93

BOLETÍN DEL MUSEO CHILENO DE ARTE PRECOLOMBINO
Vol. 16, N° 1, 2011, pp. 93-104, Santiago de Chile
ISSN 0716-1530

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR
UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO

Alfredo Rosenzweig* & Bat-ami Artzi** The Maiman Collection in Herzliya, Israel, is fortunate to
have two interesting and well-preserved Chiribaya textiles,
One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that a prehispanic culture of Peruvian southern coast. The
has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000-1350 AD), a
group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the one described in this article deserves special attention
Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley because of the use of human hair in the weaving, as
near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel phases). The
textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that
well as its intriguing iconography (figs. 1, 2).1
both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human The purpose of this paper is to explore the back-
hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no precedent ground of the use of human hair as a weaving fiber in
for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in
such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the the context of this Andean culture. There are references
length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented to use of hair but little work has been carried out on
anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female
headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines this subject, as our review of all available related litera-
and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual ture has demonstrated. The results of this investigation
organs, perhaps with the interior shown also. should add to the existing knowledge of the Chiribaya
Key words: textile, Chiribaya, human hair, archaeology,
Peru, Chile and Mayta peoples and of the use of hair in textile
manufacture.
La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido
atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000-1350 DC), descendiente
de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de
Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa,
en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fases Maytas/San
CHIRIBAYA CULTURE
Miguel). La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere
decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. Tiwanaku descendants settled in two valleys near the
La imagen sobre el fondo de la red de algodón blanco está
formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso present-day Peru-Chile border–on the Peruvian side in
como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos the Algarrobo Valley near the port of Ilo, Moquegua,
identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa
femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo
and on the Chilean side in the Azapa Valley near Arica.
superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los During the late phase of the Chiribaya Culture, some
senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, colonies were established in the Tambo Valley further
quizás con su interior.
Palabras clave: textil, Chiribaya, pelo humano, arqueología, north (Minkes 2005: 107-109) (fig. 3).
Perú, Chile

* Alfredo Rosenzweig, Director and founder of the Maiman Collection; 33 Havazelet Hasharon St., Herzliya Pituach 46105, Israel, email:
alfredor@netvision.net.il
** Bat-ami Artzi, Department of Latin American Studies at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Curator of the Maiman Collection, 33 Havazelet
Hasharon St., Herzliya Pituach 46105, Israel, email: bat-ami.artzi@mail.huji.ac.il

Recibido: marzo de 2010. Aceptado: julio de 2011.

N° 1. por Abraham Hay. 2011 Figure. Fotografía del textil MC8-27 completo. photographed by Abraham Hay. Complete picture of the textile MC8-27.94 Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. 157 x 9 cm Figure 2. Figura 1. . 16. 157 x 9 cm. Foto parcial del textil. por Abraham Hay. Vol. Figura 2. photographed by Abraham Hay. Partial picture of the textile. 1.

Artzi 95 Figure 3. Rosenzweig & B. Figura 3. Mapa de los sitios mencionados (según Owen 1993: 4).A Chiribaya textile woven with human hair / A. Map of the sites mentioned (after Owen 1993: 4). .

Tiwanaku. with women being the textile producers. Carbon fourteen and ther. . while those of the upper group were buried in rectangular tombs with Table 1. Their ceramic style. Style (Minkes 2005: 110).11 and 3. Horta (1997: 82) reports no differences in dress 1997: 11). 2002. 2011 These groups created a distinctive Late Intermediate four rooms. and often Its main Peruvian sites are found in the southern coastal accompanied by several large ceramic vessels (Buikstra desert in the area called the Algarrobo Valley. Distinction between genders was minimal. the Arica zone from the Cabuza. 20. a number of authors (Buikstra 1989. with no evidence of special dress Despite the harsh environment. Their correlation is The burials provide us with information about this shown by the following Jessup table (1990: 29. the population was Chiribaya-San Gerónimo San Miguel composed of two bio-anthropological groups: farmers Chiribaya-Yaral and fishermen. is called Maytas and San Miguel. these people were for women. Minkes 2005). According to Estuquiña/Porobaya Gentilar Lozada and Buikstra (2002: 139). 1998. Maytas and As the two areas were closely linked. the cultural similarities are were more variable and complex (classified as types 2. here society. Cemetery 4 at Chiribaya Alta contains funerary bundles Tabla 1. 1998. Boytner 1992. two females (Lozada Thanks to the excellent conditions for preservation.9. including hundreds served. similar social positions” (Minkes 2005: 226). 1995. Owen 1997.2.96 Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. communal irrigation projects and fishing.1) (Arriaza et al. 16. Members Table 1):  of the lower one were buried in simple pits with only a few grave goods and plain textiles. The quality Ilo Arica and quantity of fine pottery and textiles indicate that they Algarrobo-Osmore Valley Azapa Valley were made by specialized craft workers (Owen 1997: 11). 1993. some- 1992. según estilos cerámicos. design and quality […] This seems The Chiribaya Alta settlement is the largest and to imply that men and women of Ilo-Tumilaca/Cabuza most important complex. as has been interpreted as and Chiribaya affiliation alike had been entitled to hold the culture’s main ceremonial and political center. Chronology of the Late Intermediate Period highly decorated ceramics and better quality textiles. and metal craft has been well documented (see Jessup They lived in rectangular cane-walled houses of one to 1991. around 1995: 359) and artifacts related to textile production. women’s hairstyles included two braids. Cronología del Período Tardío Intermedio en Ilo y Azapa. The Chiribaya-Maytas produced a variety of attractive culture.1b). such that we can refer to them jointly as the Chiribaya 2. Vol. The head of the deceased was often entirely covered with a small rectangular cloth The Chiribaya Culture was studied and described by called an inkuña (Horta & Agüero 2009: 221). several sites in the Azapa Valley have yielded a great Amazingly. they shared Chiribaya cultures (380-1235 AD) shows that 82% of the ceramic and textile styles and had similar funerary prac. which had two distinct social classes. for men and women. Owen Women were buried with their faces covered. and others). Chribaya-Algarrobal For burial. with many layers of finely woven shirts in a variety of designs that probably belonged to the elite. while the male hairstyles have found some differences. size. 1997. 2. A study of the hairstyles of mummies found in of textiles. able to create a self-sustaining economy based on agri. In winter there is lush vegetation on Male burials were accompanied by fishing tools. one on each tices. if moluminescence tests confirm the dating as 950-1440 any: “Both sexes had been buried in camisas that were AD (Owen 1993: 17. axes the margins of this valley. & Buikstra 2002: 154-155). wood also raised camelids and guinea pigs ( Jessup 1990: 7-9). the hairstyles of the mummies were pre- number of archaeological items. they artifacts in a particular style. the non-mummified body was placed in Ilo Multi-Color a seated and flexed position and covered with one or Osmore Multi-Color Maytas several large textiles such as shirts or mantels. which Tumilaca Cabuza were tied around the corpse with camelid or plant fiber ropes (Minkes 2005: 209). In addi- as well as the home of its highest leaders (Owen tion. the Osmore River. times with a wide belt around their tunics. in Ilo and Azapa based on ceramic styles. and in some cases adobe buildings (Owen culture that in Peru is called Chiribaya and in Chile 1997: 10). similar in form. 1986: 362). 94). N° 1. Although a number of bio-archaeological studies side (classified as type 2. (Minkes 2005: 147) and in one case.

zoomor. 4). The most important pieces were the tunics. The designs are either abstract geometric. more specifically Complementary Warps (Pollard some clearly male or female. which measures approximately 45 by 50 cm and usually contains coca leaves. These groups used natural light brown wool for the plain parts and a limited number of dyed colors. with one designs in their trunk (Horta 1998: 147-149).5x magnifying glass. cotton and the complementary warp is inserted in such nent zoomorphic motif used by the Maytas-Chiribaya a way as to leave a net of white for the background and is the double-headed serpent (Horta 1997: 84). with head appendages. metric lateral stripes in two colors. and practically all are made of camelid wool. hats and belts. identification of the material was confirmed with a band (157 x 9 cm) made with the complementary warp 400x microscope at the Institute of Forensic Science in technique using white cotton and dark human hair. The prevailing technique used is plain weave warp faced. Other textiles also use the same design. fotografiado figurative designs or blocks of the same design. others to outline the details. Geometric figures include an S-shape. side being the negative of the other. Small bags (ch’uspas) held special importance in male tombs. This technique produces an inversion eyes. The most promi. Braided hair from this textile. frogs or toads. Figure 4. spiders. The estimated aggregate length of the braided hair cord is eighty-one meters (fifty-two DESCRIPTION OF THE CHIRIBAYA warps. Thereafter. The piece is a long sure. 5). occasion- ally with small quantities of cotton. Indeed. which also concluded that the human hair which is braided into two strands (fig. step patterns and a typical The technique is complicated: the base cloth is white four-part design (Horta 1998: 155-163). Both sides of the The Chiribaya Culture collapsed around 1350 AD textile are so well executed that it is difficult to know after a catastrophic El Niño period that destroyed their which was intended to be the front or back. which followed the Tiwanaku textile tradition. raised hands with three fingers. zigzag lines. we verified this fact carefully. each 157 cm long). with up to nine found in a single tomb. used in this textile displays characteristics of Mongoloid . hamlets and irrigation systems. The black hair warp threads are include camelids. condors and pelicans (Minkes 2005: 141-143). photo- graphed by Olga Negnevitsky. Olga Negnevitsky then verified the Collection from a European gallery along with other material with a 100x microscope (fig. To be absolutely textiles. or anthropomorphic. six thick superficial wefts at one end and a single one at the other end (fig. with no source information. This technique belongs to the category of Warp Pattern Anthropomorphic designs show stylized humans. Some have stripes with Figura 4. Pelo trenzado del textil. some containing coca leaves. first with an illuminated This textile (Nº MC8-27) was acquired by the Maiman 12. 6). prominent and dominate the surface. Weaves. magnificado 50x. The terminations are fixed by 2005: 111). Rosenzweig & B. Another type of textile is the inkuña or ritual cloth. Jerusalem. Rowe 1977: 67-79). hooks. Artzi 97 All Chiribaya and Mayta textiles were found in tombs. These por Olga Negnevitsky. TEXTILE As the use of human hair as a textile fiber is unusual. and figures  or of the design to create a double-faced textile. were made with plain warp and two complementary sets of colors (Minkes 2005: 139-140).A Chiribaya textile woven with human hair / A. which shall be referred to below (Minkes 2005: 145-146). Technical aspects of the textile phic. The standard textile decoration consists of a few asym. magnification 50x. such as the large rectangular mantles MC804 (see above) and the small rectangular cloth. those spared both sides constitute the front of the textile. from the disaster produced only very simple items and Each end of the band terminates in twenty-six loops have been denominated the Estuquiña Culture (Minkes of complementary warp. lizards. Other textiles found in- clude loincloths. monkeys.

This most likely represents the three layers of dress that are common in burial bundles. However. split head. fotogra. contracted legs of a frog or the crouched posture of a nography. In our figure. two partial modules at the ends. An adult woman found in the Osmore Valley had a hairstyle of two large braids made of three strands (Minkes 2005: 244). We believe that these are parts of a single two. and the bottom section shows the lower body. In the end. the hair is divided into two sections. and the straight white line separating . The first segment is the head. similar to those origin. Vol. 2). The second segment is the rhomboidal body. Foto microscópica del pelo.  1. in this figure. We therefore feel confident that we are. According to our interpretation. and trunk with breasts. photographed by Abraham Hay. di- vided at the waist into two sections. One extreme of the textile MC8-27. N° 1. It took us some time to understand the relation. we found no similar figures in the and lower parts of the body appear back to back on the published literature. It could be simply a decoration. Figura 5. This might indicate the The other interesting feature of the textile is the ico. 8) rather than a scene with surrounding The duality is further reinforced by the fact that the upper elements. Double feet extending from the left and right sides of the figure are probably zoomorphic. 9). rest of the face including the mouth. with a snake in its stomach. one side is the negative of the other. in fact. the hair and part of the face with eyes. For example. fig. According to Dransart (2000: 131. other Andean textiles. ships between the different iconographic components while the lower body and feet on one side are the face and arrive at a sensible interpretation. magnificada 100x. and the use of two colors and two raw materials. the rounded rectangle represents the female sexual organ. arms. dealing with human hair. such as the famous textile from Figura 6. 9) the headdress is typical of a Chiribaya female figure. The arms are folded upwards so the hands are above the level of the shoulders. Huaca Prieta. one on each side. The band has nine rectangular modules and woman giving birth. represent the three strands of the braid. visible on both sides The iconography of this band represents the concept of the textile (figs. on the anthropomorphized creature in our textile Nº MC 804 (fig. 16. However. The upper section shows the headdress. Depiction of inner body parts with outer parts has been documented for Figure 6. 2011 concluded that the figure represents a stylized anthro- pomorphic female figure with a characteristic headdress. 7.98 Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. composed of two segments divided into two textile it is manifested by the partition of the person into sections. we on the other side. Un extremo del textil MC8-27. which contains an image of a condor fiada por Olga Negnevitsky. The top section represents the upper body and is outlined as three lines with an opening in the upper part. it should be noted that The iconography of the textile these feet are without legs and are attached directly to the sides of the rhomboid body. Each module has the same of duality that is a basic feature of Andean culture. person (figs. The center of this section contains the breasts. legs and feet. including the female sexual organ. sexual organs. but might in fact rep- resent the internal female organs. and the shoulders and arms. object. Microscope photography of the hair magnification 100x. but the lower addition is unusual. fotografiado por The lower section of the first segment shows the Abraham Hay. photographed by Olga Negnevitsky. the head on one side is the upper body on the other side. with each section having three lines that might Figure 5.

drawn by Arturo Fernando Rivera. One module: Stylized anthropomorphic female figure. “in some versions made of human hair have been found. Módulo del textil: Figura antropomorfa femenina estilizada. figure  288). Figura 8. It is interesting that the mouth represented on one such as headdresses. there are only a few Chinchero Culture wig (Cornejo 2008: 77). photographed by Abraham Hay. 6b). Interpretation of the module (original 15 x 9 cm): Stylized an- Figure 7. 285. 1984: 926). antropomorfa femenina estilizada. 351. Calonder and Rickenbach HUMAN HAIR AS A TEXTILE FIBER (2006: 250). who wears Peruvian mummies and as spools and tresses in natural a llautu or cintillo made of human hair on his head and/or twisted form (see the collection of the National (Cornejo 2001: 106). The grave goods that accompanied Museum of Archaeology. who commented. Interpretación del módulo (original 15 x 9 cm): Figura Figura 7. This connection of the two organs is mentioned Burial wigs from the Middle Horizon (600-1000 AD) by Lyon (1978: 98). made of human hair are related to the human head. Pollard Rowe (1986: 170-171). Rosenzweig & B. Anthropology and History him included a bag containing locks of hair. See also the of textiles in ancient Peru. the module on one side is a black line representing the It is interesting to note that most of the objects shoulders and arms on the other side. side. wigs and hats (chullo or gorro/ side of the textile is the sexual organ on the reverse llautu). Rivera.” in the literature: d’Harcourt (1962: plate 77). fig I. Zimmern (1949: figures  6a. Indeed. published examples in which this is the case. inventory numbers 14. dibujada por Arturo Fernando fotografiado por Abraham Hay. etc. . thropomorphic female figure.A Chiribaya textile woven with human hair / A. Stone Miller (1994: 16. 77). Our catalogue also contains the burial wig from our collec- Human hair is a fiber rarely employed in the weaving tion (Makowski et al. 2006: 177. cat. The National Museum of Natural History in Santiago Hair has been found on the heads of some ancient houses the famous Inka “El Plomo child”. Artzi 99 Figure 8. and are discussed the vagina is a mouth.10). and Purin (1991: 225. teeth and fingernails (Horne & Quevedo Kawasaki 7706 and 527). 239. deciduous of Peru in Lima.

Catalogue number 268 (Makowski et al. Vol. Detail of Chiribaya mantle MC804. complete textile 188 x 206 cm. Figura 9. N° 1. 2006). 16. photographed by Yakir Gershon. 2006). Detalle del manto Chiribaya MC804. Número catálogo 268 (Makowski et al.100 Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. textil completo 188 x 206 cm. fotografiado por Yakir Gershon. . 2011 Figure 9.

There is no prec. cavity that contained the fingernails and the hair. Textiles from the Nazca in his wawqi. Ceramic iconography also includes figures washing their Castañeda (1981: 22) suggests that human hair was hair. These items are used by men and women as was based on the belief that the soul of the dead passes under-belts in ceremonies and communal work to sup. and the similar to the one we are describing. They also use plaits to protect them from Valley (Minkes 2005: 170). however. as mentioned above). does offer different in. makes this item rare and perhaps unique. combing and braiding of hair during Inka edent for the massive use of hair as a fiber for weaving ceremonies marking a girl’s first menstruation are two (with one notable exception. He also assumes that the Nasca women had the Bjerregaard (2006: 3) proposes that hair in textile has same custom. 1978: 175-176). For example. based on her reading of scenes have a ritual or symbolic meaning (Donnan the chronicles. source. women that just became terpretations of the use of human hair as a fiber in widows expressed their mourning by cutting their pre-Columbian cultures. There are many ancient ceremonies related to hair: Inka ceremonies of cutting a child’s hair In our review. death and evil. Valley dating to the fall of the Wari Empire contain In the testimonies from the idolatry trials and inspec- human hair as supplementary wefts (Pollard Rowe tions in the province of Cajatambo. Artzi 101 Two other examples are Wari helmets decorated with According to the chroniclers Betanzos and Cobo. hair. Arnold (2000: 17-18) cites her talks with present-day cently studied the textiles of the Osmore Valley. who re. According to this from human hair. From all the above. A year later this lock of hair was in which the second weft of the termination is made burned together with other offerings. Rosenzweig & B. as it BELIEFS CONCERNING HAIR was “believed to have a vital link with the life force” IN THE ANDES (Donnan 1978: 151). figure 2) described a pre-Inka striped textile (Duviols 2003: 340). from the middle 1986: 171. 127) mentions Tiwanaku items one side. gesting that hair would have had a sacred quality. however. chronicle of Bernabé Cobo. This cases in point. Bolivia.” scene depicts a supernatural being pulling his hair to Carmona (2006: 30. the people of the ayllu She did. ing into the river below (Duviols 2003: 341). When making textiles. mention that human hair was used believe that they are creating a new person. port the wearer’s back during hard labor. one clearly was used as reinforcement in textiles. the ritual with hair was made to facilitate the Bjerregaard (2006: 5) describes contemporary belts passage of the dead to Hupa Marka (the land of the woven of human hair from Taquile Island in Lake souls/deceased/shadows) (Taylor 2000: 26). figure 320). . This practice Titicaca. while another scene that is frequently shown woven with human hair from the north of Chile. Human hair also had a symbolic significance. near Oruro. has the victor of combat holding the hair of his rival. not know of any similar items made from human hair. hair could signify the looped human hair that was found in the Algarrobal essence of life. figures  13-14). Carmichael (1995: 173) noted that according to the The literature. and There are few examples of the use of human hair as such the essence (kamay) of the Inka was embodied as fibers in woven textiles. sug. Michieli and placed with the mummies (mallki) of his lineage (2000: 84. washing. we failed to find any other textile item and offering it to the wak’a as a sacred object. it is quite certain that these used in ceremonial costumes. does Aymara weavers of the Qaqachaka ayllu. They also to make knotted bags and cords (Minkes 2005: 138). relate that their ancestors made textiles from human Mainly she reported on a chullo made from plied and hair. It should also be mentioned that Minkes. long and hardwearing and therefore demonstrate the importance of hair. a functional rather than special or ritual meaning: “human In the Moche Culture there are many scenes that hair is relatively thick. Dean cotton and feathers and embroidered with human hair (2010: 35) suggests that each wawqi had an interior (Berenguer 2006: 107). over a bridge made of hair on its way to the afterworld. braided human hair (Sinclaire 2000: 46) and an Inka the wawqi (the stone “brother” of the ruler) contained diadem from northern Chile (1450-1536 AD) made of fingernails and hair of the Inka it represented.A Chiribaya textile woven with human hair / A. Another use of human hair of the xvii century. According to their accounts. there is a description of a death can be found on the edges of a Pucara-style sash (200 ritual in which a lock of hair of the deceased was cut BC-200 AD) (Conklin 2004: 86-87. The hair used with the ritual involving hair keeping the soul from fall- comes from the women of the family. and so some of the women still wear braided hair today.

These belts identical and small rounded rectangles are found in both.546 daily life. This figure is very similar to the role in rites of passage in the Andean cycle of life. In graves. Peruvian cultures. and were used for tying the funerary bundle at the between this figure and the one shown on the textile waistline. figure 16a) refer to made of human hair have been found in this context. with its elaborate burials and belief accompanying motive” (antropomorfo conteniendo un in a new life in the afterworld. held the basic concepts motivo acompañante). These are of the Early Formative Period and later. mantle. 02-5-213.88 m by 2. is (fig. 02-5-214. objects Horta and Agüero (2009: 217. The second is an woven. As shown above. belts and bag-belts were tied at the waist as and 14. N° 1. Ruiz Balart connections between hair and serpents can be seen in (2009: 323) illustrates figures with some similarities to the iconography of Chavín. especially for carrying babies. The two textiles also have an affinity with the Minkes (2005: 224) reports that in the Osmore Valley Chiribaya textiles (Southern Coast) in the collection graves. just 3 to 5 cm a kind of lizard with head appendages. (chu’spa) from the site of La Cruz that has a zoomorphic ship between hair and snakes in the Andean world. Azapa Valley. 1. to her theme Nº 1. The first is a double-headed serpent Minkes (2005: 146-147) mentions two types of long identical to those found in other Chiribaya-Maytas textiles bands in Chiribaya textiles: the belt (faja) and belt-bag (Horta 1997: 84) and typical of ancient Peruvian cultures (bolsa-faja). According to Conklin. That piece is a typical Chiribaya in a crouched posture.3a). they Díaz in her published doctoral thesis (2009: 414. “the snake-ness of hair that displays great similarity to the human figure and is evidence of life” (Conklin 2008: 278). “Anthropomorphic figure containing The death cult. hairstyle. rhomboid body and crouched posture as the one in our textile. This figure  has a headdress and eyes Our first step was to compare it with textile MC8-04 similar to the upper section of our figure. we iconography of our textile. belts (fajas). decorated stripes. like our figure (Horta 1998: 149. Figure 9 shows the figures on the textile’s that the figure thereon is female. based on We find another female figure on a bag from the its style and iconography.102 Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. 02-5-207. Minkes (2005: 143) These well researched studies reinforce the assigna- describes these large mantles as the “finest woven fabrics tion of our band to the Chiribaya Culture and confirm of this culture”. of religion in ancient Peru. This group is associated with propose that it also played some part in the final rite the San Miguel-Pocoma phases. Vol. The belts are narrow. and the same posture as our figure. the same geometric He suggests that the turban–symbolizing a “woolen trunk symbols. described by Minkes (2005: 142-143) that shows the Long bands like the one described herein were nor- same rhomboid body and raised hands. band (9 cm) falls between those two types. The width of our same culture and location. serpent” coiled around the head–would protect the In her description of the anthropomorphic motives dead on the wearer’s trip to the afterlife. 9) from our collection. 14. where the hair is directly represented this would belong to the complex group (grupo complejo) as snakes.06 m in size. We also refer to the Chiribaya-Maytas iconography of adult women (Minkes 2005: 211). Head covers from this of sex. The similarities wide. creature with a similar rhomboid body. from Chiribaya Alta and Maytas. Belt-bags are also common in Chiribaya bundles under study in this paper–the lower bodies are almost and are around 18 cm wide and 70 cm long. interlaced or braided with polychromatic and anthropomorphic creature in frontal view that may be geometric designs. see have been found around the neck or next to the body also Verde Casanova 2006: 239. We identified our textile MC8-27 as Chiribaya. have been found wrapped around the deceased’s neck for example–allow us to assume that both belong to the or around the outside of the bundle. a female figure on an inkuña belonging to group 2D Since hair is connected to the life force and had a vital of their classification. with the typical Chiribaya figure 2. 16. bag-belts (bolsa-fajas) and ribbons of the Museum of the Americas. figure 132). area described by Berenguer and collaborators (1993) . Culture features described above. The figure has the same of passage: death. IDENTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION In Horta’s (1998: 148) classification our figure belongs to the monocephalic figures (figuras monocéfalas).676). Additional in Arica Culture textiles (1000-1470 AD). It also has a small anthropomorphic figure inside the body that might indicate pregnancy. Minkes (2005: 195) also refers to a Chiribaya bag Berenguer (2006: 77) points out the symbolic relation. and again. 2011 In his research on headdresses from northern Chile. and indication mally used as belts or turbans. in Madrid (inventory (cintas) were found in association with women. According to her classification. In numbers 02-5-234. some of which are described by Jiménez support. Nasca and other ancient those found in our textile.

Santiago: Museo Chileno de tunic (Buikstra 1995: 259) of the deceased woman. According to Minkes. In Actas de la i Jornada is clear. Denver: Denver ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to express our appreciation Art Museum. might reveal more details about the person norte de Chile. Anthropology Department. L. 104-113. pp. L.. N. Lima: Programa Contisuyu If our iconographic interpretation is correct. J. Universidad de Chile. catalogue Nº 268. Our special thanks also to Dr. C: Dumbarton Oaks. to Professor Krzysztof Makowski. of women in this context. As our textile shows no signs of wear. 2001.phtml> [Quoted 15-05-11]. Vol ii. Conklin. Journal- worn during life. see figure 9). Andean Past 5: 325-356. J. Architecture Willy Minkes for their comments. 2006. the del Museo Peruano de Ciencias de la Salud / Southern Peru female image with the internal sexual organ–unusual in Copper Corporation. Lima: Museo archaeological discoveries will provide additional mate. sometimes Berenguer. we propose that the use of Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos. 59-67. 1992. M. Perú. for ritual burial. J. L. J. Although Minkes (2005: 233) asserts that no conclu. No headdress similar to our long band has been 1  The other item mentioned–a large. In graphs. Ed. pp. V. based on the style and specific aspects noted Internacional sobre Textiles Precolombinos. Ed. . Professor Jan Szeminski and Dr. including laboratory Inca presentes en sitios arqueológicos tardíos del extremo analysis. In Tiwanaku Ancestors of the Inca. and to Arturo Fernando Tras la huella del inka en Chile. In Trabajos with the textile belonged to the upper class. Convertirse en persona el tejido: La termi- The assignment of this textile to the Chiribaya-Maytas nología aymara de un cuerpo textil. E. pp.. Y. Berenguer. which may represent childbirth. Standen. for the microscopy examination.A Chiribaya textile woven with human hair / A. including death. Textilen aus dem Alten Peru... H. T. Washington D.Sánchez. this context–might indicate an association with fertility. Moquegua.. or persons that provided the hair. E... Santiago: Museo Rivera for the drawing... Rosenzweig & B. We hope that future Castañeda León. 2006. Head emblems Wirakocha’s headdresses in Northern Chile. breasts and sexual organs–the figure represented 1986.. Rickenbach. Haar als symbol und werkstoff. In Tombs for the living: Andean mortuary on the textile are important points for clarifying the role practices. Ed. G... M. pp. bolsa-fajas ethnologie.. Based on the iconography–particularly the hair. Arriaza. position of the legs. Chacama. The relationship of human Carmichael. Caracterización de las prendas textiles Further research on the subject.. impressive mantle identified in Berenguer’s book. Los María Jesús Jiménez Díaz for reviewing the textile technique. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona.journal-ethnologie. Shaped tapestry sash. We suggest that this long band was used in the turbantes y diademas. 2004. human hair is related to rites of passage in the Andean Calonder. cultural interpretation. Whereas shirts placed in tombs may also have been Bjerregaard. T. D. and Culture. Vestido tradicional del Perú. Chungara can be considered an anthropomorphic female..or. Solanilla.. Arnold.. other items such as inkuñas. Ed. Quilter. Focacci & J. pp. Moseley & F. Eds.  1998. 1995. Sumario de la investigación de restos huma- in our band indicates that the woman who was buried nos de Omo. R. P. 229-280. 2000. Young. & J.   2002. Chileno de Arte Precolombino. Watanabe. Pittsburgh. Santiago: Museo Chileno de Arte burial attire of a woman. Cornejo. cycle of life. L. we suggest that the special design and material used Buikstra.. L. Ilo. 161-187. Tombs for the living. 2006: 321. Based on the references. J.for the dead: The Osmore ancestors. 1981. D. Boytner. This interpretation is also supported by the crouching In Tombs for the Living: Andean Mortuary Practices. Eds. W.de. (Ed). J. W. Rituales Inka en las altas cumbres andinas.  1995. Peinados precolombinos en momias de Arica. R. 75-90. C: Dumbarton Oaks. Dillehay. and the collapse of the Tiwanaku state. to Shira Sofer for the graphics.. Artzi 103 are mostly four-point rectangular caps and loose-braided NOTE turbans. Zürich: Museum Abegg-Stiftung and Museum Rietberg. 2006. pp. Ed. pp. T. Nasca burial patterns: social structure and hair with death and the appearance of the female image mortuary ideology. 9-28.. Marvin. 1989. Tumilaca and Chiribaya textiles: Cultural rela- we therefore conclude that it was made especially for tions. V. y San Gerónimo. Textiles from the lower Osmore Valley. G. Cornejo. Cabieses.  2008. Arte Precolombino. which specializes in the (MC 804)–is described in our catalogue Weaving for the Afterlife ancient hats. 1993. above. The culture of Chavín textiles. rial to verify the interpretation above. the funeral of the deceased. K. 2006.. In Chavín Art. Washington D. belts Precolombino. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES The above analysis led us to the following conclusions. In Gorros del desierto / Headresses from the wrapped around the neck (Minkes 2005: 211) or the desert. (Makowski et al. Carmona Sciaraffia. D. Paper presented at the Society for American Archaeology 57th annual meeting. to Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology and the University Olga Negnevitsky and the Institute of Forensic Science in Jerusalem of California. R. Thesis to obtain a degree in Archaeology. pp. A. Conklin & J. El señorío de Chiribaya en la costa sur del Perú. A. Nacional de la Cultura Peruana. arqueológicos en Moquegua. 16-17: 353-375. 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