Repair procedure 16 months 9. the tying back Ultimate tensile strength psi 78. were badly spalled and cracked. the results are given in Table I and Table II respectively.. CONCRETE DENSITY AND STRENGTH breeze-block wall at first floor level which prevented the slab from recovering. 1. (a) Cut out and recast the slab Using Timoshenko's 'Theory of Plates and Shells' the (b) Incorporate new supports in the form of fireproofed steel central de.450 70. it would be determined The recorded deflexion at gauge 3 when the slab had been whether a load test should be carried out. r. As all the dead load was already applied.000 and anchoring the ends of the main reinforcing steel by Yield point psi 65.(. However. of rust and scale by means of grit blasting. t in.300 The slab remained propped during the repair work. section of the worst affected area..0 application of guniting to its original line. gauge 3 Fig.4 149. subjected to the load test for twenty-four hours was 0.800 6. 2 3 4 5 From the results of all the tests it was deemed that the Bclk density lb. (c) Remove the damaged concrete. lined with a polythene sheet. 2 right Load test tank (Illustrator: Marion Raine) stab sl!tl ~ . if made good. Bar No..4 151. diameter concrete cores were cut from the slab Dial Gauge I 2 3 4 5 No.. live loads were kept off the was removed. structure. anchor back the main A timber tank. it was decided to load test an 18 ft. 3) thus enabling it to develop Elongation% 21. depending on the results..· ply Detail of Lindapter anchor (Illustrator: Marion Raine) ' .flexion and the actual ofrepair to the concrete structure available: deflexion under load and the recovery on removal of the load.016 ..flexion for homogeneous slab. i..300 7. ensuring full bond 9 . centres.450 9.8 working stresses. J above ~ .049 in..9 153. Deflexion gauges were to enable the slab to work as designed. 152.200 77. and to rebuild the concrete by the 15.Fig. % Recovery 43 73 74 90 98 These samples were tested. ft. may have been reduced below its structural design strength. satisfactory.028 .500 82.055 . see Fig. the region of 800°C (1475°F).. The criterion of the slab's structural value was based on a If that proved to be the case there were three methods comparison between the calculated de. clearance. it was decided to test the damaged materials individually and. sq. propped with 4 ton props at 6 ft. There was an immediate recovery of 74 % when the load Firstly as a safety precaution. A specification for the remedial work was drawn up and TABLE II.. The maximum temperature was estimated to be in The slab was designed for a live load of 120 lb.e r deflexions and their recoveries are affected area and no new dead load added..(.5 the live load. to act as a reference-positions shown on Fig. they did successfully retain the fire within their bounds... 1.850 10.6 153. the steel to be cleaned Diameter t in.31. Oth./ sq. for the load test.. TABLl!ID..111i12· verlicats t'·&°'lc Fig.. s· plm type 'c' ' . it was decided that From visual inspection it appeared that the slab strength the load test should be 1.e../sq. ft. set out on the soffit of the slab in positions shown in Fig. 1-4 from the damaged area and No. The slab was given in Table III.3 14.500 70. which do not contribute to the strength As the samples tested indicated that the materials were still of the structure..021 . REINFORCING STl!l!L included-the soffit to be hacked to remove all spalled. x 20 ft.. 2. 5 from outside Maximum defiexion the area. or concrete members to take the live load was calculated to be 0. Investigation of fire damage The tank was filled with water at a load rating of To enable a final assessment of the structural damage.-polythene sheet The brick walls./cu. 180 lb. ft. was structurally acceptable. Fig.fhour.. Core No. in inches . !in..

THE EFFECTS OF FIRE ON A REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE Often when a reinforced concrete structure has been subjected to a fire an urgent assessment of the damage and its structural significance is required after a visual inspection only. yds.543. At temperatures greater than 300°C (575°F) concrete usually loses strength due to the changes and deterioration that the water.6.0025 times the cross sectional area of gunite was to be inserted. additional mesh reinforcement of 0. The cost of propping. 7) and no attempt was made to float off as it could cause structural damage such as introducing cracks and breaking of bond.6. 5 Repaired soffit solid slab Damage can be caused by water in the pores becoming (Photographer: Ben Glover) superheated above the boiling point of water with violent results. Concrete Concrete which bas been subjected to temperatures up to 300°C (575°F) should not be adversely affected. 5 and Fig. Also. Water Fig. The cost of the load test was £320. aggregates and cement undergo. Where the thickness of the applied gunite exceeded I in.Fig.4 Damaged soffit solid slab between old and new concrete and new concrete and reinforcing steel. Costs The total plan area of slab which was structurally repaired was 200 sq. additional reinforcement and guniting was £2. yd.. The more the concrete has dried out the less it is liable to suffer this type of damage. The overall rate for the structural testing and repair of the slab being £14. to be able to properly plan a detailed investigation it is useful to have some background knowledge of the likely effects of fire on both concrete and steel. The finish was left as applied (Fig. cleaning. 10 . per sq.

At temperatures above 700°C (1290°F) calcination of the limestone occurs. the effect on it when subjected to fire is limited. shattering due to expansion occurs. for every three hours of fire duration. Igneous rocks generally do not show a colour change on heating. However. Basic types (dolerite. Cold worked bars are liable to become annealed at temperatures above 400°C (755°F). the percentage of elongation being reduced. The colour sometimes increases in depth at higher temperatures up to 6oo°C (II 15°F). Damaged soffit waffle slab However. II . This is usually in the region of 550°C (1250°F). Cracks occur roughly parallel to the face of the concrete and layer after layer of concrete spalls off. due thanks being accorded to such things as 'Fire R egulations'. Chert and flint when heated to over 250°C (480°F) show a colour change similar to that of sandstone. Reinforcing steel It is unlikely that reinforcing steel still encased in concrete will be affected. becoming rapid at 900°C (1650°F). Reinforcing steel which has been subjected to temperatures of 400°C (755°F) plus. At slightly higher temperatures. after which they will exhibit properties similar to mild steel but with a reduced elongation. Generally for temperatures up to 400°C (755°F) there is an increase in tensile strength with a corresponding loss in ductility. The coarse aggregate is much more adversely affected and usually the main cause of serious concrete spalling. The depth varies approximately with the length of exposure and increases about I in. However.Aggregates Generally because of the easier readjustment of the fine aggregates. but may show expansion effects when heated above 900°C (1650F'). The behaviour of mild steel when subjected to high temperatures varies according to its original properties. if the concrete has spalled off it can be expected that both the elastic limit and the ultimate strength have been reduced if the temperature exceeded 400°c (155 °F). 7 Repaired soffit waffle slab (Photographer: Ben Glover) Cement When hardened concrete is subjected to temperatures of 900°C (1650°F) and over. is often one of incredulity that it is still standing. Hot rolled bars should not be too adversely affected until their original annealing temperature is reached. a cool-headed investigation will usually show that a lot of the structure can be saved and the damage repaired. At temperatures greater than 400°C (755°F) there is a marked dropping off of tensile strength until at 6oo°C (II15°F) only about 20 % of the original strength remains . When calcination occurs the red colour disappears and the rock slowly disintegrates. Limestone is one of the better natural aggregates from the point of view of fire resistance. should be treated as suspect and tests carried out on the affected bars. CONCLUSIONS The first reaction on surveying a smoke-blackened structure after a fire of any magnitude. The yield strength similarly reduces with increases in temperature above 400°C (755°F). Many limestones undergo a colour change at about 250°-300°C (480°-575°F) to a marked pink or red. the temperature at which this occurs depends on the method of manufacture and mechanical properties of the bar. re-calcination of the cement occurs and a thin white powdery surface is discernible on exposed faces. Fig. after which there is a reduction in their tensile strength.6 despair that nothing can be salvaged. especially the carbon content. basalt) show no effect at this temperature. Quanz particles begin to expand rapidly at 580°C (1070°F). which then gives way to deep Fig. The effect of high temperatures on high tensile steel is also to reduce its tensile value. Granites sometimes crack or shatter at temperatures above 580°C (1070°F) through quanz expansion.

A. carried out a considerable amount of research into forms a mound in the south-west comer of the site and the trucking problem. aisle with a 4 ft. deep stock area either side. Penguin Books Ltd. D [ffOf . The pallets would be stacked five high. width instead of the 8 ft. Gourlay The warehouse was to be heated. This gave an overall height of 27 ft. The surrounding five acres of land are to be landscaped. 900l<S --J EX1Sl1NG BUFFER DEPOl FOOD ST0ff£ . B. 6 in. car parking facilities. The external area enabled pallets to be placed at right angles to the line of is to be grassed. A new swivel-headed fork lift truck there is a lake in the north-east comer. aisle arranged so as to re-create a natural setting. The warehouse was to be sited on an open field beside the existing buildings in Harmondsworth. Our clients were our clients to reduce the scheme by one third to 60. in conjuction with Personnel Administration The top soil cleared for the foundations of the building Ltd.·----0 oCCi o • ~ • m ~ m ~ • • * m1t 5CAU kkl F I I I l::ak I & A I I 6-f I I I I J Fig . warehouse of some 90.. particularly keen that the entire area should be well The new warehouse was sited away from the existing landscaped.. which arrive by road in 4 ft. lorry way in July when the Government credit squeeze forced loading and unloading bays were required. 6 in. This gave a total lateral module of 13 ft. books building and serves both the new and existing premises. as damage would occur to the glue used in the bindings. which was to be convened to a modernised packaging department. The paperbacks. L·-·-·-·-·. The clients asked for a high level of natural daylight. buildings and a link block connecting the buildings provides a covered passageway as well as a lorry-loading THE BOOKS bay. despatched to book stores all over the world. are turning area. A one-way road takes traffic around the stored in a bulk warehouse.. are taken by truck from the bulk store to a packaging By setting in the south wall at low level. The entire warehouse floor would have to be level with the existing warehouse. the bottom three pallets being onto racking so that they could be broken up Warehouse for for hand selection and the top two pallets being bulk storage. we were well under In addition to the warehouse. Having staned the design in April. cube pallets The space between the buildings forms a generous lorry from printing works in the M.idlands and the South.000 sq.000 square feet for the storage of PLANNING paperback books. As orders are received. I Site plan I2 . Our clients. . Operation could now be within a 5 ft. if the temperature were to fall to freezing.i I' ! !~ . trees and shrubs are to be planted and travel. ft. a covered way is department where they are made up and subsequently provided from the new car park to the existing premises. This proved to be a decisive factor in the THE BRIEF design of the building as a bulk store of this type could be In April of 1966 Arup Associates were asked to design a designed without any form of natural lighting.

we found.AN . -. maintain this level.. Surprisingly.:.y . natural state. waterproof joints t -ton/sq. gap. . 6 in. stripped down to the ballast level and back-filled to the The cheaper solution was to slot 2 ft._____ B t i. I ! ·. Galvanized cramps projected from a mortar bed to with an excellent back-fill and by digging out a corner of take an external skin of facing brickwork. two were THE ROOF known-a lateral dimension of 13 ft. NATURAL ROOF LIGIITING In order to satisfy the local authority. formed a 300 ft. and to satisfy the floor loading of in attempting to overcome insulation. ~ ~ B t' I I f-. high wall. centres. thick..o no n l~ ~ SCALE I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Ii f ~ - - !:" I lI I ] '" . wide. . thick underside of the ground floor slab. In order to requirements for the 28 ft. f-- - ·I 1. spacing would be determined by the economics of the 4 ft./ £ UUOJI I 1e9· -o· Fig.. - - ~ . supported internally on columns at 77 ft. deep and 2t in. greater than in its dominant feature. -- t !·+ - :::.------t -·. continuous structural span. . the fill density In a building of this type the structural module is a proved to be some 10 lb/cubic ft. external columns were erected by the post hole method The problems of roof drainage. -. The units were then the factors which led to the present structural solution jointed by means of a male and female keyed end in concrete. that it was too expensive. we agreed to have The natural roof lighting was achieved by bowing a an engineer on site full-time taking density tests on this corrugated sheet of wire reinforced pvc across the 4 ft. the client's requirement for which enabled a very high degree of accuracy to be a high degree of natural daylight and improved insurance obtained. ROOF PLAN I I I I J'( J I I I I· . I. fill which we found consolidated to a maximum after This considerably increased its structural rigidity and FLOOR PI. ~- . 1. ft. 6 in. the site we not only obtained a cheap back-fill but also formed the lake. . internal columns and the 24 in. it was inevitable that the site had to be and acceptable concrete finishes. z I . 2 Plan . Each have their 4 ft. -. I'- ... I COVERED UNLOADING ·. TURNING b t-- ~ I BAY a.. module. The units 9 ft. However.• - "'~ ~ z . • I- b ~ - I« 111 ' . I-< ~ ' I« ' ' ~ I 0 ~ .- LOADING BAY -1-.. diaphragm which was grouted and bolted.. steel and precast concrete. The trough units were lowered onto preformed rating of the Fire Officers' Committee were but a few of dowels on the bead of the columns. 6 in.. deep reinforced precast concrete planks between the external strata of sandy gravel under the vegetable soil provided us columns. T J T T T . .~ . ~ t u! 'i ! ~ .STRUCTURE four passes of a 10-ton roller... 6 in. ~It.E EXTENSION ~ t . the · The 24 in. -. with a view to the use ERECTION of their precast hyperbolic paraboloids. - ' MAIN ' AJSLE 1 0. a 5 . Of the three dimensions to be determined. or multiples of it A precast concrete 'V' shaped trough unit formed the and a clear height of 28 ft. The longitudinal column basis of the roof structure. Our clients had already been approached by Modem Concrete (Bristol) Ltd. x 12 in. . .. [T 1 . N POSSllll. However. There were clearly two alternative structural media for The beams were centred 13 ft..I. eo . continuous strip of daylight down the aisles. A good 10 ft.. C 13 . deep x 4 in.- C .o • to r:. •I I 10 . apart which formed a this building. .ii j ·-WI .. ~ :- [ F~ L _·__·_ . .- .._ . • I .I I! r! rr n. EXTERNAL WALLS FOUNDATIONS We investigated the possibility of using insulated precast It was important that the floor level of the new warehouse concrete faced planks which would satisfy the design should be the same as the existing building.-. square available sizes just did not suit the 13 ft. LORRY . ~J . z I ·- MAIN AJSLI c. own protagonists. I iil < ~ • "' I ---- ~ "'"' . beam.

Gourlay) 14 . Heating is sufficient to maintain the internal temperature at 50°F The building is due t6 be completed in August of this year. B . wide main aisles at a level high enough to we are installing a computer. eaves' sealing and fixing methods. with an external temperature of 32°F. ROOF DRAINAGE FIRE PROTECTION Roof drainage is taken down the 24 in.ATION Ventilation is provided by incoming air at low level through the honeycomb brickwork on the north and south Fig. 3 elevations. we are carrying out Heating is provided by hot water batteries above the work on a new boiler house in the existing building and transverse I I ft. Ventilation occurs by natural stack effect Erection of roof unit through ventilators in the 4 ft. the suppliers carried out a number of tests with hinged flap doors and the roof vents by cord operated us on edge buckling. which alternate between light fittings on either side of the roof units.loading capacity and. louvres. square columns at The roof vents are also spring-loaded against fusable links the north and south ends and discharged across for automatic smoke relief in the event of fire. clear the lowered mast of the fork trucks. HEATING In addition to the main warehouse. VENTll. as this was a new technique with the The low level ventilators can be closed by horizontally material.. wide roof glazing strips. Fire is depressions in the external pavement into open gutters further guarded against by a sprinkler system with heads which drain to the lake. (Plwto : A .

t1 •....·: 1.......__ A 0 0 ~~ -----... .._LO_AO _ IN_G_ B_A_ Y_ _ _ _ lffl](ffl]lffl[ Fig.. 5 Precast concrete roof unit type A O· D 15 .Q. --.t...... ~.A::l.. UNIT B/C UNIT C/ 8 SECTION CC l. 0 0 J - le Le oJ 53'...· ~.1....G-P.....-....---t...6" f:f Fig. 4 SECTIONB8 Sections - re re 01 - A .. ~ I = a: ~ ~ 9'...

... :: :: l1 1I ____________________ . - ~ ·...---------_- __..~-=-------._ ___ __c____ ~----·--1- ______________ __-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-=="'l 1-----_-. I 11 11 11 It .-.. 1---- 1 __ · __..... 7 below Precast concrete roof unit type B Internal view (Photo: Colin Westwood) 16 ....----... !! :: 11 tl 12·._-_-_-_ _-_-_. 1.. 6 above Fig.-~ . . L. II . II :::it------------------< >---------------------' 1--------------------11:: - :11.. :1 11 1' tl ._.&'I•" ~ .:: . .J 1-1 END • ELEVATION ( BOTH ENOS) CROSS SECTION Fig.:: ___ 1----------------------..---..

."'I O> ~r B ---' i. r-J. 9 below Precast concrete roof unit type C External view (Photo: P.:."t.. 8 above Fig.'''"' PLAN ~ ~--- A 11 .r-J 10 I '. iI I I I I I -L-.e. Dowson) 17 .r I I I I I I I I PLAN OF UNDERSIDE Fig.!!. ----- Di ------.9 11. M.c 3S'.

<• • I I . I F ~: I I =~ I [J! I ~ . D ~= 2·-0 · 0 0 .: I I ~ I I I I .: I I I µ - 1- Y- D -.~ I I I ~. :::\{ N ~ I I I I r r:r~i I I I .- C *:.B ~: I .::. IO Precast concrete external column (south) 18 . Section through centre line Elevation F ~ ~ .::.+I . I I I I I i]... I I I I ~. LJ . -.. I I . ..:.. 0 ·'N I ·'N "' B-B C -C 0-0 Fig. I I ¥fiI I I I I I I I I I I :i~ :! I I I I .C ~ .- B -.

II top left Internal view Note method of ventilation control (Photo: Colin Westwood) Fig. Gourlay) 19 . 16 below right Lifting hook on end diaphragm of roof unit (Photo: A. B. B. Gourlay) Fig. B. 12 left Erection of roof unit (Photo: A.Fig. B. 14 right Precast concrete wall panel between external columns (Photo: A. Gourlay) Fig. 15 below Erection of wall panel (Photo: A. Gourlay) Fig. 13 above External view during erection (Photo: A. Gourlay) Fig. B.

x 3 ft. 9 in.000 from a former pupil made possible the that. THE WINDOWS J. a lecturer at Edinburgh College of Art. We strove valiantly to provide John Lawrie. laminated timber portal frames spaced at 15 ft. wide and 90 ft. and in the Gothic style. and weighing 5 cwt. It soon became evident £90. the work of multi-coloured cut glass. with arched timber collar beams this concrete was wire-brushed 6-12 hours after casting supporting a steeply pitched roof. the THE OLD AND THE NEW largest being about 5 ft. Fig. The scheme involved demolishing about 40 ft. broad by 60 ft. wide at the base. A gift of about the window mullions and frame. long. This gave the architect a difficult problem of harmony between old and new. Its lower edge was about 8 ft. The building was to produce the textured surface he desired to set off the 30 ft. France. high and 52 ft. giving varied effects according to job of this size. long.e year 1900 The glass was set in the concrete by John Lawrie. of the chancel end of the chapel and building on a new wider Reconstruction of section 50 ft. 37 ft. of the Cement and Concrete Association. The original chapel was constructed about th. This handsome gift was the date of re-dedication of the chapel. the architect with the exact effects he wanted and the The cut glass is of pure colour and is chipped so that the efforts exercised us more than we thought possible on a surfaces act as lenses. since John Lawrie preferred to work without assistance enlargement of the chapel from its original seating on the panels. 20 . The ridge line and roof slope of the old section were maintained and in place of the Loretto School Chapel former arched collar beams. the light and the season of the year. and the arched roof was glass. above the ground and it was This was a little job in which we assisted Robert Matthew. Shipway The largest window of the three was triangular in shape and formed the east gable of the enlarged chapel. 6 in. centres were introduced in the new work. they would be ready only just in time for capacity of 370 persons to 480. high at the apex. and the window hedged by the condition that a link with the past was to be would therefore have to be designed and built to hold the preserved by retaining a part of the existing building panels without the advantage of having them cast in. I Pootographs reproduced by permission Loretto Chapel extension. The panels were 24 in number and of various sizes.. It was to be Johnson-Marshall & Partners. This same surface was to be reproduced exactly in approximately 45 ft. An unusual feature was the constructed of concrete panels containing coloured cut construction of three large windows holding panels of glass-not stained glass-from Lyons. within the new construction.

6 between sockets in the mullions. 21 . it The architect wanted the same finish on all surfaces of the was impossible to remove a panel without breaking it up. raised through 90° to vertical using the figures are in the realm of yacht-mast dimensions. rather like the ball-catch on a door. both sills and pencils having dry joints. high stone clad concrete wall.Fig. 2 rafter edge pieces were made by dowels grouted in. and was waisted to window to be cast horizontally on a trestle strongback on 3 in. The cross is covered with a fibre-glass sheathing discussion.. above the ridge line. in section. mullions. and the whole window was Photographs of the new chapel and window were calculated to be stable against wind effects by cantilevering exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy Exhibition of vertically from the wall. square pencils spann. and were inserted in the concrete frame and held by phosphor- bronze spring dowels engaging sockets in the mullions. A feature of the THE MULLIONS spring dowels was that once in position and released. on the contractor collaboration. after further Clyde. 6 in. square at a distance of 8 ft. 18 in. and the strongback. x 13t Fortunately this problem never arose. Clynder. However. THE CROSS but joints were declared unwanted. frame supporting its base. long. and the overall effect is of Each mullion was anchored at the base into the 8 ft. the scheme was abandoned and precasting coated with aluminium powder. The largest of these was 32 ft. below the top. The vertical member was a construction joint. It was obviously The new building is graced by a slender cross standing impossible to pour the window vertically in situ without 34 ft. and weighed 3 tons. satin metal finish. and won favourable comment in the press. These the ground. The cut glass panels all arrived in time. and then wire-brushed on all faces 12 hours cross was in fact manufactured by the well-known after casting. so we prepared a scheme for the designed of hollow timber section. The joints between mullions and 1965. but Loretto Chapel extension the horizontal sill pieces were laid in position over 3 in. This scheme was completely detailed with boat-building firm of McGruer & Co. in. We suggested precasting mullions and sills and expressing the joints. as is the structural steel mullions and sills with expressed joints was adopted.

compressive stresses. epoxy resin from CIBA CARL) Ltd. which are holding have. General descriptions are given of the joints formed with (i) resin adhesives on the following buildings: The joints appear as a thin line instead of the t in. M. very weak in categories (3) and (4) and almost non-existent in category (5 1. put on this building. John Nutt of Ove Arup & Partners. Mention is made of the section discusses the further work that is indicated from miscellaneous other uses to which epoxy resins have been ex~erience on actual buildings. For resin adhesive materials five required which would provide uniform transfer of categories of behaviour may be distinguished. The final use of this jointing technique.. where the principal function is that precast concrete units o_f an efficient gap-filler and stress-distributor. Short-term test data are readily available for a variety of (d) formulations. Netheredge Maternity unit. though slate-clad externally. which is fully illustrated. been used in a manner very similar to the up the development of structural glueing. Shrinkage in the joint is negligible. which are post-tensioned after the adhesive has cured. however. R. It has been found. This absence of data on long-term performance has Jointing structural restricted the structural use of resin adhesives to thin compression joints. It may be noted that two of the buildings referred to have The report. etc. is a significant advantage. are visible internally. The buildings referred to have either been the surface preparation. Paris 4-6 September 1967. 22 . of Sydney. 4. where they were held Long-term strengths of the adhesive in various enviroments. however. Physics building obtained with mortar joints. Hornibrook Pty. Five types of joint have been formed on various buildings. but in this case there is no The bond strength to particular materials under short-term continuous steel across the joint. was used. and be almost invisible. and Chemistry building Exeter University. precast concrete mullions. assisted with the writing of the section describing Coventry Cathedral-Architect: Sir Basil Spence. An Araldite I. (ii) Thames swimming pool. described. in. The second section describes in detail the An assessment is also given of the advantages gained by use of epoxy resins on the Sydney Opera House. can speed up the rate of erection of precast concrete units.. leading to greater The second half of the report describes in detail the use of watertightness. coupled with their The designers of the buildings described are named in the lower cost. When a joint was to be mated the unit was raised and lowered with a small hand hoist. lifting the units into position. Oxford Under favourable weather conditions the rate of hardening University. two residential buildings for Somerville College. the Opera House. already finished. The mechanical properties of the adhesive material under In the chapel. band Coventry Cathedral. (c) SYNOPSIS Thin horizontal compression joints between precast This report surveys the state of knowledge and experience concrete colwnn sections. as they 3. that Various joints used in assembling precast concrete under favourable weather conditions the rate of hardening staircases. the completed or are being constructed. the application technique. they appear to be more tolerant ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS of site conditions than epoxies. but with wooden wedges keeping the joints open. little studied. has therefore been restricted to thin compression joints. post- Birmingham University. of the adhesive can assist early de-propping.-1960-62* The slender cruciform columns that support the inner INTRODUCTION ceiling of slatted spruce panels (Fig. Australia. This. * Editorial note: Paper presented at Rilem Symposium on experimental research on the new developments brought by synthetic resins to the techni. The three sections were jointed 2. The use of resin adhesives the adhesive in compression. and although much less is known about their long-term performance. (iii) Sheffield. with the glueing control testing and repairing of cracked joints are described. Mining. Sydney. rein!arced concrete and masonry. joints act purely in compression with working stress of 6oo lbf/sq.A. I) were precast in For any new jointing compound to be used widely with three sections of equal weight. Walton-on. which is circular in plan. O. The method of construction of the Sydney Opera House was devised in SOME BUILDINGS collaboration with the contractor.ques of concrete. tensioning. (a) with resin adhesives * Thin joints between precast concrete units. but long-term mechanical behaviour has Precast concrete shear connections using bolts to maintain been relatively. grouted in with the same adhesive. there are slender short-term testing. and alignment at the joints. (b) Turlogh O'Brien Thin horizontal compression joints between sections of precast concrete mullions or columns with no dowel connector bar. Abbotsinch Airport. where the principal function is that of an efficient gap-filler (e) and stress distributor. epoxy resins for structural jointing between the precast The first section of this paper demonstrates how these segments of the ribs that form the roof shells of the advantages have been realised in joints of the types Sydney Opera House. Dr. text. This was achieved by first 5.M. with dowel connector bars derived from the use of resin adhesives on twelve buildings. In addition to the stress-distributing function. Office building for Evade Ltd. R. epoxies. concludes with a used polyester resin adhesives instead of epoxies. *Editorial note: The dates given are when the glueing was done. As with the column testing. The present state of knowledge in this country is good in categories (1) and (2). Sydney Opera House. joints the thickness was required to be a minimum. Cambridge University. The Fire resistance data of various typical joint details. These sections were stressed confidence a detailed knowledge of its mechanical together by four stranded cables. New Museums laboratories. minerals and metallurgy department. They review of the deficiencies in knowledge. with the same Araldite resin. The units were mated on site to ensure complete match Long-term deflections under various states of stress. INCORPORATING GLUED JOINTS Ltd. other advantages may be obtained from resin adhesives. The preliminary laboratory testing. Where only the architect is given the consulting engineers were Ove Arup & Partners. horizontally with templates. A jointing compound was behaviour is required.

3 abO'Ve Interior view of CO'Ventry Cathedral nearing completion View of the Guild Chapel at CO'Ventry Cathedral showing the columns and ceiling. It was five floors and the roof in three lifts. in. A CIBA Araldite resin was at 2 ft. the curing pressure was provided by section throughout their length. in turn.) Fig. After lowering and directly into the edge-beams. The cross-sectional area is 62 sq. which are similar to those supporting the roof of the Guild Chapel at Coventry Cathedral. University. The slender mullions were cast in two sections.Fig.) (Photo: E. with holes left in them for the self weight of the unit. 2 below The research wing of the Chemistry building at Exeter Interior view of the Guild Chapel at CO'Ventry Cathedral. long with a cross-section shaped like a blunt arrow- head. The columns were precast under construction. The match was achieved. (Photo: John Laing & Son Ltd. These floors span applied by trowel to both surfaces. Bonnington & Collins-1964. The units are of uniform aligning the top unit. to 2t in. 4 below Fig. the imperfections in the surfaces and the exposed ends of the units are at 2 ft. I abO'Ve Fig. (Photo:John Laing & Son Ltd. passing through the edge-beam reinforcement. span into a solution of Teepol and washed with clean hot water. Each unit is two floor heights in length. showing the slender mullions. 1966 The new Chemistry and Physics Buildings at Exeter University have some slender precast concrete mullion units. The cross length is 21 in. the edge-beams which deliver the load to the units. (Photo: John Laing & Son Ltd. In the Research Wing of the Chemistry Building. the surfaces were scrubbed with floor slabs span onto cross-beams which. and the thickness varies from 2 in. On complete drying the edges of each unit were taped to In the Tower Block of the Physics Building the units are protect them from overspill. centres around the entire perimeter and support mixed in sufficient quantity for one joint at a time. Happold) Exeter University Science Buildings-Architects: Sir Basil Spence. When a perfect and support three floors and the roof in two lifts. centres along either side of the building reinforcing bars were removed by grinding.) in three sections. The units are about 26 ft. . to 4! in.

Abbotsinch Airport. Rubber assumed an in situ. handling the slender 50 ft. The shell units span 20 ft. For this reason. and for efficient load transfer. and (b) The need for accurate jigs to bring the units together again in correct alignment prior to glueing. bush-hammered external rings were used to prevent epoxy resin leakage into the concrete frame. The maximum stress in a boom is 1200 lbf/sq. between trusses. The adhesive used was based on Shell Epikote precast frame proved more economical and phase I was 828 with a resin :hardener :filler ratio of 6: 1 :24. epoxy resin adhesives were used. ready for the next set to be glued on. in. Other joints were made with ! in. When the time of construction came. for the Chemistry building and 1500 lbf/sq. 24 . Glover and Ferguson-1964 The roof structure of the terminal building consists of prestressed concrete trusses spanning between the main columns and carrying on both upper and lower booms precast concrete shell units. required the use of single storey height columns. (Photo: E . a procedure described Arup Associates-1965-66 more fully for the Sydney Opera House. Rappold) The maximum compressive stresses in the units are 350 lbf/sq. in. Site restrictions for phase II. Glasgow. in. 5 The tower block of the Physics building at Exeter University. with in situ joints compression across the joints during curing was achieved between beams and columns. The architect required very thin joints in the visible lower boom and these were made with epoxy resin adhesive. dry packed mortar. The use of epoxy resins in this application was generally successful. Oxford lower boom connected by a series of single members University. In view of the difficulties of external columns were joined with an epoxy adhesive. The units forming the bottom boom were cast against each Somerville College. Glasgow-Architects: Sir Basil Spence. Oxford University-Designers: other with a bond break between. it was decided to cast (Photo: Colin Westwood) them in 10 ft. in which the precast storey height forming a Warren girder. Light built with 3-storey height columns. Stainless steel The initial concept of the Somerville College development pins were cast in to provide accurate alignment. The technique used was the same as that described for Coventry Cathedral. Fig. a ducts. There will be three sections in the full height. 7 Each truss consists of a twin upper boom and a twin The residential building at Somerville College. booms. The materials used were CIBA Araldite AV 123B with Hardener HV 953B. In two respects more thought would be needed in a repetition of this design: (a) The design of the casting beds and handling of precast units to achieve accuracy of matching faces for thin glued joints. 6 A construction picture of the terminal building at Abbotsinch Airport. In each bay there is a 50 ft. In both buildings it was required that the joint thickness be kept to a minimum. white. The lower boom of the precast concrete roof trusses incorporates glued joints. Fig. and cantilevers a further 15 ft. by stressing one of the wires in the boom. for the Physics building. as the thin joints do not allow misalignments to be easily rectified. showing the first set of mullions in place. Phase II. truss in the centre and another on each side which spans 30 ft. lengths. (Photo: Studio Swain) Fig.

with maximum value of 1400 lbf/sq. In this case there are no nibs supporting the the precast H-frame units of the Marist Technical High beams and the adhesive acts in shear.. This requirement did not allow for any joint tolerance to be taken up by packing and shimming. The resin acted as an efficient lubricant until set. Walton. and the nominal Partners. (Photo: Oliver Spence) Fig. 25 . Office Building at Stafford-Designers: Arup Associates-1963 The structure of this building included bolted connections between precast concrete edge-beams and columns. who prepared and applied an epoxy resin adhesive of their own. the epoxy joint had to be of minimum thickness. Walton-upon-Thames. a steel bolts to the columns. The column-to-column joints have Arup Associates-1964 a dowel connector. Evode Ltd. This job was treated as experimental by the clients.) glue-line thickness was t in. Phase III.or Jointing joints. II Swimming Pool. The adhesive used School. 9 View of the frame of the Phase Ill building at Somerville College. To ensure uniform transfer of stress across the joint after bolting. mild steel dividing plates at each joint. To overcome this problem the column was cast in a 3 storey height mould with ! in. with an epoxy resin adhesive to give improved stress This type of joint will be used again for the joints between distribution. (Photo: Colin Westwood) The use of an in situ joint similar to the beam-to-column joint would have reduced the speed of erection.Designers: building at Somerville. Newton & was Co/ma-Fix from Sika Ltd. CIBA's Araldite 123B with Hardener HV 953B was used and the result was reasonably satisfactory. In this case twin beams are bolted with stainless Compound from Chemical Building Products Ltd. 10 Corner detail showing the beam to column joint on the office building at Stafford for Evode Ltd. it was decided to use an epoxy joint. it was only necessary for the epoxy joint to transfer compressive stresses. an epoxy adhesive was used to cover the joint faces. These are normally noo lbf/sq. The contact faces were treated material based on CIBA Araldite resins. The dead weight of the beam is carried on a nib projecting from the column. (Photo: Oliver Spence. (Photo : Colin Westwood) Fig. Oxford University. As the final finish was to be equivalent to an in situ bush-hammered surface.. Fig. and speed of erection was an important This building also incorporates bolted beam to column consideration. This gave smooth matching faces for glueing.) Fig. A similar solution has been adopted on the phase III Swimming Pool. Oxford University. The column sections being dowelled together.upon-Thames. The only problem during glueing was the clamping of the column sections. and as a self-supporting and aligning method was preferable. Manchester (Architects: Buries. showing the twin beams which are bolted to the columns with glued interfaces. The adhesive used was Nitoff. 8 Forming the joint between precast columns at Somerville College. in. in.

The maximum shear stress is ones between the slabs. wide and over. The units are 4 ft. The use of a nominal t in. was a structure a travelling steel arch. The ribs are made of precast segments. and columns is a vertical duct which intercepts the horizontal -300 lbf/sq. before each slab w. In the administration towers.Associates-1965 As the ribs are inclined at various elevations. thick overall coffered floor and the glue line are complex and are caused by the applied roof units are supported by a column at each comer. The precast concrete frame uses the adhesive as a bedding material where the beams rest on the columns. These slabs weighed 17t tons each.- and a prestress is applied during erection while the resin is still fluid. x 15 ft. This material was also used to bond precast concrete stair- treads to a precast structural spine beam. square. This Mining. When the (a) adhesive had set. Fig. During erection the shoulders of erected in the open with no weather protection. The stress will be about IOO lbf/sq. servicing and construction. in. Mechanical fixing devices are eliminated by glueing. and there are 28 bolts. The next column the ribs to be erected quickly. in. Subsequently the stresses across 20 ft. with more Certite putty. in. The function of the resin adhesive in this job was to act as a bedding material and grout seal. and made longitudinally continuous by post-tensioning across transverse epoxy joints. The segments weigh about 10 tons and vary in width from I ft. involving the interrelated considerations During the erection the precast segments are supported on of planning. it is necessary to transfer the vertical loads from precast concrete walls to columns through a shear joint. showing method of assembly of the precast components. to 3/32 in. It also acts as a grout seal. Previously Certite had been used as a bedding between the precast units of a spiral staircase at Castle Market. It is estimated that the containing a socket. The epoxy joints are a nominal 1 / 16 in. thick-in practice this varies from 1/64 in. on each side. right angles. shears and tensions. by bolting a steel angle bracket to the beams. the annular spaces between column the geometry of the curve of the rib to be accurately set spigots and slab sockets were grouted up to form a out in the casting yard and duplicated during erection monolithic joint. Maternity Unit. the column sockets were filled with a fine concrete. University of Birmingham-Designers: Arup over the cross-section . Under normal conditions The superstructure was entirely precast.. Sheffield (1961). Minerals and Metallurgy Depcrtments.sail the spine by 8 in. Sheffield- Architects: Morrison& Partners-1966-67 Epoxy resins have been used in this building in a manner similar to the Birmingham building. Minerals and Metallurgy Designers: Arup Associates-1967 Department buildings at Birmingham University . which is removed as each rib consisting of a series of independent three storey towers becomes self-supporting. which meet at The Birmingham University buildings under construction. the moments. The staircases in this building also incorporated Certite as a jointing material. cast with matching guided and lowered over the spigots. Netheredge Hospital. Sydney Opera House-Architect: J. The segments were cast. Between every four adjacent comer extreme conditions across the joint are 2500 lbf/sq. Dickens Ltd. Cambridge University- Column clusters at the Mining. In this respect it was more efficient than a conventional mortar both in terms of load transfer and speed of construction. The thin epoxy joints enabled Certite from Stuart B.rn Utzon- 1963-1967 Description of the shell roof The shells of the Sydney Opera House are formed by curved hollow concrete ribs which lie side by side so that a continuous spherical surface is formed. The efficiency of stress transfer from beam to bracket to (Photo: John Hopkins) beam will be improved by treating the interfaces with an epoxy resin adhesive. centres and the gaps between The maximum and minimum compression likely under form the service ducts. Finally. within 15-20 minutes of application. was placed over these bars and bedded time required to make a joint and leave it to cure before . (Photo: Harry Sowden) The design of this building includes two types of connections using epoxy resin adhesives. respectively. and the shear concrete spigots at the top which mated with sockets at the stress is 100 !bf/sq. in. Reinforcing bars projected (b) from the top of the column spigot below. The bearing area of each joint is 2 ft. 9 in. in. In one a joint is Fig. laboratory building. the columns were buttered with a polyester resin adhesive. and in depth from 4 ft. to 7 ft. The adhesive used was Gircofix from the Greengate Rubber Co. in. of the order of 500 lbf/sq. Erection of columns on completed slabs in the air. 13 formed between precast concrete beams. Bolted connections are to be used. The 2 ft. The columns had the compressive stress is 1500 lbf/sq.. where precast concrete flights were stressed against the spine with high strength Lee-McCall bars. 6 towers are at 22 ft. stored and comers of the floor slabs. to 12 ft. They are designed to carry a maximum load of 300 lbs . the angle of The outcome of the design process for this complex the jointing face to the vertical ranges from 15° to 85°. . at the edge of the unit. The prestress. prestress creates a uniform compression of 200 lbf/sq. layer of epoxy resin adhesive will enable the shear stresses to be more uniformly distributed. followed a similar procedure. I2 New Museums Laboratories.

) application properties (easier to handle. The resin. 7 days 1850 1850 a higher heat distortion temperature. 30 mins. The former contains an amine adduct as accelerator.) summer. 7 days 10. It met the specifications for strength and had Tensile shear strength. in.) Originally an amine cured system was offered at the tender stage. in. full prestressing was about one-fifth of what would be 63 /27W 63/27S required with cement mortar joints. After casting various surface preparation treaonents were tried. However. It hrs. 63/27W for winter and 63 /27S for at 25°C (lbf/sq. Two grades of Compressive strength. The properties of the two systems are given in the table Tensile shear strength. University of New South Wales. The epoxy resin system Mixing Proportions by wt. contains Araldite My 752 Compressive strength.000 30. Araldite 63/27. at 250°c programme was commissioned from the School of Civil Engineering. A erosi/ and grey colouring paste. the better at 25 °C (lbf/sq. and to assess Reduction in compressive strength 4% 4. 16 hours 7300 5950 hardener were used. Sydney.) 200 mesh quartz flour. A bondbreak Heat distortion point 710c 68°C material was used to prevent adhesion during casting.5 % their effect on the bond strength of the epoxy resin. at 25°C (lbf/sq. (Photo: Max Dupain) 27 . Jong beams for testing in flexure. Fig. 14 General view of the Sydney Opera House under construction.p.) ± 15oocps. of Sydney.5°C 2 hrs. in. a test after 2 hrs. at 25°C (lbf/sq. Surface Preparation 320c 15 mins.6oo (a liquid epoxy resin containing a reactive diluent). 3 hrs.500 10. Pot life 2-pint kit:. Jess sensitive to dampness) of a polyamide were considered to be more advantageous. 4. to make 28 in. in. The concrete surfaces to be glued had been cast against each other to achieve matching faces . at 20 r. the latter has an aminophenol accelerator. and this had to be removed before glueing.m. To check the efficiency of various bondbreak compounds.000 The method used was to glue end-matched half beams (Brookfield no. 250c 45 mins. 16 hours 950 680 on the left. 100/ 22 100/ 17 The resin used was a polyamide-cured epoxy resin supplied by CIBA Company Pty Ltd. ± 1500 cps. Viscosity of mix at 25°C 19.

Fig. Field trials were carried out on full-size units accommodate angular changes at the joint to maintain using method (a) above. Wash down with (b) absolute alcohol immediately before jointing to remove t in. The The epoxy was applied by trowel to the lower surface. These failed badly. This technique was used whenever necessary. Application techniques (c) Early laboratory trials showed little difference in strength The calculated amount of epoxy required would have an between priming or coating both surfaces or only one. No resin is applied to damp epoxy thickness of more than t in. showing little reduction With matching faces it is sometimes necessary to in strength. The quantity of resin The application procedure would be otherwise similar required for each joint was calculated and a small to that of standard joints.v. 16 Grinding the surface of a precast concrete rib segment pn'or Lifting a rib segment into position. flame drying being used if necessary. All segments were treated with a light coating of a p. onto the wire-brushing and water washing. (a) The final procedure adopted which proved most satisfactory on site using a hydrocarbon resin as Steel shimms are used to control the direction of the bondbreak was as follows: Grind off 1/32 in. emulsion prior to erection to prevent (d) adhesion of spillage from above. of concrete rotation (the area and position of the shimms would be not more than ten days prior to jointing. steel spacers are glued to the surface whenever an dampness and grease. percentage extra allowed for squeeze out. exceeded. regrinding is required. ( Photo: Max Dupain) (Photo: Max Dupain) These included : comers. off in time. restricting of the glue-line thickness was considered spread so that there was some additional thickness at the necessary to limit the total amount of creep. later tests showed that application to both (d) surfaces was marginally preferable.a. followed by water cork gasket glued to the lower surface). with bond correct alignment.ze out. The shimms surfaces. This may be done by forming a failure over large areas. Adjacent surfaces were protected by a polythene skirt (c) fixed by masking tape which extended t in. and spacers should cover about 6o% of the area and the effective epoxy thickness would not exceed t in. worked around the spigots and ducts (it was (a) prevented from entering duct and bolt holes by means of a acid etching with hydrochloric acid. a detergent scrub and water washing. to apply a thin layer of the same epoxy to the upper (b) surface. 15 Fig. jointing surface. layer. A roller was used washing. to erection. 28 . allowance of 50 % for squee. occurs. and placing the masking polythene and tape. A stronger acid concentration tapered joint using the following technique: seemed necessary. All the commercial bondbreaks and surface treatments Shimmed Joints were satisfactory in the laboratory. If this time is such as to prevent spalling or local crushing of concrete). This emulsion weathered grinding away at 1/32 in. However.

Wood) Scabbled Joints (a) One set of joints were inclined at 70° to the axis of the drill holes into joint at 12 in. six 1 in. wrong components. The surface (d) preparation was to clean the scabbled surface with a wire inject epoxy resin grout from the bottom. Limits were specified for each resin formulation giving the Insufficient prestress was applied across the fluid epoxy range in which the values must fall. the joint was lightly scabbled.35 (b) of the longitudinal stress existed. and At an early stage in the job. Method 509A. The temperature for epoxy to fully cured epoxy is not good.35. demounting revealed large unbonded areas of resin / concrete interface. Control testing on site About 1 sq. In the case of the joint to hold the precast segment in position and angular exotherm test the maximum time and minimum temperature rotation took place at the joint. epoxy and across this a prestress of only 30 lbf/sq. in. thus squeezing the density tests on each batch of material. filling with epoxy and This control was achieved by carrying out exotherm and forcing 1 in. On some of these joints insufficient ceramic tile adhesive. resin was trowelled on and some downward flow occurred. brush to remove any loose pieces of aggregate. 17 View down a rib under construction. This created internal voids were the important limits. trouble was experienced with were cured for 48 hours at 70° ± 2°F. The density tests were carried out using BS 2782 Part 5: 1965. 29 . flexure and Shore hardness tests were carried out. The repair necessary to have careful control to ensure that the correct technique was to create shear keys in the joint by drilling mix was used for each job. jointing was applied. Grouting with a of peak exotherm temperature and time were carried out in special epoxy was also carried out to completely fill the accordance with the Society of Plastics Industries joint. This was not noticeable from the outside. In addition. movements of the scaffold lead to cracking of omission of components (e. of the total was ± 5% of the nominal value. Owing to the danger of seal the full perimeter length with epoxy resin putty cracking of the epoxy joint during erection. These were repaired by an injection technique: presence of moisture in fillers. However. holes at 2 in. sealant primer. of unscabbled area was left at each joint In addition to their use for rib segment jointing. dust off with a soft brush and clean with alcohol in the usual way. and a shear stress due to the prestressing equal to 0. The shear keys were used as the bond strengths of Specification ERF 2-61 method C. The measurements fluid epoxy into the surrounding joint. labelling error. each test was 70° ± 2°F .g. It is believed that these controls enable the following errors to be detected. (Photo: G . The Other erection problems samples were demoulded 4 hours after they had gelled. and because (c) the epoxy/concrete coefficient of friction in attached· joints protect surrounding concrete against leaks and bursts is about 0. ft. waterproof membranes and joints. steel rods into the holes. area. during resin formulations have been used for patching mortars. The acceptance limit for density within the epoxy layer covering up to 50°{. the jointing of some segments of one of the main arches. centres ribs. It was therefore After stressing a gap was left in the joint. If either test failed. centres. drill hole fillers. accelerators) and the some joints.Fig.

30 .

There is no fail safe with epoxies in general. sealing etc. 5. authorities who issue standard specifications for materials. the various makes detection difficult.). 2. 6. non-destructive testing methods that can be applied in the It is quite clear that considerable research needs still to be field. This appeared However. Account must be taken of the fact that joints made between Bad joints can look good and so they are difficult to detect. out. There is a need for instead of minor cracking of mortar. patching. Either done on the various topics outlined in the introduction. There is considerable danger that Designed by Desmond Wyeth MSIA malpractices will be undetected. certain comments must be made about the use to work satisfactorily. very definite advantages for jointing precast concrete units. 3. This will It is difficult to keep surfaces clean when mechanical avoid any dangers of designers being sold 'structural lifting equipment is used. characteristics of the materials. 18 left Fig. Handling of the surface can adhesives' with very inferior properties. Attempts to readjust alignments to set up a procedure technique and site supervision such after the resin has gelled can lead to cracking of units. 31 . a degree of complacency can develop which wider use of structural adhesives. 19 above Holding a rib segment in place while glueing is carried Applying the epoxy resin adhesive to both surfaces. that bad joints are unlikely to occur. At Sydney the that he would have made the joints any different another evidence suggested that a limit of 10 days should be put on time. Specially trained personnel are required for the wide use of resins on construction sites (for jointing. (Photo: M ax Dupain) (Photo: Max Dupain) GENERAL COMMENTS ON RESIN ADHESIVES 4. I. the interval between grinding and glueing. Only bond is achieved or it is not. Printed in England by Rovstan Printers Ltd . Because poor joints may look with more detailed information will designers consider the satisfactory. precast concrete units with resin adhesives are more rigid Unless the joint can be tested for strength it is essential than cement mortar joints. In addition. occur unnoticed. The degree of care required for successful use of epoxy formulations is higher than that of standard building practices. The experiences of the use of resin adhesives on the jobs Rapid changes of ambient temperature may cause difficulty described above have led to the conclusion that they have in selecting the right grades of adhesive. must start now to draw up ones for these materials. The effect of a small amount of grease from handling is not known.Fig. In all cases the techniques were su ccessful and none of the Little is known of the effect of weathering of a prepared job engineers responsible for those structures has said concrete surface on the adhesion of a resin.