Reservoir Simulator

tNavigator
version 4.2

User Manual

Moscow, 2016

tNavigator-4.2

Reservoir Simulator tNavigator (version 4.2). User Manual. — Moscow, 2016. — 2176 pp.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice and should
not be construed as a commitment by RFDynamics. RFDynamics assumes no responsibility to
any error that may appear in this manual. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer
of expressed or implied warranties in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not
apply to you.

© RFDynamics, 2004-2016

2

CONTENTS tNavigator-4.2

Press to open User Guide
Contents
Contents 3

1 Introduction 41

2 Physical model 43
2.1 Differential equations for black-oil model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.2 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.3 Initial conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.4 Permeability tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.5 Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.6 Phase relative permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.6.1 Linear Baker model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.6.2 The first Stone’s model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.6.3 The second Stone’s model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.6.4 End-point scaling, two-point method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Saturations scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Relative permeabilities scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.6.5 End-point scaling, three-point method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Saturations scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Relative permeabilities scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.6.6 Directional and irreversible RP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.6.7 RP at dual porosity runs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.6.8 User-defined relative permeability of the injected phase . . . . . . . . 55
2.6.9 Corey correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.6.10 LET correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.6.11 Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.6.12 Surface tension effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.7 Equation of state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.8 Phase viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.9 Phase formation volume factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.10 API tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.11 Oil Standing’s correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.11.1 2-phase water-oil model. Dead Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.11.2 3-phase model. Dead Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Gas saturated (below bubble point pressure) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Undersaturated (above bubble point pressure) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.12 Gas Standing’s correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.12.1 Gas Formation Volume Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.12.2 Gas Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.13 Phase molar density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

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2.14 Phase mass density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.15 Capillary pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.15.1 Oil-gas capillary pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.15.2 Oil-water capillary pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.15.3 Capillary pressure end-point scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.15.4 Capillary pressure calculation according to Leverett J-function . . . . 78
2.16 Solubility of gas component into oil phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2.17 Vaporisation of oil component into gas phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.18 Inflow from aquifer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.19 Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
2.19.1 Well approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
2.19.2 Group control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
2.19.3 Separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.19.4 Multisegment well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.19.5 MULTI–phase injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.19.6 WAG injection mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.19.7 DCQ. Gas Field Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.19.8 Gas Lift Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2.19.9 Standard network option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
2.19.10 NETWORK option. Automatic chokes. Compressors . . . . . . . . . 89
2.19.11 Well prioritization option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.19.12 Prioritized drilling queue. Sequential drilling queue . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.20 Polymer Flood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.20.1 Polymer Flood option POLYMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.20.2 Polymer flooding based on BrightWater technology . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.20.3 Polymer flood in IMEX format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Polymer flood models: differences in E100 and IMEX formulation. . 96
Polymer adsorption modelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Water viscosity calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.21 Foam modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.22 Residual oil modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
2.23 Asphaltene modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
2.24 Alkaline flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
2.25 Surfactant injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
2.25.1 Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
2.26 Waters with different salinities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
2.26.1 Fresh water injection into the saline reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
2.26.2 Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.26.3 Low salinity option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.27 Scale deposition model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2.28 Dual porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
2.28.1 RP at dual porosity runs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2.28.2 Gravity drainage option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

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2.29 Coal Bed Methane Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2.30 Temperature option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
2.31 Geomechanical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
2.31.1 Description of Geomechanical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
2.31.2 Mixture K f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2.31.3 The calculation of the diagonal elements of the tensor of mechanical
stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2.31.4 Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

3 Compositional model 117
3.1 Equations of state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
3.1.1 EOS in reservoir and surface conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.2 Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.3 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
3.3.1 Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
3.3.2 Pedersen Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

4 Compositional thermal model with chemical reactions 121
4.1 Basic volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.2 Saturations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.3 Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.4 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.5 Mass and molar water density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.6 Mass and molar liquid density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.7 Molar and mass gas density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.8 Molar solid density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.9 Thermodynamic equilibrium condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.10 Phase saturations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.11 Water viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.12 Oil viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.13 Gas viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
4.14 Enthalpy and heat capacity of the components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.15 Enthalpy and internal energy of the phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.16 Water enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.17 Liquid enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.18 Vaporization enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
4.19 Gas phase enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
4.20 Solid phase enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.21 Rock enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.22 Default enthalpy values for stars format models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.23 Block internal energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.24 Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
4.25 Pore volume of grid block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.26 Bulk volume of grid block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

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4.27 Bulk volume of rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.28 Thermal conductivity of the grid block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.29 Chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4.30 The heat loss between the reservoir and surroundings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.31 Heater simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.31.1 Heater with constant energy injection rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
4.31.2 Heater with energy density dependent injection rate . . . . . . . . . . 148
4.31.3 Selecting of the heater operating mode depending on the defined prop-
erties E300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.31.4 Temperature difference dependent injection rate . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.31.5 Flags of automatic heating or cooling (stars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.32 Phase flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.33 Mass conservation equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.34 Energy conservation equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.35 Phase relative permeabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
4.35.1 Phase relative permeability for two-phase systems . . . . . . . . . . . 152
4.35.2 Phase relative permeabilities scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Two-point phase relative permeability scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Phase relative permeabilities free-point scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
4.35.3 Phase relative permeabilities for free-phase systems . . . . . . . . . . 159
Linear Beyker’s model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
First Stone’s model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Second Stone’s model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
4.36 Calculation of the phase composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
4.36.1 Statement of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
4.37 Initial conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
4.37.1 Explicit specification of initial conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
4.37.2 Calculations of initial conditions from hydrostatic and thermodynamic
equilibrium conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

5 Mathematical model 166
5.1 Space approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5.2 Solution algorithm for time step problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5.3 Time approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5.4 Transition from physical model to system of equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
5.5 Model geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
5.5.1 Transmissibility calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.6 LGR – Local Grid Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
5.7 Well Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.7.1 Well Inflow Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5.7.2 Connection transmissibility calculation (CF and Kh) . . . . . . . . . . 172
5.7.3 Average permeability calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
5.7.4 Pressure equivalent radius calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
5.7.5 Mobility calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

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5.7.6 Average well bore density and connection pressure calculation . . . . 175
5.7.7 Well potential calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
5.8 Modified well model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
5.8.1 Well model with generalized connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
5.8.2 Hydraulic fracture data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
5.8.3 Hydraulic fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
5.8.4 Flow rate along the fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
5.8.5 Calculation of the inflow to the fracture from the grid block . . . . . 181
5.8.6 Total inflow from the hydraulic fracture to the well connection . . . . 182
5.8.7 Description of simulation of large amount of hydraulic fractures . . . 182
5.8.8 Fracture keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5.8.9 Simulation of plugging of well bottom zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.8.10 Simulation of well bottom zone dynamics: processing acids, surfactants 186
5.8.11 Well bottom zone keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.9 ASP model description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.9.1 Water relative permeability calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
5.9.2 Water viscosity calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.9.3 Water viscosity calculations without salt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.9.4 Capillary pressure in water-oil system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
5.9.5 Water mass density calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
5.10 Drainage matrix calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
5.10.1 Description of Drainage matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
5.10.2 Parameters that affect drainage matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
5.11 Oil and gas in-place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
5.11.1 Resources density and concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
5.11.2 Oil and gas in-place via separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
5.12 Phase potentials calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
5.13 2D maps for Saturation Ternary Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
5.14 Split and merge of the model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
5.14.1 Special features for wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
5.14.2 Splitting a model in the GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
5.15 Reservoir Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

6 VFP tables generation 208
6.1 Problem decription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.1.1 Problem decription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.2 Single Phase Flow Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.2.1 Friction pressure loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.2.2 Single-Phase Friction Factor (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6.2.3 The Single Phase hydrostatic pressure drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.3 Multiphase Flow Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.3.1 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.3.2 The Griffith Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
6.3.3 Petalas & Aziz correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

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6.3.4 Beggs & Brill correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
6.3.5 Orkiszewski method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
6.3.6 Gray correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
6.3.7 Aziz, Govier and Fogarasi correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
6.3.8 Mukherjee & Brill correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

7 FAQ 246
7.1 Reasons for the difference in calculation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
7.2 ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
7.2.1 Problem discretization and solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
7.2.2 Influence of the number of cores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
7.2.3 Influence of timestep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
7.2.4 What can we do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
7.3 How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification . . . . . . . . . 258
7.3.1 Problem statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
7.3.2 Flow through the block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
7.3.3 Grid connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
7.3.4 Grid stratification factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
7.3.5 Influence of smoothness of the data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
7.3.6 Influence of end-points match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
7.3.7 Conservation equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
7.3.8 VFP tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

8 tNavigator Console version 270
8.1 License for console tNavigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
8.2 Console version options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

9 Data files 279
9.1 Results of tNavigator calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
9.2 USER folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
9.3 Log-file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
9.4 Loadable file formats. Export file formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
9.4.1 Load Well Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
9.4.2 Maps. Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
9.4.3 Maps. Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

10 Units 299

11 Input data format 301
11.1 Input formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
11.2 tNavigator format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
11.3 Hybrid format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
11.3.1 Restart for hybrid models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
11.3.2 Split and merge of hybrid models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

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CONTENTS tNavigator-4.2

11.4 Keywords’ syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

12 Keywords compatible with tNavigator and E100, E300 308
12.1 Definition section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
12.1.1 RUNSPEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
12.1.2 TITLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
12.1.3 REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
12.1.4 TNAVCTRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
12.1.5 AIMCTRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
12.1.6 FLASHCTRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
12.1.7 VELDEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
12.1.8 TFORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
12.1.9 RPTRST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
12.1.10 OUTSOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
12.1.11 UNIFOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
12.1.12 MULTOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
12.1.13 START . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
12.1.14 RESTART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
12.1.15 RESTARTDATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
12.1.16 METRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
12.1.17 FIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
12.1.18 LAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
12.1.19 LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
12.1.20 BLACKOIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
12.1.21 DEFINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
12.1.22 VDEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
12.1.23 PREDEFINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
12.1.24 OPEN_BASE_MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
12.1.25 DIMENS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
12.1.26 TABDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
12.1.27 EQLDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
12.1.28 ACTDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
12.1.29 REGDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
12.1.30 VFPIDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
12.1.31 VFPPDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
12.1.32 GPTDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
12.1.33 PIMTDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
12.1.34 ROCKCOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
12.1.35 ROCKDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
12.1.36 WELLDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
12.1.37 FAULTDIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
12.1.38 WSEGDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
12.1.39 HEATDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
12.1.40 UDQDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

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CONTENTS tNavigator-4.2

12.1.41 UDQPARAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
12.1.42 UDADIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
12.1.43 UDTDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
12.1.44 TRACERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
12.1.45 NONNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
12.1.46 SURFACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
12.1.47 SURFACTW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
12.1.48 POLYMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
12.1.49 ALKALINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
12.1.50 THERMAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
12.1.51 REACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
12.1.52 OIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
12.1.53 GAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
12.1.54 WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
12.1.55 VAPOIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
12.1.56 DISGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
12.1.57 SOLID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
12.1.58 BRINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
12.1.59 LOWSALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
12.1.60 TEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
12.1.61 TEMPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
12.1.62 API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
12.1.63 ASPHALTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
12.1.64 FOAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
12.1.65 MISCIBLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
12.1.66 DIFFUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
12.1.67 CART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
12.1.68 SATOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
12.1.69 NUMRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
12.1.70 KVALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
12.1.71 ISGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
12.1.72 NOMIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
12.1.73 INCLUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
12.1.74 PATHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
12.1.75 IMPLICIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
12.1.76 DUALPORO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
12.1.77 DUALPERM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
12.1.78 COAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
12.1.79 GRAVDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
12.1.80 GRAVDRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
12.1.81 LGR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
12.1.82 VISCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
12.1.83 NODPPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

CONTENTS 10

CONTENTS tNavigator-4.2

12.1.84 NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
12.1.85 CO2SOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
12.1.86 EQLOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
12.1.87 GRIDOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
12.1.88 FORMOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
12.1.89 NOSIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
12.1.90 GASFIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
12.1.91 GEOMECH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
12.1.92 RFD_WFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
12.1.93 AIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
12.1.94 AIMFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
12.1.95 ECHO / NOECHO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
12.1.96 FULLIMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
12.1.97 IMPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
12.1.98 HWELLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
12.1.99 PETOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
12.1.100 PARALLEL / PARAOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
12.1.101 NPROCX / NPROCKY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
12.1.102 MESSAGE / MESSAGES / MSGFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
12.1.103 WARN / NOWARN / NOWARNEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
12.1.104 END . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
12.1.105 ECINIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
12.1.106 ECDATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
12.1.107 ECVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
12.1.108 SCDPDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
12.1.109 LGRCOPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
12.1.110 BIGMODEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
12.1.111 JALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
12.1.112 SKIPSTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
12.1.113 LICENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
12.1.114 MEMORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
12.1.115 FMTIN/ FMTSAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
12.1.116 MULTIN/ MULTSAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
12.1.117 MONITOR/ NOMONITO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
12.1.118 PSPLITX/ PSPLITY/ PSPLITZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
12.1.119 RPTHMD/ RPTHMG/ RPTHMW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
12.1.120 RPTISOL/ RPTPROPS/ RPTREGS/ RPTRUNSP/ RPTSCHED/
RPTSMRY/ RPTSOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
12.1.121 UNIFIN/ UNIFSAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
12.1.122 PVTGEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
12.1.123 CBMOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
12.1.124 DPCDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
12.2 Grid section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

CONTENTS 11

CONTENTS tNavigator-4.2

12.2.1 GRID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
12.2.2 DX / DY / DZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
12.2.3 DXV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
12.2.4 DYV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
12.2.5 DZV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
12.2.6 TOPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
12.2.7 MIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
12.2.8 COORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
12.2.9 ZCORN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
12.2.10 ADDZCORN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
12.2.11 OLDTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
12.2.12 NEWTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
12.2.13 PERMX / PERMY / PERMZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
12.2.14 PERMMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
12.2.15 MULTX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
12.2.16 MULTX- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
12.2.17 MULTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
12.2.18 MULTY- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
12.2.19 MULTZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
12.2.20 MULTZ- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
12.2.21 HMMLTPX / HMMLTPY / HMMLTPZ / HMMLTPXY . . . . . . . . 487
12.2.22 HMMULTX / HMMULTY / HMMULTZ / HMMLTXY / HMMULTPV488
12.2.23 HMMULTX- / HMMULTY- / HMMULTZ- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
12.2.24 PORO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
12.2.25 NTG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
12.2.26 DZNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
12.2.27 PORV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
12.2.28 MULTPV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
12.2.29 ACTNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
12.2.30 MINPV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
12.2.31 MINPORV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
12.2.32 MINPVV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
12.2.33 MINDZNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
12.2.34 MINROCKV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
12.2.35 MINRV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
12.2.36 PERMAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
12.2.37 FAULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
12.2.38 MULTFLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
12.2.39 THPRESFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
12.2.40 USEFLUX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
12.2.41 DUMPFLUX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
12.2.42 FLUXREG / FLUXTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
12.2.43 DOMAINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514

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12.2.44 SOLVDIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
12.2.45 RESVNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
12.2.46 COORDSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
12.2.47 GDFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
12.2.48 NNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
12.2.49 EDITNNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
12.2.50 NNCGEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
12.2.51 TRANX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
12.2.52 TRANY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
12.2.53 TRANZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
12.2.54 PINCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
12.2.55 PINCHOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
12.2.56 PINCHREG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
12.2.57 PINCHNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
12.2.58 JFUNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
12.2.59 JFUNCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
12.2.60 JFPERM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
12.2.61 GRIDUNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
12.2.62 MAPAXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
12.2.63 MAPUNITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
12.2.64 LX / LY / LZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
12.2.65 DPNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
12.2.66 DPGRID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
12.2.67 SIGMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
12.2.68 SIGMAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
12.2.69 LTOSIGMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
12.2.70 SIGMAGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
12.2.71 SIGMAGDV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
12.2.72 THCONMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
12.2.73 MULTMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
12.2.74 DZMTRX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
12.2.75 DZMATRIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
12.2.76 DZMTRXV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
12.2.77 MULTREGT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
12.2.78 ROCKPROP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
12.2.79 ROCKCON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
12.2.80 ROCKCONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
12.2.81 THCGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
12.2.82 THCOIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
12.2.83 THCWATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
12.2.84 THCSOLID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
12.2.85 THCROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
12.2.86 SPECGRID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574

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12.2.87 CARFIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
12.2.88 REFINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
12.2.89 ENDFIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
12.2.90 NXFIN / NYFIN / NZFIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
12.2.91 HXFIN / HYFIN / HZFIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583
12.2.92 AMALGAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
12.2.93 COARSEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
12.2.94 GRIDFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
12.2.95 PLMIXNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
12.2.96 ROCKDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
12.2.97 IMPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590
12.2.98 VISGRID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
12.2.99 DIFFMMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
12.2.100 INIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594
12.2.101 RPTGRID/ RPTGRIDL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
12.2.102 CORNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
12.2.103 DEACDEPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
12.3 Arithmetic section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
12.3.1 EDIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
12.3.2 ARITHMETIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
12.3.3 BOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
12.3.4 ENDBOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
12.3.5 ARR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
12.3.6 WORK/IWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
12.3.7 IF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
12.3.8 IF-THEN-ELSE-ENDIF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
12.3.9 BLOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618
12.3.10 STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
12.3.11 SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
12.3.12 INTERPOLATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
12.3.13 MULTIPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
12.3.14 MULTIREG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
12.3.15 MULTREGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
12.3.16 COPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
12.3.17 COPYBOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638
12.3.18 COPYREG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
12.3.19 EQUALREG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640
12.3.20 ADD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
12.3.21 ADDREG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642
12.3.22 EQUALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643
12.3.23 MAXVALUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
12.3.24 MINVALUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
12.3.25 OPERATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646

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12.3.26 OPERATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
12.3.27 DEPTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650
12.4 Region section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
12.4.1 REGIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
12.4.2 PVTNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
12.4.3 SATNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654
12.4.4 SURFNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655
12.4.5 SURFWNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656
12.4.6 LWSLTNUM / LSNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
12.4.7 IMBNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
12.4.8 MISCNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660
12.4.9 EQLNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
12.4.10 FIPNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662
12.4.11 FIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
12.4.12 FIPOWG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
12.4.13 FIPPATT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
12.4.14 ROCKNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667
12.4.15 COALNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668
12.4.16 PMANUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669
12.4.17 ENDNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
12.4.18 FLUXNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
12.4.19 BNDNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
12.4.20 VISCNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
12.4.21 EOSNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
12.4.22 OPERNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
12.4.23 MULTNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
12.4.24 KRNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
12.4.25 KRNUMMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678
12.4.26 IMBNUMMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679
12.4.27 WH2NUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
12.4.28 WH3NUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681
12.4.29 ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682
12.5 PVT Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684
12.5.1 PROPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685
12.5.2 PVDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686
12.5.3 PVCDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687
12.5.4 PVTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688
12.5.5 PVTW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690
12.5.6 PVCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
12.5.7 PVDG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693
12.5.8 PVTG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
12.5.9 PVZG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697
12.5.10 STANDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699

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12.5.11 STANDG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700
12.5.12 RSCONST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701
12.5.13 RSCONSTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702
12.5.14 RVCONST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704
12.5.15 RVCONSTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
12.5.16 ROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
12.5.17 RKTRMDIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709
12.5.18 ROCKTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
12.5.19 ROCKAXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
12.5.20 ROCKSTRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713
12.5.21 ROCKOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714
12.5.22 OVERBURD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
12.5.23 DENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717
12.5.24 GRAVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718
12.5.25 APIGROUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719
12.6 Relative permeabilities and capillary pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720
12.6.1 SWOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722
12.6.2 SGOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
12.6.3 COREYWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727
12.6.4 COREYGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729
12.6.5 COREYWG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
12.6.6 COREYWOMOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
12.6.7 COREYGOMOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734
12.6.8 LETWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
12.6.9 LETGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738
12.6.10 LETWG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741
12.6.11 SLGOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744
12.6.12 SOF2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746
12.6.13 SWFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748
12.6.14 SGFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750
12.6.15 SOF3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752
12.6.16 SGWFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754
12.6.17 SOMWAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756
12.6.18 SOMGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758
12.6.19 TOLCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760
12.6.20 STONE1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761
12.6.21 STONE2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762
12.6.22 STONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763
12.6.23 STONEPAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
12.6.24 ENDSCALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765
12.6.25 TZONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767
12.6.26 SCALECRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768
12.6.27 SWL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769

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12.6.28 SWLPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770
12.6.29 SGL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771
12.6.30 SWCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
12.6.31 SGCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773
12.6.32 SOWCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774
12.6.33 SOGCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775
12.6.34 SWU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776
12.6.35 SGU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777
12.6.36 ISGL, ISGCR, ISGU, ISWL, ISWLPC, ISWCR, ISWU, ISOGCR,
ISOWCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778
12.6.37 SCALELIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779
12.6.38 ENPTVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
12.6.39 ENKRVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782
12.6.40 ENPCVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784
12.6.41 ENPTRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
12.6.42 KRO, KRORW, KRORG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787
12.6.43 KRW, KRWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
12.6.44 KRG, KRGR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789
12.6.45 IKRG, IKRGR, IKRW, IKRWR, IKRO, IKRORW, IKRORG . . . . . 790
12.6.46 PCW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791
12.6.47 PCG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
12.6.48 SWATINIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793
12.6.49 PPCWMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795
12.6.50 EHYSTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796
12.6.51 EHYSTRR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798
12.6.52 DRAINAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799
12.6.53 MISCSTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800
12.6.54 MISCSTRR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801
12.6.55 MISCEXP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802
12.6.56 PARACHOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803
12.6.57 STOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804
12.6.58 STOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805
12.6.59 KRSMOOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806
12.7 Salts and tracers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807
12.7.1 TRACER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808
12.7.2 TRACERM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809
12.7.3 TRACEROPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810
12.7.4 SALTPROP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811
12.7.5 SALTTRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
12.7.6 SALTNODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813
12.7.7 ESSNODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814
12.7.8 PLYVISCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815
12.7.9 BDENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817

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12.7.10 TRMMULTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818
12.7.11 TRMMULTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820
12.7.12 TRMTEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821
12.7.13 TRDCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822
12.7.14 PVTWSALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823
12.7.15 LSALTFNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824
12.8 EOR: Enhanced Oil Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 826
12.8.1 NPROPANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827
12.8.2 PROPANTNAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828
12.8.3 PROPANTTABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829
12.8.4 FLOWFUNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831
12.8.5 NFLOWFTB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833
12.8.6 FLOWFNAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834
12.8.7 FLOWFTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835
12.8.8 SURFADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837
12.8.9 SURFST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838
12.8.10 SURFVISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 839
12.8.11 SURFCAPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 840
12.8.12 SURFROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841
12.8.13 SURFADDW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842
12.8.14 SURFDW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843
12.8.15 SURFSTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 844
12.8.16 PLYVISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846
12.8.17 PLYADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847
12.8.18 PLYMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848
12.8.19 PLMIXPAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
12.8.20 PLYROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850
12.8.21 PLYSHEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851
12.8.22 PLYSHLOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853
12.8.23 ALSURFST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855
12.8.24 ALSURFAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
12.8.25 ALPOLADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857
12.8.26 ALKADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858
12.8.27 ALKROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
12.8.28 STVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860
12.8.29 WAGHYSTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861
12.9 Coal Bed Methane properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863
12.9.1 DIFFCOAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864
12.9.2 LANGMUIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865
12.9.3 LANGMULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866
12.9.4 LANGMEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867
12.9.5 DIFFCBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869
12.9.6 RESORB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870

CONTENTS 18

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12.10Asphaltene properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
12.10.1 ASPP1P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872
12.10.2 ASPREWG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
12.10.3 ASPP2P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874
12.10.4 ASPPW2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875
12.10.5 ASPFLRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876
12.10.6 ASPVISO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877
12.10.7 CATYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878
12.11Foam properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879
12.11.1 FOAMADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880
12.11.2 FOAMOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881
12.11.3 FOAMROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882
12.11.4 FOAMDCYW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883
12.11.5 FOAMDCYO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884
12.11.6 FOAMMOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885
12.11.7 FOAMMOBP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
12.11.8 FOAMMOBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887
12.12Residual oil properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888
12.12.1 SOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889
12.12.2 SOROPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890
12.13Compositional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892
12.13.1 Default component properties for compositional model. Part 1 . . . . 893
12.13.2 Default component properties for compositional model. Part 2 . . . . 894
12.13.3 COMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895
12.13.4 CNAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 896
12.13.5 EOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897
12.13.6 EOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 898
12.13.7 RTEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899
12.13.8 STCOND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
12.13.9 WATERTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901
12.13.10 ZI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902
12.13.11 COMPVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
12.13.12 XMFVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905
12.13.13 YMFVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906
12.13.14 ZMFVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
12.13.15 NEI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909
12.13.16 KVTABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910
12.13.17 TCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
12.13.18 TCRITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913
12.13.19 PCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914
12.13.20 PCRITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916
12.13.21 VCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917
12.13.22 VCRITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919

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12.13.23 VCRITVIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 920
12.13.24 ZCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
12.13.25 ZCRITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922
12.13.26 ZCRITVIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 923
12.13.27 MW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 924
12.13.28 MWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926
12.13.29 MWW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927
12.13.30 ACF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928
12.13.31 ACFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930
12.13.32 BIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931
12.13.33 BICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933
12.13.34 OMEGAA / OMEGAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935
12.13.35 OMEGAAS / OMEGABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936
12.13.36 LBCCOEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937
12.13.37 LBCCOEFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938
12.13.38 FACTLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939
12.13.39 LILIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940
12.13.40 PRCORR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942
12.13.41 SSHIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 943
12.13.42 SSHIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944
12.13.43 EPSCOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945
12.13.44 ENKRVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 946
12.13.45 ENPCVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948
12.13.46 ENPTVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949
12.13.47 DIFFCGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951
12.13.48 DIFFCOIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952
12.13.49 VDKRG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 953
12.13.50 VDKRGC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 955
12.13.51 VDKRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956
12.13.52 PEDERSEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958
12.13.53 PEDTUNE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 959
12.13.54 PEDTUNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
12.13.55 NCOMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962
12.13.56 DNGL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 963
12.13.57 SOLUBILI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964
12.13.58 RSWVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965
12.14Thermal properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966
12.14.1 CVTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 967
12.14.2 WATDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 968
12.14.3 THANALB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 970
12.14.4 KVCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 971
12.14.5 KVCRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 973
12.14.6 KVTEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974

CONTENTS 20

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12.14.7 KVTABTn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975
12.14.8 KVTABLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976
12.14.9 KVWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978
12.14.10 HEATCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979
12.14.11 HEATCRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 980
12.14.12 HEATTCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 981
12.14.13 HEATVAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983
12.14.14 HEATVAPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 984
12.14.15 THCONR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985
12.14.16 THCONSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986
12.14.17 ROCKT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987
12.14.18 THCONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 989
12.14.19 THCONMIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991
12.14.20 STHERMX1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993
12.14.21 STHERMX2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
12.14.22 SDREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997
12.14.23 SPREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998
12.14.24 SCREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999
12.14.25 STREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000
12.14.26 THERMEX1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
12.14.27 THERMEX2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003
12.14.28 THERMEX3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005
12.14.29 PREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
12.14.30 PREFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008
12.14.31 CREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009
12.14.32 TREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010
12.14.33 TREFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011
12.14.34 DREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012
12.14.35 DREFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013
12.14.36 ZFACTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
12.14.37 ZFACT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016
12.14.38 VISCREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018
12.14.39 WATVISCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019
12.14.40 OILVISCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1020
12.14.41 OILVISCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1022
12.14.42 OILVINDX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1024
12.14.43 OILVINDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1026
12.14.44 GASVISCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
12.14.45 GASVISCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031
12.14.46 REACRATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033
12.14.47 REACACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
12.14.48 REACCORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037
12.14.49 REACLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040

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12.14.50 REACCONC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043
12.14.51 REACPORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
12.14.52 STOPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046
12.14.53 STOREAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047
12.14.54 REACPHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048
12.14.55 REACSORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
12.14.56 REACENTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051
12.14.57 SPECHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1052
12.14.58 SPECHB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1053
12.14.59 SPECHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1054
12.14.60 SPECHD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056
12.14.61 SPECHG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057
12.14.62 SPECHH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1058
12.14.63 SPECHI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1059
12.14.64 SPECHJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1060
12.14.65 HEATVAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
12.14.66 SPECHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1062
12.14.67 SPECHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063
12.14.68 TEMPVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064
12.14.69 ENPTVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065
12.14.70 ENKRVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066
12.14.71 ENPCVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067
12.14.72 ROCKV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1068
12.14.73 THSVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069
12.14.74 THWVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1070
12.14.75 SPECROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071
12.14.76 SPECHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1072
12.14.77 CALVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073
12.14.78 CALVALR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074
12.15Initialization section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075
12.15.1 SOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076
12.15.2 EQUIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1077
12.15.3 RSVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1080
12.15.4 PBVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1081
12.15.5 RVVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1083
12.15.6 PDVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1085
12.15.7 THPRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1086
12.15.8 PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1087
12.15.9 PRVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1089
12.15.10 SWAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090
12.15.11 SGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1092
12.15.12 SOIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1094
12.15.13 SSOLID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096

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12.15.14 APIVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097
12.15.15 OILAPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
12.15.16 SMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099
12.15.17 XMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100
12.15.18 YMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
12.15.19 ZMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102
12.15.20 FIELDSEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
12.15.21 FIPSEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
12.15.22 GPTABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
12.15.23 GPTABLEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1110
12.15.24 GPTABLE3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
12.15.25 RECOVERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1114
12.15.26 TEMPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115
12.15.27 RTEMPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1116
12.15.28 RTEMPVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117
12.15.29 WTEMPDEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118
12.15.30 PBUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119
12.15.31 RS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
12.15.32 RV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
12.15.33 PDEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
12.15.34 DATUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126
12.15.35 DATUMR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127
12.15.36 DATUMRX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
12.15.37 TBLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1129
12.15.38 TNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131
12.15.39 TVDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1133
12.15.40 ROCKSALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135
12.15.41 SALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1136
12.15.42 SALTVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137
12.15.43 SRSALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138
12.15.44 SURF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139
12.15.45 SPOLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
12.15.46 GASCONC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141
12.15.47 GASSATC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1142
12.15.48 GASCCMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1143
12.15.49 RPTMAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144
12.15.50 RSW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
12.15.51 SFOAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146
12.15.52 SOILR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147
12.15.53 ROMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1148
12.16Inflow from aquifer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1149
12.16.1 AQUDIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1150
12.16.2 AQUFLUX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152

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12.16.3 AQUCHWAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1153
12.16.4 AQUFET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
12.16.5 AQUOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1157
12.16.6 AQUFETP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1159
12.16.7 AQANTRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1161
12.16.8 AQUCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1162
12.16.9 AQUTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1164
12.16.10 AQUANCON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1165
12.16.11 AQUNUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1167
12.16.12 AQUCON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1169
12.16.13 AQUGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1172
12.16.14 HMMLCTAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
12.16.15 HMMLFTAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
12.17Data output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1176
12.17.1 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1177
12.17.2 RPTMAPD/RPTGRAPHD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189
12.17.3 RPTMAPT/RPTGRAPHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
12.17.4 RPTMAPL/RPTGRAPHL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
12.17.5 RPTONLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
12.17.6 DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1195
12.17.7 SEPARATE / RUNSUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1196
12.18Schedule section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1197
12.18.1 SCHEDULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1200
12.18.2 WELSOMIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
12.18.3 WELSPECS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
12.18.4 WELSPECL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1205
12.18.5 WELLSPEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1208
12.18.6 COMPDAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1209
12.18.7 COMPDATL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212
12.18.8 COMPDATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1215
12.18.9 WELLTRACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216
12.18.10 COMPDATMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1218
12.18.11 WELSEGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1221
12.18.12 WSEGTABL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1225
12.18.13 WSEGVALV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1227
12.18.14 WSEGAICD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1230
12.18.15 WSEGEXSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1233
12.18.16 WSEGFLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1235
12.18.17 WFRICTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1237
12.18.18 WFRICTNL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1240
12.18.19 WFRICSEG / WFRICSGL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1242
12.18.20 COMPSEGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1243
12.18.21 COMPSEGL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246

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12.18.22 COMPLUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1247
12.18.23 COMPLMPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249
12.18.24 COMPORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1251
12.18.25 COMPINJK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253
12.18.26 WLIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255
12.18.27 WLISTDYN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1257
12.18.28 WPIMULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1259
12.18.29 WPIMULTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1262
12.18.30 WPITAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265
12.18.31 PIMULTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266
12.18.32 COMPRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1267
12.18.33 WINJMULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1269
12.18.34 WCONPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1271
12.18.35 WCONHIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1275
12.18.36 WCONINJE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1278
12.18.37 WCONINJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1281
12.18.38 WCONINJP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1283
12.18.39 WCONINJH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1286
12.18.40 WELLINJE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1289
12.18.41 GRUPINJE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1292
12.18.42 WCYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1295
12.18.43 WELLWAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1297
12.18.44 WWAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1299
12.18.45 WHISTCTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1303
12.18.46 WCUTBACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1304
12.18.47 GCUTBACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1306
12.18.48 WBHGLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1308
12.18.49 WTMULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1310
12.18.50 WTADD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1312
12.18.51 WELTARG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1313
12.18.52 WELLTARG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1315
12.18.53 WELCNTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1316
12.18.54 GRUPTARG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317
12.18.55 WELPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1318
12.18.56 VFPINJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1319
12.18.57 VFPPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1322
12.18.58 VFPCHK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1326
12.18.59 VFPTABL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327
12.18.60 WVFPEXP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1328
12.18.61 VFPCORR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330
12.18.62 WECON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
12.18.63 WECONX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1337
12.18.64 WECONCMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1339

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12.18.65 WGORPEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1340
12.18.66 WELLLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342
12.18.67 CECON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1343
12.18.68 WECONINJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1345
12.18.69 WEFAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1346
12.18.70 GEFAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1347
12.18.71 WORKTHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1348
12.18.72 GCONPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1349
12.18.73 GUIDERAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1353
12.18.74 WREGROUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1356
12.18.75 GCONPRI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1358
12.18.76 GPMAINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1361
12.18.77 GPMAINT3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1363
12.18.78 PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1366
12.18.79 WELPRI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1368
12.18.80 WGRUPCON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1370
12.18.81 GCONINJE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1372
12.18.82 GCONSUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375
12.18.83 GSATPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376
12.18.84 GSATINJE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378
12.18.85 GRUPTREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1380
12.18.86 DGRDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1381
12.18.87 BRANPROP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1382
12.18.88 NODEPROP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1384
12.18.89 NCONSUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387
12.18.90 GNETDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388
12.18.91 GNETINJE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
12.18.92 NETCOMPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1392
12.18.93 COMPOFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1395
12.18.94 NWATREM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396
12.18.95 GNETPUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398
12.18.96 GRUPNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399
12.18.97 DRSDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1401
12.18.98 DRSDTVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402
12.18.99 DRSDTVPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1403
12.18.100DRVDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1404
12.18.101COMPENSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405
12.18.102GECON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1406
12.18.103GRUPLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1408
12.18.104WELDRAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1409
12.18.105DATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
12.18.106TSTEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415
12.18.107WELOPEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1416

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12.18.108WELOPENL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1418
12.18.109WELLOPEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1420
12.18.110CVCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1421
12.18.111MATCORR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1422
12.18.112NETBALAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
12.18.113WSEGITER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
12.18.114TUNING / TUNINGDP / TUNINGL / TUNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
12.18.115TIGHTENP / TSCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
12.18.116ZIPPY2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
12.18.117NEXTSTEP / NSTACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
12.18.118LGRLOCK / LGRFREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1429
12.18.119RUNCTRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1430
12.18.120MULTSIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1439
12.18.121MULTSIGV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1440
12.18.122WFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1441
12.18.123WFRACL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1444
12.18.124WFRACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1447
12.18.125WFRACPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1456
12.18.126COMPFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1460
12.18.127COMPFRACL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1463
12.18.128WPIFUNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1466
12.18.129WSKFUNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1468
12.18.130WBHZONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1470
12.18.131ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
12.18.132ACTIONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
12.18.133ACTIONR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1477
12.18.134ACTIONW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1479
12.18.135ACTIONX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1482
12.18.136DELAYACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1488
12.18.137ENDACTIO / ENDACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1490
12.18.138UDQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1491
12.18.139UDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1495
12.18.140ACTIONC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1498
12.18.141WLIMTOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1503
12.18.142SEPVALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1504
12.18.143GSEPCOND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1506
12.18.144SEPCOND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1507
12.18.145WSEPCOND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1509
12.18.146WDFAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1510
12.18.147WDFACCOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511
12.18.148WTRACER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
12.18.149WSURFACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
12.18.150WALKALIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515

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12.18.151WPOLYMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1516
12.18.152WSALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517
12.18.153WTEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1518
12.18.154WHTEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519
12.18.155WINJTEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1520
12.18.156WINJWAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
12.18.157HEATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
12.18.158WTEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
12.18.159WELLSTRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
12.18.160COMPMOBI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526
12.18.161COMPMBIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1528
12.18.162WINJMIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1530
12.18.163WINJORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1532
12.18.164WINJGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1534
12.18.165GINJGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1536
12.18.166GADVANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1538
12.18.167GRUPSALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1539
12.18.168GCONSALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1540
12.18.169GRUPFUEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1542
12.18.170WTAKEGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1543
12.18.171WAVAILIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1544
12.18.172SWINGFAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1545
12.18.173GSWINGF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1547
12.18.174GDCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1549
12.18.175GASYEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1551
12.18.176GASPERIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1554
12.18.177DCQDEFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1557
12.18.178GDCQECON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1558
12.18.179GASBEGIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1559
12.18.180GASEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1561
12.18.181GASMONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1562
12.18.182WGASPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1563
12.18.183GASFTARG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1564
12.18.184GASFDECR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1565
12.18.185GASFCOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1566
12.18.186WVFPDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1567
12.18.187PICOND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1569
12.18.188WPAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1571
12.18.189WPAVEDEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1575
12.18.190WRFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1576
12.18.191WRFTPLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1577
12.18.192SKIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1579
12.18.193SKIPREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1580

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12.18.194SKIP100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1581
12.18.195SKIP300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1582
12.18.196SKIPTNAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1583
12.18.197SKIPOFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1584
12.18.198SKIPON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1586
12.18.199ENDSKIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1587
12.18.200DRILPRI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1588
12.18.201WDRILPRI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1590
12.18.202WDRILTIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1591
12.18.203QDRILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1592
12.18.204GDRILPOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1593
12.18.205WDRILRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1594
12.18.206WORKLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1595
12.18.207GRUPRIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1596
12.18.208NUPCOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1598
12.18.209WELLOPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1599
12.18.210GCONTOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1600
12.18.211WLIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1601
12.18.212PRORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1604
12.18.213LIFTOPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1606
12.18.214GLIFTLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1607
12.18.215GLIFTOPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1608
12.18.216WLIFTOPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1609
12.18.217OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1611
12.18.218RECU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1614
12.18.219USERFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1616
12.18.220COMPVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617
12.18.221COMPVALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1618
12.18.222WNETDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1620
12.18.223WELLPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1621
12.18.224GRUPPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1624
12.18.225WELLCOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1626
12.18.226TRANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1628
12.18.227SCDPTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1629
12.18.228SCDPTRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1630
12.18.229SCDATAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1631
12.18.230WSCTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1632
12.18.231WSEGCNTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1633
12.18.232PSEUPRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1634
12.18.233GWRATMUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1635
12.18.234APILIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1636
12.18.235AUTOSAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1637
12.18.236WELLGR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1638

CONTENTS 29

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12.18.237SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1640
12.18.238GRUPMAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1641
12.18.239GRUPSLAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1643
12.18.240CSKIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1645
12.18.241WFOAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1646

13 Keywords compatible with tNavigator and IMEX, STARS, GEM 1647
13.1 Data entry system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1648
13.1.1 MATRIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1649
13.1.2 FRACTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1650
13.1.3 CON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1651
13.1.4 IVAR / JVAR / KVAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1652
13.2 Input/Output Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1653
13.2.1 TITLE1 / TITLE2 / TITLE3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1654
13.2.2 INUNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1655
13.3 Reservoir description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1656
13.3.1 GRID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1657
13.3.2 DI / DJ / DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1658
13.3.3 ZCORN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1659
13.3.4 COORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1660
13.3.5 DUALPOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1661
13.3.6 SHAPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1662
13.3.7 DIFRAC / DJFRAC / DKFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1663
13.3.8 NULL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1664
13.3.9 POR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1665
13.3.10 PERMI / PERMJ / PERMK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1666
13.3.11 NETGROSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1667
13.3.12 PINCHOUTARRAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1668
13.3.13 VOLMOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1669
13.3.14 NETPAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1670
13.3.15 AQLEAK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1671
13.3.16 AQMETHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1672
13.3.17 AQVISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1673
13.3.18 AQPROP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1674
13.3.19 AQUIFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1676
13.3.20 AQFUNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1677
13.3.21 DUALPERM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1678
13.3.22 CORNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1679
13.3.23 CROCKTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1681
13.3.24 CTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1682
13.3.25 CCPOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1683
13.3.26 CROCKTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1684
13.3.27 TRANSI / TRANSJ / TRANSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1685
13.3.28 TRANLI / TRANLJ / TRANLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1686

CONTENTS 30

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13.3.29 TRANSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1687
13.3.30 FRFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1688
13.3.31 FORMINFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1689
13.3.32 SECTORARRAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1690
13.3.33 DEPTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1691
13.3.34 DTOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1692
13.3.35 PVCUTOFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1693
13.3.36 REFINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1694
13.3.37 SCONNECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1695
13.4 Other Reservoir Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1696
13.4.1 ROCKTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1697
13.4.2 THTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1698
13.4.3 ROCKCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1699
13.4.4 PRPOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1700
13.4.5 CPOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1701
13.4.6 CTPOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1702
13.4.7 CPTPOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1703
13.4.8 THCONR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1704
13.4.9 THCONW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1705
13.4.10 THCONO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1706
13.4.11 THCONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1707
13.4.12 THCONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1708
13.4.13 THCONMIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1709
13.4.14 HLOSST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1711
13.4.15 HLOSSTDIFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1712
13.4.16 HLOSSPROP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1713
13.4.17 CPORPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1714
13.4.18 PORMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1715
13.4.19 PBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1716
13.4.20 CPEPAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1717
13.4.21 PDILA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1718
13.4.22 CRD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1719
13.4.23 PORRATMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1720
13.4.24 PPACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1721
13.4.25 FR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1722
13.4.26 CTD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1723
13.4.27 CTPPAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1724
13.4.28 DILATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1725
13.5 Component properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1726
13.5.1 K_SURF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1727
13.5.2 SURFLASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1728
13.5.3 MOLVOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1729
13.5.4 MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1730

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13.5.5 PVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1732
13.5.6 DENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1734
13.5.7 BWI / CW / REFPW / CVW / VWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1735
13.5.8 PTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1736
13.5.9 COMPNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1737
13.5.10 PRSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1738
13.5.11 TEMR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1739
13.5.12 PSURF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1740
13.5.13 TSURF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1741
13.5.14 MOLDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1742
13.5.15 MASSDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1743
13.5.16 CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1744
13.5.17 CT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1745
13.5.18 CT2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1746
13.5.19 CPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1747
13.5.20 PCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1748
13.5.21 TCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1749
13.5.22 SOLID_DEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1750
13.5.23 SOLID_CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1751
13.5.24 KVTABLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1752
13.5.25 KVTABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1753
13.5.26 KV1 / KV2 / KV3 / KV4 / KV5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1754
13.5.27 CPL1 / CPL2 / CPL3 / CPL4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1755
13.5.28 CPG1 / CPG2 / CPG3 / CPG4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1756
13.5.29 HVAPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1758
13.5.30 HVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1759
13.5.31 EV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1760
13.5.32 STOREAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1761
13.5.33 STOPROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1762
13.5.34 FREQFAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1763
13.5.35 FREQFACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1764
13.5.36 EACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1765
13.5.37 EACT_TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1766
13.5.38 RENTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1767
13.5.39 RORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1768
13.5.40 RPHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1769
13.5.41 RTEMUPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1770
13.5.42 RTEMLOWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1771
13.5.43 RXCRITCON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1772
13.5.44 O2PP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1773
13.5.45 VSTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1774
13.5.46 VISCTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1775
13.5.47 VISCOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1776

CONTENTS 32

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13.5.48 VISVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1777
13.5.49 VISCOEFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1778
13.5.50 MIXVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1779
13.5.51 AVISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1780
13.5.52 BVISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1781
13.5.53 VISCTABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1782
13.5.54 VSMIXCOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1784
13.5.55 VSMIXENDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1785
13.5.56 VSMIXFUNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1786
13.5.57 AVG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1787
13.5.58 BVG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1788
13.5.59 CMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1789
13.5.60 GASD-ZCOEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1790
13.5.61 GASLIQKV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1791
13.5.62 COT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1792
13.5.63 CO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1793
13.5.64 BOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1794
13.5.65 CVO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1795
13.5.66 VOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1796
13.5.67 IDEALGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1797
13.5.68 EOSSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1798
13.5.69 EOSTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1799
13.5.70 BIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800
13.5.71 PCHOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1801
13.5.72 AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1802
13.5.73 OMEGA / OMEGB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1803
13.5.74 VSHIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1804
13.5.75 VGUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1805
13.5.76 PADSORP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1806
13.5.77 PPERM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1807
13.5.78 PMIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1808
13.5.79 PREFCONC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1809
13.5.80 PVISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1810
13.5.81 INCOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1811
13.6 Rock-Fluid data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1812
13.6.1 ROCKFLUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1813
13.6.2 RPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1814
13.6.3 SWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1815
13.6.4 SLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1816
13.6.5 SGT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1818
13.6.6 RTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1820
13.6.7 KRTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1821
13.6.8 KRTEMTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1822

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13.6.9 SWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1824
13.6.10 BSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1825
13.6.11 SWCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1826
13.6.12 BSWCRIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1827
13.6.13 SOIRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1828
13.6.14 BSOIRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1829
13.6.15 SGCON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1830
13.6.16 BSGCON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1831
13.6.17 SGR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1832
13.6.18 BSGR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1833
13.6.19 SOIRG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1834
13.6.20 BSOIRG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1835
13.6.21 SORW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1836
13.6.22 BSORW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1837
13.6.23 SORG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1838
13.6.24 BSORG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1839
13.6.25 KRWIRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1840
13.6.26 BKRWIRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1841
13.6.27 KRGCW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1842
13.6.28 BKRGCW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1843
13.6.29 KROCW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1844
13.6.30 BKROCW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1845
13.6.31 PCGEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1846
13.6.32 BPCGMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1847
13.6.33 PCWEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1848
13.6.34 BPCWMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1849
13.6.35 PTHRESHI / PTHRESHJ / PTHRESHK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1850
13.7 Initial conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1851
13.7.1 INITIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1852
13.7.2 VERTICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1853
13.7.3 SWINIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1854
13.7.4 PB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1855
13.7.5 DATUMDEPTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1856
13.7.6 INITREGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1857
13.7.7 INTYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1858
13.7.8 REFPRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1859
13.7.9 REFDEPTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1860
13.7.10 DWOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1861
13.7.11 DGOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1862
13.7.12 WOC_SW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1863
13.7.13 SO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1864
13.7.14 SG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1865
13.7.15 SW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1866

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13.7.16 PRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1867
13.7.17 TEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1868
13.7.18 CONC_SLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1869
13.7.19 MFRAC_OIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1870
13.7.20 MFRAC_GAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1871
13.7.21 PBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1872
13.7.22 SEPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1873
13.8 Numerical methods control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1875
13.8.1 NUMERICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1876
13.8.2 TFORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1877
13.8.3 ISOTHERMAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1878
13.8.4 MINTEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1879
13.8.5 MAXTEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1880
13.9 Well and recurrent data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1881
13.9.1 HEATR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1882
13.9.2 TMPSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1883
13.9.3 UHTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1884
13.9.4 RUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1885
13.9.5 DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1886
13.9.6 WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1887
13.9.7 PRODUCER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1888
13.9.8 INJECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1889
13.9.9 SHUTIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1890
13.9.10 OPERATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1891
13.9.11 ALTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1893
13.9.12 GEOMETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1894
13.9.13 PERF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1896
13.9.14 LAYERXYZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1898
13.9.15 TINJW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1900
13.9.16 QUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1901
13.9.17 WTMULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1902
13.9.18 ON-TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1903
13.9.19 STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1904
13.9.20 HTWELL / HTWRATE / HTWRATEPL / HTWTEMP / HTWI . . . 1905
13.9.21 WELSEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1906
13.9.22 TRIGGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1907

14 Keywords compatible with tNavigator and MORE 1912
14.1 INPUt Data Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913
14.1.1 INPUt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1914
14.1.2 TITLe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1915
14.1.3 PRINt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1916
14.1.4 UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1917
14.1.5 IDATe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1918

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14.1.6 SDATe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1919
14.1.7 CNAMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1920
14.1.8 IMPLicit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1921
14.1.9 INCLude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1922
14.1.10 SCMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1923
14.1.11 DPORo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1924
14.1.12 EPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1925
14.1.13 EPSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1926
14.1.14 DWPW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1927
14.1.15 OPEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1928
14.1.16 ETUNe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1929
14.1.17 GPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1930
14.1.18 MPGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1931
14.1.19 RG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1932
14.2 FLUId Data Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1933
14.2.1 FLUId . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1934
14.2.2 WATR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1935
14.2.3 BASIc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1936
14.2.4 TEMPerature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1937
14.2.5 OPVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1938
14.2.6 GPVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1939
14.2.7 EQUA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1940
14.2.8 KVSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1941
14.2.9 KVPX / KVPY / KVPZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1942
14.2.10 OPVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1943
14.2.11 OMGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1944
14.2.12 OMGB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1945
14.2.13 VOLU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1946
14.2.14 SDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1947
14.2.15 VCOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1948
14.2.16 F(DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1949
14.2.17 INTE (FLUID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1950
14.2.18 PROP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1951
14.2.19 TRAC (FLUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1952
14.3 RELAtive Permeability Data Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1953
14.3.1 RELA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1954
14.3.2 WETT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1955
14.3.3 KRWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1956
14.3.4 KRGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1957
14.4 GRID Data Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1958
14.4.1 GRID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1959
14.4.2 VERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1960
14.4.3 HORI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1961

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14.4.4 SIZE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1962
14.4.5 DATUm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1963
14.4.6 X-DIrection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1964
14.4.7 Y-DIrection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1965
14.4.8 DEPTh / ZGRI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1966
14.4.9 THICkness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1967
14.4.10 POROsity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1968
14.4.11 MINPv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1969
14.4.12 K_X / K_Y / K_Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970
14.4.13 CROC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1971
14.4.14 REFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1972
14.4.15 ACTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1973
14.4.16 COORd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1974
14.4.17 FIPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1975
14.4.18 SATNum / ROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1976
14.4.19 AQCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977
14.4.20 AQCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978
14.4.21 AQCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1979
14.4.22 AQFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981
14.4.23 AQUW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982
14.4.24 CONS (GRID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1983
14.4.25 DEFI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1984
14.4.26 DPSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985
14.4.27 FSAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1986
14.4.28 FSWA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1987
14.4.29 FPVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988
14.4.30 PVTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989
14.4.31 DZMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990
14.4.32 EQUI / EQLN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991
14.4.33 F(PO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992
14.4.34 FAUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993
14.4.35 FMUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994
14.4.36 FCRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995
14.4.37 FKX / FKY / FKZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996
14.4.38 FMLX / FMLY / FMLZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997
14.4.39 FEQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998
14.4.40 FPOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
14.4.41 FREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
14.4.42 IEQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
14.4.43 INTE (GRID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
14.4.44 KPTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004
14.4.45 LAYE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005
14.4.46 LEVJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006

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14.4.47 LGRD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007
14.4.48 MINDznet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2008
14.4.49 MODI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2009
14.4.50 MULX / MULY / MULZ (MX / MY / MZ, M_X / M_Y / M_Z, M-X
/ M-Y / M-Z, MULTX / MULTY / MULTZ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2011
14.4.51 PINCh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2012
14.4.52 PORV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2013
14.4.53 PVOL / RVOL / PVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2014
14.4.54 T_X / T_Y / T_Z (TX / TY / TZ, T-X / T-Y / T-Z) . . . . . . . . . . 2016
14.4.55 VARI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2018
14.4.56 NNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2019
14.4.57 NTG / NTOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2020
14.4.58 REPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2021
14.4.59 SGCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2022
14.4.60 SGL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2023
14.4.61 SGU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2024
14.4.62 SOGC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2025
14.4.63 SOWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2026
14.4.64 SWU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2027
14.4.65 SWL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2028
14.4.66 SWCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2029
14.4.67 XKRG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2030
14.4.68 XKRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2031
14.4.69 XKRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2032
14.4.70 XPCG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2033
14.4.71 XPCW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2034
14.4.72 YKRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2035
14.4.73 ZCORn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2036
14.4.74 ZVAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2037
14.4.75 TSUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2038
14.5 INIT Data Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040
14.5.1 INIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2041
14.5.2 PBVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2042
14.5.3 RSVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2043
14.5.4 EQUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2044
14.5.5 RVVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2045
14.5.6 CONS (INIT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2046
14.5.7 GOCX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2048
14.5.8 GOCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2049
14.5.9 SEPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2050
14.6 RECUrrent Data Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2051
14.6.1 RECU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052
14.6.2 RATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2053

CONTENTS 38

CONTENTS tNavigator-4.2

14.6.3 EFILe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2054
14.6.4 TFIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2056
14.6.5 ETAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2058
14.6.6 TTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2062
14.6.7 ENDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2063
14.6.8 ENDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2064
14.6.9 HFILe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2065
14.6.10 HTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2067
14.6.11 ENDH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2068
14.6.12 EFORm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2069
14.6.13 HFORm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2071
14.6.14 EUNIts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2073
14.6.15 HUNIts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2074
14.6.16 PERF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2075
14.6.17 SQUEeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2077
14.6.18 PROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2079
14.6.19 INJE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2080
14.6.20 LTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2081
14.6.21 PREX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2082
14.6.22 P-RE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2083
14.6.23 WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2084
14.6.24 WWAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2086
14.6.25 WFRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2087
14.6.26 WFRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2089
14.6.27 SHUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2093
14.6.28 STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2094
14.6.29 HOIL / HGAS / HWAT / HLIQ / HRES / HBHP / HTHP / HWEF . . 2095
14.6.30 TUBI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2096
14.6.31 FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2099
14.6.32 THP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2101
14.6.33 RATI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2102
14.6.34 BHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2103
14.6.35 OPEN (RECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2104
14.6.36 DREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2105
14.6.37 XFLO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2106
14.6.38 BHPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2107
14.6.39 THPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2108
14.6.40 OPT / WPT / GPT / LPT / VPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2109
14.6.41 OIT / GIT / WIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2110
14.6.42 WEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2111
14.6.43 STRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2112
14.6.44 GOPT / GGPT / GWPT / GLPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2113
14.6.45 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2114

CONTENTS 39

CONTENTS tNavigator-4.2

14.6.46 DATE / READ / TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2115
14.6.47 GROU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2116
14.6.48 DRAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2117
14.6.49 VREP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2118
14.6.50 RECY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2119
14.6.51 GGRT / GWRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2120
14.6.52 CWAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2121
14.6.53 KMOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2122
14.6.54 PARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2123
14.6.55 PCSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2124
14.6.56 GVRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2125
14.6.57 PLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2126
14.6.58 CIJK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2127
14.6.59 ARRAy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2129
14.6.60 FREQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2130
14.6.61 DELTa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2131
14.6.62 COMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2132
14.6.63 BRANch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2134
14.6.64 TRAC (RECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2135
14.6.65 WGPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2136
14.6.66 WMPG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2137
14.6.67 WRG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2138

15 Keyword definitions index E100, E300 2139

16 Keyword definitions index IMEX, STARS, GEM 2158

17 Keyword definitions index RFD 2165

18 Keyword definitions index MORE 2169

19 The bibliography 2175

CONTENTS 40

1. Introduction tNavigator-4.2

1 Introduction
Simulator tNavigator can be used for numerical solution of three phase three (or multi)
component filtration problems:

ˆ isothermic systems (black-oil or compositional) – section 2;

ˆ temperature option, to allow the modeling of the temperature effects of cold water
injection – section 2.30;

ˆ thermal compositional model with chemical reactions – section 4.

List of supported operating systems: Windows, Linux (32-bit and 64-bit versions).
Note. In Windows systems family it is recommended to turn off antivirus on user folder
to increase performance. In Windows systems version 8 and above antivirus is turned on by
default.

Requirements for RAM per core.
We have no minimal requirements for RAM per core. Everything depends on model. We use
3kB RAM per active grid block for black-oil models.

An example for cluster with the following configuration: Xeon 5650 node, 12 cores,
24Gb.

ˆ One node simulation. We can run 24000k/3k=8million active grid blocks. We have
run successfully the real model 6.5 million blocks on cluster with this configuration.

ˆ MPI-version. Simulation on several nodes. For MPI run maximal size of the model
multiplies by number of nodes per run. For the cluster with this configuration we can
run model with 12 million active grid blocks using 2 nodes and 23 million active with
4 nodes (there is small overhead for domains overlapping in MPI run so maximal size
is less than theoretical maximum).

Simulator uses finite volume approximation on rectangular block centered mesh with re-
spect to space. For approximation with respect to time Fully Implicit method or Adaptive
Implicit (AIM) are used.

Hydrodynamic simulator tNavigator is recommended for calculation of oil and gas field
development plan projects.

This User Manual describes physical model, mathematical model and the keywords.
The description of tNavigatoruser graphical interface: graphs, maps visualization and edit-
ing, model calculation, is in the document User Guide.

For best adaptation of user experience the keyword notations are chosen to be close as
much as possible to the most common simulators:

1. Introduction 41

1. Introduction tNavigator-4.2

ˆ Eclipse (c) Schlumberger,

ˆ IMEX, STARS, GEM (c) Computer Modelling Group Ltd,

ˆ MORE (c) Roxar.

tNavigator reads keyword notations of these simulators and converts them into its inner
data notations.

This User Manual describes all keywords which can be used in tNavigator:

ˆ tNavigator keywords;

ˆ E100 keywords;

ˆ E300 keywords;

ˆ CMG IMEX keywords;

ˆ CMG STARS keywords;

ˆ CMG GEM keywords;

ˆ MORE keywords.

In the description of each keyword in the table the boxes are checked corresponding fo
model formats in which the keyword can be used.

E100, E300 format keywords are red. For example: TABDIMS (see 12.1.26). Index of
Eclipse format keywords – 15.

IMEX, STARS, GEM format keywords are pink. For example: TEMR (see 13.5.11). Index
of CMG format keywords – 16.

MORE format keywords are green. For example: IDATe (see 14.1.5). Index of MORE
format keywords – 18.

The keywords that can be used only in tNavigator are blue. For example: REACCONC
(see 12.14.50). Index of RFD format keywords – 17.

This description pointed out if there are parameters of the keyword which are ignored by
tNavigator or which use is different from other simulators: Eclipse, IMEX, STARS, GEM,
MORE).

tNavigator simulator is subject to future development. Any feedback is appreciated.

1. Introduction 42

2.1. Differential equations for black-oil model tNavigator-4.2

2 Physical model
Simulator uses standard three phase three component isothermal black-oil model and compo-
sitional model. The description of thermal compositional model with chemical reactions is in
the section 4.

2.1 Differential equations for black-oil model
Standard black-oil equations with standard assumptions:

∂  k 
rP
(φ Nc ) = div ∑ xc,P ξP k (∇pP − γP ∇D) + qc , c = 1, . . . , nc (2.1)
∂t P=O,W,G µP
pO − pG = PcOG , (2.2)
pO − pW = PcOW , (2.3)
SW + SO + SG = 1. (2.4)

Here functions:

ˆ Nc = Nc (t, x, y, z) (unknown) – c = 1, . . . , nc overall molar density of any component.
For black oil model components are water, oil and gas, and
SW SO SG SG SO
Nw = ξW,SC ; No = ξO,SC ( + RO,G ); Ng = ξG,SC ( + RG,O )
BW BO BG BG BO

ˆ SP = SP (t, x, y, z) (unknown) – phase P, P = O, G,W saturation,

ˆ RG,O = RG,O (pO ) – solubility of gas component into oil phase (known function)
(see 2.16),

ˆ RO,G = RO,G (pO ) – vaporisation of oil component into gas phase (known function)
(see 2.17),

ˆ BP = BP (pP ) – phase formation volume factor (known function) (see 2.9),

ˆ φP = φ (pP , x, y, z) – porosity (known functions) (see 2.5),

ˆ pW = pW (t, x, y, z) (unknown) – water phase pressure,

ˆ pO = pO (t, x, y, z) (unknown) – oil phase pressure,

ˆ pG = pG (t, x, y, z) (unknown) – gas phase pressure,

ˆ xc,P = xc,P (p, N) (known function) – moles of component c per mole of phase P,

ˆ ξP = ξP (p, N) – phase molar density (known function), see section 2.13,

ˆ k = k(pW , pO , pG , x, y, z) – permeability tensor (known function) (see 2.4),

2. Physical model 43

SG ) – phase relative permeability (known function) (see 2.2.119) controls the solution algorithms and the param- eters of iteration process. z) – source of component (known function) (see 2.6). ˆ qc = qc (p.19.8).2).18.2 ˆ krP = krP (SW .2. x. y.6) ∂N krP boundary conditions are used on outer reservoir boundary. The keyword RUNCTRL (see 12.t. z) – vertical depth vector (up-down oriented) (known coordinate functions).15. BP µP 2. ˆ µP = µP (pP ) – phase viscosity (known function) (see 2. ˆ ρP = ρP (pP ) – phase mass density (known function) (see 2.14).1) and constant(s): ˆ g = const – known constant The detailed description of transition from physical model to non-linear and then linear equations is written in the section Mathematical model – 5. ˆ PcOG = PcOG (SG ) – oil-gas capillary pressure (known function) (see 2. Boundary conditions tNavigator-4. Let us define the ways of known data input. Boundary conditions 44 .1).15.5) boundary conditions or standard no flow (Neumann) ∂ pP   = λP (∇pP − γP ∇D). N. y. ˆ γP = ρP g – vertical pressure gradient (known relation).2. Here λP = k .2 Boundary conditions The standard constant pressure (Dirichlet) pP = constP (2. ˆ PcOW = PcOW (SW ) – oil-water capillary pressure (known function) (see 2. ˆ D = D(x. 2. n = 0 (2.

5 Porosity Porosity φ = φ (p.12). z) is user input data function defined in all reservoir points.11).15.4 Permeability tensor Absolute permeability tensor k = k(pW . SGAS (see 12. ROCK (see 12.2. 2.26)) ˆ φ (x. y.9) SW + SO + SG = 1 (2. SP (PRESSURE (see 12.8) pO − pW = PcOW (2. y. pO .24)) ˆ c – compressibility (user input data. z) = ψ(x.G µP pO − pG = PcOG (2. SWAT (see 12.3. SP (from previous run of the model) or values for pP . SOIL (see 12.2.6.18)) ˆ pref – reference pressure (user input data. Initial conditions 45 .15. y. SP may be computed from hydrostatic equilibrium conditions:  k  rP div ∑ xc. 2.7) P=O.25) or DZNET (see 12. ROCK (see 12.2.10) with boundary conditions from 2.6. SWATINIT (see 12. y.2.2 2. z) – net to gross (user input data array defined in all reservoir points. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.15. y.10).2.5. NTG (see 12. y.5.18).3 Initial conditions Initial conditions may either all known values for pP . x.15. x.5.P ξP k (∇pP − γP ∇D) = 0 (2.16)) 2. One can specify this dependence using the keyword ROCKTAB (see 12. x. z) – porosity at pressure pref (user input data array defined in all reservoir points.13) On default dependence of k on pressure is omitted. PERMX / PERMY / PERMZ (see 12. z)φ (x. pG . EQUIL (see 12. PORO (see 12. Usually it is represented in the following form: φ (p.2) specifies initial values for pP . z) is user input data array function defined in all reservoir points.15.2.6 Phase relative permeability Calculation of phase relative permeabilities contains the following stages: 1. Permeabilities and capillary pressure are calculated for two-phase systems water–oil and gas–oil. z)(1 + c(p − pref ) + c2 (p − pref )2 /2) where ˆ ψ(x.W.8). y.5.48)).16) or ROCKTAB (see 12. 2.

SG ) are defined by experimental data.2. Phase relative permeability krP = krP (SW .2).11) krG = krG (SG ) (2.6. 3. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.11) for second pair). Relative permeabilities (and capillary pressure) scaling for two-phase systems. SG ) (2.12) krO = krO (SW .6.6. krOG = krOG (SG ) – for gas-oil two phase system (SWOF (see 12. nG . nOG – constant function parameters 2.6. These functions may be obtained by laboratory measurements or may be approximated by analytical functions based on the following user input data: ˆ SWC – connate water saturation ˆ SOrW – residual oil saturation to waterflooding ˆ SGr – critical gas saturation ˆ SOrG – residual oil saturation to gasflooding ˆ krW rO – water relative permeability at residual oil and SG = 0 ˆ krOcW – oil relative permeability at SWC and SGr ˆ krGcW – gas relative permeability at SWC and SO = 0 ˆ nW . Oil relative permeability krO is calculated using the first or the second Stone’s model or linear Baker’s model (default model).13) User specifies two sets of relative permeabilities function pairs: ˆ krWO = krWO (SW ).6.1) for first pair.2 2. ˆ krGO = krGO (SG ). SLGOF (see 12. The usual assumptions are: krW = krW (SW ) (2. SGOF (see 12. Phase relative permeability 46 . nOW . krOW = krOW (SW ) – for water-oil two phase system.

(2.6.20)) and second STONE2 (see 12.6.21)).2.6.1.21) Stone models. STONE2 (see 12.2 The first Stone’s model The keyword STONE1 (see 12.6.16)  + SG + (SW − SW c )      (S − SW c ) · krOW (SG + SW )   + W    else SG + (SW − SW c ) 2.6.2 Then we can define analytical approximations for the listed above functions:   0  nW if SW ≤ SWC krWO (SW ) = SW − SWC  krW rO otherwise 1 − SWC − SOrW   0  nOW if 1 − SW − SOrW < 0 krOW (SW ) = 1 − SW − SOrW  krOcW otherwise 1 − SWC − SOrW   0  nG if SG < SGr krGO (SG ) = S G − S Gr  krGcW otherwise 1 − SGr − Swr   0 if 1 − SG − SW c − SOrG < 0 1 − SG − SW c − SOrG nOG   krOG (SG ) =  krOcW otherwise 1 − SW c − SOrG Then we define: krW (SW ) = krWO (SW ).6. Linear Baker model 47 .1 Linear Baker model This model is used in tNavigator as default model (if the following keywords are not speci- fied: STONE1 (see 12.20) is used to specify this model. Let us define the following constants: 2. By default the linear Baker model is used.14) krG (SG ) = krGO (SG ). Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.6.6. SG ) = SG · krOG (SG + SW − SW c ) (2. Let (ε – small parameter):   krOG (SG + SW − SW c ) SW − SW c < ε     k (S + SW ) SG < ε   rOW G    krO (SW .20). (2.6. 2.15) At present two options for krO calculations are available: first (STONE1 (see 12.

1 − SW c − SOrG Som (SG ) = α(SG )SOrW + (1 − α(SG ))SOrG . which is the largest value of SW . which is the minimal admissible value of SW for water-oil two phase system 2.18) krOcW 1 − SW (SW . SG ) = 1 − SW c − Som (SG ) .6.3. as a function of gas saturation can be entered via SOMWAT (see 12. 0. which is the largest value of SW .18). Then SG α(SG ) = 1 − . SG ) = 1 − SW c − Som (SG ) . otherwise   SW − SW c .6. SOMGAS (see 12.20)). where krW (SW ) = krWO (SW ) = 0 ˆ SOrW – water saturation at residual oil. (2. which is the minimal admissible value of SW for water-oil two phase system ˆ krOcW = krOW (SW c ) – relative permeability to oil at connate water ˆ SW r – residual water saturation. if SO ≥ Som (SG )  ∗ SO (SO .21) is used to specify this model. S ) SO O G krOW (SW ) krOG (SG ) krO = krO (SO . where krOG (SG ) = 0.3 The second Stone’s model The keyword STONE2 (see 12. where krOW (SW ) = 0 ˆ SOrG – gas saturation at residual oil.6.6. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.17).  SO − Som (SG ) . SW .2. SG ) = ∗ ∗ (S ) . Using the same constants as defined in the previous paragraph: ˆ SW c – connate water saturation.2 ˆ SW c – connate water saturation. (2.  0. The second Stone’s model 48 . if SW ≥ SW c  ∗ SW (SW .6.6.17) 1 − SW c − Som (SG ) and ∗ (S . SG ) 1 − SG G 2.6. which is the largest value of SG . The tables that specify minimum oil saturation (that is used in 3-phase model STONE1 (see 12. otherwise ∗ SG SG (SG ) = .

69).39).6.6.6.only for compositional model. surfactant) (keyword can only be used in tNavigator ENPTRC (see 12. SG ) = krOcW + krW (SW ) + krG (SG ) (2.39)).6. .6.40)).14.43). If end-point scaling option is selected (ENDSCALE (see 12. ENKRVD (see 12.6. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.6.6.13.6.19) krOcW krOcW −krOcW (krW (SW ) + krG (SG )) 2. ENKRVD (see 12.4 End-point scaling. two-point method Phase permeability scaling.13.only for thermo-compositional model..6... two-point method 49 . SWU (see 12.6.46)) or with respect to depth (ENPTVD (see 12. saturations and relative permeabilities are renormalized according to formulas below.30). KRW (see 12.6. Table end-points can then be entered cell by cell (SWL (see 12. The keyword ENDSCALE (see 12. SWCR (see 12.6.24) indicates that end-point scaling of relative perme- abilities and capillary pressures will be used.6.6. SG are block water and gas saturations. .27).6. ENPCVD (see 12. ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points as temperature function (keywords ENPTVT (see 12.6. Specification of critical saturation end-points can be done using one of the following ways (they are not compatible by default): ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points for each grid block (keywords SWL (see 12.24)). 2.24).34). Saturations scaling First introduce notations ˆ SW . ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points as composition function (ENPTVC (see 12. ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points as tracer concentration function (salt..6.38).2. ENKRVT (see 12.2 ˆ krOcW = krOW (SW c ) – relative permeability to oil at connate water we get the following expression for oil relative permeability in case of Stone 2:    krOW (SW ) krOG (SG ) krO (SO .4. ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points as depth function (keywords ENPTVD (see 12.). SW . SWCR (see 12.. End-point scaling.27).43).6. Possible combinations can be specified using 5-th parameter of the keyword ENDSCALE (see 12.70)) .14.41)). PCW (see 12.46).6.30).44)) .38). KRW (see 12. ENKRVC (see 12.

34). (SW − SWCR)(SW max − SW cr ) S̃W = SW cr + (2.1) (SGOF (see 12.4.1) (SGOF (see 12. for krW ≤ T OLCRIT (analogously SGcr . i. ˆ krW max (table). 1. for which krW = 0 (krG = 0). SWCR (see 12.1) (SGOF (see 12. then the critical saturations for that phase will be modified to be the initial immobile saturation in regions where the saturation is below the input critical value.6.6.31) will be modified for gas-water runs and oil-gas runs.2)).6.6. the parameter is set true to gas phase. SGcr are critical water and gas saturations.33) will be modified only for oil-gas runs.6. 2. 3.2)) table.0 ∗ 10−20 – in e300 models) (finding the last zero relative permeability value while accounting for machine zero). SGU (see 12. SGCR (see 12.1). Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.6. SOW cr . krGO are water and gas relative permeabilities defined by SWOF (see 12. maximal water (gas) saturation in SWOF (see 12. If the parameter is set – true to a phase. for which krW ≤ 1. krG max (table) are maximum entry of water (gas) relative permeability in SWOF (see 12.6. End-point scaling. ˆ SWCR (see 12.13)) for krW .30) will be modified.6. If TOLCRIT (see 12.6. SGCR (see 12.6. S̃G are scaled block water and gas saturations.2)) tables.35) are user defined values of maximal water (and gas) saturation in current block. ˆ krWO .6.2)).6. SOGcr ). SOGCR (see 12.2 ˆ SW cr .19) is specified.0 ∗ 10−6 – in e100 models (krW ≤ 1. the parameter is set true to oil phase – SOWCR (see 12.6. ˆ S̃W .19) isn’t specified the critical water saturation SW cr is equal to SW in the last table entry (SWOF (see 12.32) will be modified for oil-water runs or oil-water-miscible gas runs.6. two-point method 50 . ˆ SWU (see 12. ˆ SW max .6.25) controls the transition zone option. SGmax are maximal values of water (and gas) saturation in SWOF (see 12. SWFN (see 12.20) SWU − SWCR (SG − SGCR)(SGmax − SGcr ) S̃G = SGcr + SGU − SGCR The keyword TZONE (see 12.6.6.31) are user defined values of critical water (and gas) saturation in current block.6.1) (SGOF (see 12.6.2.e.6.6. the critical water saturation is equal to SW in the last table entry.6. the parameter is set true to water phase.30). 2.6. If TOLCRIT (see 12.

0 − SOWCR(table) − SGCO(table) 3-phase case (2.25) KRW − KRW R + · (krW (SW ) − krW (SR)) krW max (table) − krW (SR) In 2-point scaling saturations are scaled via points SWCR and SWU. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.2 Appropriate relative permeabilities are calculated as   0 SW ≤ SWCR krW (SW ) = krWO (S̃W ) SWCR < SW < SWU (2. Water: If only KRW is set scaled KRW krW (SW ) = krW (SW ) · (2.0 − SGCR(table) gas-water case (2.21) krW max (table) SW ≥ SWU    0 SG ≤ SGCR krG (SG ) = krGO (S̃G ) SGCR < SG < SGU (2. KRWR (see 12.44) is set.6.28) krG max (table) 2. KRORW (see 12.6.43).43).42). KRORG (see 12.6.44).6. KRW (see 12.24) krW (SR) scaled SW > SR krW (SW ) = KRW R + (2. KRG (see 12.4.2. Relative permeabilities scaling If at least one of the following arrays KRO (see 12.27) Gas: If only KRG is set scaled KRG krG (SG ) = krG (SG ) · (2. So if KRWR is set. relative permeabilities are additionally scaled according to following formulas.6.42).26) SR(table) = 1.6. KRGR (see 12.6.6.22) krG max (table) SG ≥ SGU  Oil relative permeabilities are calculated in analogous way.6. two-point method 51 .23) krW max (table) If both KRW and KRWR are set scaled KRW R SW <= SR krW (SW ) = krW (SW ) · (2. SR is taken as a simply scaled value of the following table value: SR(table) = 1. End-point scaling.42).

5 End-point scaling.2.6. SGcr are critical water and gas saturations.30) KRG − KRGR + · (krG (SG ) − krG (SR)) krG max (table) − krG (SR) Oil: here “P” stands to water or gas phase If only KRO is set scaled KRO krOP (SP ) = krOP (SP ) · (2. SGmax are maximal values of water (and gas) saturation in SWOF (see 12.1) (SGOF (see 12.6.6. maximal oil satura- tion in SWOF (see 12.6. SG are block water and gas saturations.26)). i. maximal water (gas) saturation in SWOF (see 12.29) krG (SR) scaled SG > SR krG (SG ) = KRGR + (2.e.1) (SGOF (see 12. for which krW = 0 (krG = 0). for which the oil relative permeability is zero: krOW = 0 (krOG = 0).5.6.2 If both KRG and KRGR are set scaled KRGR SG <= SR krG (SG ) = krG (SG ) · (2.31) krOP max (table) If both KRO and KRORP are set scaled KRORP SP <= SPCR krOP (SP ) = krOP (SP ) · (2. i. phase permeabilities are recalculated in the following manner. Saturations scaling As for two-point case.6.2)).2)).32) krOP (SPCR) scaled SP > SPCR krOP (SP ) = KRORP + KRO − KRORP + · (krOP (SP ) − krOP (SPCR)) krOP max (table) − krOP (SPCR) 2. SG co are connate water and gas saturations. three-point method 52 .e. ˆ SW cr .24) three point scaling method for relative perme- abilities is selected (SCALECRS (see 12.6. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.6.6.1) (SGOF (see 12. ˆ SW max .6.e.1) (SGOF (see 12.6. i. 2. first introduce notations ˆ SW . minimal water (gas) saturation in SWOF (see 12.6. SOGcr are critical oil-to-water and oil-to-gas saturations.6.2)). three-point method If in addition to ENDSCALE (see 12. ˆ SOW cr .2)). ˆ SW co . End-point scaling.

Sr = 1 − SOW cr − SG co ˆ in oil-water systems SR = 1 − SOWCR.33) Sr + SWU−SR SR < SW < SWU Relative permeability is calculated as in (2.33) will be modified only for oil-gas runs.30). SGCR (see 12. Sr = 1 − SOW cr Then water saturation is rescaled according to formula ( SW cr + (SW −SWCR)(S SR−SWCR r −SW cr ) SWCR < SW < SR S̃W = (SW −SR)(SW max −Sr ) (2.6. three-point method 53 .35) are user defined values of maximal water (and gas) saturation in current block.6.6. 1. ˆ S̃W .6.2 ˆ SWL (see 12.31) are user defined values of critical water (and gas) saturation in current block.32).6. Water function rescaling Denote ˆ in 3phase systems SR = 1 − SOWCR − SGL. SOGCR (see 12.5. SGL (see 12.34) Sr + SGU−SR SR < SG < SGU Relative permeability is calculated as in (2.6.34).6.25) controls the transition zone option. SOGCR (see 12. then the critical saturations for that phase will be modified to be the initial immobile saturation in regions where the saturation is below the input critical value. ˆ SOWCR (see 12. End-point scaling.6. SGU (see 12. 2. 2.22).21). the parameter is set true to oil phase – SOWCR (see 12.2.29) are user defined values of connate water (and gas) saturation in current block.6. Sr = 1 − SW cr Then gas saturation is rescaled according to formula ( SGcr + (SG −SGCR)(S SR−SGCR r −SGcr ) SGCR < SG < SR S̃G = (SG −SR)(SGmax −Sr ) (2. Sr = 1 − Sogcr − SW co ˆ in gas-water systems SR = 1 − SWCR. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.6.33) are user defined values of critical oil-to-water (and oil-to-gas) saturation in current block.6. ˆ SWCR (see 12. If the parameter is set – true to a phase.6. Gas function rescaling Denote ˆ in 3phase systems SR = 1 − SOGCR − SW L. 1.32) will be modified for oil-water runs or oil-water-miscible gas runs.6. S̃G are scaled block water and gas saturations.27). The keyword TZONE (see 12. ˆ SWU (see 12.

2. KRNUMZ (see 12. (in this case DIRECT must also be defined).6. 3.1.1. see (2. Six tables should be specified via the keywords IMBNUMX (see 12. If hysteresis is used (option HYSTER in SATOPTS (see 12.6.7).31) will be modified for gas-water runs and oil-gas runs.24).24)).6. IMBNUMX. KRNUMY.23) .4.4. KRNUMY (see 12.4.(see 12. K directions uses different tables. ˆ IRREVERS – irreversible directional relative permeabilities.4. SGCR (see 12. IMBNUMY (see 12.6. relative permeabilities are additionally scaled according to formulas. the parameter is set true to water phase.44).4.24).4. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.4.4.2 2.24). and from I to I+1. and from I to I+1. K directions uses different tables.7)).7).6.6. IMBNUMY (see 12. In this case directional saturation tables are used (flow in I. 2. KRNUMZ (see 12.(see 12. In this case directional saturation tables are used (flow in I.6 Directional and irreversible RP Directional and irreversible relative permeabilities can be used if the corresponding options are specified in SATOPTS (see 12. 2. KRW (see 12.4. the number of tables are specified via IMBNUMX (see 12.(see 12.68)) then the Directional and irreversible relative permeabilities can be used for imbibition.1.43).68): ˆ DIRECT – directional relative permeabilities. KRORG (see 12.6. If DIRECT is used without IRREVERS.7).44) is set.4. KRNUMX.(see 12.30) will be modified.6.(see 12.68): ˆ DIRECT – directional relative permeabilities. The only difference is that now SR and SPCR are defined properly. IMBNUMY. because the same table is used for the flow from I to I-1. ˆ IRREVERS – irreversible directional relative permeabilities. the parameter is set true to gas phase. IMBNUMZ (see 12.7).7) and IMBNUMZ. KRG (see 12. IMBNUMZ (see 12. The following options should be specified in the keyword SATOPTS (see 12.24).42).43). KRGR (see 12. If DIRECT is used without IRREVERS. Relative permeabilities scaling If at least one of the following arrays KRO (see 12. KRORW (see 12. Directional and irreversible RP 54 .4. then only three tables should be specified.4. the same as for two-point scaling case. then only three tables should be specified.4. KRWR (see 12.4.6.(2.7).24) and KRNUMZ. SWCR (see 12.6.4.24). the number of tables are specified via KRNUMX (see 12. because the same table is used for the flow from I to I-1. J. (in this case DIRECT must also be defined).4. Different tables are used for flow direction from I to I-1 or from I to I+1. Different tables are used for flow direction from I to I-1 or from I to I+1.7).6.24).4. KRNUMY (see 12.32).7).42).4.6. Six tables should be specified via the keywords KRNUMX (see 12. J.24).(see 12.42).6.

j) = B(P. this relationship causes wells injectivity to vary until the grid block will be full of injected phase. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.1. j) where: µ(P.26) – This keyword specifies the number of matrix-fracture imbibi- tion regions for each grid block.4.6. In real field most of the pressure drop is over a region near the well. If gas or water is injected into a grid block (which contains oil). the flow from the fracture to the matrix uses a saturation table for fracture. j) – phase P formation volume factor.76) and dual permeability DUALPERM (see 12.4.68)). j) + kµ(W. kr (P. RP at dual porosity runs.6.2 2.2. 55 . j) µ(O. In accordance with the grid specification for dual porosity models (upper part – the matrix. j) where: 2. j) + µ(G. j) = µ(P. and grid blocks (containing the well) are large.25) – This keyword specifies the number of matrix-fracture saturation table regions for each grid block. j) M(P. the calculated injectivity might be incorrect until the whole grid block will be full of injected phase. j) – phase P viscosity. KRNUMMF (see 12.77).6.76) and dual permeability DUALPERM (see 12. The keyword can be used for dual porosity runs DUALPORO (see 12. and when this region is full of injected phase the injectivity stays constant. 2. the flow from the fracture to the matrix uses an imbibition table for fracture. B(P.7 RP at dual porosity runs. the lower – fracture) the flow from the fracture to the matrix uses a saturation table for matrix.25) is used the well injects the fluid whose mo- bility is different from mobility of the fluid initially in the block.1.1.8 User-defined relative permeability of the injected phase For injecting well connections the mobility of the injected phase is varied as the total fluid mobility in the grid block: kr (O.7. In accordance with the grid specification for dual porosity models (upper part – the matrix. In case when this region size is smaller than the grid block size.1. j)B(P.1. When the keyword COMPINJK (see 12.18. IMBNUMMF (see 12. the lower – fracture) the flow from the fracture to the matrix uses an imbibition table for matrix. ∗) M(P. j) – relative phase P permeability. j) r (W. Injected phase mobility: kr (P. j) kr (G.77) in case when hysteresis op- tion is used (parameter HYSTER of the keyword SATOPTS (see 12. The keyword can be used for dual porosity runs DUAL- PORO (see 12.6.

6. Keyword COREYWO (see 12. 2.18.3) (The picture of relative permeabilities for water-oil system with points – 1): Denote: SW − SWCR SW n = SW n (SW ) = 1 − SWCR − SOWCR − SGL  WCR −SW   krORW + (krOLW − krORW ) SSWCR −SW L SW L ≤ SW < SWCR  krOW (SW ) = krORW (1 − SW n )nOW SWCR ≤ SW ≤ 1 − SOWCR − SGL (2.6.9. COREYGO (LETWO.37) 0 S pcO < SW ≤ SWU  Modified formulas for RP approximation (the keyword COREYWOMOD (see 12. Values for capillary pressure will be taken from tables and RP will be calculated using Corey (LET) correlation. COREYGO (see 12. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4. LETGO) and define tables SWOF.25)) (relative permeability in the region that is full of injected phase).2.6.5) approximate relative permeability and capillary pressure functions for water-oil.6. gas-oil and water-gas systems using formulas below.3).2 ˆ kr (P.35)   1 − SOWCR − SGL < SW ≤ SWU  0    0 SW L ≤ SW < SWCR  krW (SW ) = krW R (SW n )NW SWCR ≤ SW ≤ 1 − SOWCR − SGL  SWU −SW  rWU − (krWU − krW R ) SOWCR +SGL +SWU −1 1 − SOWCR − SGL < SW ≤ SWU  k (2. In tNavigator there is a possibility to use Corey (LET) correlation only for RP and define capillary pressure via table (in this case one should enter 0 in parameter 12 (power) of the keyword COREYWO.36) S pcO −SW N p  h i p cOW (SWCR ) S pcO −SWCR SW L ≤ SW ≤ S pcO pcOW (SW ) = (2.9 Corey correlation The keywords COREYWO (see 12.4) and COREYWG (see 12.6)): 2. ∗) – relative permeability of the injected phase (a constant value specified via the keyword COMPINJK (see 12. SGOF or other.6. Corey correlation 56 . ˆ relative permeabilities of other phases are zero.6.6.6. Note.

2. Corey correlation 57 .6.2 Figure 1: Relative permeabilities for water-oil system Denote: SW − SWCR SW n = SW n (SW ) = 1 − SWCR − SGL (for krW calculation) SW − SWCR SW n = SW n (SW ) = 1 − SWCR − SOWCR − SGL (for krOW calculation)  WCR −SW   krORW + (krOLW − krORW ) SSWCR −SW L SW L ≤ SW < SWCR  krOW (SW ) = krORW (1 − SW n )nOW SWCR ≤ SW ≤ 1 − SOWCR − SGL (2. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.6.9.38)   1 − SOWCR − SGL < SW ≤ SWU  0 2.

9.6.40) 0 S pcO < SW ≤ SWU  Keyword COREYGO (see 12.6.2. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4. Corey correlation 58 .39)  SWU −SW  rWU − (krWU − krW R ) SGL +SWU −1 1 − SGL < SW ≤ SWU  k S pcO −SW N p  h i p cOW (SWCR ) S pcO −SWCR SW L ≤ SW ≤ S pcO pcOW (SW ) = (2.4) (The picture of relative permeabilities for gas-oil sys- tem with points – 2): Figure 2: Relative permeabilities for gas-oil system Denote: SG − SGCR SGn = SGn (SG ) = 1 − SGCR − SOGCR − SW L 2.2    0 SW L ≤ SW < SWCR  krW (SW ) = krW R (SW n )NW SWCR ≤ SW ≤ 1 − SGL (2.6.

44)   1 − SOGCR − SW L < SG ≤ SGU  0    0 SGL ≤ SG < SGCR  krG (SG ) = krGR (SGn )NG SGCR ≤ SG ≤ 1 − SW L (2.7)): Denote: SG − SGCR SGn = SGn (SG ) = 1 − SGCR − SW L (for krG calculation) SG − SGCR SGn = SGn (SG ) = 1 − SGCR − SOGCR − SW L (for krOG calculation)  GCR −SG   krORG + (krOLG − krORG ) SSGCR −SGL SGL ≤ SG < SGCR  krOG (SG ) = krORG (1 − SGn )nOG SGCR ≤ SG ≤ 1 − SOGCR − SW L (2. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.41)   1 − SOGCR − SW L < SG ≤ SGU  0    0 SGL ≤ SG < SGCR  krG (SG ) = krGR (SGn )NG SGCR ≤ SG ≤ 1 − SOGCR − SW L (2.9.6.43)  pcOG (1 − SOGCR − SW L )  1−S pcG −SOGCR −SW L S pcG ≤ SG ≤ SGU Modified formulas for RP approximation (the keyword COREYGOMOD (see 12.42)  SGU −SG  rGU − (krGU − krGR ) SOGCR +SW L +SGU −1 1 − SOGCR − SW L < SG ≤ SGU  k  0  SGL ≤ SG < S pcG pcOG (SG ) = h SG −S pcG iNpG (2.6.46)  pcOG (1 − SOGCR − SW L )  1−S pcG −SOGCR −SW L S pcG ≤ SG ≤ SGU 2.2. Corey correlation 59 .6.45)  SGU −SG  rGU − (krGU − krGR ) SW L +SGU −1 1 − SW L < SG ≤ SGU  k  0  SGL ≤ SG < S pcG pcOG (SG ) = h SG −S pcG iNpG (2.2  GCR −SG   krORG + (krOLG − krORG ) SSGCR −SGL SGL ≤ SG < SGCR  krOG (SG ) = krORG (1 − SGn )nOG SGCR ≤ SG ≤ 1 − SOGCR − SW L (2.

5) (The picture of relative permeabilities for water-gas system – 3): Denote: SG − SGCR SGn = SGn (SG ) = .2.6.6. 1 − SWCR − SGCR Then:    0 SW L ≤ SW < SWCR  krW (SW ) = krW R (SW n )NW SWCR ≤ SW ≤ 1 − SGCR (2.9. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.47)  SWU −SW  rWU − (krWU − krW R ) SOWCR +SGL +SWU −1 1 − SGCR < SW ≤ SWU  k 2. Corey correlation 60 .6. 1 − SWCR − SGCR SW − SWCR SW n = SW n (SW ) = .2 Figure 3: Relative permeabilities for water-gas system Keyword COREYWG (see 12.

8). LETGO) and define tables SWOF.6.2.9) and LETWG (see 12. gas-oil and water-gas systems using formulas below. 2.6. SGOF or other. LET correlation 61 .10.6.6. In tNavigator there is a possibility to use Corey (LET) correlation only for RP and define capillary pressure via table (in this case one should enter 0 in parameter 12 (power) of the keyword COREYWO.48)  SGU −SG  rGU − (krGU − krGR ) SOGCR +SW L +SGU −1 1 − SWCR < SG ≤ SGU  k S pcO −SW N p  h i p cW G (SWCR ) S pcO −SWCR SW L ≤ SW ≤ S pcO pcW G (SW ) = (2. Values for capillary pressure will be taken from tables and RP will be calculated using Corey (LET) correlation.8)) (the picture – 4): Denote: SW − SWCR SW n = SW n (SW ) = 1 − SWCR − SOWCR − SGL  WCR −SW   krORW + (krOLW − krORW ) SSWCR −SW L SW L ≤ SW < SWCR  n krORW (1−SW n ) OW krOW (SW ) = TO SWCR ≤ SW ≤ 1 − SOWCR − SGL (2.6.50)   (1−SW n )nOW +E O SW n  0 1 − SOWCR − SGL < SW ≤ SWU   0 SW L ≤ SW < SWCR  N  krW (SW ) = krW R SWWn NW SWCR ≤ SW ≤ 1 − SOWCR − SGL   SW n +EW (1−SW n )TW WU −SW krWU − (krWU − krW R ) SOWCRS+S  1 − SOWCR − SGL < SW ≤ SWU  GL +SWU −1 (2. LETGO (see 12.6.10) approxi- mates relative permeability for water-oil. Description of parameters: ˆ N describes the lower part of the curve (the same way as N in Corey correlation). COREYGO (LETWO. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4. Note.2    0 SGL ≤ SG < SGCR  krG (SG ) = krGR (SGn )NG SGCR ≤ SG ≤ 1 − SWCR (2. For water-oil system (keyword LETWO (see 12.6.51) Formulas for capillary pressure are the same as in section Corey correlation 2.49) 0 S pcO < SW ≤ SWU  2.6.9.10 LET correlation The keywords LETWO (see 12.

10. For the gas-oil system (keyword LETGO (see 12. LET correlation 62 . Increasing E value pushes the slope towards the high end of the curve. E = 1 is a neutral value.6. E .9)) (the picture – 5): Denote: SG − SGCR SGn = SGn (SG ) = 1 − SGCR − SOGCR − SW L  GCR −SG   krORG + (krOLG − krORG ) SSGCR −SGL SGL ≤ SG < SGCR  n krORG (1−SGn ) OG krOG (SG ) = TG SGCR ≤ SG ≤ 1 − SOGCR − SW L (2. The reasonable ranges for the parameters N . E > 0 and T ≥ 0.2 Figure 4: LET correlation for water-oil system ˆ T describes the upper part (or the top part) of the curve. ˆ E describes the position of the slope (or the elevation) of the curve.6.2.6. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.52)   (1−SGn )nOG +EG SGn  0 1 − SOGCR − SW L < SG ≤ SGU 2. the position of the slope is governed by N and T .5. Decreasing E value pushes the slope towards the lower end of the curve. and T are: N ≥ 1.

6.6.10)) (picture – 6): Denote: SW − SWCR SW n = SW n (SW ) = 1 − SWCR − SOWCR − SGL SG − SGCR SGn = SGn (SG ) = 1 − SGCR − SOGCR − SW L Then: 2. LET correlation 63 . Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.2 Figure 5: LET correlation for gas-oil system   0 SGL ≤ SG < SGCR  N  krGR SGnG krG (SG ) = N SGCR ≤ SG ≤ 1 − SOGCR − SW L (2.2.53)  S G +EG (1−SGn )TG  Gn  GU −SG krGU − (krGU − krGR ) SOGCR S+S  W L +SGU −1 1 − SOGCR − SW L < SG ≤ SGU For the water-gas systems (keyword LETWG (see 12.6.10.

Hysteresis 64 .2.6.68) (parameter HYSTER). Hysteresis option is specified via keyword SATOPTS (see 12. 2.54)   SGn +EG (1−SGn )TG GU −SG krGU − (krGU − krGR ) SOGCR S+S  1 − SWCR < SG ≤ SGU  W L +SGU −1   0 SW L ≤ SW < SWCR  N  krW (SW ) = krW R SWWn (2.2 Figure 6: LET correlation for water-gas system   0 SGL ≤ SG < SGCR  N  krGR SGnG krG (SG ) = NG SGCR ≤ SG ≤ 1 − SWCR (2. 2.6.6.55) NW SWCR ≤ SW ≤ 1 − SSGCR   SW n +EW (1−SW n )TW WU −SW krWU − (krWU − krW R ) SOWCRS+S  1 − SSGCR < SW ≤ SWU  GL +SWU −1 Formulas for capillary pressure are the same as in section Corey correlation 2.9. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4.1.11.6.11 Hysteresis Hysteresis option allows to specify different saturation functions for drainage (decreasing wetting phase saturation) and imbibition (increasing wetting phase saturation) processes.

50).4.4.68): 2.4. drainage (SATNUM (see 12. 2.4. ˆ 6 – Killough’s non-wetting model for the gas and water phases. drainage (SATNUM (see 12. tNavigator supports the following water wet hysteresis models: ˆ 0 – Carlson’s Hysteresis Model used for the non-wetting phase(s).4.4.2 For each grid block two saturation function table numbers should be specified: 1. drainage (SATNUM (see 12. The following options should be specified in the keyword SATOPTS (see 12. If this option is used then the model is equilibrated using the drainage curve (SATNUM (see 12. SATNUM (see 12.7)). ˆ 2 – Killough’s Hysteresis Model used for the non-wetting phase(s). IMBNUM (see 12.6.1. there will be no hysteresis in this block. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4. If these table numbers are different.7)) curve used for the wetting phase.4.7)) curve used for the wetting phase.6.4.4. Hysteresis 65 . imbibition (IMB- NUM (see 12. hysteresis will be applied according to the model speci- fied via the keyword EHYSTR (see 12.6. imbibition (IMBNUM (see 12.3)) curve used for the wetting phase.11.4. Hysteresis curvature parameters for saturation regions (SATNUM (see 12.3) – specifies the table number of primary drainage curve.3)) curve used for the wetting phase. drainage (SATNUM (see 12.3)) curve used for the wetting phase.2. drainage (SATNUM (see 12.7)) curve used for the wetting phase.1. ˆ 8 – Jargon’s Hysteresis Model used for the non-wetting phase. ˆ 1 – Carlson’s Hysteresis Model used for the non-wetting phase(s).4.3)) curve used for the wetting phase. If hysteresis is used (option HYSTER in SATOPTS (see 12. ˆ 3 – Killough’s Hysteresis Model used for the non-wetting phase(s).4.51).3)) curve used for the wetting phase. ˆ -1 – Only equilibration option.4. ˆ 7 – Killough’s Hysteresis Model used for the non-wetting gas and water phases and the wetting oil phase. If these table numbers are equal for the block.7) – specifies the table number of pendular imbibition curve. imbibition (IMBNUM (see 12.6.3)) can be set via the keyword EHYSTRR (see 12.68)) then the Directional and irreversible relative permeabilities can be used for imbibition. ˆ 9 – Jargon’s Hysteresis Model used for the non-wetting phase. ˆ 5 – Carlson’s non-wetting model for gas and water phases. ˆ 4 – Killough’s hysteresis model used for both wetting and non-wetting phases.3)) but the simulation uses the imbibition curve (IMBNUM (see 12.

Hysteresis 66 .7).2 ˆ DIRECT – directional relative permeabilities.6.6. IMBNUMY.7).6.42)).6. For imbibition process RP end-points: ˆ IKRG – maximal gas relative permeability (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword KRG (see 12.7).31)). ˆ IKRGR – gas relative permeability at the residual oil (of residual water in gas-water sys- tem) (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword KRGR (see 12.4. J. In this case directional saturation tables are used (flow in I. ˆ IKRORG – oil relative permeability at the critical gas saturation (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword KRORG (see 12.43)).7).2.29)). (in this case DIRECT must also be defined). Different tables are used for flow direction from I to I-1 ot from I to I+1. because the same table is used for the flow from I to I-1.44)). ˆ IKRW – maximal water relative permeability (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword KRW (see 12.6.4.6. IMBNUMY (see 12. ˆ IKRO – maximal oil relative permeability (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword KRO (see 12. IMBNUMZ (see 12.42)). If DIRECT is used without IRREVERS.36) – critical gas saturation (for drainage process this value is speci- fied via the keyword SGCR (see 12.(see 12.11.36) – minimal (connate) gas saturation (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword SGL (see 12. and from I to I+1. Relative permeabilities and saturations end-points should be specified separately for drainage and imbibition process.4. IMBNUMX.6.4. For imbibition process saturations end-points: ˆ ISGL (see 12.6.4. IMBNUMY (see 12. ˆ IKRWR – water relative permeability at the residual oil (of residual gas in gas-water system) (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword KRWR (see 12.(see 12.7).44)).7). then only three tables should be specified.6.6.42)). the number of tables are specified via IMBNUMX (see 12.43)). 2.7).4.(see 12. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4. ˆ IKRORW – oil relative permeability at the critical water saturation (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword KRORW (see 12.7)).6. ˆ ISGCR (see 12.6.7) and IMBNUMZ.4.4. End-points scaling for hysteresis option.4.6. IMBNUMZ (see 12. K directions uses different tables. Six tables should be specified via the keywords IMBNUMX (see 12. ˆ IRREVERS – irreversible directional relative permeabilities.

2.6.8) – specifies miscibility region number for each grid block.6. ˆ ISOGCR (see 12. ˆ PARACHOR (see 12.6. Drainage option (DRAINAGE (see 12.6.6.6.53) – specifies reference surface tension (one should use the keyword MISCSTRR (see 12.6.55)). 2.36) – critical water saturation (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword SWCR (see 12.6.55) – specifies miscibility exponent (exponent of the surface tension ratio). ˆ MISCEXP (see 12.36) – minimal (connate) water saturation (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword SWL (see 12. Interpolation factor that is used in miscibility: σ N F =( ) σ0 σ0 – reference surface tension (specified via MISCSTR (see 12.6.6.34)).6. ˆ ISWCR (see 12. ˆ ISOWCR (see 12.6.1.52)) can be used in hysteresis – K r values obtained in the hysteresis option should lie on or below drainage curve. ˆ MISCSTR (see 12.2 ˆ ISGU (see 12.54) to set the miscibility reference surface tension for each saturation region).27)).36) – maximal water saturation (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword SWU (see 12.28)).6.33)).53)).12.35)).6.36) – critical oil saturation in oil-gas system (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword SOGCR (see 12.4.32)).6. Phase relative permeability tNavigator-4. ˆ ISWU (see 12.36) – maximal gas saturation (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword SGU (see 12.6. ˆ ISWLPC (see 12. Surface tension effects 67 .6.56) – specifies component parachors.6.6. ˆ ISWL (see 12.65) – enables an option of surface tension effect on properties.36) – critical oil saturation in oil-water system (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword SOWCR (see 12.6.30)). N – an exponent (specified via MISCEXP (see 12.36) – minimal (connate) water saturation for capillary pressure Pc curve scaling only (for drainage process this value is specified via the keyword SWLPC (see 12. ˆ MISCNUM (see 12.6.6.6.2.6.12 Surface tension effects To take into account a surface tension effect the following keywords can be used: ˆ MISCIBLE (see 12.

ACF (see 12. Ωa0 . For every component (CNAMES (see 12. Tri = T /Tci .19). BIC (see 12.08664035 PR 1+ 2 1− 2 0.13.57) Depending on EOS type. Equation of state tNavigator-4. i) = Ωa0 Tri−0. ˆ ci j .17).30).5)): Z 3 + E2 Z 2 + E1 Z + E0 = 0 (2. Ωa is taken as: ˆ RK Ωa (T.56) Maximal positive root of equation (2. Ωb are taken from table according to equation of state type: EOS m1 m2 Ωa0 Ωb RK 0 1 0.component i critical pressure.7 Equation of state In case of compositional run oil and gas properties are calculated from equation of state (EOS (see 12. ˆ ωi .56) coefficients are calculated as follows.13.13.457235529 0.5 (2. specified via this keyword – the surface tension at which the im- miscible relative permeability curves are measured.58) 2.13.07796074 Then basing on current temperature and pressure p. minimal positive root for liquid phase Z-factor). coefficients m1 .4)) user defines ˆ Tci .2 F is used to calculate a weighted average of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbon relative permeabilities : immiscibility miscibility Kro = FKro + (1 − F)Kro Reference surface tension.13. PCRIT (see 12.32).7. T reduced values are calculated for each component: pri = p/pci . m2 . TCRIT (see 12.56) is equal to vapor Z-factor (correspondingly.4274802 0.binary interaction coefficients.2.13. Next. Equation (2.component i acentric factor. (2.08664035 SRK 0 √ 1 √ 0.7.component i critical temperature. ˆ pci . 2. Equation of state 68 .4274802 0.

8).8 Phase viscosity Black oil: Phase viscosity µP = µP (pP ) is user specified function. coefficients ai are equal to a1 = 0. For hydrocarbon phases we use Lohrenz-Bray-Clark correlation 1/4 (µP − µP∗ )χ + 10−4 2 = a1 + a2 ξrP + a3 ξrP 3 + a4 ξrP 4 + a5 ξrP (2.2).37464 + 1. In case of absence of laboratory measurements the approximations obtained from PVT properties by correlation analysis may be used (Standing correlations – 2.5. Bi = Ωb . Compositional: For water phase viscosity is constant (PVTW (see 12. (2. PVCDO (see 12. For oil and gas phases it is specified in a number of points pP and is interpolated for other points (PVDO (see 12. (2.176ωi2 )(1 − Tri0. i) = Ωa0 1 + (0.8.54226ωi − 0. (2. PVTG (see 12.1023000.6) for oil phase and PVDG (see 12. PVZG (see 12.3). the simulator calculates pri pri Ai = Ωa (T. 2. PVTO (see 12.66) i=1 i=1 i=1 2.9) for gas phase). Phase viscosity 69 .11.5 .5.4).0585330.63) E1 = A − (2(m1 + m2 ) − 1)B2 − (m1 + m2 )B.0233640.65) a4 = −0. a5 = 0. and !1/6 !−1/2 !−2/3 N N N χ= ∑ ziTci ∑ ziMwi ∑ zi pci . E0 = − AB + m1 m2 B2 (B + 1)  2.574ωi − 0.5 ) (2.5. a2 = 0.2 ˆ SRK 2 Ωa (T. (2.8.62) j=1 k=1 j=1 E2 = (m1 + m2 − 1)B − 1.5.5.5. PVCO (see 12. A jk = (1 − c jk )(A j Ak )0.0407580.7).59) ˆ PR 2 Ωa (T.61) Tri Tri Now EOS coefficients can be calculated: N n N A = ∑ ∑ y j yk A jk .64) Here ξrP = ξP /ξc .5. i) = Ωa0 1 + (0.0093324. a3 = 0.5)).5.60) Next. i) 2 . Phase viscosity tNavigator-4.48 + 1.5)).5 ) (2.12).5.2.26992ωi2 )(1 − Tri0. For water phase it is specified in a single point accompanied by pressure derivative (PVTW (see 12. B = ∑ y jB j (2.

are defined as 34 × 10−5 Tri0.94 /χi .5.68) i=1 i=1 where dilute gas viscosities for individual component i. 2. with different surface densities and PVT properties.19)) and molecular weights Mwi (MW (see 12. 2. (2.4).27).58Tri − 1. MWW (see 12. that specify oil properties are selected at each time step correspond- ing to average oil API density in this grid block.78 × 10−5 (4.21): !−1 N ξc = ∑ ziVci .1.10 API tracking This option gives a possibility to simulate the mixing of different types of oil.13. (2. (2. critical pressures pci (PCRIT (see 12.5 ( ∗ µi = (2. PVTG (see 12.13.9 Phase formation volume factor Phase formation volume factor BP = BP (pP ) is user specified function.PVTO (see 12. 2. µi∗ . PVCDO (see 12.2).625 /χi . In case of absence of laboratory measurements the approximations obtained from PVT properties by correlation analysis may be used (Standing correlations – 2. PVZG (see 12.62) is used.12).5.9) for gas phase).13.5. In this case PVT tables.5.13.11.5.17)). For water phase it is a single point accompanied by pressure derivative (compressibility) (PVTW (see 12.5.13. Tri ≤ 1.70) 2.29)) are user defined.67)0.10. API tracking tNavigator-4.8).5.5 and 1/6 −1/2 −2/3 χi = Tci Mwi pci .67) i=1 Dilute gas mixture viscosity µ ∗ is calculated from ! !−1 N N 1/2 1/2 µ∗ = ∑ zi µi∗ Mwi ∑ zi Mwi .3). Phase formation volume factor 70 .7).2. Supported keywords: ˆ Option is enable if the keyword API (see 12. Critical density ξc could be found from user entered critical volumes Vci .9.6) for oil phase and PVDG (see 12.13. Phase molar density is ξP is defined in 2.69) 17. VCRIT (see 12.5. Tri > 1. PVCO (see 12.5)). For oil and gas phases it is specified in a number of points pP and is interpolated for other points (PVDO (see 12.2 Critical temperatures Tci (TCRIT (see 12.

1781 · γG Solution Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR) (1981. ˆ Rsb – gas solubility at bubble point (sm3 /sm3 ). [8. p.14) specifies tables of oil API density versus depth for each equi- librium region.5.15. 78-79]. ˆ p – system pressure (barsa). p. 8-9]): Rsb pb = 1. ˆ Rs – gas solubility (sm3 /sm3 ). ˆ OILAPI (see 12.00091(9/5·(T +273.6). [7. ˆ Maximum number of oil PVT tables groups if an option API tracking is enable – APIGROUP (see 12.7971 · p + 1. ˆ The values of oil API gravity is specified via the keyword GRAVITY (see 12. ˆ APIVD (see 12. Fully implicit method is used for API calculation by default. PVCO (see 12. ˆ γG – solution gas specific gravity (is taken from the keyword GRAVITY (see 12.5 γO Parameters: ˆ pb – bubble-point pressure (barsa).25). [7.15) specifies initial oil API values in each grid block (when initial conditions are set via enumeration via the keywords SWAT (see 12.71) 0.24) or is calculated from the keyword DENSITY (see 12.0125API−0.11.67)−0. Oil Standing’s correlations 71 .2048 (2. etc).5.00091(9/5·(T +273. 2.5)−459.4) · 10(0.7. p. 2.2.67)) ]1.0125API) − 1.4).5.15. 87].).23)).5.4] (2. [8.5.15.8) etc. 8-9]): Rs = 0.15.3).5)−459. Oil Standing’s correlations tNavigator-4.2 ˆ PVT properties are specified via ordinary keywords (PVTO (see 12.2548[( )0.5.5 API = − 131. p.5.11.1781 · γG [(0.11 Oil Standing’s correlations Bubble-Point Pressure (1981.23)).24) (or is calculated from the density specified in DENSITY (see 12. It can be changed to explicit via the keyword TRACEROPTS (see 12.83 · 10(0. PRESSURE (see 12. ˆ T – system temperature ( ◦C ).72) where 141.10).

5) − 459. It should be noted that Standing’s equation is valid for applications at and below the bubble-point pressure of the crude oil. Rs .1.5.33/API) 2.56) are used.25 · (9/5 · (T + 273.75) with 2.1.23)).43+8. Gas saturated (below bubble point pressure) The keyword STANDO (see 12.11. p.2 γG BO = 0.32 + (2. OIL (see 12.000120 · 5. 117-118]) µO = (10)a (µOd )b (2.5.67) γO (2.5.11. p. 94]) "  0. pb . GAS (see 12.7 psia) and reservoir temperature (cp) is calculated the following way: a 1. p. Dead Oil 72 .2 ˆ γO – specific gravity of the stock-tank oil (is taken from the keyword GRAVITY (see 12. 2-phase water-oil model.1.614583 · Rs + 1.1 2-phase water-oil model. The following data is calculated: Rsb .2 3-phase model. 116]).1. BO – oil formation volume factor (rm3 /sm3 ). Oil Formation Volume Factor: (1981. µO – viscosity of the oil (cp).1.1.2.11.11.54).53 9/5 · (T + 273. µOd – viscosity of the dead oil as measured at 1 bar (14. DISGAS (see 12. [7.9759 + 0.73) API4. Standing’s correlation should be used with caution if nonhydrocarbon components are known to be present in the system. Dead Oil The case where options WATER (see 12.55) case. T .53).10) spec- ifies the following parameters: Rsb or pb . Dead Oil The case where options WATER (see 12.52).1.5) − 260 with a = 10(0. There is no Standing’s correlations for VAPOIL (see 12.5 #1. Viscosity Of The Dead Oil ([7.24) or is calculated from the keyword DENSITY (see 12.54) and OIL (see 12.74) Viscosity: ([7.52) are used. 2.1. Oil Standing’s correlations tNavigator-4.8 × 107   360 µOd = 0.

544 sc f /ST B).614583 · Rs e = 3.68 0.74 × 10−3 · 5.6729 (2.22-144.76) where ˆ BO – oil formation volume factor at the pressure of interest (rm3 /sm3 ). Undersaturated (above bubble point pressure) The keyword STANDO (see 12.4094 − p0.11.2 × 10−7 · 5.11.25 0.62 × 10−5 · 5. ˆ p – pressure of interest (barsa). Rs . Replacing cO with the Petrosky-Farshad expression and integrating gives: ([7. Dead oil viscosity: 0.50377 · (p0.645 psia).4 × 10−4 ] 0.74). Temperature: 22.4094 b )] (2. Oil Standing’s correlations tNavigator-4.2.69357 γg0.1 × 10−3 · 5.78) 2. p. ˆ BOb – oil formation volume factor at the bubble-point pressure (rm3 /sm3 ) (is calculated according to the formula 2.6645 sm3 /sm3 (51-3. 104]) BO = BOb · exp(cO · (pb − p)) (2.39 bar (132-5.2.2 a = 5.1-0.5. Oil Formation Volume Factor: ([7.44 ◦C (72-292 F ).77) with the correlating parameter A as defined by ([7. T .614583 · Rsb )0. Dead Oil 73 . 105]): A = 4.614583 · Rs · [2.062 b= + d + 10c 10 10e c = 8.377-50 cp.614583 · Rs d = 1.10) specifies the following parameters: Rsb or pb .1885 (API)0. pb .5625-0.614583 · Rs − 7.5) − 459.67)0. [cO ] – isothermal compressibility coeffi- cient.614583 · Rs The experimental data used by Chew and Connally to develop their correlation encom- passed the following ranges of values for the independent variables: Pressure: 9. Gas solubility: 9. The following data is calculated: Rsb . 3-phase model. p. p.1646 (10−7 ) (5. µO – oil viscosity (cp). BO – oil formation volume factor (rm3 /sm3 ).3272 (9/5 · (T + 273. 105]) BO = BOb exp [−A · 14.

448 + + 0.56 µO = µOb + 0.06243745ρG µG = 10−4 K exp X 62.5) 986. 2.50377 · (p − pb ) · [0. Gonzalez.5) 2. Their proposed equation is given by: "  Y # 0.1 Gas Formation Volume Factor ([7.75).2 + 19. 2.5 K= 209.01009 Ma 9/5 · (T + 273. 65-66]) z · (9/5 · (T + 273. and Eakin (1966) presented a semi-empirical relationship for calculating the viscosity of natural gases.2 Viscosity: ([9. p.12.12. The following data is calculated: BG – gas formation volume factor (rm3 /sm3 ). and the molecular weight of the gas.5)) BG = 0.12 Gas Standing’s correlations The keyword STANDG (see 12.001 · 14. The authors expressed the gas viscosity in terms of the reservoir temperature.2 Gas Viscosity ([7. Gas Standing’s correlations 74 .50377 · p where p – initial reservoir pressure (Barsa).43 with (9.024µOb + 0. 73-74]) Lee.5.6 0.379 + 0. gas density.79) where ˆ µO – undersaturated oil viscosity (cp).5))1. T ( ◦ C). Gas Standing’s correlations tNavigator-4. 241]) 1.038µOb ] (2. ˆ µOb – viscosity of the oil at the bubble-point pressure (cp) (is calculated according to the formula 2.2.12. p. p. µG – gas viscosity (cp).26Ma + 9/5 · (T + 273.12. 2.4 X = 3.02827 14.11) specifies the following parameters: z – gas compress- ibility factor.0160Ma ) (9/5 · (T + 273.

5) Ma = 28. The authors pointed out that the method cannot be used for sour gases.SC + ξO. Compositional: Water molar density is calculated as in black oil case. Phase molar density tNavigator-4.SC is molar density of phase P in standard conditions.84) p i=1 2.80) BW Here BW = BW (pW ) – formation volume factor for water.73z · 9/5 · (T + 273.99%.06243745 10. For water component it is calculated as ξW.SC ξO = . user specified function. Ma – apparent molecular weight of the gas mixture.81) BW ∂ p For oil and gas phases molar density in black oil assumptions is calculated as RG.13. In case of shifted PR EOS formula (2.formation volume factor. For RK. Phase molar density 75 .13 Phase molar density Black oil: Phase molar density is always function of BP .4 − 0. SRK and non-shifted PR EOS (EOS (see 12.O ξG.SC RO.84) ! n ZRT ξP = 1/ − ∑ xiP bi si (2.SC + ξG.2. The correlation is less accurate for gases with higher specific gravities.82) BO BG Here ξP.5)) phase molar density is found from equation p ξP = (2.13. 2.G ξO.13.56) for corresponding phase.2 X where ρG – gas density at reservoir pressure and temperature (kg/m3 ).SC ξW = (2.7% and a maximum deviation of 8.83) ZRT Critical Z -factor is taken from solution of (2. ξG = (2. For water user specifies formation volume factor at reference pressure and compressibility that is defined as: 1 ∂ BW cW = − (2.96γG The proposed correlation can predict viscosity values with a standard deviation of 2. and 1 0.2 Y = 2.0689 · p · Ma ρG = 0.

In case of absence of laboratory measurements the approximations obtained from PVT properties by correlation analysis may be used.SC ρO = (2. bi are taken from RTci bi = Ωb .6.G ρO.13.88) BG Compositional: Mass density of water is calculated as in black oil case. (2.O ρG. 2. 2.29) and xiP are concentrations of component i in phase P.SC ρW = (2.2 is used for liquid phase.1 Oil-gas capillary pressure Oil-gas capillary pressure PcOG = PcOG (SG ) is user input data array defined in a number of SG points and interpolated for other points (SGOF (see 12.27).7 for Ωb definition).23)): ˆ ρO.87) BO RO. Mass density of hydrocarbon component is calculated from molar density (see 2. N N MwO = ∑ Mwi xiO . DENSITY (see 12.SC – water density at surface condition Then the following functions by analogy with phase molar density are used as ρP (pP ) in black oil model: ρW. Usually user specifies ρP.14 Phase mass density Black oil: Phase mass density ρP is obtained by user input data.2)). Here si are shift parameters. MwG = ∑ Mwi xiG (2. MW (see 12.SC – phase mass density at surface condition.89) where MwP is average molecular weight for phase P.14. Capillary pressures tNavigator-4.SC + ρO.85) pci (see section 2.5. MWW (see 12. (2.SC – gas density at surface condition ˆ ρW.13. 2.SC ρG = (2.SC + ρG.13) as ρP = ξP MwP . Phase mass density 76 .15.15.2. and xiP are molar fractions of component i in phase P.SC – oil density at surface condition ˆ ρG. Very often the following constants are known (user input.86) BW RG.90) i=1 i=1 Mwi are component molecular weights.15 Capillary pressures 2.

ˆ SW co .47) are user defined arrays of maximum capillary pressures.24).1)). ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points as composition function (ENPCVC (see 12.15. PCG (see 12. minimal water (gas) saturation in SWOF (see 12.15. Specification of critical saturation end-points can be done using one of the following ways (they are not compatible by default): ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points for each grid block (keywords PCW (see 12.6. PCG (see 12. ˆ SW max .6.1) (SGOF (see 12.2.6. SG co are connate water and gas saturations.40)). ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points as temperature function (keywords EN- PCVT (see 12. SGL (see 12.2)).34).6. ˆ SWU (see 12. 2. Capillary pressures are scaled by two-point method.e.29) are user defined values of connate water (and gas) saturation in current block.46).6.1) (SGOF (see 12. SGmax are maximal values of water (and gas) saturation in SWOF (see 12. Let’s first introduce notations ˆ SW .6.2 Oil-water capillary pressure Oil-water capillary pressure PcOW = PcOW (SW ) is user input data array defined in a number of SW points and interpolated for other points (SWOF (see 12. Possible combinations can be specified using 5-th parameter of the keyword ENDSCALE (see 12.6.only for compositional model. capillary pressures are scaled with accordance to user defined arrays of minimal and maximal saturations. Oil-water capillary pressure 77 . 2.24).6.71) . ˆ PCW (see 12.6.35) are user defined values of maximal water (and gas) saturation in current block.6. i.6.6.2)). saturations are renormalized according to formulas below.2.6.6.27). ˆ SWL (see 12.15.6. ˆ Specification of critical saturation end-points as depth function (keywords ENPCVD (see 12.13.47)). SG are block water and gas saturations.2 2. SGU (see 12.15. If end-point scaling is selected by ENDSCALE (see 12.3 Capillary pressure end-point scaling Capillary pressure scaling.6. Capillary pressures tNavigator-4.14.46).only for thermo-compositional model.45) .

93) PcOG max (table) 2. as functions of saturations. j.96) i.58).24). Multipliers are calculated as Jmult W = STW ∗ (φ i. capillary pressures may be calculated according to Leverett J-function model. ˆ φ i.58) indicates scaling is to be performed. j.2 ˆ PcOW max (table).1) and SGOF (see 12. ˆ K i.4 Capillary pressure calculation according to Leverett J-function If end-point scaling is selected by ENDSCALE (see 12.2.k )β ∗ 0. second argument of keyword JFUNC (see 12.58).6.k porosity in grid block.94) PcOG (SG ) = JG (SG )(table) ∗ Jmult G (2.2)) (values at connate water and gas saturations) ˆ S̃W .1) (SGOF (see 12.k α i.15. S̃G are scaled block water and gas saturations. j. JG are input in the fourth column of SWOF (see 12.4.2. third argument of keyword JFUNC (see 12.k β Jmult G = STG ∗ (φ ) /(K ) ∗ 0.6.15.91) SWU − SW L (SG − SGL)(SGmax − SG co ) S̃G = SG co + SGU − SGL Appropriate capillary pressures are calculated as PCW PcOW (SW ) = PcOW (S̃W )(table) ∗ (2.59) can be used to specify data separetely for each saturation region.318316 (2.2. in place of phase capillary pressures. Capillary pressures tNavigator-4. Phase capillary pressures are scaled if first argument of JFUNC (see 12. j.6.2.92) PcOW max (table) PCG PcOG (SG ) = PcOG (S̃G )(table) ∗ (2. j.k )α /(K i.6. (This keyword defines parameters for whole reservoir.15. j.k permeability.2.) Scaling formulas are the following: PcOW (SW ) = JW (SW )(table) ∗ Jmult W (2. PcOG max (table) are maximum capillary pressures from table SWOF (see 12.6. Capillary pressure calculation according to Leverett J-function 78 . The keyword JFUNCR (see 12. calculated according to one of the following methods 2.95) Here JW . ˆ STG oil-gas surface tension.2) keywords. Saturations are scaled as (SW − SW L)(SW max − SW co ) S̃W = SW co + (2.318316 where ˆ STW oil-water surface tension.

16 Solubility of gas component into oil phase Solubility of gas component into oil phase RG. ˆ Rsmax – gas-oil ration that would be achieved in the block when all free gas will be dissolved in the oil.16.18. PVCO (see 12. j.k = kyy i.58).2. 2. j.58).2.2. j. fifth argument of keyword JFUNC (see 12.5. ˆ α power for permeability.2. the method is selected by 6-th parameter of keyword JFUNC (see 12. ˆ pb (Rsmax ) – equilibrium saturation pressure (according to the initial table) corre- sponding gas-oil ratio Rsmax .O = RG.k – XY: K i.k – X: K i.k = kzz . j.k i. ˆ α power for porosity.18.60)). ˆ pmin – minimum pressure in the grid block that was reached in a previous pressure reduction with gas emission. In tNavigator one can set maximum rate of increase of solution gas-oil ratio D as a function of pressure via the dimensionless parameter (∆p): Rn+1 s ≤ D(∆p)∆t + Rns where pO − pmin (∆p) = pb (Rsmax ) − pmin ˆ pO – current pressure in oil phase. Solubility of gas component into oil phase tNavigator-4. fourth argument of keyword JFUNC (see 12.4).k = kxx i. Or instead of this parameter one can specify the special permeability value used for J-function computation (JFPERM (see 12.2.58) is ignored). If this keyword is specified then per- meability direction (the 6-th parameter of JFUNC (see 12.O (pO ) (gas-oil ratio) is user input data array defined in a number of pO points and interpolated for other points (PVTO (see 12. j.16. For black-oil models the followinf extanesions of the keyword DRSDT (see 12. Set maximum rate of increase of solution gas-oil ratio as a function of pressure (keyword DRSDTVP (see 12.18. j.2 i.2. The keyword DRSDT (see 12. j.98)).6)).58).97) can be used: 1. j.k – Z: K i.k = (kxx + kyy )/2 i.97) sets maximum rate of increase of solution gas-oil ratio (sm3 /sm3 /day). j.5.k – Y: K i. 2. Solubility of gas component into oil phase 79 .

AQUNUM (see 12.10). Is set via the keywords AQUFLUX (see 12. An alternative model of gas dissolution that takes into account the exponential nature of the system relaxation (keyword DRSDTVPE (see 12.11).18.G (pG ) is user input data array defined in a number of pG points and interpolated for other points (PVTG (see 12.16.inflow rate from the aquifer to block i.16.17.16. The solution of this equation corresponds to the typical exponential relaxation dynam- ics.2).16.100) sets maximum rate of increase of vapor oilgas ratio. Analogously for Rs relaxation equation is: dRs = −D(∆p)(Rs − R∗s (p)) dt ˆ D – parameter characterizing the relaxation rate of the gas-oil ratio in relative units.2 supports the following type of aquifers: ˆ numerical aquifer. 2.12). 2. 2.18 Inflow from aquifer tNavigator 4. Vaporisation of oil component into gas phase 80 .17 Vaporisation of oil component into gas phase Vaporisation of oil component in gas phase RO.2 Selecting of the parameter ∆p in dimensionless form allows to take into account the relative deviation of the current pressure to saturation pressure independently from flows between blocks. ˆ R∗s – equilibrium value of gas-oil ratio. The relaxation process of the physical value f in the first approximation can be described by the equation df = −λ ( f − f0 ) dt where λ – relaxation parameter. ˆ constant-flux aquifer (analytic aquifer). A water flow rate from aquifer is calculating the following way: Qai = Fa · Ai · m (2. The keyword DRVDT (see 12.99)).5. Inflow from aquifer tNavigator-4.8)).97) where: – Qai .2.18. AQUANCON (see 12.18. 2.G = RO. Is set via the keywords AQUCON (see 12. f0 – equilibrium value of f .

Inflow from aquifer 81 . ˆ Carter-Tracy aquifer (analytic aquifer).influx multiplier (parameter 10 of the keyword AQUANCON (see 12. mi Ai αi is defined the following way: αi = ∑ mi Ai where: – Ai .total influx from the aquifer to block i.2.2 – Fa .16.18.capillary pressure. – mi . – αi .Productivity Index of the aquifer.9).16. – Wai . – m .inflow rate from the aquifer to block i. The average inflow rate from the aquifer to a grid block i for timestep ∆t is calculated by the following formula: Qai = αi (a − b∆p) (2.the aquifer constant flux.8).16. Is set via the keywords AQUTAB (see 12.10).18. – di . ˆ Fetkovich aquifer (analytic aquifer).4).16. AQUANCON (see 12.depth of block i.99) where: – ∆p .16.16.water pressure in block i. – αi .pressure in the aquifer.10). Inflow from aquifer tNavigator-4. – pi .16.aquifer datum depth. – pc . AQUANCON (see 12.aquifer connection area to block i. – Ai .change of pressure p for timestep ∆p: p(t + ∆t) − p(t). A water flow rate from aquifer is calculating the following way: d Qai = (Wai ) = Jαi (pa + pc − pi + ρg(di − da )) (2. 2. – J .16. AQUCT (see 12.10)). – da .the area of the connection of block i. – pa .aquifer influx coefficient multiplier. Is set via the keywords AQUFETP (see 12. – ρ .is the area fraction for each connection block.area of the block connected to the aquifer. entered by the user (parameter 2 of AQUFLUX (see 12. AQUFET (see 12.6).water density in the aquifer.2)).98) dt where: – Qai .

The aquifer influx constant β is defined by the following way: β = c2 hΘφCt ro2 (2.aquifer thickness.derivative of PID by tD .2 mi Ai αi = ∑ mi A i The number a is calculated by the following formula: β ∆pai −Wa (t)PID0 (t + ∆t)D   1 a= (2.pressure influence function (dimensionless).100) Tc PID (t + ∆t)D − tD PID0 (t + ∆t)D The number b is calculated by the following formula: β b= (2.18.aquifer permeability.total compressibility (rock + water).008527 (METRIC) or 0. – h . Time constant Tc is defined by the following way: µW φCt ro2 Tc = (2.angle subtended by the aquifer boundary from the center of the reservoir. t – tD = Tc .101) TC (PID (t + ∆t)D − tD PID0 (t + ∆t)D ) where: – ∆pai . – ro .1191 (FIELD). – PID .103) where: – c2 .aquifer inner radius. 2.aquifer porosity. – µW .2.water viscosity in the aquifer. Inflow from aquifer 82 . – c1 .283 (METRIC) or 1. – Θ .constant which is equal to 0.constant which is equal to 6. – Ct .006328 (FIELD). – φ .18. Inflow from aquifer tNavigator-4. – PID0 .change of pressure pa0 + ρg(di − da ) − pi (t + ∆t). divided by 360 ( ◦ ).102) ka c1 where: – ka .

3).1).16.8). AQUFET (see 12.16.2.104) β where: – pa0 .aquifer inflow rate.6). – di – grid block depth.16.4).18. Brine option is supported for aquifers (BRINE (see 12. – pa – pressure in aquifer.4). Inflow from aquifer tNavigator-4. ˆ constant head/pressure water aquifer.10). AQUFLUX (see 12. – Gai – cumulative influx from the aquifer to grid block i. Is set via the keywords AQUCHWAT (see 12.8)). AQUCT (see 12.2)). – p .average water pressure on the aquifer boundary.6).16. – J – aquifer productivity index. 2.16. – αi – area fraction for the connection to grid block i. – ρ – water density in the aquifer. – pc – capillary pressure. – da – datum depth for aquifer.105) dt where: – Qai – water flow rate into a grid block i from aquifer. Pressure drop at the aquifer boundary is calculated by the following way: Qa pa0 − p = PID (tD ) (2.7) – the keyword specifies initial tracer concentrations for analytic aquifers (keywords AQUFET (see 12.16.58)) (salt concentration is set via keywords AQUFETP (see 12. AQUFETP (see 12. Inflow from aquifer 83 .16.initial pressure of water in the aquifer.18.1. The water flow rate into a grid block from aquifer is calculated using the formula: d Qai = (Gai ) = Jαi [pa + pc − pi + ρg(di − da )] (2.16. AQANTRC (see 12. – pi – the pressure in a connecting grid block i.16.16.2 Wa (t) .16. – Qa . AQUCT (see 12.total aquifer influx. AQUANCON (see 12. ˆ dimensions for aquifers should be specified via AQUDIMS (see 12.

and will be defined below.t) = T (t) MP (pP . N) – average wellbore density. y.t) – skin effect term (known.6)) In this case source of component c will be equal to qc = ∑ xc.18.6)) – s = s(x. may be defined by user.107) P where 2. SG )(pP − pBH (t) − ρ̄av (p.7.4.5. and will be defined below. see section 5. WPIMULT (see 12. Well tNavigator-4. will be defined below.6). COMPDAT (see 12. depends on discrete approximation chosen for the equations (2.7.7. see section 5. ˆ DBH – bottom hole depth (known) ˆ T (t) – well productivity index (known).7. and will be defined below. COMPDAT (see 12. may be defined by user (COMPDAT (see 2πKmult (t)βc Kh 12. known.19 Well 2. otherwise calculated according to T = . see section 5.1 Well approximation Well is approximated differently depending on computation mesh.3 (known) – r0 is pressure equivalent radius.7. N)g(D − DBH )) (2.18.2.6 (known) ˆ D.18. ˆ pBH (t) – bottom hole pressure. Well 84 . COMPDAT (see 12.4). depends on the discrete approximation chosen for the equations (2. N.18.P ξP QP (p.106) where ˆ MP (pP .1)–(2. SW . N. g = const have been defined before. We define QP on surface of cylinder of radius rw with perforated well region as its axis as QP (pP . SG ) – phase mobility.6)) or calculated as product of h = const.4).19.1)–(2.19. SW .2 2. and K – perme- ability in plane perpendicular to well axis. N) (2. z. – rw = dw /2 = const – well radius (known. see section 5.6)).4).18.t) in block l in the case of uniform computation mesh and finite difference approximation.1)–(2.19. ˆ ρ̄av (p.28)) – βc = const – units conversion factor (known) – Kh (known) – may be defined by user (COMPDAT (see 12. see section 5. known or calculated from the value q(t) of user defined well rate.18.2. Let us consider source of phase QP = QP (pP . (ln(r0 /rw ) + s) Here – Kmult (t) – multiplier (known. well perforated interval height (known). otherwise its approximation depends on the discrete approximation cho- sen for the equations (2.

P (p. N) – moles of component c per mole of phase P.168) – specify the group gas sales rate.7.73) – The keyword specifies a general formula for calculating production guide rates (for group control. The detailed description of well mathematical model is in the section – 5.72) – group control for producers. ˆ QP (p. 2.18. ˆ GRUPFUEL (see 12. N) – phase molar density. ˆ GCONPROD (see 12. (Wells are assigned to groups in the keyword WELSPECS (see 12. The tree can consist of an arbitrary number of levels.84) – specifies injection rate for satellite groups. ˆ GSATPROD (see 12.167) and GCONSALE (see 12.18.P = xc. ˆ keywords GRUPSALE (see 12.169) – specifies the group gas fuel rate. The keyword WRFT (see 12.18.18.19. ˆ WGRUPCON (see 12.190) sets output of well RFT data.2.19. Thus a group either contains wells (that is a well-group) or has other groups as children (that is a node-group). 2.18.18.7. ˆ ξP = ξP (p. Because it could be advantageous to weight the guide rates to discriminate against wells with high gas-oil ration or water cut. N) – phase rate in reservoir conditions.80) – specifies well guide rates for group control. The following data will be written to RFT file: pressure. ˆ GUIDERAT (see 12.106). ˆ GCONSUMP (see 12.3)).2 Group control tNavigator supports the following possibilities to specify group control: ˆ GRUPTREE (see 12. The field FIELD occupies the top of this tree.18. ˆ GSATINJE (see 12.18.81) – group control for injectors. see 2.82) – gas consumption and import rates for groups.18. Group control 85 . Groups that have other groups as children cannot have wells. keyword – GCONPROD (see 12. ˆ GCONINJE (see 12. Default: well’s guide rate is equal to its potential flow rate at the beginning of each time step (description of well’s potential flow rate is in the section – 5.18.18.13.83) – specifies production rate for satellite groups.72)).7). calculated in (2. saturation and depth for each grid block in which a well has a connection.85) – the keyword sets tree structure for multi-level group control.2. Well tNavigator-4.18. Group flow rate targets are distributed among the wells in proportion to their guide rates. This keyword provides a means of automatically weighting production well guide rates to take account of their production ratios.18.19. Groups without a parent group will have a parent group FIELD.18.2 ˆ xc.

WSEPCOND (see 12. all wells of this group use this separator.3 Separators For black oil model (E100 data type): SEPVALS (see 12.18.2 2.17) in LGR case).19)) provides an easy way of transfor- mating a friction well into a multisegment well by changing the keyword name to WFRICSEG. The separator conditions are associated with the well via the keyword WSEPCOND (see 12.16) defines segment of multisegment well as a flow limiting valve.21) for LGR case).19.18.38) – dimensions of data for multisegment well (not necessarily key- word. Definition of location of completions in a multisegment well – COMPSEGS (see 12. The source or sink for this fluid is external.18. If the separator corresponds to a group.19) in LGR case) – this keyword is used to define the segment structure and the connection locations of a multisegment well via parameters of the keyword WFRICTN (see 12.18. The first SEPVALS must be followed by the keyword GSEPCOND (see 12.142) – This keyword defines the initial separator conditions (first use of the keyword) and changes them during the simulation (next uses of the keyword).18.18. 2.144) – This keyword specifies separator conditions (the first us- age of this keyword) or re-specifies separator conditions (the nest usages of this keyword).18. WFRICSEG (WFRICSGL (see 12.19. Well tNavigator-4.18.13) – specifies calculation of segment pressure drops for sub-critical valve. WSEGVALV (see 12.143).145).18.19) (WFRICSGL (see 12. WFRICSEG (see 12.17) (WFRICTN (see 12.18. SEPCOND (see 12.20) (COMPSEGL (see 12. WSEGFLIM (see 12.18.15. Adding or removing fluid depends on a specified rate or segment’s pressure. which allocates well groups to separators. tNavigator allocates memory dynamically).11).18. 2. For compositional models (E300 data type): FIELDSEP (see 12.18.18.20) – This keyword specifies field separator.4 Multisegment well The structure of multisegment well is specified via the keyword WELSEGS (see 12.3.18.18.12) – specifies calculation of segment pressure drops from VFP tables.145).19. All the wells use this separator for default.2.18. WSEGDIMS (see 12. To specify different separator for one well or for well group one should use the keywords SEPCOND (see 12. Adding or removing fluids to or from a segment in a multisegment well – WSEGEXSS (see 12.1.144). WSEGTABL (see 12. Separators 86 .19.15).18.

18.106). WWAG (see 12.38).19. The preferred phase of the well will be injected (specified via WELSPECS (see 12. For each month: target gas production rate for FIELD is equal to the DCQ multiplied by the month’s profile factor. Well tNavigator-4.42).18.6 WAG injection mode The keywords to simulate water-gas injection mode: WCYCLE (see 12.183). WELLWAG (see 12.90) sets if multiple contract groups are required.176) should be used if the length of the contract period is less than a year.5.2.18. One should specify an annual profile – monthly multipliers to the mean rate or DCQ (Daily Contracted Quantity).19.18. 2. WCONINJP (see 12. ˆ parameters 12-14 of WCONINJE (see 12. swing and profile factors. TSTEP (see 12.18.173).5 MULTI–phase injection The keywords that can be used for multi-phase injection: ˆ 2-nd parameter of the keyword WCONINJE (see 12.39). Decrement values for these rates – the keyword GASFDECR (see 12.18. GASPERIO (see 12. 2.7 DCQ.18.1.18.184). Gas Field Model tNavigator support the following operations in Gas Field Model: ˆ Specification of swing and profile factors for FIELD – SWINGFAC (see 12. MULTI–phase injection 87 . The keyword GASFIELD (see 12.14) designates a segment of multisegment well as an autonomous inflow control device.19. ˆ the same way multi-phase injection MULTI can be used in the keywords WCONINJH (see 12. The required rate of gas production has a seasonality profile.36) specify surface volume proportion of phases in a multi-phase injector. ˆ Target gas production monthly rate for FIELD for the second pass – the keyword GAS- FTARG (see 12. ˆ Seasonality profile for groups – GSWINGF (see 12.18.2 WSEGAICD (see 12.36) specifies the surface flow rate of the preferred phase.44).18.43).18.44).105).18.3)).18.18.18.19.172). ˆ 5-th parameter of WCONINJE (see 12. Each contract group has it’s name.18. ˆ The keywords GASYEAR (see 12. WWAG (see 12.18.19. 2. These keywords should be used instead of DATES (see 12. 2.18.176) sets con- tract periods.18.18.175) and GASPERIO (see 12.36) should be set to MULTI (multi-phase injection).

19.18.174).18. 2.18. This minimum economic gradient corresponds to the moment when the cost of the extra amount of oil produced via an increase in the lift gas injection rate is equal to the cost of supplying the extra amount of lift gas.2 ˆ Well operations and reports during the contract period should be entered between the keywords GASBEGIN (see 12. If the result value is less than the 2. This option is used to allocate the lift gas to each well to meet well. ˆ GASFCOMP (see 12. FIELD: Msc f /day) (1-st parameter of LIFTOPT (see 12. If production targets cannot be met.18. Well tNavigator-4. Gas Lift Optimization 88 . Time in the contract period (when the operation should take place) should be specified via GASMONTH (see 12. FIELD: stb/Msc f ). ˆ Gas Lift optimization option finds out. ˆ GDCQECON (see 12.213)) of im- provement in oil production rate for increase in lift gas injection rate by one increment is specified (METRIC: m3 /sm3 .61)). ˆ Initial DCQ (Daily Contracted Quantity) for each well should be specified via GDCQ (see 12.178) – minimum economic value of DCQ for each contract group.185) – the using of compressors in models with standard network option (see section 2.19.216).213)).18. group or field production targets.9). If DCQ falls below this value.180).18. GLIFTLIM (see 12.213).18. ˆ The minimum economic gradient (2-nd parameter of LIFTOPT (see 12. then the calculation will be terminated.181).18.18.57). WLIFTOPT (see 12.215). Description of gas lift optimization option: ˆ Gas lift is simulated via VFP tables (VFPPROD (see 12. If the contract group is FIELD.18. VFPCORR (see 12.18.19.214).179) and GASEND (see 12. this option calculates how to use the existing lift gas resources the best way: how to allocate lift gas to the wells that lead to the best results of oil production.2. ˆ An increment size for lift gas injection rate is specified (METRIC: sm3 /day. GLIFTOPT (see 12.18. then all producers in this group will be shut or stopped. The lift gas resources are divided in discrete increments of uniform size.8.19.18. if the lift gas increment must be added to each well injection rate or subtracted from it. For each well the value Winc (weighted incremental gradient) is calculated – the increment of field oil production rate (due to increment in the gas lift at one increment value) multiplied by well’s weighting factor and divided by value of increment in the gas lift.8 Gas Lift Optimization The keywords that can be used in Gas Lift Optimization option: LIFTOPT (see 12.18.

96). 2.18. Automatic chokes.10 NETWORK option.1.10 (the keyword NETWORK (see 12.19.18. If the network should have a structure different from standard group hierarchy then one should use an extended network option – 2.84)).18.19. ∆TO – increment (or decrement) in field oil production rate.87). Standard network option 89 . Production network is specified via GRUPNET (see 12.18. Compressors NETWORK option is specified via the keyword NETWORK (see 12. Well tNavigator-4. ˆ For groups lift gas increments are allocated in turn to the well that has the largest weighted incremental gradient Winc . Injection network could be specified via the keyword GNETINJE (see 12.88).91).216)).9 Standard network option Standard network structure is the same as the hierarchy specified in GRUPTREE (see 12. The keyword sets dimensions for extended network model.2. then the next lift gas increment is not allocated to this well. Pumps and compressors – GNETPUMP (see 12.19.2 minimum economic gradient.18. GLIFTLIM (see 12. GASFCOMP (see 12.95). Automatic compressors also supported.85). ∆TG – increment (or decrement) in field gas production rate. ˆ Additional group parameters are specified using the keywords GLIFTOPT (see 12. 2.216) is specified): fw ∗ ∆TO Winc = GLinc + fG ∗ ∆TG where: fG – gas production rate weighting factor (6-th parameter of WLIFTOPT (see 12.18.18.18.216)).185). The extended network model is specified via keywords NODEPROP (see 12.215). BRANPROP (see 12.9.19. 2.18.1.18.18.214).84).19. Formula of Winc : fw ∗ ∆TO Winc = GLinc where: fw – well’s weighting factor (4-th parameter of WLIFTOPT (see 12. GLinc – increment (or decrement) in the gas lift. Formula of Winc in case if the 6-th parameter of the keyword WLIFTOPT (see 12.18.

GRUPTREE (see 12. NODEPROP (see 12. If NETWORK option is used well THP limits will be calculated dynamically by balancing the flow rates and pressure losses in the network.18. NETWORK option. Automatic chokes.).2 NETWORK option is used to provide variable THP limits to groups of wells.88) for the inlet node of the choke. NWATREM (see 12.87)).89) – sets a gas consumption rate at a specified node in the extended network. Well tNavigator-4. Thus a group either contains wells (that is a wellgroup) or has other groups as children (that is a node-group).2. (Wells are assigned to groups in the keyword WELSPECS (see 12.18. Groups that have other groups as children cannot have wells. which de- pend on the groups’ flow rates according to a set of pipeline pressure loss relationships.85) – sets tree structure for multi-level group control. An automatic choke can adjust the pressure loss across a choke in a designated network branch to meet a group’s production rate target. 2. NWATREM (see 12. The top node should have a fixed pressure.18. NETBALAN (see 12. The field FIELD occupies the top of this tree. Tree-structure for groups should be defined.18.18.94) removes water from a node in the extended network. WNETDP (see 12.18.87) specifies branch properties.18.19.94) – removes water from a node in the extended network.3)).88) specifies node properties.e.112) sets network calculation parameters (convergence tolerance. The branch should have a number 9999 as a corresponding VFP table number (in the keyword BRANPROP (see 12. Child groups also can be nodes with fixed pressure (so pressures in sub-networks are independent of the main network but flows of sub-networks will be added into main network flow). The tree can consist of an arbitrary number of levels.85) (the bottom nodes in the tree should be the same (i.18. Compressors 90 . Each tree should have its own fixed pressure terminal node at the top. NCONSUMP (see 12.10. BRANPROP (see 12.18. well groups)).18. The network can consist of two or more separate trees.19. Automatic chokes. maximum number of iterations in the network balancing calculation etc. In case of extended network model group structure can be different from the structure specified by GRUPTREE (see 12. A branch is set as a choke via a flag YES in parameter 3 of the keyword NODEPROP (see 12.18.222) sets fixed pressure drop value between a well’s tubing head pressure and its group’s corresponding node in the network.18.

which exceeds the group’s limit.18.72)).92).75)). 2.78). which violate economic limits. Multi-level compressors can be specified (compression is increased one level at a time until the nominated group can meet its production target.18. ˆ 2 priority formulas can be specified and they can be used as PRI and PR2 in GCONPRI (see 12.2.19. Well prioritization option 91 .18.93) (except for compressors defined to stay permanently – 9-th parameter PERM of NETCOMPA (see 12. is cut to meet the limit (in spite of it’s own limits WCONPROD (see 12. and are closed manually can’t be selected to produce. Automatic compressors in the network can be switched off via the keyword COMPOFF (see 12.18.18.18.78).92)). Compressors (pumps) are turned on if a nominated group cannot meet its production rate target (which is specified with keyword GCONPROD (see 12. GCONPRI (see 12. Well prioritization option description. ˆ A rate of well. ˆ Wells with low priority are closed until they are selected to produce.11 Well prioritization option Keywords PRIORITY (see 12. ˆ Wells priorities are calculated according to formula specified in PRIORITY (see 12.19. Compressors are specified via the keyword NETCOMPA (see 12. Well tNavigator-4.18.34)).72)). This option is alternative to the method of distribution group production rates among wells according to their guide rates (is this case groups are specified via GCONPROD (see 12.18.18.11. ˆ Wells are turned on until group’s production rate limit is exceeded.75) set the group control option with well prioritization.18.2 Automatic compressors (pumps). then to close the well with the lowest priority the formula is chosen for which limit is exceeded more (in percentage terms).19. ˆ If 2 limits that have different priority formulas are exceeded. 2. ˆ Wells are turned on in decreasing order of their priority (well with the highest priority is the first). ˆ Wells.

Wells from sequential queue are opened in the sequence in which they are placed in the queue.19.18.79).18.12.18.12 Prioritized drilling queue. prioritized drilling queue. sequential drilling queue. E .208) iterations via the formula (coefficients are specified in PRIORITY (see 12. C . G. and doesn’t belong to any other group under the same production control) will be opened automatically. Prioritized drilling queue. 2. 2.19.18. the producer with the highest drilling priority (that belongs to that group.2.203). the injector with the highest drilling priority (that belongs to that group.18.81)).78) can be overriden via numbers specified directly in the keyword WELPRI (see 12.7).78)): A + BPO +CPW + DPG PRIORITY = E + FPO + GPW + HPG where: – Pp – potential well rate for the phase p (description of well’s potential flow rate is in the section – 5. The key- word DRILPRI (see 12.72) and well prioritization GCONPRI (see 12.18.78). The well from queue will be opened in decreasing order of their drilling priority if it is needed to maintain a group rate target under group control by guide rate (GCONPROD (see 12. Sequential drilling queue tNavigator supports creation of well drilling queue. and then the producers in the remaining part of group hierarchy that use guide rates.72). D. GCONINJE (see 12. If a group cannot provide its injection volume. ˆ In group hierarchy both methods of potential guide rates GCONPROD (see 12.19. ˆ Wells’ priorities calculated via formulas PRIORITY (see 12. Well tNavigator-4.7. Wells from prioritized queue are opened in decreasing order of their drilling priority.18. If a group cannot provide its production volume. – A. ˆ When 2 methods are used at the same time. specified via the keyword WDRILPRI (see 12.2 ˆ Priorities are calculated for the well at each Newton iteration of time step for first NUPCOL (see 12. then first prioritization groups are solved. specified via the keyword QDRILL (see 12.75) can be used at the same time. and doesn’t belong to any other group under injection control for the same phase) will be opened automatically.18. except for the case when the group uses guide rate method and this group is subgroup of the group that uses well prioritization.18.200) specifies the default priority formula for the prioritized drilling queue.201). B. There are two drilling queue types: 1. 2.18. Sequential drilling queue 92 .18. H – coefficient from PRIORITY (see 12. F .18.

20. The keyword WDRILRES (see 12.7.2.58)). Full description of ASP mathe- matical model is in the section – 5.20.2 At any run time only one type of drilling queue may exist (two types of queue cannot work together).1.24) and surfactant (section – 2. Polymer Flood 93 .1. Time taken to drill the well is specified via the keyword WDRILTIM (see 12.205) prevents from drilling two wells in one grid block. ˆ If mixing of waters with different salinities is used (BRINE (see 12.48). then poly- mer solution viscosity can be set as function of salt concentration.25). 2.2). The following keywords can be used to Polymer flood simulation: 2.48) (formats E100.202).1.9.3.6) and PLYVISCS (see 12. ˆ To enhance the polymer action it may be injected together with the alkaline (Alkaline flooding – section 2. ˆ Polymer flood in IMEX format – see the section 2. The keywords SALTNODE (see 12.18.8) should be specified.20.20 Polymer Flood In tNavigator the following options are supported to model polymer flood: ˆ Polymer flood option POLYMER (see 12. 2.20.20.7.1 Polymer Flood option POLYMER tNavigator has a Polymer Flood option initialized via the keyword POLYMER (see 12. E300).18. ˆ Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding – ASP model. ˆ Special option of Polymer flooding based on BrightWater technology – section 2. Polymer Flood tNavigator-4.

21) PROPS Polymer solution viscosity multiplier in the case of shear thinning PLYSHLOG (see 12.8.1)–(2.8. Particles of polymers expand in formation pores in the direction from producers to injectors.17) PROPS Polymer adsorption function PLYMAX (see 12.151) SCHEDULE Specifies polymer concentration in the well’s injection stream 2. The following physical effects are taken into consideration: ˆ hydrolysis swelling rate.6) PROPS Sets the data to calculate polymer solution vis- cosity as a function of salt concentration PLYVISCS (see 12.1.2 Polymer flooding based on BrightWater technology Flow deflecting technologies – is a way to increase efficiency of reservoir development. that changes filtration-capacity formation properties.148). Pores in zones of active filtration are blocked and water is forced out to the zones with low permeability. Polymer Flood tNavigator-4.20.8.18.4).16) PROPS Specifies solution viscosity multiplier as a function of polymer concentration PLYSHEAR (see 12. Particles of nanopolymers increase theirs volume (average – in 10 times) at hydrolysis or heating.48) RUNSPEC Indicates that Polymer Food model is used PLYADS (see 12.19) PROPS Specifies Polymer Todd-Longstaff mixing pa- rameter PLYROCK (see 12. Polymer flooding based on BrightWater technology 94 .8.22) PROPS Polymer solution shear multiplier (logarithmic formula) SALTNODE (see 12. This process is called activation of nanopolymer.2. Polymer injection can be defined using the keyword WTRACER (see 12.20. Simulator uses standard isothermal black-oil model (2.8. nanopolymer is considered as an admixture to water phase.8.7. The main idea is that small granules (average size – 100 nm) are injected into the formation with water phase.2.18) PROPS Polymer and salt concentration for mixing cal- culations PLMIXPAR (see 12. For example these technologies can base on nanopolymer flooding.2 Keyword section Description POLYMER (see 12.2) (the tracer for which the holding time in the reservoir will be calculated).8.20.8) PROPS Sets the data to calculate polymer solution vis- cosity as a function of salt concentration WPOLYMER (see 12.7. BrightWater technology (developed by companies BP. Granule size is considerably smaller than pore size at 500 mD (or more) permeability. 2. In tNavigator there is nanopolymer flooding option.20) PROPS Specifies the rock properties for Polymer flood PLYVISC (see 12. Chevron and Nalco) consists in nanopolymer injection into the formation. ˆ nanopolymer type. Polymer can be specified via the keyword TRACERM (see 12.7.18.

10). but not to increase (when there is the formation washing after polymer injection).20. Tpol ) = 1 − (1 − kconc (C pol ))(1 − ktime (t pol ))(1 − ktemp (Tpol )).2 Let C pol and t pol – nanopolymer concentration in water phase and nanopolymer holding time in the formation.11).2.2.t pol ) = 1 − (1 − kconc (C pol ))(1 − ktime (t pol )). Within the bounds of this BrightWater model we consider that absolute permeability is: k = kmult (C pol . Keywords 2.t pol )k0 . TRMMULTT (see 12. So a minimum value of permeability multiplier is taken from all the time steps.7.11). In the mathematical model the following assumption is used: permeability multiplier can only decrease (when the polymer is injected).7. kmult (C pol .20.7.t pol ) can be presented the following way: kmult (C pol . If any table of these three is not specified. where Tpol . Polymer flooding based on BrightWater technology 95 . defined via table TRMTEMP (see 12. In the mathematical model the following assumption is used: permeability multiplier can only decrease (when the polymer is injected). So a minimum value of permeability multiplier is taken from all the time steps. then the corresponding value k is set to 0. In this case absolute permeability multiplier depends on the temperature.7. Temperature option and polymer flooding Temperature option is supported for polymer flooding models (TEMP (see 12. kmult (C pol . kconc (C pol ) and ktime (t pol ) are defined via tables TRM- MULTC (see 12.12). TRM- MULTT (see 12. where k0 — initial absolute permeability (that was in the model before nanopolymer flooding). ktemp (Tpol ) .1.the function depending on the factor of absolute permeability on the temperature. but not to increase (when there is the formation washing after polymer injection).7. where kconc (C pol ) and ktime (t pol ) are defined via tables TRMMULTC (see 12. Polymer Flood tNavigator-4.10).60)).polymer temperature.t pol .

60) RUNSPEC Specifies temperature option TRACERM (see 12.3 Polymer flood in IMEX format Polymer flood models: differences in E100 and IMEX formulation.18. System of maintenance equations:  asp  krW UW = −βc k asp (∇p + ∇PcW − ρW g∇d) µW     ∂ C poly ∂  ads  C poly S pv φ Nw · sc + φ · A poly = − div ρW UW sc + Q poly .20. 2.7.20. ˆ ”Dead pore space” (not invaded by polymer) depends on absolute permeability.1. not on saturation region as in E100 format. Polymer flood in IMEX format 96 .12) PROPS Specifies the dependence between absolute permeability multiplier and temperature WTRACER (see 12. Polymer flood model in IMEX format is specifying by parameter POLY of the keyword MODEL (see 13.3. asp ˆ µW – water viscosity after ASP flooding (see below).2) PROPS Specifies tracer list for which the holding time in the reservoir will be calculated TRMMULTC (see 12.5.7.20. defined as a function C poly in the keyword PADSORP (see 13. Polymer Flood tNavigator-4. ∂t ρW ∂t ρW where: ˆ C poly – concentration of dissolved polymer in water (kg/sm3 ) ˆ sc – mass water density in surface conditions (kg/sm3 ) ρW asp ˆ krW – water RP after ASP flooding (see below).10) PROPS Specifies the dependence between absolute permeability multiplier and tracer concentra- tion TRMMULTT (see 12.7.148) SCHEDULE Specifies the value of tracer concentration in the injection stream 2.2. Aads 3 ˆ poly – adsorptional polymer potential (kg/sm ).7. Concentration of injecting polymer (kg/sm3 ) is specified by parameter WATER of the keyword INCOMP (see 13. ˆ Polymer speed is the same as water speed (no Bvisc poly ).11) PROPS Specifies the dependence between absolute permeability multiplier and holding time in the reservoir TRMTEMP (see 12.76).5.4).5.81).2 Keyword Section Description TEMP (see 12. ˆ Several polymer models available.

3.5.5. Let’s denote µW (p) ”usual” viscosity. Properties are the following: ˆ Ad.10))). Polymer Flood tNavigator-4.5. Polymer and water solution is considered uniform (i. ˆ Krr f – residual resistance factor. Then we put correction for adsorption using Ad.5.10).3.5.5. Also denote: re f ˆ C poly – reference polymer concentration (kg/sm3 ) which is set in PREFCONC (see 13.5. Water viscosity calculation. CVW (see 13. then Ad = max(Ad prev . Ad). ˆ Ad.76) and PPERM (see 13.res .2. For Ad.max .20.res . ˆ S pv – pore volume fraction which is available for polymer. it is set by the keyword PPERM (see 13. PERMK (see 13.res .5.res – residual adsorption potential (kg/sm3 ).77). which is calculated via VWI (see 13. Let’s denote Ad = Aads 3 poly Ad.res .3.7). max(PERMI (see 13.e.76) contains two columns: the first one is polymer concentration (kg/sm3 ). the second one is adsorptional potential Aads 3 ads poly (kg/m ).77).78) and one of its options: 2. To get real adsorptional potential Aads poly from normalized it is multiplied by Ad.max – maximal adsorption potential (kg/sm3 ).5.77) as a function of absolute permeability Polymer adsorption modelling. A poly normalized by maximal value in PADSORP (see 13. PADSORP (see 13. Keyword PPERM (see 13.7).5. water and polymer velocities are equal).e.5.2 ˆ Q poly – mass polymer flow from external sources (kg/day) ˆ S pv – pore volume fraction which is available for polymer.79). then: ˆ if on the previous step Ad prev > Ad. (kg/sm ).max interpolation we use maximal per- meability in one of the directions (i. PERMJ (see 13. ˆ if Ad prev < Ad.5. Ad). Adsorption parameters are set via the keywords PAD- SORP (see 13.77) sets a table of polymer properties dependence on absolute RP.3.max from the keyword PPERM (see 13.80).res . re f ˆ µ poly – reference polymer viscosity which is set in PVISC (see 13. then on the current Ad = max(Ad.76) to use it in maintenance equation.10). Polymer flood in IMEX format 97 . If Ad < Ad.20. Viscosity model is set by the keyword PMIX (see 13.

max So. asp re f µW = α µ poly + (1 − α)µW (p) (2. (2. ˆ FOAMROCK (see 12.109) C poly ˆ NONLINEAR – non-linear model.2) – sets foam modeling preferences.2 ˆ LINEAR – linear model.112) Ad. ˆ FOAMDCYW (see 12.110) ˆ TABLE – viscosity is set by a table as a function of polymer concentration.64) – activates foam option in E100 models.1) – defines functions of foam adsorption by the rock formation. Foam modeling 98 . for polymer solution mobility λwasp is: asp krW krW λwasp = asp =   .5) – sets foam decay dependence on oil saturation.3) – sets rock properties.113) µW Ad asp 1 + (Krr f − 1) Ad. ratio C poly /C poly ).11.max µW 2.111) Rk where Rk is given by: Ad Rk = 1 + (Krr f − 1) (2. The first re f column of it is relative polymer concentration (i.21 Foam modeling Supported keywords: ˆ FOAM (see 12.21.6) – sets dependences of the gas phase mobility factor on foam concentration. Then we put correction for relative permeability during polymer solution mobility calcu- lation: asp krW krW = (2.11.108) where α is a relative polymer concentration: C poly α= re f (2. ˆ FOAMOPTS (see 12. the second one is ratio of polymer viscosity to water viscosity. asp re f µW = (µ poly )α (µW (p))(1−α) (2.4) – sets foam decay dependence on water saturation.11.11.11. ˆ FOAMDCYO (see 12.11.1.e. ˆ FOAMMOB (see 12.21. ˆ FOAMADS (see 12. Foam modeling tNavigator-4.2. 2.

7) – sets asphaltene properties for each model component.12.10.10. Asphaltene modeling tNavigator-4.7) – sets dependence of the foam mobility factor on oil pressure.53) – initial composition of residual oil in each grid block.1) and ASPREWG (see 12.11.1. ˆ ASPP1P (see 12.2. ˆ ASPP2P (see 12. Two-variable function is set by keywords ASPP1P (see 12.5) – sets the kinetic reaction rates for the flocculation and dissociation processes for each component.3) and ASPPW2D (see 12. ˆ ASPFLRT (see 12.10.10.2) – defines one-variable asphaltene precipitation function. In this case asphaltene precipitation function will depend on one variable. 2.2) – compressibility model of residual oil.10.15.10.22 Residual oil modeling Supported keywords: ˆ SOR (see 12.4) option DECAY_MODEL – control of foam decay process (ad- sorped. In this case asphaltene precipitation function will depend on one variable.4) should be used in conjunction with this one.10. ˆ ROMF (see 12.12. desorped foam participation in decay process).2 ˆ FOAMMOBP (see 12. ˆ SOILR (see 12.11.10. ˆ SFOAM (see 12.23 Asphaltene modeling Supported keywords: ˆ ASPHALTE (see 12. ˆ WFOAM (see 12.1. ˆ SOROPTS (see 12.4.10. 2. ˆ CATYPE (see 12.1) – sets variable of asphaltene precipitation function. ˆ FOAMMOBS (see 12.63) – activates option of asphaltene precipitation modeling and sets oil viscosity change model type. ˆ ASPREWG (see 12.3) region.2) should be used in conjunction with this one.10.6) – sets parameters of oil viscosity change model.15.52) – initial residual oil saturation values in each grid block. ˆ TNAVCTRL (see 12.10.8) – sets dependence of the shear on foam mobility. The keyword ASPREWG (see 12. ˆ ASPVISO (see 12.2). The key- word ASPPW2D (see 12. Two-variable function is set by keywords ASPP2P (see 12.22. Residual oil modeling 99 .10.15. 2.23.241) – sets foam concentration in injecting stream.1) – activates residual oil modeling option and sets residual oil satu- ration values in each SATNUM (see 12.4).51) – sets initial foam concentration in grid blocks.18.3) – sets variables of asphaltene precipitation function.

9.10.18. that depends on alkaline concentration (specified via the keyword ALSURFST (see 12. Desorption can be prevented (1-st parameter of ALKROCK (see 12.26).8.24 Alkaline flooding Alkaline flooding is performed via alkaline chemicals injection (high pH). Alkaline adsorption.2 ˆ ASPPW2D (see 12. Alkaline affects on water-oil surface tension in combination with surfactant: σWO = σWO (Csur f )Ast (Calkl ) where: ˆ σWO – surface tension.27)).150). ˆ Ast (Calkl ) – surface tension multiplier. Full description of ASP mathematical model is in the section – 5. The option switches on with the keyword ALKALINE (see 12. Alkaline flooding tNavigator-4.9)).24. Effect on surfactant and polymer adsorption.24.1.49).4) – defines two-variable asphaltene precipitation function.23)). ˆ σWO (Csur f ) – surface tension at surfactant concentration and zero alkaline concentration (specified via the keyword SURFST (see 12. Alkaline reduces surfactant and polymer adsorption on the rock and enhance their effective- ness this way. 2.20). Alkaline concentra- tion in the well injection steam is set via WALKALIN (see 12.8. Mass of adsorbed surfactant and polymer is calculated via the formula: 1−φ Porv ∗ Mrock ∗Cads ∗ ∗ Aad (Calkl ) φ where: 2.8. Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding – ASP model. Alkaline flooding can be done simultaneously with surfactant (Surfactant injection – section 2. All the supported features are described below.2. Alkaline adsorption is calculated at each time step.8. The table of alkaline adsorption as a function of it’s concentration is specified via the keyword ALKADS (see 12. Alkaline flooding 100 . then the concen- tration of adsorbed alkaline can not decrease. Alkaline reduces surfactant and polymer adsorption and enhance their effectiveness this way. Alkaline also affects on water-oil surface tension. Effect on water-oil surface tension.25) and polymer (section – 2.

25)). PLYROCK (see 12.17). Surfactant adsorption.6.8.25 Surfactant injection tNavigator has an option of Surfactant injection simulation (and solvents injection).24).8.8.46) indicates the Surfactant option.8). This op- tion is based on tracers simulation technology. ALPOLADS (see 12.9.8. ˆ Cads – concentration of adsorbed surfactant and polymer (from the keywords SUR- FADS (see 12.2 ˆ Porv – block pore volume. 2.25.25.8. Surfactant injection tNavigator-4. that was reached in the block during the Calkl calculated period. ˆ Mrock – rock mass density (specified via SURFROCK (see 12. The keyword SURFACT (see 12.2.8. Full description of ASP mathematical model is in the section – 5.41). In tNavigator admixture influence to surface tension can be simulated using relative phase permeability scaling ENPTRC (see 12. These chemical agents are injected to the formation as an admixture to the phase (water – in case of surfactants. Surfactant injection 101 .8. Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding – ASP model.20)).12).1. Mass of adsorbed surfactant (MadsSURF ) is calculated by the formula: 1−φ MadsSURF = Porv ∗ ∗ Mrock ∗ FA(CadsSURF ) φ where: 2. In case if the alkaline desorption is prevented then it affects on the surfactant and polymer irreversible. Surfactant adsorption is a function of surfactant concentration and is specified via the keyword SURFADS (see 12. oil – in case of solvents) and they change the oil-water surface tension. PLYADS (see 12. ˆ φ – porosity. Mass of adsorbed surfactant and polymer in this case is calculated via the formula: 1−φ Porv ∗ Mrock ∗Cads ∗ max ∗ Aad (Calkl ) φ where: ˆ max – maximum alkaline concentration.8). ˆ Aad (Calkl ) – adsorption multiplier that depends on the alkaline concentration (specified via ALSURFAD (see 12.

13) adsorbed surfactant affects all three phases RP. ˆ φ – porosity. the keyword SATNUM (see 12. De-adsorption is possible. Second.8.5) sets the number for every grid block specifying the saturation function region to which it belongs for water-wettability case.4.8.25. Formula for calculation: kr = F(kr )ow + (1 − F)(kr )ww where: ˆ F – ratio.6.14): F – function of the concentration of dissolved (in the water) surfactant in grid block.12)).5).14) interpolation occurs only water RP (surfactant dis- solved in water affects only water RP but not on oil and gas RP).13). tNavigator simulates the changes to wettability of the rock that is provided by the accumula- tion of surfactant. SWOF (see 12. SOF2 (see 12.6.13).8. specified via SURFADDW (see 12.6.13): F – function of adsorbed surfactant concentration in grid block.8. First. ˆ Mrock – mass density of the rock (specified via the keyword SURFROCK (see 12.4. The keyword SURFDW (see 12.13) (F – function of adsorbed surfactant concentration).4. SOF3 (see 12.1)). The following adsorption model is supported: each grid block retraces the adsorption function as the surfactant concentration falls in the cell. The change of wettability.6. ˆ (kr )ow – the scaled oil-wettability value of kr .2 ˆ Porv – block pore volume. ˆ (kr )ww – the scaled water-wettability value of kr . also these keywords specify additional saturation functions which are used for water-wettability case.12). 2. In case of table SURFDW (see 12.25. In SURFADDW (see 12. a weighted average of the oil-wettability value and of the water-wettability value is used. Calculating of the immiscible RP and capillary pressure.3) specifies saturation function regions for oil-wettability (properties are specified via keywords SWFN (see 12.8.8)). Surfactant injection tNavigator-4.8.14) can be used instead of the keyword SURFADDW (see 12. The keyword SURFWNUM (see 12. specified via SATNUM (see 12.15). In the case of table SURFADDW (see 12. ˆ FA(CadsSURF ) – surfactant adsorption function from a local surfactant concentration (specified via the keyword SURFADS (see 12. Surfactant injection 102 .4.8. the water-wettability and oil-wettability endpoints are interpolated and the curves scaled to honor these points. specified via SURFWNUM (see 12. In the keyword SURFDW (see 12.2.3).8.8.

4.1.58) option – this keywords sets that mixing of waters with different salinities will be used.11) PROPS Surfactant capillary de-saturation functions SURFST (see 12. In this case the following effect is simulated: salinity dependence of the oil and water relative permeabilities and the water-oil capillary pressure as functions of the salt concentration – 2.25.18.1.5) REGIONS Saturation function region number in water- wettability case WSURFACT (see 12.26.12) PROPS Specifies surfactant-rock properties ENPTRC (see 12.8.1. water density and viscosity increase too – section 2.6.149) SCHEDULE Specifies the concentration of surfactant in the injection stream 2.8) PROPS Specifies surfactant adsorption functions SURFADDW (see 12.2.26.10) PROPS Viscosity of water solution as a function of surfactant concentration SURFROCK (see 12. ˆ Low salinity water simulation – LOWSALT (see 12.46) RUNSPEC Defines that surfactants will be used in the model SURFACTW (see 12.8.8.1.26 Waters with different salinities tNavigator supports the following options to simulate waters with different salinities: ˆ BRINE (see 12. the change of wettability will be simu- lated SURFADS (see 12.8. Waters with different salinities tNavigator-4.26.1 Keywords Keyword Section Description SURFACT (see 12.8. ˆ Additional option to BRINE (see 12.1.4.47) RUNSPEC Defines that surfactants will be used in the model.1. Reservoir salt is dissolved that leads to formation porosity changes and to increasing of salt concentration in the water.13) PROPS Coefficient is used to simulate the change to wettability due to adsorbed surfactant concen- tration SURFDW (see 12.3.59).14) PROPS Coefficient is used to simulate the change to wettability due to dissolved surfactant concen- tration in grid block SURFCAPD (see 12.58) – Fresh water injection into the saline reservoir. Keywords 103 .41) PROPS In tNavigator admixture influence to surface tension is simulated using relative phase per- meability scaling SURFNUM (see 12.4) REGIONS Surfactant miscible region number SURFWNUM (see 12.1. 2.9) PROPS Water-oil surface tension as a function of sur- factant concentration SURFVISC (see 12.8.25.2 2.8.

26.41).15.15. The keyword SALTTRM (see 12.14)) (The keyword BDENSITY (see 12. ˆ initial reservoir salt concentration can be specified through its saturation SRSALT (see 12.1 Fresh water injection into the saline reservoir Salination of reservoir production layers – is the way to localize residual reserves of hydro- carbons.15.15. SALTTRM (see 12. determine the efficiency of reservoir development.2 2.7.2).15. The initial salt concentration (kg/m3 ) can be specify via the keyword SALT (see 12.6. For a run initialized by equilibration EQUIL (see 12.15.16.58) – This keyword indicates that the Brine Tracking option is enable. ˆ spreading of injected water is calculated (water salinity is specified via WSALT (see 12.40) (mass of reservoir salt that can be dissolved kg). Salt washing-out with fresh water is simulated the following way: ˆ ROCKSALT (see 12.152)).16. Waters with different salinities tNavigator-4.6). In tNavigator admixture influence to surface tension is simulated using relative phase permeability scaling ENPTRC (see 12. ˆ oil viscosity and water viscosity are equalized that leads to improvement of oil forcing out.7.1. Option BRINE (see 12. to allow the modeling of waters with different salinities.26. tNavigator has an option – simulation of fresh water injection into the saline reservoir. water density and viscosity increase too (see PVTWSALT (see 12.15.11) and SWAT (see 12.15.5) sets the dependence between permeability and amount of dissolved reservoir salt. RV (see 12.1.41). RS (see 12.16.7. AQUFET (see 12.32). 2.42) should be used instead of SALT (see 12.41) (salt concentration versus depth for equilibration).4).7. Fresh water injection into the saline reservoir 104 .43).58)) (salt concentration is set via keywords AQUFETP (see 12. determine oil Flooding efficiency depends on pore filling of salt and depends on salt solubility in the fresh water.15.8). ˆ ultimate concentration of dissolved (in the water) salt – SALTPROP (see 12.4). SGAS (see 12. the keyword SALTVD (see 12. Brine option is supported for aquifers (BRINE (see 12.1. The keyword should be used when the initial state has been set by enumera- tion (keywords PRESSURE (see 12.26.10)).18.7.2.7.31).9) specifies the brine surface density variation with the salt concentration).15. ˆ reservoir salt is dissolved that leads to formation porosity changes and to increas- ing of salt concentration in the water.15.4) can be specified for different PVT regions. AQUCT (see 12.5) and SALTPROP (see 12. ˆ reservoir salt dissolution rate is directly proportional to difference of salt solution (current and saturated).8)).

26.58) RUNSPEC This keyword indicates that the Brine Track- ing option is enable.15.59).4) PROPS Specifies properties of dissolved and reservoir salt: concentration of saturated salt solution.15.26.42) SOLUTION Specifies initial salt concentration versus depth for equilibration ROCKSALT (see 12.1. Then oil and water table saturation end points are interpolated (index i) via the formulas using high (index h) and low (index l ) salinity tables saturation end-points: 2.40) SOLUTION Specifies initial mass of reservoir salt for each grid block SRSALT (see 12.2.4.) If the option LOWSALT is used then the oil and water RP and the water-oil capillary pressure are functions of the salt concentration.26.6) (or LSNUM (see 12.4. (this keyword automat- ically turns on the option BRINE (see 12.7.5) PROPS Specifies the dependence between permeabil- ity and amount of dissolved reservoir salt ENPTRC (see 12.14) PROPS Specifies water PVT data for runs in which the Brine option is active BDENSITY (see 12.2 Keywords Keyword Section Description BRINE (see 12.7.9) PROPS Specifies the brine surface density variation with the salt concentration SALTPROP (see 12.6. Keywords 105 .43) SOLUTION Specifies initial reservoir salt concentration through its saturation WSALT (see 12.6) – analogue of LWSLTNUM). solution rate constant of reservoir salt SALTTRM (see 12.7.7.1.41) SOLUTION Specifies initial salt concentration for each grid block SALTVD (see 12.58) – simulation of waters with different salinities – section 2.4.3 Low salinity option This option is activated via the keyword – LOWSALT (see 12.26.1.15.3) and LWSLTNUM (see 12.15.152) SCHEDULE Specifies the concentration of salt in the well injection stream 2.18.26. Waters with different salinities tNavigator-4. to allow the modeling of waters with different salinities PVTWSALT (see 12. density of reservoir salt.2.2 2.1. High and low salinity saturation regions are set via the keywords SATNUM (see 12.41) PROPS In tNavigator admixture influence to surface tension is simulated using relative phase per- meability scaling SALT (see 12.

Scale deposition model tNavigator-4. ˆ SCDPTAB (see 12.27.7.2. ˆ SCDPDIMS (see 12.229) – set the reduction coefficient for the productivity index of each connection in a well dependence of the current amount of scale deposited per unit length of perforated interval as a table.18.15)). pcOW . 2. Scale deposition model 106 . krW max analogously for krOW . SW max . 2. SW max . Then RP and capillary pressures are calculated the following way: ˆ i = F kl + (1 − F )kh krW 1 rW 1 rW ˆ i krOW l = F1 krOW h + (1 − F1 )krOW ˆ i krOG l = F1 krOG h + (1 − F1 )krOG ˆ picOW = F2 plcOW + (1 − F2 )phcOW Where: F2 is a function of the salt concentration (set via the keyword LSALTFNC (see 12.108) – set the dependences number. krW max l = f (S . Si i l ˆ krW W W cr ).27 Scale deposition model The cumulative effects of scale deposited around the well connections and the resulting degradation of the productivity index due to sea water injection are supported in tNavigator via the following keywords: ˆ SCDATAB (see 12. krOG . h = f (S .18. Si i h ˆ krW W W cr ).2 ˆ i = F Sl + (1 − F )Sh (minimum water saturation (connate)) SW c 1 Wc 1 Wc i l h ˆ SW cr = F1 SW cr + (1 − F1 )SW cr (critical water saturation) i l h ˆ SW max = F1 SW max + (1 − F1 )SW max (maximum water saturation) i l h ˆ SOW cr = F1 SOW cr + (1 − F1 )SOW cr (residual oil saturation in water-oil system) ˆ i SOGcr l = F1 SOGcr h + (1 − F1 )SOGcr (residual oil saturation in gas-oil system) F1 is a function of the salt concentration (set via the keyword LSALTFNC (see 12.227) – defines total rate of scale deposition per unit flow rate of water into a well connection dependence of the fraction of sea water present in the water flowing through this connection as a table. The high and low water and oil RP and capillary pressures are calculated from the high and low salinity saturation tables by applying two-point saturation end-point scaling.15)).7.1.27.

The first half of the grid blocks corresponds to the matrix cells.26). If the keyword DUALPORO (see 12. ˆ SCDPTRAC (see 12.2. DPGRID (see 12.2. Dual permeability — DUALPERM (see 12.28. Dual porosity tNavigator-4. PERMY (see 12. PORO (see 12.83) cancels a multiplication of permeability (for the fracture blocks) by porosity (fracture blocks) during the dual porosity run. PERMZ (see 12. and the second half – fracture cells. the number of layers in the Z-direction should be even (this number is entered by the third parameter of the keyword DIMENS (see 12.6).2.2. ZCORN (see 12. which concentration represents the fraction of sea water present in the water flowing into a well.13). DZNET (see 12.2. NTG (see 12.228) – note tracer name.3. DY (see 12.28.27). Dual porosity dual permeability: fluid flow between neighboring matrix cells is possible.28 Dual porosity Dual porosity is specifying by the keyword DUALPORO (see 12. Since this mul- tiplication is used to obtain a net bulk fracture permeability one have to enter this value manually if NODPPM is enable.77) is used.1.9).2). DEPTH (see 12. TOPS (see 12. One can specify their properties (porosity.18.230) – assign tables to individual wells. 2.18. tNavigator automatically create non-neighbor connections which correspond to the matrix-fracture flows. Dual porosity single permeability: fluid flow between matrix cells is possible only us- ing fractures. permeability etc. Dual porosity. This operation is applied only for 2.2. values for fracture blocks will be obtained (copied) from corresponding matrix blocks.2. The keyword NODPPM (see 12.1. DPNUM (see 12.13).1.76) or DUALPERM (see 12. The keyword PERMMF (see 12.2. PERMX (see 12.2.24). If these options are used. for every geometric grid block we consider two cells: the matrix part and the fracture part of this block.13).76). DZ (see 12.1.2).2).2 ˆ WSCTAB (see 12.65) – specifies reservoir fields that should be considered as single porosity fields.2.2.1.77).2.66) – if the keyword is enable one should specify grid data only for matrix blocks (NX * NY * (NZ/2)). Dual porosity 107 .2. In a reservoir with the dual porosity there are two systems: rock matrix (the biggest part of the reservoir) and fractures (which have high permeability).) independently. This operation is applied for the values specified by following keywords: DX (see 12.2.2.14) sets permeability for matrix-fracture blocks.1.25). Fluid flow through the reservoir is possible only in fractures.25) (NZ).

2. LZ (see 12. If tNavigator compute σ .) Default. Viscous Displacement.28. DZ (see 12. σ – sigma-factor. THCONMF (see 12.64).69). Y and Z directions: 1 1 1 σ = 4( 2 + 2 + 2 ). SIGMAV (see 12.2. V – matrix cell bulk volume. one should specify the distances between fractures (matrix block sizes) in X. DY (see 12. if fractions have small permeability then the matrix-fracture viscous displacement under the influence of pressure gradient can be very important in production.2.69) sigma-factor multiplier can be obtained from the distances between fractures (matrix block sizes). LZ (see 12.2.67)) in data file will be ignored.1.50) option.64).67) or different values for different grid blocks can be entered – SIGMAV (see 12.2. One can observe a pressure gradient in the dual porosity system. Using the keyword LTOSIGMA (see 12.2. Dual porosity 108 . LY (see 12.2.2).64). If no one of the keywords SIGMA. If this gradient is small and fracture permeability is high.64). lx ly lz lx .2. (These distances are not the dimensions DX (see 12.28.1. Matrix-fracture transmissibility is calculated via the formula: Tr = CDARCY ∗ K ∗V ∗ σ where K – X-direction permeability of the matrix blocks X.69) is specified. Y and Z directions. LY (see 12.1. Transmissibility calculations in dual porosity runs. if the option Viscous displacement is enable (VISCD (see 12.2.2.2.64). sigma-factor will be considered as zero. Y and Z directions using keywords LX (see 12.2.64) and LTOSIGMA (see 12. LTOSIGMA (see 12.2.2. any manually input of this parameter (SIGMA (see 12. Sigma-factor is related to the distances between fractures (matrix block sizes) in X. ly and lz – the distances between fractures (matrix block sizes) in X.2). 2. LTOSIGMA (see 12.69) – this keyword can be used in dual porosity run.28) with THERMAL (see 12.2. Viscous displacement – fluid flow under the influence of pressure gradient. tNavigator can compute a σ factor using keywords LX (see 12.2 fracture blocks which don’t have manually input grid data.72) – specifies the matrix to fracture thermal conductivity value for each matrix block in dual porosity run (2.2. VISCD (see 12. Dual porosity tNavigator-4. σ sigma-factor can be specified for whole reservoir – SIGMA (see 12.82) – the keyword sets that the Viscous displacement option will be used in the dual porosity run.2.68).2).2.2. This gradient moves the fluid in the fracture towards the production well. the matrix-fracture viscous displacement under the influence of pressure gradient isn’t considered.82)). Nevertheless. If this option is used.68).

2).1.1.68)).25) – This keyword specifies the number of matrix-fracture saturation table regions for each grid block.4. the lower – fracture) the flow from the fracture to the matrix uses an imbibition table for matrix.28.2 Gravity drainage option The following keywords are supported: ˆ GRAVDR (see 12. MULTMF (see 12.2 Sigma-factor is related to the distances between fractures (matrix block sizes) in X.2.) The values of lx . DY (see 12.69) defines f x . IMBNUMMF (see 12.77) in case when hysteresis op- tion is used (parameter HYSTER of the keyword SATOPTS (see 12.2). DZ (see 12.1.1.67).1. The keyword can be used for dual porosity runs DUALPORO (see 12.2.2). Y and Z directions: fx fy fz σ = 2 + 2 + 2.1 RP at dual porosity runs. ly and lz – the distances between fractures (matrix block sizes) in X. lz that aren’t specified or are equal to zero will not be used in calculations. The keyword can be used for dual porosity runs DUAL- PORO (see 12. SIGMAV (see 12. In accordance with the grid specification for dual porosity models (upper part – the matrix. KRNUMMF (see 12.2.76) and dual permeability DUALPERM (see 12. the flow from the fracture to the matrix uses a saturation table for fracture.4.2.120) (the same multiplier for whole reservoir) or differ- ent multipliers for grid blocks can be entered using the keyword MULTSIGV (see 12. 2.2.76) and dual permeability DUALPERM (see 12.121).77). In accordance with the grid specification for dual porosity models (upper part – the matrix. ly.28. LTOSIGMA (see 12. the lower – fracture) the flow from the fracture to the matrix uses a saturation table for matrix. (These distances are not the dimensions DX (see 12.2. RP at dual porosity runs. Multipliers for sigma-factor. 109 .2. 2.2.79) – This keyword switches on an option of gravity drainage between matrix and fracture cells for dual porosity models. Y and Z directions. the flow from the fracture to the matrix uses an imbibition table for fracture.28. f z.28. Dual porosity tNavigator-4. 2.1. f y.68)) is multiplied by the multiplier MULTSIG (see 12.1. lx ly lz lx .26) – This keyword specifies the number of matrix-fracture imbibi- tion regions for each grid block.18.73) – the keyword specifies multiplier which is used to calculate the matrix-fracture flows. Sigma-factor (defined via SIGMA (see 12.18.

One value is specified for all grid blocks. 2. First de-watering of the fractures is done.29 Coal Bed Methane Model Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Model can be activated COAL (see 12.2.2. Gas is adsorbed into the coal matrix. then (due to pressure drop) there is gas desorption from the surface of the coal to the fracture.9. Adsorption and diffusion. Different values can be specified for different grid blocks.2. Coal Bed Methane Model tNavigator-4. The diffusive flow of gas from the coal matrix to fracture is calculated via the following formula: Fg = DIFFMF ∗ Dc ∗ (GCb − GCs ) where: ˆ Fg – gas flow.76) – This keyword sets the vertical size of a block of matrix material in dual porosity run with gravity imbibition option.1. ˆ DZMATRIX (see 12.1)).29.2 ˆ GRAVDRM (see 12.71) – The keyword sets a sigma-factor for oil-gas system that is used in alternative matrix-fracture coupling for matrix blocks in which the production mechanism is gravity drainage due to the presence of gas in the fractures.74) – This keyword sets the vertical size of a block of matrix material in dual porosity run with gravity imbibition option.78). ˆ DZMTRXV (see 12. Different values can be specified for different grid blocks. Coal Bed Methane Model 110 .2. ˆ Dc – diffusion coefficient (DIFFCOAL (see 12. One value is specified for all grid blocks. ˆ SIGMAGDV (see 12.123). 2. ˆ DZMTRX (see 12.74). DUALPORO (see 12.1.2.28.70) – The keyword sets a sigma-factor for oil-gas system that is used in alternative matrix-fracture coupling for matrix blocks in which the production mechanism is gravity drainage due to the presence of gas in the fractures.80) – This keyword switches on an option of alternative gravity drainage between matrix and fracture cells for dual porosity models. ˆ SIGMAGD (see 12.1.1. ˆ GCb – bulk gas concentration.75) – analogue to DZMTRX (see 12.76): coal matrix and the permeable rock fractures.2. Coal Bed Methane Model is simulated via dual porosity model (2.29.2. Adsorption model is set by the keyword CBMOPTS (see 12.

4)) at the initial reservoir pressure and composition in the reservoir for one component.15. 2. In different CBM regions different properties can be specified (CBM regions – COALNUM (see 12.2) data will be used without scaling.46).15)). ˆ Vol – block coal volume.99). Coal Bed Methane Model 111 .2) or LANG- MEXT (see 12. In case if the keyword GASCONC is not specified. ˆ DIFFMMF – multiplier specified via the keyword DIFFMMF (see 12.29.15. Note GASCONC: for compositional model in E300 format the keyword GASCONC can set the initial coal gas concentration for one component defined via GASCCMP (see 12.2. Initial saturated coal gas concentration can be set via GASSATC (see 12. Extended Langmuir isotherm specifies the coal sorption for components via LANGMEXT (see 12.4).9. Note 1 GASSATC: for the model in the format E100 the keyword GASSATC (see 12. LANGMUIR (see 12. gas may be readsorbed into the coal. Multipliers for concentration values are set via the keyword LANGMULT (see 12.9.15. specified via LANG- MUIR (see 12. ˆ DIFFMF – diffusivity: DIFFMF = DIFFMMF ∗Vol ∗ σ .9.47) is used for the Langmuir isotherm scaling (LANGMUIR (see 12.2. This scaling factor is used for other components.9.47).2 ˆ GCs – surface gas concentration (function of fracture pressure.47) is used for the Langmuir isotherm scaling LANGMUIR (see 12. Coal Bed Methane Model tNavigator-4.9. The component is defined via the keyword GASCCMP (see 12.2.48).15. If RF = 0 re-adsorption is pre- vented. Extended Langmuir isotherm.29.2.9.9.2)).1)).15..68)). ˆ σ – multiplier that can be specified for the whole field (SIGMA (see 12. Initial coal gas concentration can be set via GASCONC (see 12.48). Note 2 GASSATC: for compositional model in E300 format the keyword GASSATC (see 12. ˆ RF – re-adsorption factor (DIFFCOAL (see 12. Fg = DIFFMF ∗ Dc ∗ SG ∗ RF ∗ (GCb − GCs ) where: ˆ SG – gas saturation in the fracture. In case if the surface gas concentration is greater than the bulk gas concentration.9.67)) or for each grid block (SIGMAV (see 12.3).2) at the ini- tial reservoir pressure.15.4.

68)).i ∗ Sg ∗ RFi ∗ (mi − ρc Li ) where: ˆ mi – molar density in the matrix coal. ˆ σ – multiplier that can be specified for the whole field (SIGMA (see 12.4)).67)) or for each grid block (SIGMAV (see 12. ˆ yi – hydro carbon mole fraction in gas phase for component i.4)). The diffusive flow for component i from the coal matrix to fracture is calculated via the following formula: Fi = DIFFMF ∗ Dc. ˆ R – universal gas constant.. ˆ ps – pressure at standard conditions.2.96)). For each component we calculate: ps yi ppi L(p.2.5)). ˆ p – pressure. ˆ pi – Langmuir pressure constant for component i (specified via LANGMEXT (see 12.2. Coal Bed Methane Model 112 . 2. Coal Bed Methane Model tNavigator-4..2 For each component two parameters should be specified: Vi – Langmuir volume constant.6)).9. ˆ Ts – temperature at standard conditions.9. ˆ Dc. y2 . pi – Langmuir pressure constant. Different isotherms can be used for different CBM regions COALNUM (see 12. ˆ ρc – coal density (ROCKDEN (see 12. ˆ Vi – Langmuir volume constant for component i (specified via LANGMEXT (see 12.15). y1 .)i = φ (Vi p ) RTs 1 + ∑nc j=1 y j p j where: ˆ φ – scaling factor.29. ˆ Sg – gas saturation . ˆ RFi – readsorption factor for component i (RESORB (see 12.4. ˆ DIFFMF – diffusivity: DIFFMF = 1 ∗Vol ∗ σ . ˆ Vol – block coal volume. Time dependent diffusion for compositional models.9.2. .9.i – diffusion coefficient for component i (DIFFCBM (see 12.29.

15. ˆ WTEMP (see 12. ˆ RTEMPVD (see 12.75) – specifies the volume specific heat of rock as a function of temperature.29) – default water temperature for injectors is case if the keyword WTEMP (see 12.153) – specifies the temperature of injected water.80) – specifies the connection between the reservoir and cap and base rocks. ˆ THCONR (see 12. ˆ OILVISCT (see 12.18. ˆ SPECROCK (see 12.39) – sets the table of water viscosity as a function of temper- ature for each PVT region.1.2 2.14.15.2.18.30.61) – indicates that the temperature option is enable. This keyword is different from the keyword TEMP (see 12. volumetric heat capacity. initial temperature.30 Temperature option For temperature option tNavigator supports the following keywords: ˆ TEMP (see 12.14. There is no filtration in these blocks.12) – the function depending on the factor of absolute permeability on the temperature (for polymer flooding models 2.14. rock conductivity of reservoir surroundings and minimal difference between temperatures.1.76) – specifies the volume specific heat of oil.2). Temperature option tNavigator-4.2. ˆ ROCKCONT (see 12. gas. water as a function of temperature.15.1.15) – sets the rock thermal conductivity. Temperature option 113 . ˆ SPECHEAT (see 12.29)). ˆ WTEMPDEF (see 12. but their heat capacity will be taken into account in temperature calculations.2. ˆ RTEMPA (see 12.30. ˆ VISCREF (see 12. ˆ TRMTEMP (see 12. to allow the modeling of the temperature effects of cold water injection.60) the following way: grid blocks with zero pore volume are used in simulation (if they are not dis-activated via ACTNUM (see 12.40) – sets the table of oil viscosity as a function of temperature for each PVT region.14.14.60) – indicates that the temperature option is enable. ˆ WATVISCT (see 12.153) is not defined.38) – sets reference pressure and reference dissolved gas concen- tration for each PVT region.14. ˆ TEMPR (see 12. which will be used to model the heat exchange between the reservoir and surroundings.28) – specifies the dependence between initial reservoir temper- ature and depth.27) – specifies initial reservoir temperature.20.7. 2.

reference pressure. ˆ ROCK (see 12.38)).2)). 2. specified via VISCREF (see 12.5. ˆ ROCKAXES (see 12.38).2 Water and oil viscosity calculations.5.14.14.14.defined by the following elastic properties of rocks: 1. Rs ) µO = µT (T ) µ p (pre f .14. Rsre f ) where ˆ µT – viscosity from the keyword OILVISCT (see 12.5)). ˆ ROCKSTRE (see 12.38)). specified via VISCREF (see 12.31.91) – this keyword in RUNSPEC section means that will be used geomechanical model describing the elastic deformation of the rock.31. µW ˆ pre f – reference pressure (specified using VISCREF (see 12.14. pre f .16) . ˆ µ p – viscosity from PVCO (see 12.5. ˆ pre f – reference pressure. 2.38).5. Geomechanical model 114 .40) (assumed to be at the reference pressure and Rs .1. Oil viscosity at the prevailing pressure and Rs is calculated the following way: µ p (p. ˆ Rsre f – reference Rs . Geomechanical model tNavigator-4. specified via WATVISCT (see 12.39) (depends on temperature).5.6) (or PVDO (see 12.2. Viscosity dependence on pressure can be specified: µW0 (p) µW (p. specified via VISCREF (see 12.5.14.20) – sets the diagonal elements of the stress tensor (the regional stress). ˆ 0 (p) – water viscosity as a function of pressure (specified using PVTW (see 12.1 Description of Geomechanical model In tNavigator the following keywords can be used: ˆ GEOMECH (see 12.19) – sets the azimuth and zenith angle of the regional stress. T ) = µW (T ) 0 (p ) µW re f where ˆ µW (T ) – water viscosity (at reference pressure).31 Geomechanical model 2.31.

115) 3(1 − ν0 )φ0 1+ 2(1 − 2ν0 )(1 − φ0 ) 3. The following relation id used for calculating the constant Bio in each block based on rock properties. if φ0 is not specified. if Cbc is not specified. then: Cbc = φ0C pp + (1 + φ0 )CR (2. CR = KS−1 . the default value will be used C pp = 0. if the value of Poisson coefficient is not specified ν0 : Cbc CR = (2.114) 2. zenith angle is 0 ◦ . φ0 .124)) and GEOMECH (see 12. CR . 2.1.block compressibility (block that contains mixture).31.rock compressibility.00005bars−1 5.18. Cbc = . but φ0 . Geomechanical model tNavigator-4.117) KS Cbc Calculation of azimuth angle of hydraulic fracture. if rock compressibility Cbc is not specified. C pp . Description of Geomechanical model 115 .16): Kbulk CR α = 1− = 1− .124)).2. if CR is not specified or Cbc .91) option provide calculation of az- imuthal angle according to the elastic state of the cells belonging to the fracture and to the well (example is in the description of the keyword WFRACP (see 12. the default value will be used φ0 = 0. Cbc = K −1 . Kbulk 5. but CR .compressibility of the rock matrix. porosity value φ0 at reference pressure pre f . if C pp is not specified. the value of Poisson coefficient ν0 at reference pressure pre f .5.33.31.18. (2. 1 4. C = C pp are specified: Cbc CR = (2. Default values of azimuth and zenith angle (8-th and 9-th parameters of the keyword WFRACP (see 12. C = C pp are specified. 3.116) 3φ0 1+ 2(1 − φ0 ) 4.1.2 2. Parameters CR and Cbc (if they are not specified) are calculated the following way: 1. specified in the keyword ROCK (see 12. 6. if compressibility of the rock matrix CR is not specified.

pn+1 ) − f (T n . 3. G.5.16) PROPS Specifies elastic properties of rocks 2.the coefficient of uniform phase compression.118) Kf Ko Kw Kg ˆ SP .31. G. ˆ KP . P = W. 2.3 The calculation of the diagonal elements of the tensor of mechanical stress Using the dependence φ = φ (p.91) RUNSPEC Specifies geomechanical model describing the elastic deformation of the rock ROCKSTRE (see 12.2 2. P = W.5. O. O. O. G. 2. p). Geomechanical model tNavigator-4. 2.phase concentration.2 Mixture K f The following relationship for K f estimation is used 1 So Sw Sg = + + .phase compressibility P = W. (2. O. pn ). Mixture K f 116 .2.120) α C pp KS C pp K f Where ∆ f = f (T n+1 .31. at each time step we update the values of the diagonal elements of the tensor of mechanical stress:   n+1 n Kbulk 1 1 σii = σii + ∆φ − ∆p 1 − + . (2.1.19) PROPS Specifies the azimuth and zenith angle of the regional stress ROCK (see 12. where f = f (T. G. 1 ∂ BP 1/KP = CP = − . i = 1.5. (2.31.31.4 Keywords Keyword Section Description GEOMECH (see 12.2.20) PROPS Specifies the diagonal elements of the stress tensor (the regional stress) ROCKAXES (see 12. T ) and the calculation results of the hydrodynamic simu- lation.31.Formation Volume Factor P = W. ˆ BP .119) BP ∂ p ˆ CP .

(3. Compositional model 117 .13. Bi = Ωb (T. B= . pci and Tci — component critical pressure and temperature (PCRIT (see 12. TCRIT (see 12. Tri2 Tri where pri = p/pci .4274802 0.3. Equations of state tNavigator-4. (RT )2 RT RT Z is called the supercompressibility factor.34). B uniform forms of the second and first degree of the molar concentrations of the components ci : A = ∑ Ai j ci c j .3) i.17)).08664035 PR 1+ 2 1− 2 0. Ai = Ωa (T. i) . The default values are: EOS m1 m2 Ωa0 Ωb0 RK. Ωa 3.2) Z − B (Z + m1 B)(Z + m2 B) where pa pb pv A= . Peng-Robinson (PR).5 .457235529 0. B = ∑ Bi ci .1) devided by p is: 1 A − = 1.19). Tri = T /Tci . SRK 0 √ 1 √ 0. i) . Soave-Redlich- Kwong (SRK). Z= .32)). (3. The equation (3. (3.13.34) and OMEGAB (see 12.2 3 Compositional model 3. βi j — pair interaction coefficients of components (BIC (see 12.1.13. Coefficients a. j i Forms coefficients are calculated via the following way pri pri Ai j = (1 − βi j )(Ai A j )0.13.1 Equations of state The following equations of state are considered RT a p= − .077796074 Default values of parameters Ωa0 and Ωb0 can be overrided via the keywords OMEGAA (see 12.1) v − b (v + m1 b)(v + m2 b) tNavigator supports the following equation types: Redlich-Kwong (RK). b and A.13.

MW (see 12.4) ZRT 3.34). i) = Ωb0 .32).13. VCRITS (see 12. Tem- perature T is fixed and it is specified via the keywords RTEMP (see 12. Ωb (T. EOS in reservoir and surface conditions 118 .68).2.5 ) .22).13.13. (3. A different EOS to use in surface conditions can be specified using the keyword EOSS (see 12. Modification of Peng- Robinson equation PR∗ is used if the keyword PRCORR (see 12.42).176ωi2 )(1 − Tri0.37464 + 1.  2 2 0. i) = Ωa0 1 + (0. Density tNavigator-4. SSHIFT (see 12.016666ωi3 )(1 − Tri0.13.13.2 Density For equation of state phase molar density is defined by formula p ξP = .379642 + 1.1.5 PR : Ωa (T.13.17). SSHIFTS (see 12.5 ) .13.13. TCRITS (see 12.18). The following keywors are used for EOS in reservoir conditions: ACF (see 12. Ωb (T.26992ωi )(1 − Tri ) . The following keywors are used for EOS in surface conditions: ACFS (see 12.13.574ωi − 0.13.13.40) is specified. i) = Ωa0 1 + (0.2 and Ωb depends on the Equation of state: RK : Ωa (T.29). Ωb (T.31).13.1 EOS in reservoir and surface conditions Two different sets of data can be used for equations of state for the reservoir and surface conditions. i) = Ωa0 Tri−0. if ωi > 0. OMEGAAS (see 12. BICS (see 12. 3.13.30)).13.27).1.28). OMEGAA (see 12. MWW (see 12. If any (or all) keywords for surface EOS are not specified then these parameters are taken from reservoir condition keywords by defaul. OMEGABS (see 12. MWS (see 12.48 + 1.25).33). i) = Ωb0 .7) or TEMPVD (see 12. PCRIT (see 12.35).13. PCRITS (see 12. ZCRIT (see 12.48503ωi − 0.13.21).19). ZCRITS (see 12.13.20).1. BIC (see 12.  2 PR∗ : Ωa (T.3.13.30).5 .54226ωi − 0. OMEGAB (see 12.35).49. 3.13.13.13.41).  2 SRK : Ωa (T.14.34).13. TCRIT (see 12. VCRIT (see 12. i) = Ωb0 . i) = Ωa0 1 + (0.13.24).13.13.6). Where ωi — acentric factor of the component (ACF (see 12.164423ωi2 + 0.

1 Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Correlation In viscosity calculation of µP the correlation Lohrenz-Bray-Clark is used 1/4 (µP − µP∗ )χ + 10−4 2 = a1 + a2 ξrP + a3 ξrP 3 + a4 ξrP 4 + a5 ξrP . Viscosity tNavigator-4.0093324. ˆ χ .2 Three parameter equation of state with shifts ! n ZRT ξP = 1/ − ∑ zi bi si .7) i=1 Mwi — molecular weight of component i.0585330.0407580. zi — component in oil phase xi or in gas phase yi si — shift parameter of the component i.3 Viscosity For default the method Lohrenz-Bray-Clark Correlation is used (see section 3.52) keyword specifies that viscosities will be calculated via Peder- son’s method (see section Pedersen Correlation). One should use the keyword LBCCOEFR (see 12. Viscosity 119 . a4 = −0. These coefficients can be overrided via the keyword LBCCOEF (see 12. 3. a2 = 0. 3.41) bi = Ωb RT ci pci Phase mass density is calculated by the formula ρP = ξP MwP .13.function of molecular weights. specified via the keyword SSHIFT (see 12.1).37) to set different coefficients for each equation of state region.3. critical temperature and critical pressure. (3.13.36). 3. (3.0233640.3.3.5) p i=1 where P – phase. (3.13.13.6) where MwP average molecular weight of phase P.3.8) Where: ˆ ξrP = ξP /ξc .1023000. a3 = 0.3. ˆ a1 = 0. PEDERSEN (see 12. a5 = 0. (3. N MwP = ∑ Mwi ci .

User parameters for Pedersen correlation can be set via the keywords PEDTUNE (see 12. Viscosity tNavigator-4. VCRITVIS (see 12.13.3.26)). Pedersen Correlation 120 .9) i=1 where Vci – critical molar volume of the component i.13.13.54).2 Pedersen Correlation Detailed description of Pedersen correlation is in [23].13. specified by user (keywords VCRIT (see 12.2. 3.13.53). PEDTUNER (see 12.13.3. It sets via the keyword PEDERSEN (see 12.23)) or calculated from critical Z-factors (keyword ZCRIT (see 12.3.2 Critical moler density ξc is calculated via the following formula !−1 N ξc = ∑ ciVci .52). 3.3.24).13.21). (3. ZCRITVIS (see 12.

There are three (four) phases and three (four) or more components: ˆ water phase (water)— doesn’t mix with hydrocarbon phases. at certain pressure. G – water. consists of one component – water. gas phase volume. The following phase changes are supported: water ⇒ gas —vaporization gas ⇒ water —condensation gas ⇒ oil —solution oil ⇒ gas —oil evaporation oil ⇒ coke —carbonization oil. Basic volumes tNavigator-4.4) – in stars data format.5. MODEL (see 13. V f – "mobile" volume. temperature and with a certain concentration of components in the liquid phase. at certain pressure. water-component. MODEL (see 13.1 Basic volumes The unit grid block volume Vb is Vb = VR +Vp .1. Compositional thermal model with chemical reactions 121 . 4. O. Vp = VS +V f .14. gas ⇒ gas. water —burning The solid phase is specified using the keyword SOLID (see 12.5. Component volatility type is specified using CVTYPE (see 12. ˆ solid phase (coke) – consists of one component – coke.57) in e300 data format. P = W. V f = VW +VO +VG where ˆ VR – rock volume (is used in the description of thermal properties).1) in e300. ˆ Vp – pore volume.1. ˆ VS – solid phase volume (solid phase). temperature and with a certain concentration of components in the gas phase. oxygen-component. ˆ gas hydrocarbon phase (gas) — consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon components.4). ˆ VP . oil. water —burning coke.2 4 Compositional thermal model with chemical reactions Let’s consider a compositional thermal model with chemical reactions which is used in tNavigator. 4. ˆ liquid hydrocarbon phase (oil) — consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon components.4. gas ⇒ gas.

x. G. O. G so SbW + SbO + SbG + SbS = 1 4. O. SW + SO + Sg = 1 (4. O. G) — a part of volume of porous medium (which can be filled with liquid phases). Saturations 122 . x. y. G)   SbP = 1 − SbS SP .3 Phases Each phase P. P = W. G.2 Saturations The saturation SP of liquid phase (P = W. z) (P = W. y. Solid) has the following parameters (un- known. these parameters are calculated during the run): ˆ T = T (t. P = W. 4.1) Vf VW +VO +VG The saturation SbS of solid phase is VS SbS = Vp so   φ f = φ 1 − SbS (4. Phases tNavigator-4.2. S (Water. y. ˆ SP = SP (t. ˆ pP = pP (t. Oil. therefore all phases have the same temperature at one place). which is filled with this phase: VP VP SP = = . Gas.4. z) – pressure of phase P.2) and modified saturations SbP of liquid phases (P = W. SbS = SbS (t. O.2 Porosity φ — the volume which can be filled with a mixture: Vp VS +V f VS +V f φ= = = Vb Vb VR +VS +V f "Mobile" porosity φ f — the volume. z) – phase temperature (all phases are in the thermodynamic equilibrium. y. O. x. O. G). which can be filled with a mobile mixture: V f +VS −VS     Vf VS VS VS φf = = = φ − = φ 1− = φ 1− Vb Vb Vb V f +VS Vp 4. z) – saturation of phase P.3. x. P = W.

c ∈ {1. n0P = nP − 1 and solid phase P = S = nP .4 Components All phases P.P = 1. . ˆ Nc = Nc (t. . xc. . xc. . nP can be divided into two groups: "mobile" phases (water. . . . nc }. n0c }. nP }. Nnc ): n0P ∑ xc. . c ∈ {n0c + 1. SW + SO + SG = 1.3) c=1 xc. oil. nc in the pore volume (mol/m3 ). (4. n0P . G = 1.4. .13. nc – the components which can be only in the solid phase. Components 123 . n0c – the components which can be only in "mobile" phases. . . . .P = 0. c ∈ {n0c + 1. . .S = 0. . . O. . Since nc ∑ xc. The number of hydrocarbon components is specified using the keyword COMPS (see 12. . PcOW = PcOW (Sw ) – capillary pressure in the system water-oil (known functions). z) – molar density of the component c. nc }. n0c in the "mobile" volume (mol/m3 ). P ∈ {1. . . N).P (pP . Components tNavigator-4. nc can be divided into two groups: ˆ c = 1. P=1 where ξP = ξP (pP .5. ˆ c = n0c + 1. G. xc. . . pO − pW = PcOW . . z) – molar density of the component c. . . . .2 The following equations are used to reduce the number of unknowns: pO − pG = PcOG . .3) in e300 data format. . O. . . . . . . x. . where PcOG = PcOG (Sg ) – capillary pressure in the system oil-gas. n0c }. . . Component distribution in different phases is set via nc × nP concentration matrix xc. All components c. . x. . Total number of components and the number of components in water. P = W. . nc }. 4. oil and gas phases are set using the keyword MODEL (see 13. P ∈ {1. c ∈ {1. . c = 1.S ξS SbS = Nc . . . c = 1.4) in stars data format.P = xc. c ∈ {2. then Nc ·V f = Nc · φ f ·Vb – the quantity of the component c in the volume Vb (mol ). . . c = n0c + 1. . . From here "pressure" is "pressure of oil phase" p = pO . PcP = −PcOP . . n0P }. N) – the molar density of the phase P. 4. . S = 1. y. . then Nc · Vp = Nc · φ · Vb – the quantity of the component c in the volume Vb (mol ). . y. . .W = 0. gas) P = W. . .4. N = (N1 .4. . where PcOO = 0. PcOS = 0 and pP = p + PcP .PξPSP = Nc. . . Let: ˆ Nc = Nc (t.

2) is enable.14.4.5.6) where ˆ ρw.4)) specifies that c-component can’t be in the phase P. (4. .re f ))(1 + cw. (4.re f )2 ) MWW (4.p (p − pw. pw.p (p−A7 ) 1 ρW = e .SC /BW (pre f ) (kg/m3 ) ˆ ρW.54353 × 10−11 A6 = 16.re f = ρW.re f .5) ˆ cw. nc }.2) ˆ MWW – water molar weight 4.170461 × 10−5 A4 = 105. Mass and molar water density 124 .2.3) is present) are calculated A0 + A1 T + A2 T 2 + A3 T 3 + A4 T 4 + A5 T 5 cw.14.3952 A1 = 169.56302 × 10−8 A5 = −280.re f .1) (MODEL (see 13.14. ξW = · ρW .1.55176 A2 = −7. 4. Mass and molar water density tNavigator-4. xc.PξPSP = Nc. then ρw.5.5.5) 1 + A6 T MWW where A0 = 9998. . . – is set via PVTW (see 12.23) ˆ cw. c ∈ {1.T .4) ξS ∑ Nk k=n0c +1 If the keyword CVTYPE (see 12. – is set via WATDENT (see 12.87985 × 10−2 A7 = −102 If the keyword WATDENT (see 12.5 Mass and molar water density In e300 data format the mass density and the molar water density on default (or if the keyword THANALB (see 12.5.re f ) + cw.T . .re f 1 ρW = .987 × 10−2 A3 = −46.5. .T (T − Tw. P=1 and nc ∑ Nc c=n0c +1 Nc SbS = . .T (T − Tw. BW (pre f ).2.2 hence (SS = SbS ): nP ∑ xc. .SC – is set via DENSITY (see 12. .p .14.S = nc c ∈ {n0c + 1.1. cw. then the properties of the component c for the phase P may not be entered. Tw. nc }. ξW = · ρW (1 − cw.

19).4.re f exp cw.p .9095 × 10−3 1/K .CPT (see 13.p (p − psat ) − cw.1.18) = 0.10123τ 3 −0.2. ck.T (T 2 − Tw. where – ρc = 17.crit ξW = ρc (1 + α) exp (cw.10) ˆ Tre f – reference temperature TEMR (see 13.p (p − pre f ) − cw.5.T = 7. ck.1.crit ξW = ρc exp cw. – cw.5.5.2.9) ρW = ξW · MWW .5. If for the component w CP (see 13.critical density.16) = 0.14) (mol/m3 ) ˆ ck.T + cw.5.17) = 0.1.75263τ 3 −45.2. (4.pT (p − pre f )(T − Tre f ) 2 ρW = ξW · MWW (4. ck.5.8) ρW = ξW · MWW .11) ˆ ρw.296 × 10−6 1/K 2 .CT1 (see 13.T .5.p = 4. 4. ˆ if T ≥ Tw.CT2 (see 13.crit ) − cw.5.5.1.T = −1.512506τ 3 +1.5. 1 2 5 16 43 110 – α = 1.88888kgmol/m3 . CT1 (see 13.16).57 × 10−5 − 1.14) = 0 or MOLVOL (see 13.5.076823 × 10−8 (pre f − 1. Mass and molar water density 125 .T (T − Tre f ) − cw. (4.pT – the properties of component w specified via CP (see 13. CPT (see 13. then the default formula is used: ˆ if T < Tw.5.2 In stars data format the mass density and the molar water density are calculated ! T 2 − Tre2 f ξW = ρw. – cw. Mass and molar water density tNavigator-4.T .17).3) = 0.2. CT2 (see 13. T – τ = 1 − Tw.5.19) = 0 and MOLDEN (see 13.7) where ˆ pre f – reference pressure PRSR (see 13.crit .18).99206τ 3 +1.p (p − pbub )) .crit 2  ) .4485τ 3 −675615τ 3 . – cw.5.01325)1/bar .re f – component density w from MOLDEN (see 13.T (T − Tw.5.

T + ck.6.O ρk. ck.O (p.O    (4. ck. ck.T – thermal expansion coefficient for component k (THERMEX1 (see 12.p – component k compressibility (CREF (see 12.2 4.re f ))(1 + ck.p (p − pk.11)) 3. ˆ ck.T .T . ρk.pT (p − pre f )(T − Tre f ) 2 (4.26)).T (T − Tre f ) − ck.O = ρk.O In stars data format component liquid density ρk.2.1.14. ˆ ck.re f – reference pressure for component k (PREF (see 12.T (CT1) – the first thermal expansion coefficient for component k (for this parameter tNavigator uses this keyword THERMEX1 (see 12.O (in e300) ρk.re f (1 − ck.5.T (CT2) – the second thermal expansion coefficient for component k (for this parameter tNavigator uses the keyword THERMEX2 (see 12.O = ρk.p .re f – density of component k at reference pressure and reference temperature (DREF (see 12.T + T ∗ ck.28)) In e300 data format component liquid density ρk. ρk.34)) 4.10) n0c 1 n0c MWk ξO = 1 ∑k=2 xk. total thermal expansion coefficient is equal to ck. ck. Mass and molar liquid density 126 .2.2.O (p. ck. Tre f – reference temperature (TEMR (see 13. Tk. pre f – reference pressure (PRSR (see 13.O ρk.14.T .O ρO = 1 ∑k=2 xk.O ρO = 1 ∑k=2 xk.14.re f – density of component k at reference pressure and reference temperature (MOLDEN (see 13.4. T ) (kg/m3 ) is calculated as .1.14)) 4.  ρk.p (CP) – component k compressibility k .6.32)) 3.27)). T ) (mol/m3 ) is calculated as  T 2 − Tre2 f  ρk.11) where 1. 5. pk.p (p − pre f ) − ck.pT – properties of component k in the liquid phase: ˆ ck. ˆ ck.14.re f )) (4.26)) 4.14.re f ·exp ck.2.31)).29)) 2.5.6 Mass and molar liquid density The molar density and mass liquid density are calculated as     n0c MWk n0c 1 ξO = 1 ∑k=2 xk.14.T (T − Tk.14.12) where 1. ck.5.1.14.10)) 2.pT (CPT) – the coefficient of density dependence on temperature and pressure (for this parameter tNavigator uses the keyword THERMEX3 (see 12. Mass and molar liquid density tNavigator-4.1.O (in stars) ρk.re f – reference temperature for component k (TREF (see 12.

Gxk.14. T ) in the gas phase ! 5 j Tb ρw = exp ∑ C j TbK (4.G · MWk (4.14.3.18) Z is calculated in every grid block at every time step of Newton iteration.G Zk. the critical pressure pci is set using PCRIT (see 13.37).17) j=1 k=1 j=1 Z – the maximal root (> 0) of the equation Z 3 − Z 2 + (A − B2 − B)Z − AB = 0 (4. i. Usually Z ∈ [0.20). Zk. In stars data format the molar and the gas mass density are calculated n0c p ξG = .13) xw. Zk.0 .e. m3 · bar J · Pa Gas constant R in (4. .G − Zk.13) is equal to 0.5.5. TbK = Tb + 273.7072 C1 = 0. .003208 C3 = 6.14) j=0 T where Tb – the boiling temperature ◦C .7.4. n0c pri pri T p Ai = 0.1 are specified using the keywords ZFACTOR (see 12.0 default value is 0.7. n0c  ! (4.21). 4.G + ∑ xk.2 4.1 ρw k=2 p .  ! MWw Zk.0 RT ρG = 1 +∑ − Zk. Tri = Tri2.2]. .GB j (4.89 b = 0.15) ZRT k=1 where Z – the root of the equation of state Redlich-Kwong with zero coefficients of pair-wise interaction. .GA jk .3143 .5 . Molar and mass gas density 127 .G xk.083143 for the unit of pressure bar .08664035 .57652 · 10−6 C4 = −6. ZFACT1 (see 12.97203 · 10−12 The coefficients Zk. Tb = a · (p/10)b . Bi = 0.4274802 . Molar and mass gas density tNavigator-4.2350 C0 = −93.93747 · 10−9 C5 = 2.7 Molar and mass gas density In e300 data format the molar and the gas mass density are calculated as n0c .083143 = 8.5 Tri pci Tci (4.0 RT ξG = 1 xw. a = 180. ρG = ξG · ∑ xk. B= ∑ x j. Then n0c n0c n0c A= ∑ ∑ x j. 1..833941 C2 = −0.96.36). pri = . Let’s specify i = 1. R = K · kg − mol K · mol 0.16) where the critical temperature Tci is set using TCRIT (see 13.15 – the boiling temperature ◦ K .1 ρw k=2 MWk p The component water density (water vapor) ρw (p. and the unit amount of fluid kg − mol . A jk = (A j Ak )0.

14.27) (CMM (see 13.23)) 3.T (T − Tk.T – thermal expansion coefficient for component k (for this parameter tNavi- gator uses the keyword STHERMX1 (see 12.5.5.re f ))(1 + ck.T .14.p (p − pk. 4. Molar solid density tNavigator-4. ck.13.11)) 3.14.re f MWk · (1 − ck. pre f – reference pressure (PRSR (see 13.5.8 Molar solid density Molar solid density (coke) is calculated as . T ) (kg − mol/m3 ) is calculated as ρk.20)). ρk.20)) In stars data format component solid density ρk (p.pT – the coefficient of density dependence on temperature and pressure (for this parameter tNavigator uses the keyword STHERMX2 (see 12.4.5.24)) 6.re f )) where 1.19) k=n +1 c In e300 data format component solid density ρk (p.re f – reference pressure for component k (SPREF (see 12.14.p (p − pre f ) − ck. T ) (kg − mol/m3 ) is calculated as   ρk = ρk. Tk. ck. ˆ ck. Molar solid density 128 .22)) 4. ck.14.5.re f – density of component k at reference pressure and reference temperature (SOLID_DEN (see 13. ck.2 4.22)): ˆ ck. ! nc 1 ξS = 1 ∑0 xk. Tre f – reference temperature (TEMR (see 13.8.22)) 5.25)) 4.pT (p − pre f )(T − Tre f ) MWk where 1.p .p – component k compressibility (SCREF (see 12. ρk.T – thermal expansion coefficient for component k (is specified using the keyword STHERMX1 (see 12. ck.T (T − Tre f ) + ck.59)) 2.S ρk (4.re f  ρk = · exp ck.re f – reference temperature for component k (STREF (see 12.re f – density of component k at reference pressure and reference temperature (SDREF (see 12.10)) 2. ˆ ck.8.21)) Mass solid density isn’t used in the calculations.p – component k compressibility.14.14. MWk – component k molecular weight specified via MW (see 12. pk.pT – properties of component k in the solid phase (SOLID_DEN (see 13.

G . n0c . . (4. n0c . Thermodynamic equilibrium condition tNavigator-4.O = zc . P=1 c=1 MP Let RP = — the part of "mobile" component mixture in the phase P. T )xw. . .4. . n0c } From the equations (4.2 4. .O . P = W. . xc. .G = Kw . n0c . O. (4. c ∈ {1.O + RG · xc. c ∈ {2. . O. T ). P = W. . . c ∈ {2.W . . xc. Thermodynamic equilibrium condition 129 . . .G = Kw (p. G.9. ∑ RP = 1. .P = 1 for P = W ) c=1 Let zc = Nc /Ntot .G = zc . P=1 P=1 Since water component isn’t present in the oil phase and hydrocarbon components are not present in the water phase.W = 0. . .P = 1 P=1 c=1 we obtain RW = zw − RG · Kw RO = (1 − zw ) − RG (1 − Kw ) xw.P · MP — the number of moles of the component c. in the phase P. . c = 1. Then n0P n0P Nc = ∑ MP · xc.P. c ∈ {2. ∑ xc.21) User specifies the functions Kc = Kc (p. xc. . .G .W + RG · xw. (4. Obviously n0P n0c ∑ MP = Ntot = ∑ Nc. c = 1.23) (1 − zw ) + RG (Kc + Kw − 1) (1 − zw ) + RG (Kc + Kw − 1) 4.21) we obtain for each c ∈ {2.O ≡ xw.22) 1 Kc xc.G = Kw . n0c }: 1 Kc xw. in the unit volume.G = zc . n0c }.P. xc.G = Kc (p. . zc = RO · xc. G. . . . . (4. then zw = RW · xw. . . .9 Thermodynamic equilibrium condition MP . = Ntot ∑ RP · xc. xc. T )xc. RO + Kc RG RO + Kc RG From the equilibrium conditions: n0P n0c ∑ RP = 1. concerning the Ntot total amount of the mixture. n0c }. . Then n0P MP = RP · Ntot . then n0c x1. . in the unit volume. . . xw.W = 1 (from ∑ xc. n0c }: xw.O = 0.P = xc.20) P=1 Let Mc.O = zc .9. .the number of moles in the "mobile" phase P. c = 1.

26) p a It is very difficult to choose many parameters in (4.20) the number of moles of the "mobile" phases in the volume V f is MP ·V f . TC (◦C) = T (◦ K) − 273. KVTABLE (see 12. or via the correlation formula: Ki (p. Phase saturations 130 . In another case the correlation is used:  b 1 TF Kw (p psi . From the equation (4.24) where the coefficients Ai . a = 115. KVTABTn (see 12.5. b = 4.4) in e300 (KV1 / KV2 / KV3 / KV4 / KV5 (see 13. 1] is the solution of the equation n0c zc · (Kc + Kw − 1) F(RG ) = 0.14. Bi . and their volume is equal to MP ·V f /ξP .89.44444.1) we obtain SP = VP /V f = MP /ξP or Ntot · RP SP = . T ) can be specified via the tables KVTEMP (see 12. .13.7).13.27) p where ˆ Tci – component critical temperature TCRIT (see 12.19).9): pci 5.17). TF ) = · . b = 0.24) (Ki (p.28) ξP The description of calculations of the solid phase saturation is in the section (4. Phase saturations tNavigator-4. KVTABLIM (see 12.4).13. . In e300 data format the correlation (Wilson) for hydrocarbon components can be used – KVWI (see 12. T ) = · . In stars data format this formula is also used for water if the not zero coefficients Ai .14. 4.372697·(1+Ai )·(1−Tci /T ) Ki (p. . n0P (4. Di . Ei are specified. ˆ Ai – component acentric factor ACF (see 12.5.14. T ) = ·e (4. T ) should be positive and in- creasing in conjunction with T ).14. 4.4. Ei are set using the keywords KVCR (see 12.14. T ) = (Ai + Bi /p +Ci p) · e−Di /(T −Ei ) (4. Ci . (4. F(RG ) = ∑ (1 − zw) + RG(Kc + Kw − 1) c=2 The values Ki = Ki (p.24).10 Phase saturations Since (4.30).8) in e300 (KVTABLIM (see 13.6). . Bi . P = 1.13.10.1. Di .26) in stars).16) in stars).25) p psi a In e300 data format the following correlation is used 10 TC 1/b   Kw (p.2 and RG ∈ [0. Ci . ˆ pci – component critical pressure PCRIT (see 12.2350. a = 180.10.15 (4.

14.5.32) k=2 where oil component viscosity µk.14. In e300 data format the following correlations can be used to calculate µk. CW = 7. In e300 data format the viscosity dependence on pressure can be specified: µW0 (p) µW (p.43).4.5. or via correlations.5)).5.41)).12. VISCTABLE (see 13.30) where T – the temperature ◦ K .39) (e300 data format). Water viscosity 131 . BW are set via the keywords AVISC (see 13. VISCTYPE (see 13. µW ˆ pre f – reference pressure (specified using VISCREF (see 12. BW = 0.42) (in e300 data format) or VSMIXCOMP (see 13.52). tNavigator also uses the keyword OILVINDT (see 12.5. VSMIXENDP (see 13. Multiple viscosity regions can be specified via VSTYPE (see 13.40) (in e300 data format).51).55).5.11.5.20)). In stars the following correlation is used:   µW (T ) = AW exp BW /T (4. BVISC (see 13.O ) fk (xk. the coefficients AW .1323.11 Water viscosity Water viscosity can be specified as a function of temperature using the tables – WATVISCT (see 12.53) (stars).45). VSMIXFUNC (see 13. Oil viscosity tNavigator-4. VISCTABLE (see 13. 4. In e300 the following correlation is used (Grabovski): µW (T ) = 1 AW + BW TC +CW TC2 .O ) (4. tNavigator also uses the keyword (VISCNUM (see 12.14.14.31) µW re f where ˆ µW (T ) – water viscosity (depends on temperature) is calculated above.46) (stars).03333.5.5.4.2 4.5.O (specified using this keyword OILVISCC): 4.53) (stars data format).643 · 10−6   (4.14.38)). T ) = µW (T ) 0 (p ) (4.5.O (T ) can be specified as a function of temperature using the tables of this keyword OILVISCT (see 12. AW = 0. fk (x) (default: fk (x) = x ) are specified using OILVINDX (see 12.14.54).29) ◦ where TC – the temperature C .56) (stars). ˆ 0 (p) – water viscosity as a function of pressure (specified using PVTW (see 12. or using correlation (OILVISCC (see 12.12 Oil viscosity Oil viscosity is calculated using the formula n0c µO (T ) = ∏ (µk.

4.O ) = Ak + Bk /(T +Ck ) Andrade log10 (µk.G (4. TC = T − 273.5.45): µk.O + Ak ) = Bk T Ck Vogel log10 (µk.36) k=1 k=1 4.G µk.14. Bg = 5.G (p.O ) = Ak + Bk log10 (T ) In stars data format Andrade correlation is used with parameters Ak = log10 A0k . T ) = µO (T ) (4.5077 hydrocarbon component viscosity µk.O ) = Ak + Bk /T logarithmic log10 (µk.34) k=1 component water viscosity (water vapor) µ1. or using the correlation formula with the coefficients GASVISCF (see 12.33) µO0 (pre f ) where ˆ µO (T ) – oil viscosity (depends on temperature).35) In stars data format gas viscosity is calculated as n0c n0c !.15 Ag = 4.G (T ) = Ak · T Bk (4.45). T ) = Ag + Bg TC +Cg (p/10)Dg . ˆ µO0 (p) – oil viscosity as a function of pressure (specified using PVCO (see 12.4. where A0k .5.5. Gas viscosity tNavigator-4. Dg = 2.51).38)).4.14.9402 · 10−3 . ! p p µG (T ) = ∑ µk.46) (stars).2 Name Formula Name Formula ASTM log10 (µk. In e300 data format pressure dependence can be set: µO0 (p) µO (p.44).5.20)).13.9223 · 10−6 .G · xk. Bk = B0k log10 e.6)). BVISC (see 13. Cg = 2. Multiple viscosity regions can be specified via VSTYPE (see 13.G (T ) in the gas phase can be specified as a function of temperature using the tables of this keyword GASVISCT (see 12. tNavigator also uses the keyword (VISCNUM (see 12.G (p. B0k are specified using keywords AVISC (see 13.G MWk (4. Gas viscosity 132 .13 Gas viscosity In e300 data format gas viscosity is calculated n0c µG (p. T ) = ∑ xk. VISCTYPE (see 13.G MWk ∑ xk. ˆ pre f – reference pressure (specified using VISCREF (see 12.5.0956 · 10−5 .52).13. T ) in the gas phase µ1.14.

14. If gas viscosity isn’t specified by user then in stars data format it is calculated as µG (T ) = 0. In e300 data format the gas phase component enthalpies include both a temperature dependent term and a pressure dependent term (Joule-Thomson) (see (4.P (in stars) c=1 c=1 (4.4. kJ/mol ): nc nc HP (p. O. T ) · HP (T ) − pPp where pPp – the partial pressure of the phase P. component viscosities are set via correlation (4. VISCTYPE (see 13.5.P (T ) – enthalpy of the component c in the phase P.27) (kg/mol ).4. For each component only one parameter of Hc. kJ/m3 ) of the pore volume: n0P U f (p. T )(HP (T ) − pPp /ξP ) = ξP (p.37) so only 2 (of 3) sets of data should be specified Hc. G.O ) (4.P (kJ/kg/◦C ). . Component enthalpy is specified via the heat capacity. 4.5.W ). T ) = ∑ xc.G .P (p.O (or Hc.38) where MWc – molecular weight given by the keyword MW (see 12. . kJ/m3 ) for "mobile" phases: UP (p. (4.35) with the coefficients AVG (see 13. P = W.13. . T ) = ξP (p.45). HVc .0136 + 3. S : ˆ Hc. O.14 Enthalpy and heat capacity of the components Thermodynamic properties of the component c = 1.58). Then the internal energy (for unit volume.2 where MWk – molecular weight of the component k (specified using CMM (see 13. In stars data format: CPc. .15.5.P = dHc. 4.15 Multiple viscosity regions can be specified via VSTYPE (see 13. nc in the phases P = W.O or Hc. BVG (see 13. ˆ CPc.46) (stars).P (T )/dT – heat capacity of the component c in the phase P. In e300 data format: CPc. T ) · HP(T ) − p (4.15 Enthalpy and internal energy of the phases Enthalpy of the phase HP (T ) (for one mole. The following equations take place: HVc = Hc. T ) = ∑ ξP(p.G − (Hc. G. because there are no components which can be in the water and the oil phase at the same time.P ·MWc (in e300) or HP (p.5.8 · 10−5 · TC .49)). T )·Hc.P (p. tNavigator also uses the keyword (VISCNUM (see 12. T ) = ∑ xc. Hc.39) P=1 4.59)). The internal energy of the phases (for unit volume.W isn’t zero.20)). Enthalpy and internal energy of the phases tNavigator-4.W + Hc.48). ˆ HVc – vaporization enthalpy of the component c (from liquid phase to the gas phase).P (J/mol/◦C ).5. Enthalpy and heat capacity of the components 133 .57). T )·Hc. TC = T − 273.

c . B = 1.60). C = −3. 4. . Default values: CP1. 4.2968. Liquid enthalpy tNavigator-4.   (4.8kJ/mol/C = 2. These enthalpies are the functions of pressure and temperature. T ) = ξS (p.14.4.312461.40) 4. D = 4.0934kJ/mol/C .58) (default: 0).8).16 Water enthalpy In e300 data format the enthalpy.O (T ) = ∑ CPi. hc = 2086kJ/kg.14.14.5.c = 0.05506/0.3898396.365233.c (T − Tre f ) + CP2.11). In stars data format the component liquid enthalpy is calculated as 4 1 Hc.41) T where Tr = and TC α = 0.14. TC = 647. Tre f is specified using STCOND (see 12.27).13.c (T − Tre f )2 (4.17. kJ/m3 ) of the volume which is filled with the solid phase: US (p.c = SPECHC (see 12. 4 are specified using the keywords CPL1 / CPL2 / CPL3 / CPL4 (see 13. the water vaporization enthalpy are also taken from the internal tables.17 Liquid enthalpy In e300 data format the component liquid enthalpy is calculated as 1 Hc. SPECHB (see 12. the other coefficients: 0. T ) · HS (T ) (4. tNavigator also uses the keywords CP3.42) 2 where the coefficients CP1. Then the liquid phase enthalpy is calculated according to (4.59). i = 1.126K. In stars data format the enthalpy. CP4.2 The internal energy (for unit volume.647609. Water enthalpy 134 .c = SPECHD (see 12. A = −1. E = −2.57). F = −0.5Btu/lbmol/F = 0. CP2.941123.O (T ) = CP1. .43) i=1 i where the coefficients CPi. Tre f is specified using TEMR (see 13.453592∗1.5∗1. In [20] there is a following formula for water enthalpy: h f = hc 1 + (1 − Tr ) A + BTr +CTr2 + DTr3 + ETr4 + F(1 − Tr )α .c (kJ/kg/◦C ). the water vaporization enthalpy are taken from the internal tables (see [19]).38). .502294.c (T − Tre f )i (4.16.c are specified using the keywords SPECHA (see 12. .5.

β = 3.21) (stars).665298.5.818955.61). EV (see 13.38) is specified using the keyword HEATVAPE (see 12.14.13. SPECHH (see 12.18 Vaporization enthalpy The enthalpy of a gaseous oil component is calculated as HVc (T ) = Ac · (1 − T /Tc.44) where: In e300 data format Ac is specified using the keyword HEATVAP (see 12. 4.c (T − Tre f )i (4.62) (default: 0).14. CP1.0467kJ/mol/C ).G (T ) = hc + RTc (1 − Tr )(A + BTrβ ) +C(1 − Tr )α + D(1 − Tr )2α . Tre f is specified using STCOND (see 12. (4.754665.G (kJ/kg).c (kJ/kg/◦C/◦C ).4.G (T ) = hc. B = 3. C = 2. CP2. Bc (default: 0. A0c = Ac /Tc.05506/0.c (kJ/kg/◦C ). In stars data format the component gas phase enthalpy is calculated as 4 1 Hc.25Btu/lbmol/F = 0.G +CP1. Gas phase enthalpy tNavigator-4.14. In stars data format A0c is specified using the keyword HVR (see 13.crit is specified using the keyword TCRIT (see 12.2 4.18.crit − T )Bc .25 ∗ 1. hc = 2086kJ/kg. TCRIT (see 13.5.17) (e300). SPECHG (see 12.30) (default: 0.14) (e300).453592 ∗ 1.461522kJ/kgK. (4. D = 4.5.crit )Bc = A0c (Tc.14.47) i=1 i 4. If c > 2 (enthalpy of hydrocarbon components) 1 Hc.977657. A = −7.crit Bc (4.G + ∑ CPi. Vaporization enthalpy 135 .126K.14. are specified using the keywords HEATVAPS (see 12.37). Tc = 647.13) (default: 0 kJ/kg). If the component enthalpy in the liquid phase and vaporization enthalpy is specified then the gas phase enthalpy is calculated from the equation (4.8).c (T − Tre f ) + CP2.140.8kJ/mol/C = 1.crit then HVc (T ) = 0.19 Gas phase enthalpy In e300 data format water enthalpy in the gas phase is calculated as   H1.19. R = 0.c (T − Tre f )2 . If the component enthalpy in the gas phase and vaporization enthalpy is specified then the oil phase enthalpy is calculated from the equation (4.37). Critical temperature of the component Tc.2866.31) (stars).45) T where Tr = and Tc α = 0.G (T ) = hc.46) 2 where the coefficients hc.65).13. If T ≥ Tc.

29).14.20.13.c = SPECHJ (see 12.c (p) = −102 · Zc.37).4.50) 1 2 Hc.c (T − Tre f ) + CP2.48) c=1 where (Joule-Thomson) HJT.25Btu/lb/F = 1.8).S (T ) = CP1. 4.2 where the coefficients hc. CP2. 4 are specified using the keywords HVAPR (see 13. tNavigator also uses the keywords CP3.c are specified using the keywords SOLID_CP (see 13.G (T ) · MWc + HJT.c (kJ/kg/◦C ).20 Solid phase enthalpy The component solid phase enthalpy (for one mole.63).1 is set via ZFACT1 (see 12.5.49) The coefficient Zk.38) is used: nc  HG (p. CP2. . Tre f is specified using the keyword STCOND (see 12.25Btu/lb/F = 0. CPG1 / CPG2 / CPG3 / CPG4 (see 13.21 Rock enthalpy Rock enthalpy (for unit volume. CP2. kJ/kg − mol ) is calculated as   1 2 Hc.c (p) (4. Rock enthalpy tNavigator-4. SPECHT (see 12.5. Solid phase enthalpy 136 . kJ/m3 ) is calculated as 1 HR (T ) = (CP1 (T − Tre f ) + CP2 (T − Tre f )2 ) (4.G (p.13.38).8).c .c = 17kJ/mol/C .c (T − Tre f ) · MWc (E300) or 2 (4.G = 0.c = SPECHI (see 12.23) (default: CP1.14.21. T ) = ∑ xc.51) 2 where 4.1 – m3 /kg − mol . 4.c = 0).14. the other coefficients: 0.14.S (T ) = CP1.14. ˆ in stars data format the coefficients CP1. Default values: hc.8kJ/kg/C = 1.49) results from units transformation: Zk. CP1.5.453592∗1. .c .67) (default: 0).11).G .1 · (p − pre f ) – m3 /kg − mol · bar = 105 · m3 · Pa/kg − mol = 102 · kJ/kg − mol .38). CP4. Then the gas phase enthalpy is calculated according to (4.28).c are specified using the keywords SPECHS (see 12. CPi.25∗1.0467kJ/kg/C . .0467kJ/kg/C .5. so Zc. If the vaporization enthalpy isn’t specified. Multiplier 102 (4.66).c (T − Tre f ) + CP2.05506/0. then during e300 data format instead of (4. . Then the solid phase enthalpy is calculated according to (4. Tre f is specified using TEMR (see 13.11).c (T − Tre f ) (stars) 2 where ˆ in e300 data format the coefficients CP1. pre f – STCOND (see 12. Tre f is specified using the keyword TEMR (see 13.1 · (p − pre f ) (4.64).5. i = 1. T ) · Hc.c = 0.

If in the model only the gas enthalpy is entered.12). then the type 1 is used with the coefficient CPL1 (see 13.52). HEATCRT (see 12.5.6579 Btu/lb-F = 2.27)).38 . EV (see 13. then the type 1 is used with zero vaporization enthalpy (i. 3) Oil enthalpy (CPL1 / CPL2 / CPL3 / CPL4 (see 13.7538 kJ/kg-C.14. solid phase (4.23 Block internal energy Block internal energy (kJ ) is calculated: the internal energies of the "mobile" phases (4.5. If in the model only the vaporization enthalpy is entered.10).8).5.28)) and vaporization enthalpy (HVR (see 13. oil enthalpy is equal to gas enthalpy). ˆ in stars data format the coefficients CP1 .31)) are entered.23.5. (default CP1 = 2347kJ/m3 . kJ/m3 ): UR (T ) = HR (T ) (4.30). If in the model no one of the properties above are entered.13.11) (default: 0).5.e. then the type 1 is used with the coefficient CPL1 (see 13. Tre f is specified using TEMR (see 13.5. (in the unit volume) are multiplied by the volume (see 4. 4. oil enthalpy is equal to gas enthalpy). then the type 2 is used with zero vaporization enthalpy (i.27)) and vaporization enthalpy (HVR (see 13. 2) Gas enthalpy (CPG1 / CPG2 / CPG3 / CPG4 (see 13.e.0934 kJ/kg-C.5. EV (see 13.30).14. If Tre f ≤ Tcrit .5 Btu/lb-F = 2. If in the model only the oil enthalpy is entered.5. In tNavigator the coefficients CP1 .0934 kJ/kg-C and vaporization enthalpy. gas enthalpy (CPG1 / CPG2 / CPG3 / CPG4 (see 13. then the coefficient A is calculated from: Hvap (Tre f ) = C ∗ (Tcrit − Tre f ). else A = 0.52) 4. Internal rock energy (for unit volume.5.29)) are entered. Tre f is specified using STCOND (see 12.11).4.31)) are entered.14. Block internal energy tNavigator-4.4.27) = 0.2 ˆ in e300 data format the coefficients CP1 (kJ/m3 /◦C ).5. Default enthalpy values for stars format models 137 .22 Default enthalpy values for stars format models For stars format models there are 3 types of enthalpy specification: 1) Oil enthalpy (CPL1 / CPL2 / CPL3 / CPL4 (see 13.3).40) and rock (4. specified via the formula Hvap = A(Tcrit − T )0.28)) and the value of vaporization enthalpy at the point Tre f (HVAPR (see 13.5 Btu/lb-F = 2.5.27) = 0. CP2 are set via ROCKCP (see 13.5.22. where C = 0. CP2 can be specified via the keyword HEATTCR (see 12. CP2 = 0).39). CP2 are set via HEATCR (see 12.

4. z) exp min pormax. ˆ c – compressibility (ROCK (see 12.5. x.24 Porosity In e300 data format the porosity φ = φ (p. z) is calculated according one of the following models: 1. x. z) – porosity at the pressure pre f (POR (see 13.0132Bar ). y.2 121 and (4.24. Porosity tNavigator-4. ˆ pref – reference pressure for φ (x.25)). If the keyword PORMAX (see 13. z) = φre f (x.53) 4. Linear Elastic Model    φ (p. The value pormax should be in the range from 0 to 1. 4. y.4.4.54) where ˆ ψ(x.4. y.5. T. y. x. T ) · HP(T ) − p P=1 +Vb · φ · SbS · ξS (p.4)) (default – pressure in the first active grid block).24)). defined via TEMR (see 13. default – 0). z) – porosity at the pressure pre f (PORO (see 12.2.11). ˆ cT – effective thermal expansion coefficient of the formation (1/◦C) (CTPOR (see 13.4.16)) (default: in e100 = 0.55) where ˆ φre f (x.24.3.16)) (default 1. in e300 = 4. T ) · HS (T ) +Vb · (1 − φ ) · HR (T ) (4. y. ˆ φ (x. z) – net to gross values (NTG (see 12.934 · 10−5 /Bar ).2.18)). In stars data format the porosity φ = φ (p.5.2)): Ub (p. default – 0). c p (p − pre f ) − cT (T − Tre f ) (4. y. Porosity 138 . y. ˆ pormax – maximal fractional increase in porosity due to pressure (PORMAX (see 13.18) is not defined. z) = ψ(x. T. ˆ Tre f – reference temperature.9)). z) (ROCK (see 12. z)φ (x.4. z)(1 + c(p − pre f ) + c2 (p − pre f )2 /2) (4. T ) = U f (p. y. y. then the value of pormax is considered as infinite. y. y.5). x. T ) ·VS +UR (T ) ·VR  n0P !  = Vb · φ 1 − SbS ∑ ξP(p. z) is φ (p. ˆ pref – reference pressure for φ (x. z) (PRPOR (see 13. y. ˆ c p – compressibility factor (1/Bar) (CPOR (see 13. T ) ·V f +US (p.6).

z). y.Beattie. T. consists of 4 phases: 4.Boberg. c p . Porosity 139 . T. The dilation-recompaction process (pic. cT . z) ×    × exp min pormax. x. G. c p (p − pre f ) + cporpd − cT (T − Tre f ) (4. T.4. y.are defined analogously to Linear Elastic model. SPE Reservoir Engineering.28). z). φre f – porosity at reference pressure pre f and com- pressibility c p are different for different regions. pref . Tre f . ppr1. Tre f . The dependence between porosity and pressure is calculated via the formula  φ (p.58) where pre f – reference pressure.4.are defined analogously to Linear Elastic model. pref . 1991).4. ppr2 and c p2 are specified via CPORPD (see 13. y. Nonlinear Elastic Model    φ (p. y. y. z) exp c p (p − pre f ) (4.I. 4.S.McNab "Reservoir Simulation of Cyclic Steam Stimulation in the Cold Lake Oil Sands". This option is activated via the key- word DILATION (see 13. ppr2 – lower and upper reference pressures ( ppr2 > ppr1) – c p2 – effective formation compressibility (1/Bar) near the value ppr2. z) exp min pormax. c p (p − pre f ) + c pT (p − pre f )(T − Tre f ) − cT (T − Tre f ) (4. z) = φre f (x.57) where ˆ c pT – pressure-temperature cross-term coefficient of the formation effective poros- ity (1/Bar/◦C) (CPTPOR (see 13.24. z) = φre f (x. y. ˆ φre f (x.C. P-T Cross-Term Model φ (p. pormax .4. x. x.56) where ˆ cporpd = A ∗ [D ∗ (p − pre f ) + ln(B/C)] – A = (c p2 − c p )/2 – B = 1 + exp [D ∗ (pav − p)]   – C = 1 + exp D ∗ (pav − pre f ) – D = 10/(ppr2 − ppr1) – pav = (ppr1 + ppr2)/2 – ppr1. 3. Dilation-Recompaction Model This model describes the hysteresis variation of porosity (C.17) ˆ φre f (x. y. May. pormax . z) = φre f (x.7). Porosity tNavigator-4. y.2 2. default – 0).24. 7). cT . c p .

reference porosity φbase (POR (see 13. Porosity tNavigator-4. The value crd is greater then cpepac. by default is equal to the value from CPOR (see 13. In this case tNavigator takes maximum values that were 4. that sets the coefficient of maximal porosity increasing over reference porosity.4. Maximum porosity is defined using reference porosity and the coefficient PORRATMAX (see 13.4. Porosity 140 . no recovery after dilation. Rock compressibility coefficient at dilation crd (1/Bar ) is set using CRD (see 13. Elastic Compaction: with the initial pore volume compressibility value cpepac.4. by default – 0).1). III.22) (by default 0).4. the values pdila and φ (pdila) are taken as pre f and φre f correspondingly.20).5)) II.24. or until the maximum porosity is reached φmax .23) (by default . Dilation: when the pressure exceeds the value pdila (PDILA (see 13.4)).24.4.4. The Dilation continues until the moment when the pressure begins to decrease again.21).9)) and with the pore volume compressibility value cpepac (1/Bar ) (CPEPAC (see 13. Elastic: reversible elastic expansion with a reference pressure pbase (PBASE (see 13. by default it is equal the value PRPOR (see 13.19).4.4.2 Figure 7: Dilation-Recompaction Model I.3. which provides a more rapid increase of porosity.

4. is defined using the parameter f r (FR (see 13.60) p pact φ (p pact ) If after recompaction according the curve (IV ) the pressure starts to increase again. Pore volume of grid block tNavigator-4.6) for elastic curves (I) and (III).24) is: ˆ If PORV (see 12.re f at reference pressure pref (see 4. The residual fraction of dilation.2 reached in dilation as φre f and pre f . by default 0). Further Dilation and compaction occur as described above.2. then the reversible compaction takes place until the moment when the curve (IV ) is reached.0) the recompaction phase is started with with the increase in the coefficient of compressibility cpact . by default .61) where cT – effective thermal expansion coefficient of the formation (1/◦C). CTD (see 13. tNavigator calculates φmin1 .59) After the calculation of φmin it is possible to calculate compressibility factor cpact via the formula (4.porosity at p = 0 . z) = φre f (x.27) 4. the picture below shows the formation deformation during 3 cycles. Pore volume of grid block 141 .25. x.4. Using f r and historical maximum porosity.4.4. that is not reversed in compression.via the formula φmin = A · f r + φbase (4. that is reached during dilation.27) is specified. Temperature effect can be taken into account for Dilation-Recompaction model.re f = PORV (see 12. During this phase pre f = p pact and φre f = φ (p pact ). 4. IV. y. z) exp c p (p − pre f ) − cT T − Tre f (4.25 Pore volume of grid block In e300 data format pore volume Vp.58) is corrected the following way  φ (p. Recompaction: when the pressure falls below the value p pact (PPACT (see 13.24). then a new cycle is started. then Vp. the formula (4. If after pressure increasing it decreases (but the dilation curve is not reached). y. and in the 3-rd cycle the dilation curve was not reached so porosity decreased back on the elastic curve.27) for recompaction curve (IV ).26) for dilation curve (II) and CTPPAC (see 13. until the dilation curve will be reached. During this phase there is a partial recovery after dilatation. It is important to consider that the effect of temperature on the change in porosity is much less significant than the effect of pressure.58): 1 φmin φmin = φ (p pact ) exp (−cpact · p pact ⇒ cpact = − · ln (4.4.25). First there is a reversible elastic expansion of the formation with base compressibility factor cpepac. so that the coefficients of thermal expansion must be considerably less than the corresponding coefficient of compressibility. 0 ≤fr≤ 1.25.2. During the 2-nd cycle porosity at dilation process increased more then in 1-st cycle.4. set by CTPOR (see 13.

Then pore volume Vp (x.re f (x. z)(1 + c(p − pre f ) + c2 (p − pre f )2 /2) (4.62).4. Pore volume of grid block tNavigator-4.re f (x.24. y. y. z)(1 + c p (p − pre f ) − cT (T − Tre f ) + c pT (p − pre f )(T − Tre f )) (4. where multiplier γ(x. y. Pore volume of grid block 142 . y.24) is calculated via formula (4. y. z)φ (x.63) see 4. y. y.re f (x. y. y. z) = Vp. z)ψ(x. z) = γ(x. y.28). z) = Vp.re f at reference pressure pref and temperature Tre f (see 4.62) where a multiplier γ(x. In stars data format pore volume Vp.2 Figure 8: Dilation-Recompaction.25.64) see 4.25. z) (default: 1) is set via VOLMOD (see 13.13). Vgeom — geometric block volume. z) (default: 1) is specified via MULTPV (see 12. z)Vgeom (4. 4. Porosity variation during 3 cycles ˆ Else Vp. Then pore volume Vp (x.24.3.2.

ˆ Else Vb = max{Vgeom .4. 4. 0}.re f } where a multiplier γ (default: 1) is specified via VOLMOD (see 13. S – phase thermal conductivity (THCONW (see 13. then Vb = Vp.26 Bulk volume of grid block In e300 data format bulk volume of grid block Vb : ˆ Tf ROCKV (see 12.4.Vp.4.26. ˆ kR – rock thermal conductivity (THCONR (see 13.16).66) where ˆ kP .re f }. O.13) option SIMPLE   Kb = φ 1 − SbS · (kW SW + kO SO + kG SG ) + φ · kS · SbS + (1 − φ ) · kR (4.4.8)) (default 149. α ∈ [0.14. Bulk volume of grid block 143 .14. THCONO (see 13.28.12) = THCONR (see 13. 4. P = W.14.2 4. P = W.8)). ˆ SG – gas saturation. In stars data format bulk volume of grid block Vb = max{γ · Vgeom .72) is specified.10).65) where ˆ kR – rock thermal conductivity (THCONR (see 12. ˆ α – is set via THCONSF (see 12.re f + ROCKV (see 12.13).11).4. In stars data format thermal conductivity of the grid block is specified using the keyword THCONMIX (see 13.14. SbS – solid phase saturation.6kJ/m/day/C ). G.Vp. Thermal conductivity of the grid block tNavigator-4.9).12)) (default THCONS (see 13.4.4. ˆ SP . 1] (default: 0). THCONS (see 13. ˆ φ – porosity.15)) (kJ/m/day/◦C ).3. 4.4.72).27 Bulk volume of rock Bulk volume of rock VR : VR = max{Vb −Vp . G – phase saturation.28 Thermal conductivity of the grid block In e300 data format thermal conductivity of the grid block is Kb = (1 − αSG ) · kR (4. O. THCONG (see 13.4.

5.33) in stars.14. EACT (see 13..38) in stars. The dependence between the block thermal conductivity and the temperature Kb = Kb0 − 1. RORDER (see 13. STOREAC (see 13.39) in stars. are specified using REACACT (see 12. Chemical reactions tNavigator-4.14.29 Chemical reactions Let’s consider nr chemical reactions. Chemical reactions 144 .46) in e300. ˆ Er – activation energy in chemical reaction rates of the reaction number r .5..14.. FREQFAC (see 13.14. are specified using REACENTH (see 12.55) in e300.13) option COMPLEX     0  p  kR p kR Kb = 1 − SW + SO · kG · F + SW + SO · kL · F kG kL where    kW SW + KO SO F(x) = exp 0. S and kR . G.14. RENTH (see 13. .34) in stars.2 tNavigator also uses the keyword THCONT (see 12.32) in stars. 4.. < 0 (for inhibitor)). 4.4. KL = SW + SO where ˆ φ f – "mobile" porosity. ˆ Hr – reaction enthalpy of the reaction number r .8 · 10 · T + 110644.. . ˆ SPr = (SPri )i=1.6784·10−6 Kb0 ) · Kb · Kb · 1.5.5. (for non reactants can be > 0 (for catalyst).14. For each r .18) to specify the parameters kP .7524 · 10−5(T − Tre f ) · (Kb0 − 119616)  0 −0.4. are specified using REACCORD (see 12..52) in e300. are specified using STOREAC (see 12. nr there are: ˆ SRr = (SRri )i=1. REACSORD (see 12. ˆ Ar – reaction rate of the reaction number r .64 0 −3 (−3..11).. STOPROD (see 13.32876 · log φ f − 0.14.47) in e300. In stars data format isothermal part of the block thermal conductivity specified using the keyword THCONMIX (see 13.36) in stars.nc – stoichiometric coefficients for products of the reaction number r .29.024755 · log x log x .5. are specified using STOPROD (see 12. ˆ Nr = (nri )i=1. in chemical reaction r rate.28 − 0.48).56) in e300.29.8 where Tre f is given by the keyword TEMR (see 13.53) in e300. P = W. O.. r = 1.5.. .nc – order of component terms..14.nc – stoichiometric coefficients for reactants of the reaction number r . are specified using REACRATE (see 12. ..5.

.2 For example.14. pressure and order are:   T  u if T > T u  pu if p > pu ( if c0ri > Cri   0 0 nri T = Tl if T < Tl p = pl if p < pl n0ri = (4. . components C12 H26 . nr (kg − mol/day) for the volume Vb is nc 0 Rr = Vb · Ar · e−Er /(RT ) · ∏(c0ri )nri (4. component concentration (since (4. .41) (REACLIMS (see 12. r = 1. C3 H8 . Chemical reactions 145 .G else (for gas) (4. .70)   1 else T else p else   where ˆ Tu is specified using RTEMUPR (see 13. CO2 .4.49) in e300 data format). O2 . Chemical reactions tNavigator-4.29.29.3143 .68)        SbS · ξS · xiS = Ni if the reactant i is in the solid phase  N i if the reactant i is in all phases ( φ · cri if it isn’t gas and not REACPHA (see 12. 4.5 0 0 SPr 0 0 0 12 13 Nr 1 0 1 0 0 C3 H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2 O C12 H26 C3 H8 O2 CO2 H2 O SRr 0 1 5 0 0 SPr 0 0 0 3 4 Nr 0 1 1 0 0 Reaction rate of the reaction number r .5O2 → 12CO2 + 13H2 O C12 H26 C3 H8 O2 CO2 H2 O SRr 1 0 18.44 c0ri = p0 · xi.69) where temperature.4)): K · kg − mol      1 − SS · ξO · SO xiO if the reactant i is in the oil phase b     1 − bS · ξG · SG xiG if the reactant i is in the gas phase S      cri = 1 − bS · ξW · SW xiW if the reactant i is in the water phase S (4.54) with GPP (there is no O2PP (see 13.14.67) i=1 kJ where R = 8. for nc = 5.5. H2 O and nr = 2 reac- tions: C12 H26 + 18.5.

54) in e300.4). tNavigator uses the keyword Cri = REACCONC (see 12.4. Volume 19.42) (REACLIMS (see 12.40) in stars. In stars data format the default value is calculated using the data of the keyword MODEL (see 13. . (4. The component phase in the chemical reaction i (see the description of cri above). . . . ˆ Cri – RXCRITCON (see 13. The reaction rate (4. .14.p · Ar · e−Er /(RT ) · ∏ (cri )nri · ∏ (p0 · xi. .14.30. In e300 data format the "mobile" component can be specified in all phases.14.5. .5. RPHASE (see 13.2 ˆ Tl – RTEMLOWR (see 13. The heat loss between the reservoir and surroundings 146 . The following parameters are to be specified: 4.W.54) with GPP (no O2PP (see 13.51). This is a default value.G )nri (4. 87-90. nc . The Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology (JCPT).p = ∑ nri − 1. appears via the chemical reactions: nr QRi = ∑ (SPri − SRri)Rr . Westerveld.14.49) (there is no analogue in stars ( p0 = p))..43) (there is no analogue in e300 (n0ri = nri ). In e300 data format another value nr. July-September 1980.67) can depend on pore volume Vp = φ ·Vb : 0 Rr = Vp · φ nr. 3. (4.49) in e300 data format). The heat loss between the reservoir and surroundings tNavigator-4.72) r=1 The additional energy flow.30. O2PP (see 13. No. nc : if i is no gas and there is no REACPHA (see 12.14. (Montreal). Vinsome. i = 1. pl is specified using REACLIMS (see 12.73) r=1 4.50)).p = 0). . ˆ pu .30 The heat loss between the reservoir and surroundings In e300 and stars data format there is the same modelling of the heat loss between the reservoir and surroundings: "A Simple Method for Predicting Cap and Base Rock Heat Losses in Thermal Reservoir Simulators". indices Fr : i∈Fr Fr = i ∈ {1. is set via REACPHA (see 12.p can be specified for each reaction using REACPORD (see 12.71) i∈Fr i6∈Fr where nr.5.K.14. The reaction rate can be independent of pore volume (nr.5.5.D. appears via the chemical reactions: nr QRe = ∑ Hr Rr .. J. The additional component flow i. P. then cri = φ · Ni .44) is used for components in gas phase and is the default value for oxygen.

78) in e300 (is not defined in stars).2. ROCKCONT (see 12.2.16). ˆ Initial temperature (C ) – ROCKPROP (see 12. II. 4. ˆ Minimal difference between temperatures when the calculations of the heat loss should start (C ) – HLOSSTDIFF (see 13.4.16) (stars).80). HLOSSPROP (see 13.80) (default 0) (is missing in e300). which specifies the heat loss directions.31 Heater simulation Let’s consider 3 heater models: I.1.79).4.14) (stars).2. III.2.2.2. volumetric heat capacity and rock conductivity. Heater simulation 147 .78) (e300).80). in stars – is specified at the same time with the description of the geometry. Heater simulation tNavigator-4. The following parameters should be specified via the keywords: 4. ˆ Rock conductivity (kJ/m/day/C ) – ROCKPROP (see 12.2 ˆ The connection between the reservoir and cap and base rocks. ˆ Temperature-dependent coefficient of the volumetric heat capacity of the rock (kJ/m3 /C2 ) – ROCKPROP (see 12. temperature difference dependent injection rate (the heater that provides the energy rate proportionally to the difference between the current temperature in the block and maximum temperature).2. tNavigator also uses the keyword ROCK- CONT (see 12.4.4.80).4. in stars – the connection can be: the entire surface of the rock region (THTYPE (see 13.78) (e300).2. constant energy injection rate. HLOSST (see 13.80). ˆ Volumetric heat capacity (kJ/m3 /C ) – ROCKPROP (see 12.35).15) in stars. HLOSSPROP (see 13.78) (e300).1)) in the given direction.4.2). ROCKCONT (see 12.4. ˆ The number of types of cap and base rocks with different properties.31. which will be used to model the heat loss between the reservoir and surroundings in e300 is set via ROCKDIMS (see 12.4.16) (stars). Using these parameters tNavigator calculates for each grid block the value QL – the energy of heat loss between the reservoir and surroundings (QL = 0 – if the block isn’t situated on the the reservoir boundary).2.2. In e300 data format the complicated form of connection can be specified via the keyword ROCKCON (see 12.31. ROCKCONT (see 12. – specified via the keyword HLOSSPROP (see 13. energy density dependent injection rate (energy rate depends on energy density changing with the time). ROCKTYPE (see 13. ROCKCONT (see 12.

9. in E300 data format Hmax has units METRIC: kJ/day. In stars format parameters 2-3 are specified via the keyword HEATR (see 13.18. (4.74) 4. 5.31.9.J. In stars format parameters 2-3 are specified via the keyword HEATR (see 13. 3.18.3). FIELD: Btu/day/R◦ . FIELD: Btu/day. 0).157).9. maximum heat injection rate. units in stars format – SI: J/day. (4. 4. Heater with constant energy injection rate 148 . FIELD: F ◦ ).2 Heater with energy density dependent injection rate One should enter the following properties to specify the heater for model III: 1-5 (in stars format parameter 1 shouldn’t be specified). 0). heater name (for E300 format models). Hmax ). R < 0. in E300 format R has units METRIC: kJ/day/K .1).2).9.157).31. units in stars format – SI: J/day −C .K-coordinates of the heater connection.31. In E300 for this heater model the heat rate to the grid block is: H = min((Tmax − T )R. Hmax . 4. 4. In E300 format parameters 1-3 are specified via the keyword HEATER (see 12.1 Heater with constant energy injection rate One should enter the following properties to specify the heater for model I: 1-3 (in stars format parameter 1 shouldn’t be specified).4. parameter 4 – via the keyword TMPSET (see 13.1). Heater simulation tNavigator-4. R > 0. maximum temperature in the block where heater is connected (METRIC (SI): C◦ . H= (4. For this heater model the heat will be injected at a constant rate to the grid block: H = Hmax . I.31. R.2 1.75) where T – current temperature in the grid block. 2. FIELD: Btu/day.76) min((T − Tmax )|R|. In stars the heat rate to the grid block (for the linear model) depends on R sign: ( min((Tmax − T )R. In E300 format parameters 1-5 are specified via the keyword HEATER (see 12. FIELD: Btu/day − F . temperature-dependent heat injection rate (proportional heat transfer coefficient be- tween heat rate and the difference between current block temperature and maximum temperature).1. parameter 5 – UHTR (see 13.

31.0E10 is specified + Hmax > 0 is specified R = . if we enter the heater properties 1-4.3. Hmax ).79) 0. Hmax ).32 Phase flow rate  k  rP u p = −βc k (∇p + ∇PcP − ρP g∇d) (4.2 4.32. one could specify an option of automatic switching of heater operation mode (R > 0): ( min((Tmax − T )R.0E10 + is specified Tmax < 1. T ≤ Tmax . the value of energy rate in grid block depend on changing with time of the energy density in the block: i−1 Etot (Tmax ) − Etot H = min(V . SG ) – phase relative permeability.5 Flags of automatic heating or cooling (stars) In stars for the block to which the heater is connected. ˆ krP = krP (SW . Etot . default default + is specified default + is specified Tmax < 1.4 Temperature difference dependent injection rate In E300. z) – depth (top-down).77) dt where V . dt - the length of the last time step. T > Tmax . The same way the operation mode of cooling element can be switched automatically (R < 0): ( min((T − Tmax )R. (4. 4. Etot (Tmax ) . ˆ d = d(x. 4.0E10 + is specified Tmax > 1. 4.density of the full energy at the previous time step.31. H= (4.0 + 4.block volume.78) 0.4.80) µP where ˆ βc – the constant value. Selecting of the heater operating mode depending on the defined properties E300149 . y. Hmax ). g – gravitation constant.3 Selecting of the heater operating mode depending on the defined properties E300 Hmax Tmax R Model I Model II Model III Off. specified via 4. Phase flow rate tNavigator-4. H= (4. T ≥ Tmax .density of the full energy in the block at maximum i−1 temperature. T < Tmax .31.31.

80) of phase flow. . c = n0c + 1. . nw – total number of sources and flows. ˆ energy flow due to conductivity Ce = div(Kb ∇T ). nc (4. n0c – see page 123. appears via the chemical reactions (4.4).81) ∂t P=1 ∂ (φ Nc ) = QRc . Mass conservation equation 150 .33 Mass conservation equation Mass conservation equation (moles) for each component: nP 0 ∂   φ (1 − SS )Nc = div ∑ xc. P = 1. ˆ convection enthalpy flow from (in) neighbouring surrounding points n0P Fe = div ∑ HPξPUP P=1 where phase enthalpy HP specified via (4. δβ – δ -Dirack function.72). ˆ QRc – component c flow.80) of phase flow P. see page 143. N) – velocity vector (4. on the ⠈ β trajectory of source (flow) number β . . ˆ n0P .2 4. Sources and flows — injectors and producers and aquifers. ˆ SbS – solid phase saturation (4. n0P .34. qc – rate (negative for flows and positive for sources).4. . 4. n0c b (4. . UP = UP (p. . .53). . .82) ∂t where ˆ UP = UP (p. .38). Qc = ∑nβw=1 δβ qc — total rate of all sources and flows.83) ∂t where ˆ internal block energy (kJ ) Ub specified via (4.34 Energy conservation equation Energy conservation equation: ∂ (Ub ) = Fe +Ce + QRe + Qwell e − QL (4. N) – velocity vector (4. Energy conservation equation tNavigator-4. c = 1.P ξPUP + Qc + QRc . . . where Kb — block thermal conductivity (kJ/m/day/◦C ).33. 4.

35.35. P=1 ∂Vb ∂Vb 4. Phase relative permeabilities 151 .8)).38). In the equations above (mass conservation equation for components and energy conserva- tion equation) the primary variables are p.2 ˆ energy flow due to chemical reactions QRe see (4. phase enthalpy HP specified via (4.1. Nc and T (parameter ZT in the keyword TFORM (see 12.35 Phase relative permeabilities Calculation of phase relative permeabilities contains the following stages: 1.81) but the energy conservation equation will be the following: n0P ! Z ! Z ∂ ∂t Vb Etot = − ∑ HPξPUP ds + Kb∇T ds + QRe + Qwell e − QL . Oil relative permeability krO is calculated using the first or the second Stone’s model. P=1 ∂Vb ∂Vb Where VR = max{Vb −Vp . In case if the primary variables are p. Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4. Total energy conservation equation for block Vb : ! 0 n0c ! ! ! nP nc ∂   ∂t Vp 1 − SbS ∑ Nc ∑ (RP · HP) − 102 · p +Vp ∑ Nc · Hc. In this case the form of mass conservation equation doesn’t change (4.1. 4. Nc and Etot – system fluid enthalpy (parameter ZH in the keyword TFORM (see 12.73).2.4. see page 146.84) P=1 where QP – rate of phase P for connection in the grid block. 3. 0}.35. ˆ QL — energy flow due to heat loss with surrounding.S (T ) +VR · HR c=1 P=1 c=n0c +1 Z 0 nP ! Z = ∑ HPξPUP ds + Kb ∇T ds + QRe + Qwell e − QL .8)). see the table 3). Relative permeabilities (and capillary pressure) scaling for two-phase systems (see 4. Permeabilities and capillary pressure are calculated for two-phase systems water–oil and gas–oil (see the table 1). (4. 2. ˆ energy flow from the well n0P Qwell e = ∑ HP · ξP · QP.

2) SLT (see 13.6. krOG (SG ) SGOF (see 12.6. We suppose that at initialization stage the following condition is checked max krOW = max krOG SW SG 4.3) (e300).30).6. ENKRVD (see 12.6. ENKRVT (see 12.6.1. ˆ these constants can be specified as temperature dependent constants.saturation region number for current block i.. KRTYPE (see 13.1) SWT (see 13. I .2 Phase permeability scaling.69). Value e300 data format CMG data format Value description krW (SW ).1 Phase relative permeability for two-phase systems Specification of phase relative permeabilities is in the table 1.35.only for thermo-compositional model.4.7) (CMG)). surfactant) (keyword can only be used in tNavigator ENPTRC (see 12.4) relative permeability for two-phase system gas–oil PcOW (SW ) SWOF (see 12.. From the table 1 we take functions for I and enter for them constants from the table 2. KRW (see 12.14.1) SWT (see 13..3) capillary pressure two-phase system water–oil PcOG (SG ) SGOF (see 12. Specification of critical saturations can be done using one of the following ways (they are not compatible): ˆ Specification of critical saturations for each grid block (keywords SWL (see 12.4) capillary pressure two-phase system gas–oil Table 1: Phase relative permeabilities Phase relative permeabilities can be specified for different saturation regions (Saturation regions are specified via SATNUM (see 12.). .6. ˆ Specification of critical saturations as depth function (keywords ENPTVD (see 12. Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4.43). ˆ Specification of critical saturations as tracer concentration function (salt. 4.3) relative permeability for krOW (SW ) two-phase system water–oil krG (SG ).39)).27). SWOF (see 12. ˆ Specification of critical saturations as temperature function (keywords ENPTVT (see 12.14.35.2) SLT (see 13.6.38). Phase relative permeability for two-phase systems 152 .6.4.6.. SWCR (see 12.6.6.2 Phase relative permeabilities scaling Each constant in the table 2 can be changed. 4.6.41)).6..35.35.6. ˆ via phase permeabilities scaling. .6.70)) .

SGL WU 0 3.). In CMG data format initial conditions can be specified as constants in saturation regions (for example – SWR (see 13.2 Value Value description SW L minimal value of SW in table for water SWCR maximal value of SW in table for water.9) etc.6. in e300 data format – constant should be specified for each grid block. SOWCR 0 + SWCR <1 0 4. for which krOG (SG ) = 0 krW max maximal value of function krW (SW ) krGmax maximal value of function krG (SG ) krOmax maximal value of function krOW (SW ) and krOG (SG ) krW R krW (1 − SOWCR − SGL ) krGR krG (1 − SOGCR − SW L ) krORG krOG (SGCR ) krORW krOW (SWCR ) PCGmax maximal value of function PcOG (SG ) PCW max maximal value of function PcOW (SW ) Table 2: Phase relative permeability constants see the table 3. for which krOW (SW ) = 0 SOGCR maximal value of SO = 1 − SG − SW L in table for gas. Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4.) and as constants in each grid block (for example – BSWR (see 13. Phase relative permeability scaling is switched on using the keyword ENDSCALE (see 12. for which krG (SG ) = 0 SGU maximal value of SG in table for gas SOWCR maximal value of SO = 1−SW −SGL in table for water.6. Calculated values should satisfy the following conditions: 0 1. tNavigator supports all keyword from the table 3. for which krW (SW ) = 0 SWU maximal value of SW in table for water SGL minimal value of SG in table for gas SGCR maximal value of SG in table for gas.4.35. SOGCR 0 + SGCR 0 + SW L<1 Two-point phase relative permeability scaling keeps permeability values (from tables) in two points: Permeability Point 1 Point 2 krW 0 SWCR 0 SWU krG 0 SGCR 0 SGU krOW 0 SW 0 1 − SOWCR 0 − SGL L krOG 0 SGL 0 0 1 − SOGCR − SW L 4.10) etc.35.24) (e300 data format run). Phase relative permeabilities scaling 153 .2. SGU 0 6 1 − SW L 0 6 1 − S0 2.6.

6.14.14. parameter 4 ˆKROCW (see 13. Phase relative permeabilities scaling 154 .43) ˆBKRWIRO (see 13. 4. parameter 2 ˆSWR (see 13.14) ˆENPTVT (see 12.6.35.6.70).19) ˆ1 − KRTEMTAB (see 13.6.35.8) 0 krW R krW R ˆKRWR (see 12.6.20) ˆENPTVT (see 12.14.6.44) ˆBKRGCW (see 13.2. parameter 4 ˆ1 − SOIRW (see 13.2 Value Number e300 (replace "Number") CMG (replace "Number") 0 SW L SW L ˆSWL (see 12.28) ˆENKRVT (see 12.42) ˆBKROCW (see 13.23) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13. parameter 2 ˆKRWIRO (see 13.14.6.6.47) ˆBPCGMAX (see 13.14. parameter 2 ˆPCGEND (see 13.70).14.8) 0 SWU SWU ˆSWU (see 12.6.6.29) ˆBSGCON (see 13.6.6.29) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13. parameter 3 ˆKRGCW (see 13.14.6.69).30) ˆENKRVT (see 12.14.6.6.14.71).14. parameter 6 0 krORG krORG ˆKRORG (see 12.43) — ˆENKRVT (see 12.6.9) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13.14.6. parameter 6 ˆSGR (see 13. parameter 3 ˆPCWEND (see 13.8) 0 SOGCR SOGCR ˆSOGCR (see 12.70).18) ˆENPTVT (see 12.6.6.6.35) ˆ1 − BSOIRG (see 13.69).6.34) ˆ1 − BSOIRW (see 13.6.6.6.70).6.27) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13. parameter 7 ˆ1 − SOIRG (see 13.6.44) — ˆENKRVT (see 12.8) 0 krGmax krGmax ˆKRG (see 12.8) 0 SOWCR SOWCR ˆSOWCR (see 12.6.6.6.6. Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4. parameter 7 0 krORW krORW ˆKRORW (see 12. parameter 5 0 krGR krGR ˆKRGR (see 12.14.10) ˆENPTVT (see 12.69).69). parameter 5 ˆSGCON (see 13.6.70).8) 0 SGL SGL ˆSGL (see 12.6.69).24) ˆENPTVT (see 12.6.33) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13.6.6.6.70).46) ˆBPCWMAX (see 13.69).6. parameter 8 ˆSORW (see 13. parameter 9 ˆSORG (see 13.22) ˆENPTVT (see 12.8) 0 SGU SGU ˆSGU (see 12.14. parameter 3 ˆSWCRIT (see 13.16) ˆENPTVT (see 12.42) — ˆENKRVT (see 12.6.32) ˆBSORW (see 13.8) 0 SGCR SGCR ˆSGCR (see 12.6.6.6.14.21) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13.6.14.11) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13.42) — ˆENKRVT (see 12.6.8) 0 krOmax krOmax ˆKRO (see 12.6.6.6.12) ˆENPTVT (see 12.34) ˆENPCVT (see 12.31) ˆBSGR (see 13.6.6.26) ˆENKRVT (see 12.27) ˆBSWR (see 13.69).14.6.6.15) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13.70).69).6.30) ˆBSWCRIT (see 13.33) ˆBSORG (see 13.8) 0 krW max krW max ˆKRW (see 12.8) 0 SWCR SWCR ˆSWCR (see 12.8) Table 3: Phase relative permeability scaling 4.31) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13.6.71).14.25) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13.6.6.32) ˆENPCVT (see 12. parameter 8 0 PCGmax PCGmax ˆPCG (see 12.6.8) 0 PCW max PCW max ˆPCW (see 12.17) ˆKRTEMTAB (see 13.6.13) ˆ1 − KRTEMTAB (see 13.

T : 0 0 (T )    SG SGCR (T ) > SGU   SGCR   0 SG < SGCR (T ) 0 SG (SG . Phase relative permeabilities scaling 155 .90) PCW max If there is gas phase in the model. T ) = PcOW (ScOW (SW .85)  SWU SW > SWU SWU − SWCR    0 SWCR + (SW − SWCR  (T )) else 0 0 SWU (T ) − SWCR (T ) 0 0 krW max (T ) 0 krW (SW . T ) = 0 (T ) (4.88) krOmax 0 (T ) > S0 (T )   SW SW L WU   SW L   0 (T ) SW < SW L 0 ScOW (SW .4. T ) = rOmax krOW (SOW (SW . for the given SG . T ) = krW (SW (SW .2. T )) (4. T : 0 0 (T )   SW SWCR (T ) > SWU   SWCR   0 SW < SWCR (T ) 0 SW (SW . T )) (4. Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4.35.89)  SWU SW > SWU SWU − SW L     0 (T )) SW L + (SW − SW else L 0 0 (T ) SWU (T ) − SW L 0 0 PCW max (T ) 0 PcOW (SW .35.86) krW max If there is an oil phase in the model.92) krGmax 4. the following parameters are calculated  0 (T ) > 1 − S0 0 SW SW L OWCR (T ) − SGL (T )     0 (T )      SW L SW < SW L  0 0 0 (T ) SOW (SW . T ) = 1 − SOWCR − SGL SW > 1 − SOWCR (T ) − SGL 0 (T ))×  SW L + (SW − SW     L   1 − SOWCR − SGL − SW L  × 0 (T ) − S0 (T ) else   0 1 − SOWCR (T ) − SGL WL (4. T ) = rGmax krG (SG (SG . T ) = 0 (T ) (4.91)   SGU SG > SGU SGU − SGCR   SGCR + (SG − SGCR   0 (T )) 0 else 0 SGU (T ) − SGCR (T ) k 0 (T ) 0 0 krG (SG . T ) = 0 (T ) (4. T )) (4.2 For the given SW . T )) (4.87) k 0 (T ) 0 0 krOW (SW .

2 If there is an oil phase in the model.93) k 0 (T ) 0 0 krOG (SG . Permeability Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 krW 0 SWCR 0 1 − SOWCR 0 − SGL 0 SWU krG 0 SGCR 0 0 1 − SOGCR − SW L 0 SGU krOW 0 SW 0 SWCR 0 1 − SOWCR 0 − SGL L krOG 0 SGL 0 SGCR 0 1 − SOGCR 0 − SW L For the given SW .96) PCGmax Phase relative permeabilities free-point scaling is enable in e300 data format (see the keyword SCALECRS (see 12.6. T )) (4.35. Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4. T ) = rOmax krOG (SOG (SG . T )) (4.95)  SGU SG > SGU SGU − SGL     0 (T )) SGL + (SG − SGL else 0 0 (T ) SGU (T ) − SGL 0 PCGmax (T ) 0 0 PcOG (SG . Phase relative permeabilities scaling 156 . T ) = PcOG (ScOG (SG .35.4. This method keeps permeability values in free points in the table below (additional point – SW r (SGr )). the following parameters are calculated  0 (T ) > 1 − S0 0 SG SGL OGCR (T ) − SW L (T )     0 (T )      SGL SG < SGL  0 0 0 (T ) SOG (SG . T ) = 1 − SOGCR − SW L SG > 1 − SOGCR (T ) − SW L 0 (T ))×  S + (S − S  GL G    GL   1 − SOGCR − SW L − SGL  × 0 (T ) − S0 (T ) else   0 1 − SOGCR (T ) − SW L GL (4.2. T the following parameters are calculated: ( 0 1 − SOWCR 0 (T ) if oil phase is enable (T ) − SGL 0 SW r (T ) = 0 1 − SGCR (T ) else ( 1 − SOWCR − SGL if oil phase is enable SW r = 1 − SGCR else 4.94) krOmax 0 (T ) > S0 (T )   SG SGL GU   SGL   0 (T ) SG < SGL 0 ScOG (SG . T ) = 0 (T ) (4.26)).

T ) = 0 (T )   SW L SW < SW L      0 (T )) SOW r − SW L 0 (T ) 6 S < S0  SW L + (SW − SW L 0 0 (T ) SW L W OW r (T ) SOW r (T ) − SW    L = S 0  OW r + (SW − SOW r (T ))× 1 − SOWCR − SGL − SOW r    × 0 0 0 SOW r (T ) 6 SW < 1 − SOWCR (T ) − SGL (T )  0 0 (T ) − S0  1 − SOWCR (T ) − SGL OW r (T )       1 − SOWCR − SGL 0 SW > 1 − SOWCR 0 (T ) (T ) − SGL (4. Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4. T ) =  0 (T )) SWU − SW r 0 (T ) 6 S < S0 (T ) SW r + (SW − SW SW  W    r S 0 (T ) − S 0 (T ) r WU   WU W r 0 (T )  S WU SW > SWU (4. 0 0 0 0 If calculated value SOW r (T ) is not in the interval [SW L (T ).86). else: W   SWCR 0 SW < SWCR (T )      0 SW r − SWCR 0 0 (T ) SWCR + (SW − SWCR (T )) 0 SWCR (T ) 6 SW < SW   0 SW r (T ) − SWCR (T ) r 0 SW (SW . then 0 (S .6. T ) = SOW r .97) Note that SW 0 (S0 (T ).98) rW R krW max − krW (SW r )      0 0 (T ) ×(krW (SW (SW . T ) = k0 (T ) + krW max (T ) − krW R (T ) × (4. T ) = k0 Note that krW Wr rW R (T ). then SOW (SW . SOW r = SWCR . T ). then SW 0 (S .2. T )) SW < SW r  krW (SW r )   0 0 0 krW (SW . 1 − SOWCR (T ) − SGL (T )] or 0 (T ) > 1 − S0 0 0 SW L OWCR (T ) − SGL (T ). 0 (S .35. else: krW W  0 krW R (T ) 0 0 (T )   krW (SW (SW .85).4. T ) is calculated via formula (4.2 If calculated value SW 0 (T ) is not in an interval [S0 0 0 0 r WCR (T ). k0 If oil phase is present then SOW W rOW (SW . Phase relative permeabilities scaling 157 . T )) − krW (SW r )) SW > SW r 0 (S0 (T ). T the following parameters are calculated: 0 0 SOW r (T ) = SWCR (T ). For the given SW .43) is not specified or krW (SW r ) > krW max . Wr Wr If the keyword KRWR (see 12. T ) is calculated via formula (4.87). T ) is calculated via formula (4. SWU (T )] or SWCR (T ) > SWU (T ). T ) also are calculated.99) 0 (S0 Note that SOW OW r (T ). T ) = S . else 0 SOW (SW . 4.35.

T )) SG < SGr  krG (SGr )   0 0 krGmax (T ) − krGR0 (T ) krG (SG . T )) SW > SOW r (T ) krOW (SOW r ) 0 Note that krOW 0 (SOW 0 r (T ). If oil phase is present then SOG0 (S . then SG 0 (S . T ) is calculated via formula (4. Phase relative permeabilities scaling 158 .35. SOGr = SGCR . else G   SGCR 0 SG < SGCR (T )      0 SGr − SGCR 0 0 (T ) SGCR + (SG − SGCR (T )) 0 SGCR (T ) 6 SG < SGr   SGr (T ) − SGCR0 (T ) 0 SG (SG . T the following parameters are calculated: ( 0 1 − SOGCR 0 (T ) if oil phase is present (T ) − SW 0 L SGr (T ) = 0 1 − SWCR (T ) else ( 1 − SOGCR − SW L if oil phase is present SGr = 1 − SWCR else If the calculated value SGr 0 (T ) is not in the interval [S0 0 0 0 GCR (T ).2 If the keyword KRORW (see 12. k0 G rOG (SG .44) is not specified or krG (SGr ) > krGmax .4. T ) = S . Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4.42) is not specified or krOW (SOW r ) > krOmax .102) k rGR (T ) + × k − k (S )  rGmax rG Gr     ×(krG (SG 0 (S .101) Note that SG 0 (S0 (T ). T ) = ×(krOW (SOW W rOW (SOW r )) SW < SOW r (T ) (4.6. T ) = 0 (4. T )) − k 0 krOW (SW . T ).100) k0 (T )    rORW  0 0  krOW (SOW (SW .2. then 0 krOW (SW .91). T ) = krORW (T ). T )is calculated via formula (4.88). T ) =  0 (T )) SGU − SGr 0 (T ) 6 S < S0 (T ) SGr + (SG − SGr SGr  G    S 0 (T ) − S 0 (T ) GU   GU Gr 0 (T )  S GU SG > SGU (4. T the following parameters are calculated: 0 0 SOGr (T ) = SGCR (T ). For the given SG .6. Gr Gr If the keyword KRGR (see 12. 4. T ) G is calculated via formula (4. T ) also are calculated.35. T ) = k0 Note that krG Gr rGR (T ). If gas phase is present then for the given SG . T )) − k (S )) 0 (T ) SG > SGr G rG Gr 0 (S0 (T ). else  0 krGR (T ) 0 0 (T )   krG (SG (SG . else  0 krOmax 0 (T ) − krORW (T )   0 krORW (T ) + × krOmax − krOW (SOW r )    0 0 (S .92). then krG 0 (S . SGU (T )] or SGCR (T ) > SGU (T ).

2) (STONE1) Stone II model(modified) STONE2 (see default. 4. T )) − k 0 krOG (SG . then oil relative permeability krO should be calculated.94). T ) = ×(krOG (SOG G rOG (SOGr )) SG < SOGr (T ) (4. T )) SG > SOGr (T ) krOG (SOGr ) 0 Note that krOG 0 (SOGr 0 (T ).6. then SOG (SG .3 Phase relative permeabilities for free-phase systems If oil phase is present in the model.35. else 0 SOG (SG .103) Note that SOG 0 (S0 OGr (T ). T ) = SOGr . T ) = 0 (T )    SGL SG < SGL      0 (T )) SOGr − SGL 0 (T ) 6 S < S0   S GL + (S G − S GL 0 0 (T ) SGL G OGr (T ) SOGr (T ) − SGL    = S 0  OGr + (SG − SOGr (T ))× 1 − SOGCR − SW L − SOGr     × 0 SOGr 0 (T ) 6 SG < 1 − SOGCR 0 (T ) (T ) − SW 0 0 (T ) − S0 L  1 − SOGCR (T ) − SW OGr (T )     L   1 − SOGCR − SW L 0 SG > 1 − SOGCR 0 (T ) (T ) − SW L (4.3. else  0 krOmax 0 (T ) − krORG (T ) k 0 (T ) + × rORG  krOmax − krOG (SOGr )    0 0 (S .35. Phase relative permeabilities for free-phase systems 159 .6.6. Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4. If the keyword KRORG (see 12.6.104) k0 (T )    rORG  0 0  krOG (SOG (SG . T ) = krORG (T ). T ) is calculated via formula (4.2) (default) Stone I model(standard) STONE1 (see can not be defined 12. Let’s consider models from the table 4. Name e300 data format CMG data format Linear model (see [21]) default RPT (see 13.6. then 0 krOG (SG .2) (STONE2) Table 4: Phase relative permeabilities for free-phase systems 4.93).35. RPT (see 12.20) Stone I model(modified) (see [22]) can not be defined RPT (see 13. T ) is calculated via formula (4.2 0 0 (T ).42) is not specified or krOG (SOGr ) > krOmax .21) 13.6.4. 1 − S0 0 If calculated value SOGr (T ) is not in the interval [SGL OGCR (T ) − SW L (T )] or 0 (T ) > 1 − S0 0 0 SGL OGCR (T ) − SW L (T ).

T ) − SG − SOm (SG . 1 − SW L (T ) − SOGCR (T ) Let 0 0 SW (SW . T ) SO W G · ∗ ∗ (S . Phase relative permeabilities for free-phase systems 160 . Phase relative permeabilities tNavigator-4. T ) = 0 (T ) − S (S . S∗ (S . T ) W W G Om G SO (SW . SG . SW L (T )). SOGCR (T )) ˆ for modified first Stone’s model: 0 0 SOm (SG . SGL . T ) = α(SG . this formula provides krO (SW L . T ))SOGCR (T ). T ) if 1 − S0 (S . T ) 0 0 0 krO (SW . T ) = krOW (SW . T )SOWCR (T ) + (1 − α(SG . SG . S . T ) ∗ (S . Let’s consider SOm (SG .35. Let’s denote as SO ∗ (S . S .35. SG . T ) = SG · k0 (SG + SW − S0 (T ).4. T ) (4.105) rOG WL  0 (T )) + −     S G + (SW SW L 0 (T )) · k0  (S − SW rOW (SG + SW .2 Linear Beyker’s model. T ) 1 − SW L Om G Then 0 krOW (SW . T ) − S0 (T ) SW ∗ W WL SW (SW . SG . where SG α(SG . SG . T ) 0 (T ) < ε  krOG (SG + SW − SW L SW − SW L    k0 (SG + SW . T ) krOG (SGL (T ). T )  ∗ 0 (T ) − S (S . S∗ (S . SG . T ) and krO (SW . T ))(1 − SG G Since krOW (SW L . T ) = krOG (SG . T ) 1 − SW L Om G ∗ S G SG (SG . T ). T ) = 1 − 0 0 . T ) = 1 − SW L Om G 0 else  0 (S .3. T ): ˆ for standard first Stone’s model: 0 0 SOm (T ) = min(SOWCR (T ). Let (ε – small parameter):  0 0 (T ). T ) the following values: W G W W G G G 0  1 − SW (SW . T )    SG < ε  rOW   0 krO (SW . T ) · 0 0 · 0 0 krOW (SW L (T ). S . T ) − S > S (S . T ). T )   + W   L  0 (T )) else SG + (SW − SW L First Stone’s model. T ). T )) (4. 4. T ) = krOG (SGL . T ) = max(SW . T ) = krOW (SW L (T ).106) (1 − SW (SW . T ) – maximal value in the table. T ) 0 krOG (SG . T ) = 0 (T ) − S (S .

molar density of the components. Calculation of the phase composition tNavigator-4. T ) < 0.43) are specified krW (T )     max  krW max   0 if only KRW (see 12. c = 1. We assume that the following values are known: pressure p. SG . T )  0 0 0 rOW W 0 krO (SW . SG . T ).6.36. nc . T ) − (α(T )krW (SW .36. T )) (4. component molar densities and total molar enthalpy of the mixture. T ) 0 0 0  · 0 rOG0 + β (T )krG (SG . T ) = krOG (SGL .6. T ) + β (T )krG (SG .36 Calculation of the phase composition Calculation of the phase composition of the mixture from pressure. .6. molar densities of the components Nc . Let’s consider the following functions:  0 krGmax (T )   0 if KRG (see 12.44) is specified       krGmax (T ) 1 else  (4. .109) krOG (SGL (T ). SG .2 Second Stone’s model.43) is specified α(T ) = krW max (T )   0 krGmax (T ) if only KRG (see 12. and a volumetric 4.43) is specified β (T ) = krGmax k  0 rGmax  if only KRG (see 12. T ) = krOW (SW . T ) – maximal value in the table.36. . Thus.1 Statement of the problem We have the notations introduced earlier.6.44) and KRW (see 12.4. Calculation of the phase composition 161 .44) and KRW (see 12.108) Then  k0 (S . suppose there is a mixture consisting from 0 nc components.43) are specified krGmax (T )     0  krW max (T )   if only KRW (see 12. T ) If krO (SW . T ) 0 0 (T ). We consider the problem of calculation of the phase composition and temperature of the mix- ture in a situation where the primary variables of filtration equations and energy conservation equation are pressure. T ) and krO (SW . T ) = 0 is considered. . 4. first nc components are movable.6. T ) = krOG (SG . 4. T ) krOW (SW L  0  k (SG . T ) = krOW (SW L (T ).44) is specified   krW max     1 else   0 (4.6. SGL . T ) + α(T )krW (SW .107) krW max (T )   0 if KRG (see 12. this formula provides krO (SW L . and a volumetric energy density of the block. Since krOW (SW L .6. SG . then krO (SW .6.

. For solid phase always ˆ in e300 data format one should specify explicitly solid phase saturation SbS and component distribution xc. G   c=1 ! nc   φe f f (1 − SbS ) Ntot ∑ RP HP − 102 p + φe f f ∑ . Initial conditions 162 .7. T ) ωc. . nc of components.G c=nc  +(1 − φe f f )HR = Etot .16)).19) and molar densities Nc .15. and the concentrations of movable components 0 in the phases (xc.L > 0.P . here nc – the number of components. . . ωc. 4.W.L > 0. nc   P=O.G  xc.S +        P=O.W. ωc.81).W.P · RP c = 1.110) 0 nc where φe f f = Vp /Vb – effective porosity.L   0  nc  ∑ xc.37 Initial conditions For the equations (4. 4.W. . . temperature (T ). Initial conditions tNavigator-4.13) and SMF (see 12. ˆ temperature T – via TEMPI (see 12. where L ∈ {O. then molar density of solid phase is calculated (4.17)). via CONC_SLD (see 13.1 Explicit specification of initial conditions In this case the following parameters are always specified explicitly: ˆ pressure p – via PRESSURE (see 12. 4.G = Kc (p. nc .37. . P = O.15. ˆ in stars data format one should specify explicitly molar densities Nc . ˆ initial conditions are calculated from hydrostatic and thermodynamic equilibrium con- ditions.4) via SSOLID (see 12.18). c = 1. G).110) are equal (and equal to 4 + nc + nc . . .37.P = 1 P = O.7.37. Nc Hc. . . then the number of equations c=1 0 00 00 and the number of variables in (4. tNavigator uses two variants of specification of initial conditions: ˆ explicit specification of initial conditions.  (4. .110) L ∈ {O.G > 0.15. .W }    x  c. Ntot = ∑ Nc . . There is a system of algebraic equations:  0   zc = ∑ xc.83) one should specify initial p. which are present in solid phase.2 energy density Etot . where as in (4.4. Note.16). c = n0c +1. for which ωc.S (see (4. T .7. .W }). .26) (TEMP (see 13.15. (4. Nc . c = n0c + 1. According to this data it is necessary to calculate the phase mixture com- position (RP .8) (PRES (see 13. nc ).G > 0.

7).11) are ignored.15) – calculation of molar densities of ’mobile’ components Nc . xc. .15) – calculation of Ntot – calculation of molar densities of ’mobile’ components Nc = zc · Ntot . . . SOIL (see 12. . n0c . xw. . (4. .G = 0.15.G = 0.5). (4. . Swc – critical water saturation. . ˆ Saturation of ’mobile’ phases SP is specified explicitly using SWAT (see 12.19).12) and SGAS (see 12.W = 1. (4. 0 Ntot = ∑ Nc is specified explicitly via ZMF (see 12.15. .7. . xc. (4.14)).15.12) (SO (see 13. (4.15.10) (SW (see 13.7). . Concentration matrix xc. water saturation c=2 SW is set via SWAT (see 12.7. . . (4.7. – calculation of molar densities ξW .15. c = 1. ξO . . . n0c . (4. . . .15. . two keywords SOIL (see 12.26). P = 1. Explicit specification of initial conditions 163 .O = z0c xw. . – calculation of the values Nc : Nw = ξW · SW . P = O. (4.10).4.15. .1. n0c . .1) one can specify only several saturations (not all).15. (4. c = 2. .24). 4. .13). (4.20)).19).10). . YMF (see 12. . T ) using pressure and temperature from (4. . . Initialization algorithm is the following: – calculation of the matrix xc. n0c .13).7.10).19)).P – calculation of molar phase densities of ’mobile’ phases ξP . .15.W = 0. xc. c = 1.37. SGAS (see 12. c = 1.O = 0. Nc = xc.21) and values RP .2 Phase and component composition of ’mobile’ phases and components can be specified several ways.13)). n0c .11) (SG (see 13. .18) (MFRAC_GAS (see 13. .15. (4. .15)). c = 1. . c= n0c 2. So c=1 initialization algorithm is the following: – calculation of Ki = Ki (p. Initial conditions tNavigator-4. ˆ tNavigator (this option is missing in stars and e300 data formats) allows to specify n0c explicitly values zc = Nc /Ntot . Free gas is not defined: SG = 0. Since (4.7. .O · ξO · SO = z0c · ξO · SO .27) – calculation of the solution of equation (4.17) (MFRAC_OIL (see 13. Then the initialization algorithm is the following: – calculation of molar densities of ’mobile’ phases ξP . . n0c . SO = 1 − SW .P : xw.5). P = 1. (4. see a table below. n0c . G (for P = W ) – using XMF (see 12. . n0P from (4.14). which is calculated from the table of relative permeabilities at the given temperature.37. ˆ In e300 data format (this option is missing in stars) value of z0c = Nc /Ntot 0 . Ntot = ∑ Nc via ZMF (see 12.P c = 1. xc.14). n0P from (4.

12). ˆ ’Mobile’ phases – ZMF (see 12.1.15. see 4. SW (see 13. SMF (see 12.19).14). SG = 0.2) (VERTICAL (see 13. SGAS (see 12.18).13).37.7.7. Temperature T distribution: ˆ in e300 data format depends on depth – TEMPVD (see 12.7.17). SOIL (see 12.7. n0c . SG = 0 √ √ 7 SW = Swc .2 N SW SO SG E300 format stars format Calculations √ √ √ √ √ 1 √ √ √ √ 2 SG = 1 − SW − SO √ √ √ √ 3 SO = 1 − SW − SG √ √ √ √ 4 SW = 1 − SO − SG √ √ √ 5 SO = 1 − SW . MFRAC_GAS (see 13.37.17). MFRAC_GAS (see 13.15.18). XMF (see 12. G in each block via MFRAC_OIL (see 13. In black oil case the pressure p and saturation of ’mobile’ phases are calculated from hydrostatic equilibrium conditions – EQUIL (see 12.20). . PRES (see 13.19). TEMP (see 13.P c = 1. see 4. SO (see 13. In black oil case one should specify PVT tables and the distribution of boiling points (dew points) versus depth.37.16).15.15.7. Initial conditions tNavigator-4. SO = 1 − SW In e300 and stars data formats initial conditions are specified in each grid block.7.7. CONC_SLD (see 13.15.17).7. Stars supports only explicit specification of concentra- tion matrix xc.15.7. MFRAC_OIL (see 13.37. SWAT (see 12. ˆ Pressure – PRESSURE (see 12. .2)). In these calculations phase mass density should be calculated.8).15. YMF (see 12. ˆ in stars data format – is specified implicitly via TEMP (see 13.19). SO = 1 − SW − SG √ 8 SW = Swc .37. In e300 data format there are several ways to specify component composition of mixture versus depth.2 Calculations of initial conditions from hydrostatic and thermodynamic equilib- rium conditions Solid phase saturation is specified explicitly.10). In compositional run component composition of mixture should be specified in order to calculate phase mass densities. .68).7. 4.7.20).15. SG = 0 √ √ √ 6 SW = 1 − SO . 4. ˆ Temperature – TEMPI (see 12.26).15.15.2. SG (see 13.4.15).11). ˆ Solid phase – SSOLID (see 12. Calculations of initial conditions from hydrostatic and thermodynamic equilibrium conditions164 . .1.13).7.14.15.16). P = O.

(4. .2 n0c ˆ Distribution of values zc = Nc /Ntot . – if SG > 0.26). xc.7).10). then xc. (4.15.37. n0c . xc.19).13). . The second xc.13).P in grid blocks are saved in arrays XMF (see 12. n0c .15). . (4. (4. . .5).14). (4. .P . . c = 1. n0P are calculated from (4.G = YMF. G) is used.15. . n0c . . n0c .4. – if SO > 0. c = 1. Initial conditions tNavigator-4. YMFVP (see 12.13. . (4. .17). – calculation of ’mobile’ components molar densities Nc = zc · Ntot . . T ).5). . . Calculations of initial conditions from hydrostatic and thermodynamic equilibrium conditions165 . . P = 1. n0c . . . – calculation of Ntot . – solution of equations (4. Then mass density is calculated via the following algorithm: – values Ki = Ki (p. (4. .24). . . P = O. . (4. . . (4.O = xc. (4. T )xc. n0c .13). ˆ Distribution of concentration matrix xc.7). . .P (of the phase which saturation is > 0. T ) are calculated from pressure and temperature at selected depth (4. . .15). c = 1. .15. . Hence this initialization can lead to thermodynamic non-equilibrium distribution.14). (4. . YMF (see 12. . There- fore only one xc. (4. (4.O = XMF.7).13). P = 1. G (for P = W ) versus pressure is set via XMFVP (see 12. n0P from (4.21) and calculate the values RP .13.10). . c = 2. (4. xc. (4.O .P c = 1.12).5). (4. n0P from (4.10). priority is O.27). .2. – calculation of ’mobile’ phases molar densities ξP . . (4. Ntot = ∑ Nc versus depth is spec- c=1 ified via ZMFVD (see 12.37. – calculation of ’mobile’ phases mass densities ρP . ’Mobile’ phases mass densities ρP . At the end of calculations: – calculated values xc.P is calculated.15) – calculation of ’mobile’ components molar densities Nc .18). c = 2. At the end of calculations: – calculated values zc in grid blocks are saved in an array ZMF (see 12.14).13.G /Kc (p.G = Kc (p. .14). P = 1. . 4. then xc.

The detailed description of transition from physical model to non-linear and then linear equations is written in the section – 5. Time approximation tNavigator-4.18.5.1.2 Solution algorithm for time step problem Simulator has to solve system of linear equations for pressure on each time step.1. 5. For solution standard Newton method is used. In black-oil models fully implicit is used by default.93).2 5 Mathematical model Simulator uses usual finite difference approximation with respect to space and time variables to obtain discretization of physical model equations.1 Space approximation Simulator uses standard finite difference approximation with respect to space variables on rectangular block centered mesh.5). To use AIM in black-oil one need to set AIM parameter of the keyword RUNCTRL (see 12.4.119) or specify the keyword AIM (see 12. Time step is chosen to satisfy constraints posed on maximal variation of saturation. Time step is chosen automatically to provide method convergence. The pre- conditioned biconjugate gradient method is used with modified incomplete LU factorization (MILU(0)) as preconditioner.3 Time approximation For approximation with respect to time simulator uses Fully Implicit method by default for black-oil models. Settings of AIM can be changed in the keyword AIMCTRL (see 12. This leads to system of non-linear equations to be solved.18.3. 5. 5. 5. Mathematical model 166 . pressure and pore volume in each grid block. The standard upstream approximation is used for computa- tion of coefficients of equations depending on saturations.119) controls the solution algorithms and the param- eters of iteration process. In this case both pressures and component molar densities are regarded as unknowns and all coefficients are calculated from their current values. The keyword RUNCTRL (see 12. AIM (adaptive implicit) is used by default for compositional models.

1 (c = 1) is replaced by the sum of all equations for all variables c. Number nc depends on problem type (from 2 to 21). Matrix A can be considered as a matrix.G µP c Via Fully Implicit method (time approximation) and finite volume method (space approx- imation) the problem come to the system of non-linear equations. Transition from physical model to system of equations 167 .5. Transition from physical model to system of equations tNavigator-4. Nnc ) = 0.W. .Jacobian from Newton method. . N1 . A . At each step of Newton method the system with matrix ∂ F(xm )/∂ x is solved. J - number of wells. as follows (we use for the summation ∑ xc.4 Transition from physical model to system of equations The first equation 2. the problem come to the system of linear equations: Ax = b.blocks with size (nc ) × (nc ).4. that has ele- ments .119)). . ∂x where x = (p. F(x) = F(p.119)). Nnc ).18. The preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is used to solve the system of linear equations with modified incomplete LU factorization (MILU(0)) as preconditioner. The limit of main variables variation (for which Newton iteration is finished): ||xm − xm+1 ||∗ < ε2 (ε2 can be set via T OLVARNEW T in the keyword RUNCTRL (see 12. . .number of grid blocks.2 5.P  φ ∑ Nc = div ∑ ξ P β k (∇p P − ρ P g∇D) + ∑ qc (5. where p = (pi ).1) ∂t c P=O. Nc = (Nci ) .P = 1): c    k ∂ r. K . Newton method is used to solve this system of equations: −1 ∂ F(xm )  m+1 m x =x − F(xm ). Newton iteration is finished if: |F(x)| < ε1 (ε1 can be set via T OLNEW T in the keyword RUNCTRL (see 12.matrix Rnc ∗(K+J) → Rnc ∗(K+J) × Rnc ∗(K+J) . N1 .18.4.pressure and molar densities in grid blocks. 5. ∂ F(xm )/∂ x . .

102). This keyword is used in models with unstructured grid. that helps to model the complex geological structures such as faults and pinchouts.5 Model geometry tNavigator supports three types of grid cell geometry: ˆ block-centered geometry: keywords DX (see 12. Model geometry tNavigator-4. ˆ VISGRID (see 12. Grid can be included to the model using the following keywords: ˆ IMPORT (see 12.2.2. 5.102).12) method. Cubes should be specified in binary format.2.18.5.2.2. For this type of geometry transmissibilities are calculated by default using OLDTRAN (see 12.2 At iterations of linear system we have Axm = bm . Linear iteration is finished if |bm | < ε3 |b0 | (ε3 can be set via T OLLIN in the keyword RUNCTRL (see 12.2) (or DXV (see 12.2) (or DZV (see 12.98) – The keyword is used to specify file of .2. 5.2.2.18.2. ˆ Y-pillar grid format – can be used in the model without modifications.5.2. For this type of geometry transmissibilities are calculated by default using NEWTRAN (see 12.5. This format is converted to the keyword CORNERS (see 12.2. Additional options.5)) and TOPS (see 12. DY (see 12. In block-centered geometry grid blocks are rectangular with horizontal upper and lower surfaces and vertical sides. Model geometry 168 .2. ˆ corner-point geometry: keywords COORD (see 12.2.102).11) method.8) and ZCORN (see 12. DZ (see 12.4)).2.2) (or DYV (see 12. The example of Y-pillar grid format is available in the description of the keyword CORNERS (see 12.119)).119) controls the solution algorithms and the param- eters of iteration process. The keyword RUNCTRL (see 12.2.6). ˆ specifying grid via blocks tops – keyword CORNERS (see 12.97) – The keyword imports cubes into a model.9).EGRID format to visualize grid.2.3)). In corner-point geometry grid blocks can have various shapes.

12) run transmissibility value is calculated via the fol- lowing formula: CDARCY · T MULT Xi T RANXi = 1 1 . 1.52). DHS+DV S DXi +DX j 2   – DHS = 2 .11) run transmissibility value is calculated via the follow- ing formula: CDARCY · T MULT Xi · A · DIPC T RANXi = .1. NT G j and DIPC are equal to 1. – Wi = DXi . The expression for the Y -transmissibility value is analogous to the above. DXi +DX j ˆ B= 2·PERMXav . in case OLDTRAN (see 12.Darcy’s constant (METRIC: 0. Model geometry tNavigator-4. – W j = DX j . 2. For Z -transmissibility NT Gi .1 Transmissibility calculation Transmissibility can be specified via the keywords TRANX (see 12. Transmissibility calculation 169 .dip correction. B where: ˆ CDARCY .5. TRANZ (see 12.2. 00852702.2.interface area between cell i and j DHS ˆ DIPC = . Y and Z .51). If these keywords are not specified. 00112712).transmissibility multiplier fot i-th cell.53). DXi ·DYi ·DZi ·RNT Gi +DX j ·DY j ·DZ j ·RNT G j ˆ A= DXi +DX j . 5. TRANY (see 12. with the appropriate permutations of X .2.2 5. – DV S = (DEPT Hi − DEPT H j )2 .5.2. 1 (A·Di ) ˆ Wi = RNT Gi · (D i ·Di ) . transmissibility will be calculated via the formula below.5. in case NEWTRAN (see 12. 1 (A·D ) ˆ Wj = RNT G j · (D j ·Dj j ) . Ti + T j where: (A·Di ) ˆ Ti = PERMXi · RNT Gi · (D i ·Di ) . FIELD: 0.2. ˆ T MULT Xi .5.

to be replaced by refined cells.89).2. The keyword should be followed by name of local grid refinement the data for which is entered. CARFIN (see 12. which terminates data for a local grid refinement. SOLUTION and SCHEDULE section. ˆ CARFIN (see 12. HZFIN – in Z direction).89) – terminates data for a local grid refinement.1. The keyword PERMAVE (see 12.2. The data should be terminated with the keyword ENDFIN (see 12.5.4) (SCHEDULE section) – introduces a new well.2. ˆ NXFIN / NYFIN / NZFIN (see 12. ˆ HXFIN / HYFIN / HZFIN (see 12. J1-J2. ˆ LGRCOPY (see 12. which terminates data for a local grid refinement. if they are different from the properties in parent grid.81) (RUNSPEC section) – set options and dimensions for local grid refinement.2.1.2. NZFIN – in Z direction).90) (GRID section) – These keywords can be used to specify number of local cells in each global cell of an LGR (NXFIN – in X direction.6. LGR – Local Grid Refinement tNavigator-4. WELSPECL must be used in place of WELSPECS (see 12. The following keywords are supported: ˆ LGR (see 12.18.2.3) to set the general specification data for wells in local refined grids. ˆ WELSPECL (see 12.89).2. Wi +W j 5.6 LGR – Local Grid Refinement In tNavigator local grid refinements can be specified. HYFIN – in Y direction. CARFIN (see 12.18.2. ˆ REFINE (see 12.87) specifies a cell or a box of cells identified by its global grid coordinates I1-I2. ˆ ENDFIN (see 12.2. 5.6.2 (A · Di ) is scalar production. defining information on its name and coordinates in local grids (LGR). LGR – Local Grid Refinement 170 . EDIT. For Z -transmissibility RNT Gi is equal to 1. PROPS. These keywords should be terminated with the keyword ENDFIN (see 12. REFINE can be used in GRID.109) (RUNSPEC section) – this option allows blocks of refined grid to inherit formation properties from parent grid host blocks.88) – initiates data input for a named local grid (LGR). K1-K2.87) (GRID section)– specifies a Cartesian local grid refinement (LGR).91) (GRID section) – These keywords can be used to specify the size ratios of each cell in a local grid refinement (LGR) (HXFIN – in X direction.87) can be followed by keywords that describe properties in LGR.36) sets value of parameter p in formula for calcula- tion permeability averages for transmissibility: !1 Wi · PERMXip +W j · PERMX jp p PERMXav = .2. NYFIN – in Y direction. REGIONS.

WPIMULTL (see 12.18.18.125) (SCHEDULE section) – specifies the hydraulic fracture for wells in local refined grids (LGR) in graphical interface.34).5. ˆ WPIMULTL (see 12.7.18.7) (SCHEDULE section) – defines well completions in local grids (LGR).18.29) (SCHEDULE section) – multiplies well connection trans- missibility factors by specified value for wells in local grids (LGR).124) to specify the hydraulic fracture for wells in local refined grids in graphical interface.122) to specify the hydraulic fracture for wells in local refined grids. WFRACL (see 12. COMPDATL (see 12. COMPFRACL (see 12. 5.23) must be used in place of COMPLUMP (see 12.28) to multiply well connection transmissibility factors by specified value for wells in local refined grids.7) must be used in place of COMPDAT (see 12.18.127) must be used in place of COMPFRAC (see 12.123) (SCHEDULE section) – specifies the hydraulic fracture for wells in local refined grids (LGR).18.18.127) (SCHEDULE section) – specifies the hydraulic fracture for connection in the grid layer for wells in local refined grids (LGR).36)).18. COMPLMPL (see 12.18. ˆ COMPFRACL (see 12.18.18. pressure in the well bore and grid block pressure should be established.123) must be used in place of WFRAC (see 12.18.7 Well Approximation After discretization of equations for each grid block penetrated by the well the relationship between the flow rate of each phase.18.125) must be used in place of WFRACP (see 12. This relationship is used to calculate bottom hole pressure if user specifies rate control for injection or production well or to calculate rate if user specifies bottom hole pressure control for a well (WCONPROD (see 12.29) must be used in place of WPIMULT (see 12.6) to specify the connection data for wells in local refined grids.18. Well Approximation tNavigator-4. ˆ WFRACL (see 12.22) to lump connections together into completions to provide realization of simultaneous actions for wells in local refined grids. 5.18. Well Approximation 171 .126) to specify the hydraulic fracture for connection in the grid layer for wells in local refined grids. ˆ WFRACPL (see 12. ˆ COMPLMPL (see 12.18. WCONINJE (see 12.18.18.18. This relationship is called “Inflow performance relationship".23) (SCHEDULE section) – lumps connections together into completions to provide realization of simultaneous actions for wells in local grids (LGR). WFRACPL (see 12.18.2 ˆ COMPDATL (see 12.7.

k). G ˆ Nc – component molar densities in block l .7.7. j. containing connection. SW l .18.e. SG )(pl − plcon (t)) (5.6. Water. While calculating inflow performance relationship for each connection the following assumptions are made: ˆ The well is assumed to penetrate the full thickness of the block. After discretization of equation (2.t) = T l (t) · MP (pl . ˆ Capillary pressure is neglected when calculating inflow performance relationship.7.2) where ˆ QlP = QlP (pl . through its center. COMPDAT (see 12. Sl ) – the total phase mobility at connection l . 5. defined below. ˆ For any calculation time step density of fluid within the well bore does not vary with depth. Well Inflow Performance 172 . oil phase pressure is used.2 5. Well Approximation tNavigator-4. Otherwise it is calculated according to formula l 2πKmult (t)βc (Kh)l T l (t) = .7. SW l l . ˆ Friction effects in the well bore are neglected. N l .1 Well Inflow Performance The term “connection" denotes the flow path between the well bore and a single reservoir grid block. G}. ˆ T l (t) – connection productivity index. ˆ plcon (t) – the connection l pressure. SW l .18.3) (ln(rol /rwl ) + sl ) Here ˆ l Kmult (t) – KH multiplier for connection l .5.t) – volumetric flow rate of phase P through connection l in reservoir conditions. see section 5. written in terms of the volumetric phase flow rate (P = {W. defined below.5. COMPDAT (see 12.2 Connection transmissibility calculation (CF and Kh) Connection productivity index T l (t) may be defined by user. Sl – nodal pressure and saturations in the grid block.2.7. 5. (5.6).6)).7. Oil. O. see section 5.7. ˆ pl . i.106) we get the following inflow performance relationship for each well connection l with coordinates (i. see G section 5. perpendicularly to two of its faces. Gas): QlP (pl .1. N l . ˆ MP = MP (pl .

7. in each direction (X.3 Average permeability calculation Average permeability K l for diagonal permeability tensor is calculated as geometric average of two orthogonal component of tensor.4. CFy .6). this keyword can be used for hybrid and MORE models. hybrid model) the resulting value will be equal either to the sum or the square root of sum of squares. It should be used after trajectories.7. The well trajectories and all well parameters (Kh. defined below. 5.18. to set up CF calculation like in E100.16) is supported.7. otherwise it is calculated as product of K l – average permeability in plane perpendicular to well axis. ˆ (Kh)l may be explicitly defined by user.3. see section 5.) are calculated in local block coordinates. the size of the grid block in the direction of perforation penetration. Khz . CFx .5. CFz ). The trajectory part inside the block is represented in coordinates of the block.7.2 ˆ βc – the unit conversion factor. Then. These coordinates are used to calculate Connection factor (CF) and Kh ([18]). That is. see section 5. ˆ sl – the skin factor at the connection l . depending on model type (E100. etc. These vectors form a basis. E300 format. MORE. ˆ rwl = dwl /2 – the radius of the well bore at the connection l . these parameters are calculated along directions (Khx . Average permeability calculation 173 . and hl . see section 10. E300 format: Inp Kh = p(Khx )2 + (Khy )2 + (Khz )2 CF = (CFx )2 + (CFy )2 + (CFz )2 In tNavigator a special keyword ETUNe (see 14. E300. Z).3. models with E100. Well Approximation tNavigator-4. First. These vectors connect centers of opposite faces (in corresponding directions). Y. Note. ˆ for Z -directed well K l could be calculated as K l = (kxl kyl )1/2 ˆ for X -directed well K l could be calculated as K l = (kyl kzl )1/2 5. COMPDAT (see 12.7. In models with MORE format and hybrid models: Kh = Khx + Khy + Khz CF = CFx +CFy +CFz This logic is also used in Load well data from graphical interface. a set of directing vectors is calculated.1. CF. ˆ rol – pressure equivalent radius. Khy . For each block.

2) is equal to the pressure of the block. in the dimensions perpendicular to well penetration. in the dimensions perpendicular to well penetration.198Dlx . In a Cartesian grid the Peaceman’s formula is used. 5. For production well connections.7. equivalent radius for the connection l is calculated rol = 0. Sl ) krP (SW MP (pl . It results in injection phase mobility being equal to sum of all three phases mobilities. through its center. SW l l .) 5. kyl . If the block sizes in two directions are equal D1 = D2 . which is applicable to rectangular grid blocks in case of permeability anisotropy.28  l 1/4  l 1/4 (5. containing connection. The pressure equivalent radius for the connection l is calculated as follows:   l 1/2  l 1/2 1/2 l 2 k2 l 2 k D1 · k l + D2 · k1l 1 2 rol = 0. SG )= G (5. containing the connec- tion.7. For injection well connections we use downstream approxi- mation as a standard practice to calculate phase mobility. containing connection.7.4) k2 k1 k1l + k2l where ˆ Dl1 and Dl2 are the sizes of the grid block.4. and permeabilities are equal k1 = k2 . equivalent radius rol = 0.5) µP (pl ) 5. Well Approximation tNavigator-4. For production wells phase mobility is calculated as: l . Pressure equivalent radius calculation 174 .2 ˆ for Y -directed well K l could be calculated as K l = (kxl kzl )1/2 Here kxl . kx = ky . (for vertical well Dx = Dy . calculated using (5. As mentioned above.198Dl1 . the mobility depends on the conditions in the grid block containing the connection.7.4 Pressure equivalent radius calculation The pressure equivalent radius rol is defined as the distance from the well at which the pressure.5.5 Mobility calculation Mobility calculations are different for production well connections and injection well con- nections. perpendicularly to two of its faces. kzl are elements of permeability tensor corresponding to block l . ˆ k1l and k2l are the permeabilities of the grid block. the well is assumed to penetrate the full thickness of the block.

ˆ average wellbore density ρ̄av (t) is calculated according to (5. SW l l .7.O (p )q̃O ) l ρ̄av = l l (5. WCONINJE (see 12. ˆ DBH is bottom hole depth. Average well bore density and connection pressure calculation 175 . SG ) + krG (SG ) .7). krP = krP (SW G ˆ µP = µP (pl ) is phase viscosity evaluated at grid block conditions. We assume Darcy flow. Sl .t) is the well phase volumetric flow rate into connection l at G standard conditions.SC (q̃G + RG. Sl ) is phase relative permeability evaluated at grid block saturations.8) here ˆ pBH (t) is bottom hole pressure of the well. ˆ g is gravity constant.18.6 Average well bore density and connection pressure calculation Friction effects are usually small within the well bore at formation level. SW l .O (pav ))q̃lO ) l where ˆ ρP.2 For injection wells phase mobility is calculated as:  l l l l  krO (SW ) + krW (SW . WCONPROD (see 12.36).O (pl ) − RG. and they are neglected.SC q̃lO + ρW.5.7.7. for injected phase  MP (pl .SC is the density of phase P at standard conditions. Well Approximation tNavigator-4. SG )= µO (pl ) µW (pl ) µG (pl ) (5.7) ∑ BO (pav )q̃O + Bw (pav )q̃W + BG (pav )(q̃lG + (RG.34). ˆ Dl is depth of connection l . 5. The average well bore density is assumed to be constant at each calculation time step and equal to: ∑ ρO.106).6. ˆ pav is average well bore pressure. 5. for other two phases where ˆ l . user specified or calculated from (2. In this case connection pressure plcon (t) is calculated as plcon (t) = pBH (t) + ρ̄av (t)g(Dl − DBH ) (5.18.6)   0.SC q̃W l +ρ l l l G. ˆ BP = BP (pav ) is the phase formation volume factor evaluated at well bore conditions. ˆ q̃lP = q̃lP (pl .

ˆ PRIORITY (see 12. Well Approximation tNavigator-4.2 5. one can set well priorities according to their potentials.7. if their guide rates are not specified via WGRUPCON (see 12.18.80).18.200) – prioritized drilling queue.78) – prioritization group control.18. one can set well drilling priorities according to their potentials.5. ˆ DRILPRI (see 12. Wells potentials are used in the following cases: ˆ Group control.7 Well potential calculations Well potential is well flow rate (production or injection rate) in the absence of any rate constraints and at the current grid block conditions. Wells potentials values are used as guide rates for wells.7.73)).18. Well potential calculations 176 .104)).7. Well potential is calculated with the following constraints: BHP limit. 5.7. Well (and group) guide rates can be specified according to their potentials (GUIDERAT (see 12.18. Field (or group) potential is a sum of all wells potentials (or all wells in the group). THP limit (VFP tables are used) and drawdown limit (if it is specified in 4-th parameter of WELDRAW (see 12.

li = γil Θw.l . . .li w.8. plml where p0 = 0. If these values are exceeded the flow from corresponding blocks to connection starts (or the flow from connection into corresponding grid blocks): pl0 . .1 Well model with generalized connections For each connection located in grid block l .9) log(r0 /rw ) ˆ The inflow performance relationship for the well connection l from the grid block ll.li l 2πKmult βc K Θ = γi ϒ b w.li . the following data is specified: ˆ Numbers of grid blocks from which the connection produces (or injects): l0 . . l1 . y) = x + y if x < −y 0 else  5. For each grid block which is connected to the well connection we assume: ˆ Pressure in connection is calculating via the same formulae ˆ Connection productivity index between blocks l = l0 and li is calculated via formula without the skin factor but with the multiplier γil : w. Modified well model tNavigator-4.8 Modified well model Let’s consider modified well model. . Modified well model 177 . Modifications help to describe hydraulic fracture simu- lation.8.l ) (if li 6= 0) by Ψ(pli − pw. γml l where γ0 = 1. . ˆ Resistance (connection effective multipliers) between the connection and corresponding blocks (from which this connection produces or injects): γ0l . .5.8. . lml where l0 = l .li w. γ1l . . (5. ˆ Threshold pressures. plli ).i (when pli > pw.l ) is specified with the replacement of the multiplier (pli − pw. 5. where   x − y if x > y Ψ(x.li w. pl1 .li hw. .2 5. . .

ˆ fracture height (numbers of first and last connection).18. T li ) i : pli >pw. (the number of tabular functions is specified via the keyword NFLOWFTB (see 12. ˆ proppant properties (dependence between proppant permeability and the pressure) (number of proppants – NPROPANTS (see 12.127)). Hydraulic fracture data 178 .l . Fracture passes through the inactive blocks until it reaches its half-length. N li .18.8.l .122). ˆ function f (s) – dependence between permeability and phase or time dependence (see 5. 5.26) can be used (WFRP (see 14.l 5. Thus.8.li Ψ(pli − pw. WFRACPL (see 12. Modified well model tNavigator-4. plli ).3)).123).6.124).4).2 ˆ The injection from the connection l to the block ll. proppant names – PROPANT- NAMES (see 12.3) the keywords WFRA (see 14.8.18. If proppant name is not defined there is infinite permeability along the fracture (pipe). plli ) ∑ xc.l P=1 n0P ! qw − wc ∑ γil Θw.P(pli .8. COMPFRAC (see 12. N li .7).25) and WFRP (see 14.8.8. For MORE format models and hybrid models (section 11. T l ) ∑ MP(pli .l ) (if li 6= 0) by Ψ(pli − pw.1).125).2).18. ˆ fracture width.6.5). the total inflow (outflow) of the component c in (from) the connection l is: n0P ! qlc = − ∑ γil Θw.8.6.6).8.2.18.5. WFRACP (see 12. qw .8.6)). ˆ zenith angle.8. coefficients – FLOWFUNC (see 12. T li ) ξP(pli . T li ) MP(pli . the table of relation between pressure and proppant permeability – PROPANTTABLE (see 12. function. linear of exponential.124)). COMPFRACL (see 12.8. If function is not specified there is no phase flow or time dependence. plli ) ξavg (pl . Thus.li Ψ(pli − pw. tabular function names – FLOWFNAMES (see 12.i (when pli < pw.18. T li ) qtot P=1 i : pli <pw. N li .l ) is specified with the replacement of multiplier (pli − pw.126) (LGR case – WFRACL (see 12. ˆ half of fracture length. ˆ hydraulic fracture could be specified via the keywords WFRAC (see 12. the flow through inactive blocks is possible. tabular function – FLOWFNAMES (see 12.26) is an ana- logue of WFRACP (see 12. ˆ azimuth angle of hydraulic fracture.2 Hydraulic fracture data For the hydraulic fracture simulation the following parameters should be specified: ˆ well name and date.18. N li .l .

11) kx f where: C f D – number in tNavigator 1.10) hk f kf w CfD = (5.8.11.2. k f – fracture permeability (from the table of permeability dependence on pressure for prop- pant – PROPANTTABLE (see 12.2 ˆ if fractures should be opened automatically if a specified condition is satisfied for the block with connection (for example to create fractures for injectors when block pressure is greater than a specified value) then one can use the keyword ACTIONC (see 12.5. Fracture geometry (half-lenght. x f – fracture half-length.01 or greater than 0. ˆ to calculate the geometry of the fracture width should be specified or fracture per- meability (permeability dependence on pressure for proppant – PROPANTTABLE (see 12. then the boundary value will be taken .8.0. V – injected proppant volume. then it is calculated via equation 5. w – fracture width. Hydraulic fracture data 179 . ˆ if fracture width is 0. then first and last fracture connections are taken. ˆ azimuth angle is calculated as orthogonal to the minimum permeability.124) are ignored if they are not zero)). 5.11.2).18. ˆ if fracture width is specified it is used to calculate half-length via equation 5. Modified well model tNavigator-4. less than the calculated width of 0. angle) can be specified directly or can be calculated by tNavigator using injected proppant volume (25-th parameter of the keyword WFRACP (see 12.18.124) (or 26-th parameter of WFRACPL (see 12. k – formation permeability.140).01. 0. tNavigator calculates fracture geometry (the formula is taken based on the article [10]): s k w = C f DV (5.3)).10. width.8.18.3)). h – fracture height (from first to last specified connection (12 and 13 parameters of the keyword WFRACP (see 12.2m (respectively. In case if injected proppant volume is specified.125))). ˆ if calculated width beyond the boundaries of the interval [0.01m or 0.18. ˆ fracture left half-length and right half-length are equal.6 (at this value optimal configuration of fracture is specified based on the article [10])).8. if first and last fracture connections are defaulted. Then fracture half-length is calculated via 5.2].

linked (because of hydraulic fracture) with block i (index j include only blocks with numbers between blocks l and i): Ml γil = (5. fracture width and height). ˆ total inflow to hydraulic fracture. half of fracture length. There are the following ways: ˆ Manually input of additional links between several well connections and grid blocks (because of hydraulic fracture).8. ˆ accumulated resistance to flow between l and i because of length and permeability of path between them. In mathematical model we should describe: ˆ links between connections and grid blocks (because of hydraulic fracture).2 5.5.3. ˆ phase flow through blocks with fracture. if permeability coefficient K j of at least one fracture part between parts l and i is zero.8.8. To simulate the dependence between hydraulic fracture and permeability. ˆ pressure in the block.3 Hydraulic fractures To calculate the flow in the reservoir after the hydraulic fracture the trajectory of hydraulic fracture should be specified.12) l 1 ∑ Kj j=i where K j – permeability coefficient along the fracture in block j . Hydraulic fractures 180 . These formulae are analogues to the calculation of grid blocks transmissibility coefficient and provide: ˆ zero value γil = 0. ˆ time. proppant washout. through which the fracture goes. ˆ Automatic creation of links between the given connection and all grid blocks in the parallelepiped (specified by azimuth angle.8. ˆ flow along hydraulic fracture. 5. 5. fracture plugging and pressure – K j can depend on: ˆ fracture area and proppant properties.4 Flow rate along the fracture Let for every connection l . Modified well model tNavigator-4.

hw. log(r0 /rw ) p w. Calculation of the inflow to the fracture from the grid block 181 . K w. j = PERMX. ˆ the inflow to the well connection is calculated using block permeability in the direction.8. j = (w + h)/π. j ).5. DZ – geometric sizes of block through which the fracture goes. which is orthogonal to fracture border with maximal area.8.5. X and Z permeability of this block is equal to X permeability of the block with fracture. The fracture in the block j is replaced by the virtual connection with the following conditions: ˆ perimeter of well bore cross-section is equal to fracture perimeter (that provides the formula to calculate well diameter).5 Calculation of the inflow to the fracture from the grid block Let us consider the following scheme. Modified well model tNavigator-4. So we obtain w. Inflow to this fracture is equal to the inflow to the well with diameter d = 2(w + h)/π . j 2πβc K w.2 - X PERMZ ? Z ? PERMX '$ # ? PERMX PERMX .14 ∗ DX2 + DZ2 .8. j hw. j = DY where DX. =⇒ "! &%  d - h w Figure 9: Calculation of equivalent inflow to the fracture 5. rww. j Θ̃ = w. and then calculate the inflow via common formula. On the picture 9 there is a fracture which goes along Y -axis. Via this data we can calculate permeability multiplier of this virtual connection ( Θ̃w. 5. height h and width w (less then h). Y -orientation and which is situated in the grid block. j r0 = 0. j w. j . ˆ length of perforated interval is equal to the well bore length in the block. DY.

log 0. T li ) qtot P=1 i6=l : pli <pw. . To other location of fracture calculations are similar.li ).2. pl ) ∑ xc. 9. N li .2) then the model of fracture as linked blocks is not effective because of complicated calculations. For this virtual connection we describe inflow formula and formula of it’s transportation to the well bore. T li ) MP(pli . Proppant properties for the fracture should be specified: ˆ proppant permeability (mD. the distance from block li to the well bore – Dli .8.li Ψ(pli − pw. area of fracture cross-section in the block li – Sli . Total inflow from the hydraulic fracture to the well connection 182 . To calculate inflow from block li to the fracture we use the formula from the section 5.6 Total inflow from the hydraulic fracture to the well connection li stands for numbers of grid blocks which are connected to the well connection l .e. not to specific well connection).l P=1 n0P ! qw − wc ∑ γil Θ̃w. This dependence is specified flow function f of dimensionless flow s (total phase flow divided by total pore volume of this block): 5. T li ) ξP(pli . and a disadvantage – it’s impossible to divide an inflow to the fracture among well connections (i. Then total inflow (outflow) of component c to the well connection l from hydraulic fracture: 0 nP ! q̃lc = − ∑ γil Θ̃w.2 5.8. pl ) ξavg (pli .8. N li .3)) K(p) is the func- tion of pressure in the block. see the picture pic.5.8. inflow is calculated as inflow from fracture to well. average fracture length in the block li – Lli . 5.l This value should be added to the common inflow to the connection (or to the inflow which is calculated using behind-the-casing flow). qw .12 efficiency of flow along fracture) (in fact it is the multiplier to Θ̃w.8. l1 .5: 2πβc · PERMX · Lli Θ̃w. An advantage of this method is simplification of calculations. T li ) ∑ MP(pli .7 Description of simulation of large amount of hydraulic fractures If fracture height and length are big numbers (see the description of fracture in the section 5.8.28 ∗ π ∗ DX2 + DZ2 /Sli To calculate flow along the fracture we should approximate an expression (5. N li . average fracture perimeter in the block li – Πli .8.l . For simplification of designation let consider fracture plane as vertical plane and quasi orthogonal to OX .8. ˆ dependence between permeability and flow of phase or liquid. T li ) i6=l : pli >pw.li Ψ(pli − pw.6.li =  p . . . . using PROPANTTABLE (see 12. N li . if this function is not specified then K = ∞.P(pli .3.l . So we consider the hydraulic fracture the following way: there is a virtual connection in each block through which the fracture goes. The fracture is specified according to the sections 5. Modified well model tNavigator-4.8. 5. lL stand for the blocks through which the fracture goes.

γli = 0 if s = ∞. T li ) ξP(pli .5). γli = 1 if K(p) = ∞ and Dli = 0. Tabular: the table (s. pbw ) ξavg (pli . 2.li Ψ(pli − pw . f (0) = 1.7. Parameters: k ≥ 0. Description of simulation of large amount of hydraulic fractures 183 .P(pli . N li .8.8. T li ) ∑ MP(pli . If function is not specified.3)). T li ) i6=l : pli >pw P=1 n0P ! qw − wc ∑ γli Θ̃w. Let’s consider the following function: Kli (p.8. 3. 2. then we take bottom hole pressure pw for the pressure in the well and use the function Ψ with threshold value pbw .7) (the number of tabular functions is specified via the keyword NFLOWFTB (see 12. Flow efficiency along the fracture from block li to the well γli (see (5. αC = m14 – transition coefficient. s) 1 + Dli /Lli γli (pli .8.li Ψ(pli − pw . f (s) ≥ 0 for all s. tabular function names – FLOWFNAMES (see 12. 3. T li ) qtot P=1 i6=l : pli <pw 5. 0}. T li ) MP(pli . So we have: 0 nP ! q̃lc = − ∑ γli Θ̃w. pbw ) ∑ xc. s) is dimensionless. f (s)) is specified via keyword FLOWFTAB (see 12.2 1. s) is dimensionless. γli = 0 if K(p) = 0. Modified well model tNavigator-4. N li . a > 0 are spec- ified via FLOWFUNC (see 12.8.8. s) 1 γli (pli .8. s) = K(pli )αC · Sli · f (s). There are the following types of this function: 1. Exponential: f (s) = k + (1 − k) ∗ exp(−a ∗ s). γli is the function only of Dli if K(p) = ∞. N li . s) = · . Parameters: k ≥ 0.6)). then f (s) = 1. which is the same for all fracture blocks (default value is 0). Linear: f (s) = max{1 + (k − 1) ∗ a ∗ s. qw . a > 0 are specified via FLOWFUNC (see 12. Function Kli (pli . K(pli ) – function for propant (permeability (mDarcy) dependence on pressure) (PROPANT- TABLE (see 12.12)) is such that: 1. Resultant effective permeability of proppant in the block li with the area of cross-section Sli (m2 ) is equal to Kli (pli .5. Since the rate of virtual perforations doesn’t correspond to specific connection.13) 1 + Kli (p. N li .8. 2. this corresponds to block drainage (the well goes through this block).4) (function type EXP).4) (function type LIN). (5.

5. 5.2 This value should be added to the common inflow to the well (or to the inflow which is calculated using behind-the-casing flow).3) PROPS Specifies the table of relation between pressure and proppant permeability 5.5) PROPS Specifies number of tabular flow functions NPROPANTS (see 12. To calculate γli = γli (pli .8.6) PROPS Specifies tabular flow functions names NFLOWFTB (see 12. s) we take total flow s and pressure pli in block li at previous time step (to minimize additional nonlinearity).8 Fracture keywords Keyword Section Description FLOWFUNC (see 12.8.8. Pore volume of block (during the calculation of dimensionless flow s) is calculated once when hydraulic fracture is created.8. Fracture keywords 184 .8.8.8.2) PROPS Specifies proppant names PROPANTTABLE (see 12.8.8. this func- tion sets the duration of the effect of hydraulic fracture FLOWFTAB (see 12.1) PROPS Specifies number of proppant types PROPANTNAMES (see 12.4) PROPS Specifies coefficients of linear or exponential flow function (the dependence between per- meability and flow (or time)). I.8.7) PROPS Specifies tabular flow functions FLOWFNAMES (see 12. Modified well model tNavigator-4.e.8.

WFRACP (see 12. COMPFRACL (see 12. WFRA (see 14.18.e.125) SCHEDULE Specifies the hydraulic fracture. in which fracture goes in this layer) in LGR case WFRACP (see 12. specified via all these keywords passes through the inactive blocks until it reaches its half- length.18.18.26) RECU Specifies the hydraulic fracture for MORE for- mat models and hybrid models.127) SCHEDULE Specifies the hydraulic fracture for one layer (fracture height is equal to the block height.122) SCHEDULE Specifies the hydraulic fracture WFRACL (see 12.126).18. COMPFRAC (see 12.6. Keywords to specify hydraulic fractures: WFRAC (see 12. j .126) and WFRAC (see 12.18.127). 5. The keyword with the greatest functionality is WFRACP (see 12. ˆ fracture length and width are calculated as the projection of layer k to the plane OXY.126) SCHEDULE Specifies the hydraulic fracture for one layer (fracture height is equal to the block height. WFRACPL (see 12.140) SCHEDULE Sets the automatic opening of fractures at an event in a block (for example. the flow through inactive blocks is possible.5.122): ˆ the fracture is created only in the layer k .125). using this keyword fracture geometry can be calculated by tNavigator from injected proppant volume. k .18.8. WFRAC (see 12.18. Fracture. LGR case ACTIONC (see 12.18. the creation of fractures on the injection wells at excess pres- sure in the block a certain value) WFRP (see 14.124) (WFRACPL (see 12. in which fracture goes in this layer) COMPFRACL (see 12. The differences between COMPFRAC (see 12.123) SCHEDULE Specifies the hydraulic fracture in LGR-case COMPFRAC (see 12.6.18.18. Thus.8.18.123).18.124) SCHEDULE Specifies the hydraulic fracture.18.125)).18.126) are it’s are its reductions.8.122) and COMPFRAC (see 12. i. ˆ inflow to the hydraulic fracture belongs to inflow to connection i. Modified well model tNavigator-4.18. An in local grid refinements LGR: WFR- ACL (see 12.124). using this key- word fracture geometry can be calculated by tNavigator from injected proppant volume WFRACPL (see 12. in which fracture goes in this layer. fracture height is equal to the block height.25) RECU Specifies the hydraulic fracture for MORE for- mat models and hybrid models. Fracture keywords 185 .18.18. Z coordinate is not taken into consideration.122).18.2 Keyword Section Description WFRAC (see 12.18.

included this zone. Kbhz for the well connection are set via WBHZONE (see 12.28). Simulation of plugging of well bottom zone 186 . 5.l /rbhz w.l (s) · sw.128).8. FLOWFTAB (see 12. (5. After an operation of cleaning of well bottom zone or creation a new fracture one should specify the value of skin-factor sw.l  K w.8.8.10 Simulation of well bottom zone dynamics: processing acids. (5.8.28) again.15) log(r0w. Specification of other parameters of the func- tion fsw.15).l ) + fsw. will be the following: w.l w.l log(rbhz /rw ) + Kbhz log(r0w.l βc K w.l (s) type is specified via FLOWFUNC (see 12.l To simulate plugging of well bottom zone the effectivity multiplier Kmult is usually used – WPIMULT (see 12.l 2π f pw.l w.14) one can also specify it’s dependence on dimensionless flow s (see the section 5.8.2 5.l w.l Kbhz Θ = ϒ 2π f pw.9.18.l (s)Kmult w.l w. this will set to zero value accumulated dimensionless flow.130).128).l (5.l Θ =ϒ . After an operation of cleaning of well bottom zone one should specify WPIMULT (see 12.5.129).l in COMPDAT (see 12. We add the function which depends of dimensionless flow s (see the description in the section 5.l (s) · sw.l 2π f pw. Specification of other parameters of the function f pw.18.8.18. In classical way of hydraulic fracture simulation via skin-factor sw.18.l where fsw.18.7): w.l where parameters rbhz .7). surfactants After processing acids. Modified formula of inflow (5.l ) + fsw.28).9 Simulation of plugging of well bottom zone w. and for the well connection it is specified via WPIFUNC (see 12.4) (function type EXP or LIN).16) w.l (s) is specified via FLOWFUNC (see 12. around the well there will be a zone with radius rbhz and permeability Kbhz .7).l (s) or specification of new type of function will also set to zero accumulated dimensionless flow. Modified well model tNavigator-4.18.l where the type of f pw.18.l (s)Kmult βc hw.l in (5.18.14) log(r0w. analogous to WPIFUNC (see 12.8.6) again.8. which is analogous to WPIMULT (see 12.l /rww.8.l (s) or specification of new type of function will also set to zero accumulated dimensionless flow.l hw.l (s)Kmult w. and for the well connection is specified via WSKFUNC (see 12. This will set to zero value accumulated dimensionless flow.l Θ =ϒ .8.l hw. K w. surfactants etc.4) (function type EXP or LIN).l .7): w.l /rww. 5.l ) + sw.l  w. FLOWFTAB (see 12.l βc K w.

P = 1 only for P = W ).1) section: ˆ for salt: BRINE (see 12.8. Polymer) (water salinity can optionally be taken into account).46) ˆ for polymer: POLYMER (see 12.8.8.8.4) PROPS Specifies coefficients of linear or exponential flow function (the dependence between perme- ability and flow (or time)).58) ˆ for alkaline: ALKALINE (see 12.6) PROPS Specifies tabular flow functions names NFLOWFTB (see 12.130) SCHEDULE Specifies the well bottomhole zone treatment 5. ˆ C poly – the concentration of dissolved polymer in water (kg/kg). this function sets the duration of the effect of well bottom- hole zone treatment FLOWFTAB (see 12.1.e. Surfactant. The option activation is done via the following keywords in the RUNSPEC (see 12.18.7) PROPS Specifies tabular flow functions FLOWFNAMES (see 12. We denote ˆ Csalt – the concentration of dissolved salt in water (kg/kg). Here Qw is mass water inflow from all the sources (wells.2 5.1. I. ˆ Csur f – the concentration of dissolved surfactant in water (kg/kg).1.49) ˆ for surfactant: SURFACT (see 12. ˆ Calkl – the concentration of dissolved alkaline in water (kg/kg). In the black-oil and compositional model (excluding CO2 dissolution) the mass conser- vation equation for each component (4.9 ASP model description The model of ASP injection (Alkaline. ASP model description tNavigator-4.8. and xw.11 Well bottom zone keywords Keyword Section Description FLOWFUNC (see 12.11.9.8.1.5.48) Initial values are specified via: 5.81) is: ∂ (φ Nw ) = − div (ξW UW ) + Qw ∂t (because there is no solid phase in these models. Well bottom zone keywords 187 .1. aquifers).5) PROPS Specifies number of tabular flow functions WBHZONE (see 12.

asp ˆ ρW – water mass density with ASP in it (see below).17) µW ∂ (φ Nw ·Csalt ) = − div (ξW UW ·Csalt ) + Qsalt . as a function of C 3 ˆ Csur f sur f (kg/sm ) in SURFADS (see 12.44) Polymer 0 SPOLY (see 12.26).8).(5. asp ˆ Bvisc poly – polymer viscosity multiplier (dimensionless) (see below for µW ).24). ∂t ∂t Where: asp ˆ krW – water relative permeability with ASP in it (see below). ASP model description 188 .25).8. Aalkl 3 ˆ sur f – surfactant adsorption multiplier (dimensionless).42) SALT (see 12. ads – concentration of adsorbed alkaline (kg/kg). so the units kg/kg are obtained when there is a division of these values by water density at surface conditions ρW sc (specified via DENSITY (see 12. ads – concentration of adsorbed surfactant (kg/kg).17).5.(5.45) In all initial conditions concentrations are in units kg/sm3 . as a function of adsorbed Csur f (kg/sm3 ) in PLYADS (see 12.2 Agent Equilibrium initialization Non-equilibrium initialization Salts SALTVD (see 12.8. ˆ Cads poly – concentration of adsorbed polymer (kg/kg). Aalkl 3 ˆ poly – polymer adsorption multiplier (dimensionless).20) .8.8.5. ASP model description tNavigator-4.18) ∂t ∂ ∂  ads  (φ Nw ·Calkl ) + (1 − φ )ρrock ·Calkl = − div (ξW UW ·Calkl ) + Qalkl .15. as a function of C 3 ˆ Calkl alkl (kg/sm ) in ALKADS (see 12.8. as a function Calkl (kg/sm ) in ALPOLADS (see 12.15.15.9.15. 5. The system of conservation equations:  asp  krW asp asp UW = −βc k asp (∇p + ∇PcW − ρW g∇d) (5.21) . ∂t ∂t ∂  ∂     (1 − Sd pv )φ Nw ·C poly + (1 − φ )ρrock · Aalkl C ads poly poly = − div ξ U W W · B visc C poly poly + Q poly (5.9. as a function Calkl (kg/sm ) in ALSURFAD (see 12.19) ∂t ∂t ∂  ∂   (1 − φ )ρrock · Aalkl ads  φ Nw ·Csur f + C sur f sur f = − div ξW UW ·C sur f + Qsur f (5. asp ˆ PcW – water-oil capillary pressure with ASP in the water (see below).23)).41) Alkaline 0 0 Surfactant 0 SURF (see 12. asp ˆ µW – water viscosity with ASP in it ASP (see below).

8).18.5.9. Rock mass density is specified via 3-rd parameter of the keyword PLYROCK (see 12. 8-th parameter of AQUFETP (see 12. 5. 5. specified via 1-st parameter of PLYROCK (see 12.12).8.6).8.8.8. In black-oil models (E100) the rock mass density is used.23).5.9). Keyword WPOLYMER (see 12. so the units kg/kg are obtained when there is sc (specified via a division of these values by water density at surface conditions ρW DENSITY (see 12. Keyword WALKALIN (see 12.18.869234E − 11 – multiplier. 3-rd parameter of AQUFLUX (see 12. that depends on units system. specified as function of Csur f (kg/sm ) in ALSURFST (see 12. In all data concentrations are in units kg/sm3 .8. or via the 2-nd parameter of SURFROCK (see 12. so the units kg/kg are obtained when there is sc (specified via a division of these values by water density at surface conditions ρW DENSITY (see 12. ˆ Qsur f – surfactant sources (wells). In all data concentrations are in units kg/sm3 .20) (if there are polymers then the 2-nd parameter of SURFROCK (see 12.1.149). ASP model description tNavigator-4.12) is ignored). ˆ Q poly – polymer sources (wells).2 ˆ ρrock – rock molar density.9. Water relative permeability calculations 189 . Capillary number Kc :     kk∇pk −20 Kc = min log10 Cunit + 10 . 12-th parameter of AQUCT (see 12. The keywords WSALT (see 12.150). ˆ Sd pv – dead pore space.18. Keyword WSURFACT (see 12.23)). aquifers). 7-th parameter of AQUCHWAT (see 12.8. Aalkl 3 ˆ st (Calkl ) – surface tension multiplier.5.2). In all data concentrations are in units kg/sm3 .20). ˆ Qsalt – salt sources (wells.151).18.16. In all data concentrations are in units kg/sm3 . so the units kg/kg are obtained when there is sc (specified via a division of these values by water density at surface conditions ρW DENSITY (see 12.152). so the units kg/kg are obtained when sc (specified there is a division of these values by water density at surface conditions ρW via DENSITY (see 12.5. 20 Aalkl st (Calkl )σsur f (Csur f ) where ˆ σsur f (Csur f ) – surface tension (N/m).23)).16. ˆ Qalkl – alkaline sources (wells).16.3). in compositional models (E300) the rock mass density divided by water molecular weight MWW is used.23)).9.23)).5.1 Water relative permeability calculations asp Let’s consider the calculation of krW . specified as function of Csur f (kg/sm3 ) in SURFST (see 12. ˆ Cunit = 9.16.

kimm (S ) – user data for immiscible conditions.16).35.27).2 Denote (see the tables 1 and 3) with ˆ imm (S ). specified in PVTW (see 12. 5. Let’s denote ˆ µ poly (C poly ) – function (dimensionless). SWCR (see 12.3.27). SWU (see 12.34).35.6.2. KRW (see 12.9.8. W 0 0 0 krOW (SW ).6.42). SOWCR (see 12.30). KRW (see 12.6. that specify the data for these calculations. The scaled relative permeabilities (calculated according to 4. using these functions the corresponding phase relative permeabilities krG G 0 krOG (SG ) are calculated according to the section 4.2 Water viscosity calculations asp Let’s consider the calculation of µW and Bvisc poly .6. KRORW (see 12. krOG (SG ) are always taken for immiscible conditions (from SATNUM 0 (S ).2.6. that are specified via krW W rOW W number of table SATNUM (see 12. Functions krG (SG ).32).2) we denote as 0imm (S ).35.4.3)).9. k0mis (S ). Oil relative permeability krO in three-phase system is calculated from krW 0 (S ). ASP model description tNavigator-4. SWU (see 12.3) and scaling arrays SWL (see 12.34).6.42).42). k0mis (S ) krW W rOW W rW W rOW W Then phase relative permeabilities in water-oil system if the surfactant is present are: 0 0imm 0mis krW (SW ) = Fcapd (Kc )krW (SW ) + (1 − Fcapd (Kc ))krW (SW ) 0 0imm 0mis krOW (SW ) = Fcapd (Kc )krOW (SW ) + (1 − Fcapd (Kc ))krOW (SW ) where the function Fcapd (Kc ) is set in the keyword SURFCAPD (see 12.5).5. kmis (S ) – user data for miscible conditions.42).4.43). Viscosity in the case with the surfactant: sur f µW (p) µW (p.9. KRO (see 12. This function should be equal 0 for immiscible conditions and 1 miscible conditions.6. that are specified via number krW W rOW W of table SURFNUM (see 12.8.6.Csur f ) = µsur f (Csur f ) · µW (pre f ) where the function µsur f of Csur f (kg/sm3 ) is specified in SURFVISC (see 12. calculated from PVTW (see 12. k0imm (S ). differ depending whether there is a salt in the model (keyword BRINE (see 12.6. Water viscosity calculations 190 .6.9.1.5.5. 5.58)) or not. krG (SG ). The keywords.4.6. KRORW (see 12.3 Water viscosity calculations without salt Let’s denote as µW (p) the "standard" viscosity. (see 12.5). ˆ mis (S ).6. KRO (see 12.4) and scaling arrays SWL (see 12. 5.11) as the function of capillary number Kc . krOG (SG ) according to the section 4. specified in PLYVISC (see 12. and pre f – reference pressure.8.10).43).

4 Capillary pressure in water-oil system asp The calculation of PcW : asp σsur f (Csur f ) PcW = PcW σsur f (0) where ˆ PcW – capillary pressure.4. specified in 5-th pa- rameter of PLYROCK (see 12. the expression for the water viscosity µW can be rewritten as 1 Cads.9).9. Capillary pressure in water-oil system 191 .9). asp asp Then the water viscosity µW = µW (p. 1} + (1 − min{C poly /C poly . ˆ Krr f – parameter (residual resistance factor).C poly . 1})  sur f  µW (p.20).20).18).Cads poly ) (in case of surfactant and polymer in it): 1 Cads.Csur f .max poly + (Krr f − 1)Cads poly (µ poly (C poly ))ω ! 1 − min{C poly /Cmax poly .19).8.9. 5.9. specified via 2-nd parameter of PLYROCK (see 12. specified in PLMIXPAR (see 12. ˆ Cads.9.7.14) and BDENSITY (see 12. 5.max poly – maximal adsorbed polymer concentration (kg/sm3 ).8.Csur f ) asp Using this notation.max poly 1 1 1 asp = · · · visc µW Cads.8.5 Water mass density calculations asp Water mass density ρW depends only on Csalt and it is calculated from the keywords PVTWSALT (see 12. ˆ ω – parameter.C poly )  !(1−ω) −1 µ poly (Cmax poly ) Bvisc max max poly = min{C poly /C poly . ASP model description tNavigator-4.Csur f ))(1−ω) (µ poly (Cmax poly )) (1−ω) Polymer viscosity multiplier (dimensionless) Bvisc visc poly = B poly (p. 1} · sur f + (µW (p. 1} min{C poly /Cmax poly . specified in the 1-st parameter of PLYMAX (see 12.5. specified as the function of Csur f (kg/sm3 ) in SURFST (see 12.max poly 1 asp = · µW Cads. calculated via "standard" method.8.Csur f .7.8. ˆ σsur f (Csur f ) – surface tension (N/m).2 Cmax 3 ˆ poly – maximal polymer concentration (kg/sm ).max + (Krr f − 1)Cads (µ poly (C poly ))ω (µ poly (Cmax poly )) (1−ω) B poly poly poly 5.

10. In the table 5: 5.0 102 193.0 4. ˆ «Oil (injector)» — the volume of oil produced from the responding producers due to the injection of this injector.0 Reservoir 117. produced by this producer due to injection of this injector. grouped by Injectors (table 5).0 102 516.0 101 204. injected by injector.0 103 13.0 rm3 of liquid (in reservoir conditions).2 Injector Responding producers Well Liquid Oil Well Liquid Oil rm3 sm3 rm3 sm3 Reservoir 720. Drainage matrix calculation tNavigator-4.0 203. Drainage matrix calculation 192 .0 sm3 is the volume of oil. grouped by Injectors 5. There is a description of the table form below.0 rm3 (in reservoir conditions) due to injection of the well 201.10.5. In the table 5: – The well 102 produced 193.0 123.0 sm3 is the volume of oil. In the table 5: – The value 124. In the table 5: – The well 201 injected 323. ˆ If the reservoir is set as the injector. produced by the well 102 due to injection of the well 201. ˆ «Liquid (responding producer)» — liquid volume.0 80. In the table 5: – The value 120.10.0 124. Columns: ˆ «Liquid (injector)» — liquid. 5. produced by this producer due to injection of this injector. graph and matrix.0 Table 5: Drainage table.0 201 323.0 120. Let’s start with the table.1 Description of Drainage matrix In GUI drainage matrix can be visualized as table.10 Drainage matrix calculation Drainage matrix is a tool for numerical evaluation of injector-producer interactions and crossflows due to streamlines. The table can be grouped by Producers or Injectors. then the fluid produced will equal the fluid produced from the reservoir without injectors’ influence. ˆ «Oil (responding producer)» — oil volume. produced due to the injection of well 201.

Note.0 rm3 (in reservoir conditions).0 – Oil: 203. In the table 6: – The well 102 produced 709.10. Drainage matrix calculation tNavigator-4.0 + 516. To the right of them we can see the producers that are affected by shutting of ineffective injectors. At the bottom of the table at this sorting there are the least effective wells.0 You can also get a drainage table relative form: values in the right columns are represented as percentages of the corresponding values in the left columns. – The well 101 produced 80. but it has different grouping.0 ˆ For the well 201: – Liquid: 323. because the amount of injected water is not taken into account.2 – Total fluid production is 720.0 + 4. ˆ «Oil (producer)» — oil volume.0 + 123.10. that the values in the left columns are equal to the sum of the values in the right columns. The table can be sorted by the column «Oil (injector)».0 rm3 (in reservoir conditions). then the liquid volume will equal the volume of water that has been injected by the well but not influenced the producers’ production volumes. In the table 5: – The well 201 injected 117. – The well 101 produced 204.0 + 193. Most effective wells (economically) are those with the lowest ratio of injected water to the produced oil.0 sm3 of oil without injectors’ influence. In the table 6: 5.0 sm3 ı̀3 without injectors’ influence. therefore it is necessary to consider the second column. ˆ If the reservoir is set as the producer.0 rm3 (in reservoir conditions) without injectors’ influence. In this case we have on the top of the table the most effective injection wells.0 = 120.0 = 117.1. produced by this producer. that not influenced the producers’ production volumes. Columns: ˆ «Liquid (producer)» — fluid volume.5. The table 6 corresponds to the same drainage matrix as the table 5.0 = 204.0 rm3 (in reservoir conditions) without injectors’ influence. produced by this producer. Description of Drainage matrix 193 . In the table 5: ˆ For the reservoir: – Liquid: 720.0 – Oil: 124. Below there is a description of the Drainage table grouped be producers. – Total oil production is 203.0 + 13.0 = 80. excluding economy.

In the table 6: – The well 102 produced 516.2 Producer Injector’s influence Well Liquid Oil Well Liquid Oil rm3 sm3 rm3 sm3 Reservoir 117. ˆ «Liquid (Injector’s influence)» — fluid volume. Note. produced by this producer due to in- jection of this injector. In the table 6: – The well 201 injected 117.0 102 709. ˆ If the reservoir is set as the producer.0 Table 6: Drainage table.0 4. ˆ «Oil (Injector’s influence)» — the volume of oil produced by this producer due to the injection of this injector.0 rm3 (in reservoir conditions) due to injection of the well 201.0 sm3 is the volume of oil. that the values in the left columns are equal to the sum of the values in the right columns. In the table 6: – The well 102 produced 193. In the table 6: ˆ For the reservoir: – Liquid: 117.0 201 117.0 201 13.0 80.10.0 80.0 5.0 sm3 of oil.0 201 193. produced by the well 102 due to the injection of the well 201.0 Reservoir 516. Description of Drainage matrix 194 .0 Reservoir 204. Drainage matrix calculation tNavigator-4.0 Reservoir 0. grouped by Producers – The well 102 produced 243.5.0 rm3 (in reservoir conditions) without the injectors’ influence.0 4.0 sm3 of oil ı̀3 without the injectors’ influence. that not influenced the producers’ production volumes.1.0 123.0 0. In the table 6: – The value 120.10.0 243.0 rm3 (in reservoir conditions). then the liquid volume will equal the volume of water that has been injected by this well but not influenced the producers’ production volumes.0 120. ˆ If the reservoir is set as the injector„ the fluid volume will equal the volume of fluid produced without the injectors’ influence.0 101 204.0 103 13. – The well 102 produced 123.0 = 117.

0 = 123.0 ˆ For the well 102: – Liquid: 709.0 = 4.0 – Oil: 4. 5. For waterflood it is recommended to use the default (water and oil). 5. In this case we have on the top of the table the most effective producers. which are used in streamline calculations.0 ˆ For the well 103: – Liquid: 13.0 rm3 for one streamline.10.2. At the right part of the table there are wells that provide reservoir pressure support for the selected producer. At a reasonable density decrease. if you select only one of the phases the streamline will stop if it enters the block with the saturation of this phase equal to the residual saturation (minimal saturation). This option should be selected on the basis of data to be used: in the analysis of producers — trace from producers. The the bottom of the table there are wells that can be candidates to switch for injection. The default streamline density is 5.0 = 13. ˆ Phases that are taken into account in streamline calculations In the settings you can specify a set of phases. ˆ The wells to trace streamlines from (producers or injectors) The streamlines can be traced from producers or injectors. It can be any combination of water.10.0 + 193.5.10. but the calculation time also increases.2 Parameters that affect drainage matrix Drainage matrix calculations depends on several parameters: ˆ Streamline density Each streamline corresponds to the specified fluid volume.0 = 516.2 ˆ For the well 101: – Liquid: 204.0 You can also get a drainage table relative form: values in the right columns are represented as percentages of the corresponding values in the left columns. The table can be sorted by the column «Oil (producer)».0 = 204. The best settings should be selected depending on the well rates: the smaller well rate.0 – Oil: 243. For example. this value is it’s density. The resulting pictures can be different. the smaller the density of streamlines to obtain an accurate picture.0 – Oil: 80. Parameters that affect drainage matrix 195 . oil and gas. Drainage matrix calculation tNavigator-4. in the analysis of injectors — trace from injectors. the accuracy of their construction increases.0 + 120. while at tracing from producers it more accurately reflects the flow closer to the producers and vice versa.0 = 80.

These maps are calculated in each grid block via the formulas (description of all param- eters is below): If there is no vaporized oil in gas: 1. ˆ Dissolved gas in place (METRIC: sm3 . FIELD: stb). ˆ Mobile Dissolved gas in place (METRIC: sm3 .11 Oil and gas in-place In tNavigator in the map tree Resources the following maps are available: ˆ Oil in place (oip) (METRIC: sm3 . FIELD: stb). Their names in brackets should be entered in the Map Arithmetic Command Line. FIELD: stb). ˆ Oil in place (Mass) (oipm) (METRIC: ton.5. FIELD: stb). Oil in place (Mass) oipm = rho ∗ oip = soil ∗ porv ∗ ibo ∗ rho. ˆ Mobile Free gas in place (METRIC: sm3 . Oil and gas in-place 196 . FIELD: stb). ˆ Mobile Vaporized oil in place (METRIC: sm3 . FIELD: stb). ˆ Vaporized oil in place (METRIC: sm3 . FIELD: lb). FIELD: stb). ˆ Mobile gas in place (mgip) (METRIC: sm3 . Oil in place oip = porv ∗ soil ∗ ibo. ˆ Mobile Free oil in place (METRIC: sm3 . ˆ Gas in place (gip) (METRIC: sm3 . These maps can be used in User Arithmetic in User Maps. FIELD: lb). Oil and gas in-place tNavigator-4. ˆ Gas in place (Mass) (gipm) (METRIC: ton.2 5.11.11. FIELD: stb). ˆ Mobile oil in place (Mass) (moipm) (METRIC: ton. FIELD: stb). FIELD: stb). ˆ Mobile oil in place (moip) (METRIC: sm3 . FIELD: stb). FIELD: stb). FIELD: lb). If there is dissolved gas in oil additional maps will be visualized: ˆ Free gas in place (METRIC: sm3 . 2. 5. If there is vaporized oil in gas additional maps will be visualized: ˆ Free oil in place (METRIC: sm3 .

11. Mobile oil in place (Mass) moipm = moip ∗ rho. 0) (see the description of the function IF (see 12. 0). Free oil in place porv ∗ soil ∗ ibo. 0). porv ∗ (sgas − sgcr) ∗ ibg ∗ rv.3.11. 3. Mobile oil in place moip = porv ∗ ((soil − sowcr) ∗ ibo + (sgas − sgcr) ∗ ibg ∗ rv) for the case (soil − sowcr) ≥ 0 and (sgas − sgcr) ≥ 0.5. 3. 2. Mobile gas in place mgip = IF((sgas − sgcr) ≥ 0. then resources are considered immobile and corresponding part of the formula is set equal to zero (negative values don’t sum in this formula).2 3. Mobile oil in place moip = IF((soil − sowcr) >= 0. 2. Oil in place (Mass) oipm = rho ∗ oip = rho ∗ porv ∗ (soil ∗ ibo + sgas ∗ ibg ∗ rv). 6. If (soil − sowcr) < 0 or (sgas − sgcr) < 0. Gas in place gip = porv ∗ sgas ∗ ibg. (sgas − sgcr) ∗ porv ∗ ibg. 2. Mobile Free oil in place IF((soil − sowcr) ≥ 0.7)). Oil in place oip = porv ∗ (soil ∗ ibo + sgas ∗ ibg ∗ rv). Mobile gas in place mgip = porv ∗ rhg ∗ ((sgas − sgcr) ∗ ibg + (soil − sowcr) ∗ ibo ∗ rs) for the case (soil − sowcr) ≥ 0 or (sgas − sgcr) ≥ 0. 5. porv ∗ (soil − sowcr) ∗ ibo. 5. 8. 4. Oil and gas in-place 197 . If (soil − sowcr) < 0 or (sgas − sgcr) < 0. If there is vaporized oil in gas: 1. 0). Gas in place (Mass) gipm = gip ∗ rhg = porv ∗ rhg ∗ (sgas ∗ ibg + soil ∗ ibo ∗ rs). Gas in place gip = porv ∗ (sgas ∗ ibg + soil ∗ ibo ∗ rs). 3. Oil and gas in-place tNavigator-4. Mobile oil in place (Mass) moipm = moip ∗ rho. then resources are considered immobile and corresponding part of the formula is set equal to zero (negative values don’t sum in this formula). Mobile Vaporized oil in place IF((sgas − sgcr) ≥ 0. If there is no dissolved gas in oil: 1. Vaporized oil in place porv ∗ sgas ∗ ibg ∗ rv. 7. (soil − sowcr) ∗ porv ∗ ibo. Gas in place (Mass) gipm = sgas ∗ porv ∗ ibg ∗ rhg. 4. If there is dissolved gas in oil: 1.

5. If the block’s oil saturation (soil ) is below the critical oil saturation (sowcr ). Free gas in place porv ∗ sgas ∗ ibg. (sgas − sgcr) ∗ porv ∗ ibg. If the keyword ROCK is used. ˆ ibg . REFE in MORE) or the keyword ROCKTAB (see 12.geometric volume of the cell (is not equal to DX*DY*DZ for non-uniform rectangular grid). ˆ ibo .11.residual oil saturation in the cell taking into account the permeabilities scaling.24) are NTG (see 12.gas density at surface conditions is specified via the keyword DENSITY (see 12.5. the keyword ROCK (see 12. 0).gas saturation in this grid block. 6. If the block’s gas saturation (sgas) is below the critical gas saturation (sgcr ).oil saturation in this grid block. ˆ porv .18) (Eclipse or KVSP in MORE). 0). ˆ sgas . ˆ rhg . V . ˆ sowcr .pressure. C and PREF are specified in the keyword ROCK (see 12. Oil and gas in-place 198 . Mobile Dissolved gas in place IF((soil − sowcr) ≥ 0. (soil − sowcr) ∗ porv ∗ ibo ∗ rs. Oil and gas in-place tNavigator-4. ˆ sgcr . ˆ rho .2.5.5.5.residual gas saturation in the cell taking into account the permeabilities scaling. then porv = (1 +C ∗ (p − PREF) +C ∗C ∗ (p − PREF) ∗ (p − PREF)/2) ∗V ∗ PORO ∗ NT G where p .11.inverse value to the gas volume ratio at the current pressure and composition of the cell. It’s calculation depends of rock properties specification.2 4.pore volume of the grid block at current pressure.5. the oil is considered immobile. 5.25) specified via the corresponding keywords.16) (Eclipse or CROC. Mobile Free gas in place IF((sgas − sgcr) ≥ 0. the gas is considered immobile.inverse value to the oil volume ratio at the current pressure and composition of the cell.23) (Eclipse or DENSITY/BASIC in MORE).oil density at surface conditions is specified via the keyword DENSITY (see 12. 7. PORO (see 12.23) (Eclipse or DENSITY/BASIC in MORE). Dissolved gas in place porv ∗ soil ∗ ibo ∗ rs.16).2. 5. where: ˆ soil .

2. j. then density of mass mobile oil resources for layers from 27 to 84.11.25) (Vb ∗ntg . k ˆ the formula depends on real block pore volume. k).1.5.value DZ in the block (i. Oil and gas in-place tNavigator-4. j. j. ˆ dz(i. j.volume of the block (i.2 Oil and gas in-place via separators In compositional case (E300 data format) calculations of oil and gas in-place volumes can be done using separators. since the ex- k Vb (i. j) = (∑ map(i. j. k) ∗ ntg(i. j. ˆ ∑k . k) . k) . j).k) is an average column (i.21). If Cut is enable then the sum will include blocks for which this cut is true. For map one also can choose 2D concentration map via the formula: ∑k map(i. k) concentration(map.15. To calculate oil and gas in-place volumes for different FIP regions with different separa- tors one should specify the keyword FIPSEP (see 12.2 5. j. i. 5.20).11. j. j. This separator is used to calculated oil and gas in-place volumes for field. j. j. k) .collector formula).value of map in the block (i. j. Resources density and concentration 199 . k).11.sum of the vertical column for (i. end set the Cut – an expression k > 26&k < 85. j) = ∑k (Vb (i. i. k) . j) area. k)) ∗ k ∑k Vb (i. j. k). tNavigator formula of mass mobile oil resources has the following features: ˆ formula of vertical averaging is adapted to heterogeneous vertical cells. k) at current pressure.1 Resources density and concentration For 3D map one can choose 2D density map via the formula: ∑k dz(i.volume of the block (i. j.is specified via the corresponding keyword NTG (see 12. Separator for all field is specified via the keyword FIELDSEP (see 12. j.k) pression ∑ ∑ dz(i. k) where ˆ map(i. If we choose the map moipm. j. k) density(map. ˆ Vb (i.11.15. ˆ ntg . k)) where ˆ Vb (i. Sum of oil and gas in-place for FIP region (FIPSEP) can be not equal to oil and gas in-place 5.

12.10)) via the keyword DATUMR (see 12. water average density in PVT region.15. pG . gas. ˆ g – gravity acceleration. ˆ D – block depth. water) phase pressure. – oil.17. Instead of equation of state gas plant table can be used.20). ˆ ρO . gas. 5.36). gas. Phase potentials calculations 200 .15. GPTABLE3 (see 12.15. Field oil potential (FPPO in section SUMMARY (see 12. water phase pressures. 5.2) are not specified. POTG .22). SO – oil saturation. One can specify reference depth different for different fluid- in-place regions (FIP (see 12. POTW – oil. One can specify reference depth different for different fluid-in-place regions (FIPNUM (see 12. specified via EQUIL (see 12. ρG .11)) via the keyword DATUMRX (see 12.15.4.35).15.15.34) or it can be taken from the 1-st equilibration region reference depth.5. water potentials.15.15.23). If keywords DATUM (see 12.24) or GPTABLEN (see 12. EQUIL (see 12. Calculations of phase potentials of a grid block: POTO = pO − ρO g(D − Ddat ) POTG = pG − ρG g(D − Ddat ) POTW = pW − ρW g(D − Ddat ) where: ˆ POTO . pW – oil. ˆ Ddat – reference depth. In this case gas plant table should be specified via the keywords GPTABLE (see 12.15. water) potential – oil (gas. corrected to a datum depth.2 for field calculated via FIELDSEP (see 12.15. ˆ pO . Porv – block pore volume. Reference depth can be specified via the keyword DATUM (see 12. then reference depth is set to zero. Equation of state is used for default to convert flow rates in surface conditions.34).12 Phase potentials calculations Oil (gas.1)) is specified one of the following ways: ˆ default ∑ POTO ∗ SO ∗ Porv FPPO = ∑ SO ∗ Porv where POTO – oil potential of a block (summation is over all blocks).2). Phase potentials calculations tNavigator-4.12. ρW .4.

2.. water saturation (Swat ). ˆ k Vcollector = V k ∗ ntgk . Density.13 2D maps for Saturation Ternary Diagram Saturation Ternary Diagram: block colour depends on oil saturation (Soil ). Minimum are visualized the following way: blocks (from block column) with minimum (maximum) oil saturation is taken.217) is even ∑ POTO ∗ Porv FPPO = ∑ Porv 5.25). or gas saturation (Sgas ) in this block. Sum are visualized for oil saturation. 5. ˆ ntg – is specified via the corresponding keyword NTG (see 12. Sgas = NZ k Vcollector k ∑ ∑ Vcollector k=0 k=0 NZ k ∗V k ∑ Swat collector k=0 Swat = NZ k ∑ Vcollector k=0 where: ˆ The summation is over the layers in the vertical direction (from 0 to NZ ).. 2D maps Maximum. 2D maps Concentration.NZ Water saturation (Swat ) and gas saturation (Sgas ) for this block are taken (the block with minimum (maximum) oil saturation).13. Rms.. ˆ V k – block volume. 2D maps for Saturation Ternary Diagram tNavigator-4..2 ˆ in the case that the value of 31-th parameter of OPTIONS (see 12.5. k Soil = min Soil k=0.18. 2D maps for Saturation Ternary Diagram 201 . 2D map Average (Avg) is calculated the following way: NZ NZ k ∗V k k ∗V k ∑ Soil collector ∑ Sgas collector k=0 k=0 Soil = NZ .13.

flux). Detail description and examples of model split and merge see please in the training course 7-1_HowToSplitAndMergeModel. 3. you can work with a model as described here below: 1. oil. . FLUXREG (see 12.) and common file .2 5. and gas cross-flow maps can be assigned prior to a model computation via the keyword RPTMAPS (see 12. with the modifications made in the pieces. Button: Split model. Provide the model to the engineers in pieces. Run the console version of tNavigator with the option --split. FLUXNUM (see 12. Run calculations of this file . Add a keyword FIPPATT (see 12. Recompute a shared model file using a high-power computer to update model pieces’ boundary conditions. It is possible to modify model pieces (add wells. In graphical interface. modify phase curves. The boundary conditions are written in . splitted pieces of the model are ready for use. Splitted parts of the model are considered with these boundary conditions.14.41). In tNavigator during splitting new models are created – parts of initial model. splitted pieces of the model are ready for use. Continue working with model pieces.patterns. Split a model into several parts (in case of a huge model you will need a high-power computer to compute the entire model once.patterns. etc.5. plan well work jobs).4.49). In tNavigator. Cumulative water. 2.2.patterns-file contains all information about splitted parts. Model splitting is only possible in two ways: 1. It is possible to use model pieces as separate models in moderate-memory computers. Split and merge of the model tNavigator-4.42) are ignored.flux-files. 4. in order to save the model pieces’ boundary conditions (cross-boundary flows)). MODEL NAME_PATTERNS_PATTERN001_2. 2. Put model pieces together into a large model.flux-files. Open the file .13) indicating splitted parts of the model.flux-files (flow files . Split and merge of the model 202 . which con- sists of splitted parts as independent models (MODEL NAME_PATTERNS_PATTERN001_1.patterns. which contain the boundary conditions.2. The calculation of this file cre- ates . In the direc- tory with model will be created the new directory MODEL NAME_PATTERNS. so the keywords DUMPFLUX (see 12.15. Via console version of tNavigator. The boundary conditions are written in . 5.14.18).4. Splitting can be done via user Map or user Cut.14 Split and merge of the model In tNavigator approach to splitting is different from Eclipse. permeability multipliers. After splitting the original model should be closed. We recommend splitting the model so that the boundaries run through minimum cross- flows areas.

To update the boundary conditions .patterns . ˆ FIPPATT (see 12.14. After splitting in model parts there are the following keywords: Example SKIP SKIPOFF RECUMESH SKIPON ENDSKIP You shouldn’t delete these keywords! .2 Then. ˆ USEFLUX (see 12.re-compute .5. 1. ˆ oil production rate.1 Special features for wells Group controls handling during model splitting. 5.14. Keywords.13) defines to which splitted region each block belongs to.4. Special features for wells 203 . to calculate the splitted parts with the boundary conditions. Automatic split and merge can be used for hybrid models the same way as for models of standard types. Split and merge of the model tNavigator-4. you just need to open them and run the console or GUI version. ˆ gas production rate.14.file (whole model file) can not work correct without them! Features of splitting a model with wells. 5. Split and merge of hybrid models Eclipse and More. The .flux-file of the region (the boundary conditions of the piece cut out) will have the data listed here below recorded for all the groups with group control in the region and with wells outside the region. excluding the wells within the region: ˆ water production rate.flux-file name which is used in splitted part.patterns-file (console or GUI version).40) defines .1. ˆ fluid production rate under the reservoir conditions.2.

At that a status bar in the lower part of the screen will indicate a notice as follows (as an example): Well PROD21 is located in more than one region! [8. 6. 5. In order to compute the pieces with the boundary conditions. When the region’s data are computed.18.1] block occupies when splitting the model. You can split a model using any Cut or any User Map.2 Splitting a model in the GUI 1. 20. just open them and have them computed in the console version or in the GUI version. Open a model (but do not run a computation). Notice: The map for model cutting is adjusted automatically.102) (the minimum rate).18. phase curves modified. Split and merge of the model tNavigator-4. All the model pieces can be opened as separate models and computed.patterns. 20. WRAT. close the source model and open the file . then splitting map automatically adjusts itself in a way that the whole well should go to the piece of the map where its wellhead projection on the tip layer of the model lies. VREP. ˆ GECON (see 12.j. FLD). 5. The button Split model (select Cut or Map split option). ˆ GCONINJE (see 12. Also.3) keyword specifies [i. the rate data from the file . 2] Perforation interval is in region 1. After splitting.14.patterns. 2.5.18.72) (ORAT. All cells through which the well passes add to this split-out piece. REIN. if in a data file of the model WELSPECS (see 12. Thus. 3. Wells located in more than one model piece. ˆ water injection under the reservoir conditions.2 ˆ water injection. 4. and [8. you can cut out a FIP region.18. Create a Map or a User Cut to assign the regions the model is to be split into. ˆ gas injection. 2. LRAT.14. ˆ gas injection under the reservoir conditions.j] coordinates of perforation interval the well will go to the same piece that the [i. as a number of wells found belonging to several regions! 5. The boundary conditions are recorded in .flux are subtracted from the group limit. 3. The following controls are supported: ˆ GCONPROD (see 12. If splitting places a well in a number of split-out pieces of the model. model pieces cut out are ready to use.in 2.2. Splitting a model in the GUI 204 . an aquifer added).flux files. the pieces can be modified (wells added.14.81) (RATE. Compute the file . RESV). GRAT. 3] .

239). OIL. It can be full-featured model or simple fake model with one active grid block. 5.patterns Ű this will include all the modifi- cations into the model. ˆ SLAVE models can be 2 or 3 phase. GRUPMAST (see 12. Reservoir Coupling tNavigator-4. For each model production rate calculation to surface conditions is based on phase properties that are set in the model.18. In not compositional models we asume that components have names WATER. Several SLAVEs (subordinate) models are calculated sharing the groups controls.238).237).patterns must be re-computed. ˆ Number of SLAVE models is limited only with the number of available tNavigator licenses.flux files) in the model pieces. ˆ MASTER model must be in E100 format or E300 (in case if at least one of SLAVE models is compositional or thermal). the file . To update the boundary conditions (. ˆ In MASTER model the number of phases shouldn’t be less then this number in each SLAVE.5.15 Reservoir Coupling tNavigator support an option Reservoir Coupling to combine calculations of different models. Components in the MASTER model should be the union of component in SLAVE models. STARS.18. ˆ Group limits that are set in MASTER.15. containing also names OIL. GEM. ˆ Ending dates in SLAVEs should not be later then in MASTER model.15. Reservoir Coupling 205 . Stick please to the following instructions specifying principal and subordinate models: ˆ SLAVE models are full-featured models in these possible formats: E100. The following keywords can be used: SLAVES (see 12.2 7.18. In different models different number of phases can be used. One principal model – MASTER – controls simulation. work with phase rates in surface conditions. then the components with the same names from different model are comsidered in MASTER as the same compo- nent and component production rates on them will be summarized. Merge model pieces. GAS. there are no any other limits on slaves number. if there are not compositional SLAVE models. 5. IMEX. ˆ Starting dates in SLAVEs should not be earlier as in MASTER model. ˆ If at least one of SLAVE models is compositional or thermal. MORE. ˆ Reporting time steps in SLAVEs and MASTER can be different. GAS. GRUPSLAV (see 12. Re-compute the file . E300.

72).18.18.96). ˆ There is fully implicit model calculation. then its parameters 3-9 define if the group limits (specified in SLAVE1) will affect on the group G. Reservoir Coupling 206 .239).18.239).15.18.41). An example and the picture of MASTER-SLAVES scheme is in the description of the keyword GRUPMAST (see 12.238). In particular if parameters 3-9 are not specified then GCONPROD (see 12.1.85)).18.18.91)) and extended network (NET- WORK (see 12. If in MASTER model we have GRUPMAST (see 12. Reservoir couping using surface network.18.238).18. calculation to surface conditions are done according to the properties specified in the models (for the group limits also). Phase rates in surface conditions are used.2 ˆ The possibility to couple models with common surface network is available (keywords for Standard network option are available GRUPNET (see 12.18.18.81) specified in SLAVE model for SLAVE group will be ignored (option MAST).5. Two options are possi- ble.84)) can not be used simultaneously.18.18. GNETINJE (see 12. Reservoir Coupling tNavigator-4. GRUPSLAV (see 12. set using the keywords GRUPMAST (see 12. tNavigator checks the pairs of principal-subordinate groups.18.18. GRUPINJE (see 12.238) and GRUPSLAV (see 12.18.239)). ˆ If there is a connection between the group in MASTER model and the group in SLAVE model specified via GRUPMAST (see 12.91) etc).237).239) is specified.18. GNETINJE (see 12. GCONINJE (see 12. ˆ Network node in SLAVE model that is connected to the network node in the MASTER model.41). ˆ The calculation of surface network is done explicitly for all models. there is no pressure loss for branches between models. GRUPSLAV (see 12.18.15.238). ˆ the corresponding GRUPSLAV (see 12. Then all group limits (that are set in MASTER model) act on groups/wells in SLAVE models using the extend group tree (set via GRUPTREE (see 12. VFP tables from the corresponding models are used for network branches in these models.239) is not specified.18. ˆ In MASTER and SLAVE models standard network (GRUPNET (see 12.18. and there are corresponding network nodes with the same names. Well group in the SLAVE model should be the child of the group in MASTER model (keywords GRUPMAST (see 12.18.96). then they will be con- nected without pressure loss (analogue to defaulted VFP table for network node). Equations from all models are combined to one common system of equations that describes the whole integrated reservoir. Subordinate models are set via the keyword SLAVES (see 12. and in the model SLAVE1: ˆ the corresponding GRUPSLAV (see 12. GRUPINJE (see 12.238) for the group G in the model SLAVE1. then the group limits set in SLAVE1 continue to act on group G (option BOTH). should be defined in SLAVE model as a node eith fixed pressure. 5.

ˆ The only link between SLAVE and MASTER models – is the extend group tree in MASTER model and group limits.14).239). but this wells/groups will be considered as different. GRUPSLAV (see 12. Gas field operations model DCQ (2.238).15. reinjection from one model to another is impossible.19. Reservoir Coupling 207 .5.2 The are the following limits in Reservoir Coupling option in current version of tNavigator: ˆ The following features are not supported in SLAVE and MASTER models: Gas lift optimization (2. ˆ SLAVE and MASTER models can not use RESTART (see 12.18.7).1. ˆ Wells/groups with the same names can be specified in different SLAVE models.18. for example.8). The only one possibility to link to the well/group names in other models is via the keywords GRUPMAST (see 12.15. So in this version.19. Reservoir Coupling tNavigator-4. 5.

So.1 Friction pressure loss This type of correlation is based on the definition of the Fanning friction factor and is given by the Fanning equation 2 f v2 ρL ∆Pf = . 6. Mukherjee & Brill. Aziz.6. Pressure loss can be divided into three components: ˆ hydrostatic pressure loss. ˆ f — Fanning friction factor (function of Reynolds number). ˆ kinetic pressure loss. ˆ ρ — density (lb/ft 3 ). VFP tables can be created via correlations using the keyword VFPCORR (see 12. ˆ v — average velocity (ft/s). Single Phase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. Beggs & Brill. Hagedorn-Brown. Comparison of correlations is below. In hydrodynamic modeling it is necessary to correct tubing hole pressures to perforation pressures to calculate flow volume into wellbore. and its influence can be ignored.18.2. Govier & Fogarasi.1 Problem decription 6. gc D where: ˆ ∆Pf — pressure loss due to friction effects (psia). ˆ pressure loss due to friction. equation which expresses pressure loss can be written as follows: ∆PTotal = ∆PHydro + ∆PFrictional 6.61).2 6 VFP tables generation Tubing hole pressure – is one of the main parameters of well condition control in simula- tion of mixture flow in the well bore. and there are several ways to calculate correla- tions. tNavigator supports the following correlations: Petalas & Aziz. Tubing hole pressure value is measured during well’s work. Orkiszewski.1. VFP tables generation 208 . which accounts different regimes of mixture flow in wellbore. Kinetic pressure loss is very small usually. This parameter is is important for surface networks. This is a difficult problem.2. Gray.2 Single Phase Flow Theory 6.1 Problem decription Liquid in wellbore suffers pressure loss. 6.

6.2 Single-Phase Friction Factor (f) The single-phase friction factor can be obtained from the following equation: "    1. f D Re D Re where: ˆ f — friction factor. ˆ µ — viscosity (cP).2.2.2. ˆ gc = 32. ˆ D — inside diameter of pipe (ft). Single Phase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. ˆ k — absolute roughness (in).2 — gravitational constant.8981 . which is a function of the fluid density.1098 !# 1 k 5. The single-phase friction factor clearly depends on the Reynold’s number.2. viscosity. velocity and pipe diameter: 1488ρvD Re = .2 ˆ L — length of pipe section (ft). This correlation can be used either for single-phase gas (Fanning Gas) or for single-phase liquid (Fanning Liquid). µ where: ˆ ρ — density (lb/ft 3 ). ˆ D —diameter (ft).0452 k 5. ˆ k/D — relative roughness (unitless).3539 + 0. ˆ Re — Reynold’s number. 6.6. ˆ v — velocity (ft/s).8506 √ = −4. Single-Phase Friction Factor (f) 209 .0log 0.2698 − log 0.

In general.6. πR 6. This is determined by a calculation of in-situ liquid holdup.3 Multiphase Flow Theory The presence of multiple phases greatly complicates pressure drop calculations. the density ((ρ)) is constant. The friction pressure loss is modified in several ways. by adjusting the friction factor ( f ). The Single Phase hydrostatic pressure drop 210 . This is due to the fact that the properties of each fluid present must be taken into account.2. 6.3.2. to evaluate the hydrostatic pressure loss/gain. where: ˆ ρ — density of the fluid.3 The Single Phase hydrostatic pressure drop The hydrostatic pressure drop (∆PH ) is defined as follows: ∆PH = ρgh. the oil and water phases are combined. Also. πR2 Q0 BG vsG = G 2 .2 6. Accordingly. The superficial velocity of each phase is defined as the volumetric flow rate of the phase divided by the cross-sectional area of the pipe (as though that phase alone was flowing through the pipe): QL vsL = . the density (ρ) and velocity (v) to account for multiphase mixture properties. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. the pipe (or wellbore) is subdivided into a sufficient number of segments.1 Nomenclature Superficial velocities. and therefore the gas and liquid in-situ volume fractions throughout the pipe need to be determined. and treated as a pseudo single liquid phase.3. For a liquid. Mixture properties must be used. 6. while gas is considered a separate phase. the interactions between each phase have to be considered. such that the density in each segment can be assumed to be constant.3. ˆ g — acceleration of gravity ˆ h — vertical elevation (can be positive or negative). The hydrostatic pressure difference calculation is modified by defining a mixture density. Therefore. Some correlations determine holdup based on defined flow patterns. the density varies with pressure. For a gas. all multiphase correlations are essentially two phase and not three phase. and the above equation is easily evaluated.

ˆ vsG — superficial gas velocity.2 Since the liquid phase accounts for both oil and water (QL = QO BO + (QW − xwG QG )BW ). unless otherwise specified.3. ˆ RS — solution gas/oil ratio. Nomenclature 211 . ˆ µL — liquid viscosity. the superficial velocities can be rewritten as: QO BO + (QW − xwG QG )BW vsL = . and the gas phase accounts for the solution gas going in and out of the oil as a function of pressure (Q0G = QG − QO RS ). ˆ µG — gas viscosity.3. ˆ xwG — water of condensation (water content of natural gas. Mixture Velocity is another parameter often used in multiphase flow correlations. 6. ˆ vsL — superficial liquid velocity. ˆ R — pipe radius. ˆ µm — mixture viscosity. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. In general. where: ˆ vm — mixture velocity. Mixture Viscosity. ˆ BP — phase P volume factor.1. is defined as follows: µm = µL EL + µG (1 − EL ). πR2 (QG − QO RS )BG vsG = . Mixture Velocity. The mixture viscosity is a measure of the in-situ viscosity of the mixture and can be defined in several different ways. where: ˆ EL — in-situ liquid volume fraction (liquid holdup). Bbl/MMscf). πR2 where: ˆ QP — phase P flow rate (at stock tank conditions). The mixture velocity is given by: vm = vsL + vsG .6.

and is defined as follows: ρm = ρL EL + ρG (1 − EL ). 6. ˆ ρL — liquid density. The input volume fractions are defined as: QL CL = .3. QL + QG BG QG BG CG = .2 Mixture Density. ˆ ρG — gas density. Nomenclature 212 . The mixture density is a measure of the in-situ density of the mixture.3. ˆ QP — phase P flow rate (at stock tank conditions). Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. RO + RW 1 1 1 µO RO + µW RW = . ˆ RP — phase P molar fractures.6. ˆ µP — phase P viscosity. Liquid density and viscosity. vm where: ˆ CP — phase P input gas volume fraction. where: ˆ EL — in-situ liquid volume fraction (liquid holdup). To calculate liquid density (ρL ) and viscosity (µL ) we will apply the following formulas: ρO RO + ρW RW ρL = . µL RO + RW where: ˆ ρP — phase P density (P = W. ˆ ρm — mixture density. G). QL + QG BG We can also write this as: vsL CL = .1. O. Input Volume Fraction. vm vsG CG = .

where: ˆ CP — phase P input volume fraction. a value is required for use in calculating certain dimensionless numbers used in some of the pressure drop correlations. ˆ ρG — gas density. Surface Tension.2571(API) where: 6. However. ˆ vsL — superficial liquid velocity.1. unless otherwise specified. The surface tension between the gas and liquid phases has very little effect on two- phase pressure drop calculations.5 − 0. ˆ ρL — liquid density. There are several definitions of ”no-slip” viscosity. ˆ ρNS — no-slip density. Gas/Oil Interfacial Tension. The ”no-slip” density is the density that is calculated with the assumption that both phases are moving at the same in-situ velocity. No-Slip Density. (µNS ) is defined as follows: µNS = µLCL + µG (1 −CL ). The ”no-slip” viscosity is the viscosity that is calculated with the assumption that both phases are moving at the same in-situ velocity.3. Nomenclature 213 . ˆ vsG — superficial gas velocity. The no-slip density is therefore defined as follows: ρNS = ρLCL + ρG (1 −CL ). ˆ µL — liquid viscosity. No-Slip Viscosity. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. ˆ vm — mixture velocity (vsL + vsG ).3. ˆ µG — gas viscosity. ãäå: ˆ CP — phase P input volume fraction.6. Empirical relationships for estimating the gas/oil surface tension and the gas/water surface tension are represented there. The dead oil interfacial tension at temperatures of 68 ◦ F and 100 ◦ F is given by: σ68 = 39 − 0. ˆ µNS — no-slip viscosity.2571(API) σ100 = 37.2 ˆ BP — phase P volume factor. In general.

3.349 σw(280) = 53 − 1. linear interpolation is used.0 − 0. If the temperature is less than 68 ◦ F.45 where: ˆ p – pressure. The dead oil interfacial tension is corrected for this by multiplying by a correction factor.2 ˆ σ68 – interfacial tension at 68 ◦ F. For intermediate temperatures.3. C = 1. Nomenclature 214 . linear interpolation is used. The gas/water interfacial tension at temperatures of 74 ◦ F and 280 ◦ F is given by: σw(74) = 75 − 1. the gas/oil interfacial tension is reduced.6.1048 p0. ˆ σw(280) – interfacial tension at 280 ◦ F.108 p0. For intermediate temperatures. Interfacial tension at any pressure can be get from expression σ = CσT Gas/Water Interfacial Tension. the value at 280 ◦ F is used. If the temperature is greater than 280 ◦ F. the value at 68 ◦ F is used. If the temperature is greater than 100 ◦ F.1. ˆ σ100 – interfacial tension at 100 ◦ F. ˆ p – pressure. the value at 100 ◦ F is used.637 where: ˆ σw(74) – interfacial tension at 74 ◦ F. the value at 74 ◦ F is used.024 p0. ˆ API – gravity of stock tank oil. (T − 74)(σw(74) − σw(280) ) σw(T ) = σw(74) − 206 6. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. If the temperature is less than 74 ◦ F. (T − 68)(σ68 − σ100 ) σT = 68 − 32 As pressure is increased and gas goes into solution.

ˆ L — length of calculation segment. ˆ D — inside pipe diameter. j ˆ QP — phase P volume rate at surface conditions (P = 1. µL RO + RW 6. nP ). We have: ˆ PT H — tubing hole pressure.6.3. π/4D2 Mixture velocity (vm ) is given by: vm = vsL + vsG . j ˆ BP — phase P volume fracture. . Liquid density (ρL ) and viscosity (µL ) are given by: ρO RO + ρW RW ρL = . Gas (VsG ) and liquid (VsL ) velocities are given by: QO BO + (QW − xwG QG )BW VsL = . ˆ ∆z — elevation change.2 6. ˆ µP — phase P viscosity. ˆ g — gravitational acceleration.3. ˆ xwG — vaporized water fracture. ˆ RS — dissolved gas/oil factor. . ˆ k — relative pipe roughness. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. ˆ ρP — phase P density.2 The Griffith Correlation This type of correlation is a modification to the Hagedorn and Brown ([13]) Correlation. . . π/4D2 (QG − QO RS )BG VsG = .2.3. RO + RW 1 1 1 µO RO + µW RW = . The Griffith Correlation 215 .

6. 144gc where: ρm = ρL EL + ρG (1 − EL ). which is the one considered in our calculations.8 f t/s as a good average value. if Re > Re2 = 4000. The hydrostatic head is calculated by the standard equation: ρm gsin(Θ) ∆PH = . µL It is suggested.8981 .2698 − log10 0.3. then there is turbulent flow in pipe. which is given by: 1488ρL vL D ReL = . EL Define Reynolds number ReL .0452 k 5. 144gc D 6. 2 vs vs vs Griffith suggested a constant value of vs = 0. Re In turbulent flow Fanning’s friction factor is given by: "    1. In laminar flow 16 flow (Re) = . The in-situ liquid velocity is given by: vsL vL = .1098 !#!−2 1 k 5.  low   flow (4000 − Re) + fup (Re − 2000) f= 2000 6 Re 6 4000.8506 fup (Re) = log10 0.  Pressure loss due to friction is calculated by Hagedorn-Brown correlation: 2 f ρL v2L ∆Pf = .2 In the Griffith correlation the liquid holdup is given by:  s  2   1 vm vm vsG  EL = 1 − 1 + − 1+ −4 .3.   2000 fup (Re) Re > 4000. if Re < Re1 = 2000 then there is a Poiseuille’s laminar flow in pipe.3539 + 0. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. The Griffith Correlation 216 . 16 D Re D Re Then  f (Re) Re < 2000. if 2000 = Re1 < Re < Re2 = 4000 then there is a transitional flow.2.

dL gc Transverse section area of liquid (AL ) and gas (AG ) can be calculated from geometrical considerations.48. The Petalas and Aziz model for multiphase flow requires that a flow pattern be deter- mined.39  1+ 8. Petalas & Aziz correlation 217 . Flow Pattern Determination. ˆ Intermittent Flow.3. hL . Determining the stability of the stratified flow regime requires the calculation of the liquid height. dL gc   dp g −AG − τwG SG − τi Si − ρG AG sinΘ = 0.3 Petalas & Aziz correlation The Petalas and Aziz ([16]) correlation is capable of handling flow in all directions: horizon- tal.3. A transition from dispersed bubble flow to froth flow can also occur when the maximum volumetric packing density of the dispersed gas bubbles is exceeded: vsG CG = ≥ 0. which can be obtained by writing the momentum balance equations for the gas and the liquid phases as was done by Taitel and Dukler:   dp g −AL − τwL SL + τi Si − ρL AL sinΘ = 0. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. Each particular combination of gas and liquid rates are characterized by the following flow regimes: ˆ Dispersed Bubble Flow.2 6. inclined and vertical flow. Five flow patterns are defined in this model and the transition zones for this correlation are given below: Dispersed Bubble Flow Dispersed bubble flow exists if: 1 ELs = < 0. vm Stratified Flow. vm 1.3. ˆ Annular-mist Flow. Let’s suggest that gas in the upper section of pipe. ˆ Stratified Flow.52. ˆ Bubble Flow.3. The Petalas and Aziz multiphase correlation accounts for both frictional pressure loss and hydrostatic pressure differences. 6.6.66 where vm — mixture velocity: vm = vsG + vsL . and liquid is in the lower one.

Chord AD is a boundary between gas and liquid. 2gc fi ρG vi |vi | τi = . 2 2 α α α hL = R + R cos = R (1 + cos ) = 2R cos2 . 2 Then we can calculate unknown areas and liquid height (hL ): R2 AG = (α − sinα). µG 6.3. 2gc Friction factor on boundary between gas and pipe can be found the way which is analogous to the one. and liquid and pipe (SL ). gas and pipe (SG ). which is used for one-phase flow with account pipe roughness and the following Reynolds number: DG ρG vG ReG = . 2   2 2 sinα α AL = πR − AG = R π + − . Then unknown areas will be expressed as follows: πR2 α S= α = R2 . 2gc fL ρL v2L τwL = . Petalas & Aziz correlation 218 . Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. SG = R · α. Point O is a circle (pipe) center. 2π 2 1 S4ADO = R2 sinα. α Si = 2R sin . SL = (2π − α)R. Let’s denote α an angle which subtends arc AD.2 AG A D R O AL hL R is a pipe radius.6. 2 The shear stresses are given by the following relationships: fG ρG v2G τwG = .3. 2 2 4 It is left to express perimeters of boundaries between gas and liquid (Si ).3.

3.3.5 × 10 ReSL )FrL . which can be negative due to some conditions. fL To distinguish between stratified smooth and stratified wavy flow regimes: stratified smooth flow exists if: s 4µL (ρL − ρG )gcosΘ vG ≤ . cosΘ = 0. Rem : D ρL vSL ReSL = .335 ρL Dg fi = (0. sρL ρG vL vL Fr = √ ≤ 1. is obtained from standard methods using pipe roughness and Reynolds number.02. more solid phase can flow faster than more light. fSL . ghL Else multi-phase flow is implemented.6.02 here) s gD(1 − h̃L )cosΘ vL ≤ . ρG dA L dhL (if cosΘ ≤ 0. µL When flow downhills.2 where DG is a hydraulic diameter of gas phase: 4AG DG = . ρG v2G Froude number is given by: vL FrL = √ . 6. ghL Dimensionless liquid height: hL α h̃L = = cos2 . D 4 The following is necessary to multi-phase flow to exist: s (ρL − ρG )gAG cosΘ vG ≤ (1 − h̃L ) . Phase-to-phase friction factor is given by empirical dependence:   −6 1. The friction factor. Then phase-to- phase shift calculation is based on value vi = vG − vL . SG + Si The way which is analogous to one in one-phase case is inconvenient for boundary between liquid and pipe.4.452 fSL .3. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4.731 fL = 0. It is used the following empirical expression for liquid/pipe friction factor instead of it: 0.004 + 0. Petalas & Aziz correlation 219 .

Liquid film thickness — δL . and liquid and pipe (SL ): SL = 2πR = πD. 4  π   A f = 2π R2 − (R − δL )2 = D2 1 − (1 − 2δ̃L )2 .3. 1 1 δ̃L = ± √ . (R − δL )2 δL2 (k + 1) − 2RδL (k + 1) + kR2 = 0. 4 It is left to express perimeters of boundaries between gas and liquid (Si ).2 Annular-mist Flow. dL gc   dp g −Ac − τi Si − ρc Ac sinΘ = 0. 4δ̃L2 (k + 1) − 4δ̃L (k + 1) + k = 0. dL gc The geometric parameters can be expressed in terms of the dimensionless liquid film thick- ness: δ̃L = δL /D.3. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. 2 2 k+1 6. Let’s denote pipe radius as R. Ac Expression for k of δL : 2RδL − δL2 k= . D = 16k + 16. Use momentum balance on the liquid film and gas core with liquid droplets:   dp g −A f − τwL SL + τi Si − ρL A f sinΘ = 0.3. R δL O Expression of areas to be determined: π 2 Ac = π(R − δL )2 = D (1 − 2δ̃L )2 . Si = 2π(R − δL ) = πD(1 − 2δ̃L ). Petalas & Aziz correlation 220 . Parameter k : Af = k. Point O is a circle (pipe) center.6.

µL D f = 4δ̃L (1 − δ̃L )D. 2gc Gas cores and the liquid film velocities is given by: A vsL (1 − FE) v f = vsL (1 − FE) = .3. µc Dc = D(1 − 2δ̃L ). (2δ̃L − 1)2 The liquid fraction in the film is given by: Af Af 1 k Ef = = = 1 = = A A f + Ac 1 + k k+1   2 1 = (2δ̃L − 1) − 1 = 1 − (2δ̃L − 1)2 . (2δ̃L − 1)2 Af Ef = = 4δ̃L (1 − δ̃L ). Ac (1 − 2δ̃L )2 The friction factor for the liquid film is computed using any of the standard correlations with the pipe roughness and the film Reynolds number as expressed by: D f ρL v f Re f = . ρc = Ec ρL + (1 − Ec )ρG .3. µc = Ec µL + (1 − Ec )µG . Friction factor fc is calculated using standard formulas of pipe roughness and the following Reynolds number definition: Dc ρc vc Rec = . A The shear stresses are given by: f f ρL v2f τwL = .3.2 1 k= − 1. vsG + vsL FE 6. 2gc fi ρc (vc − v f )|vc − v f | τi = . Petalas & Aziz correlation 221 . vsL FE Ec = .6. Af 4δ̃L (1 − δ̃L ) A (vsG + vsL FE) vc = (vsG + vsL FE) = . Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4.

074 vsG = 0.085 fi σ = 0.6.48 vm 1.2 In order to solve these equations. db . The angle of inclination is large enough to prevent migration of bubbles to the top wall of the pipe: 3 2 Ct γ 2   cosΘ ≤ √ vb . two additional quantities need to be determined: the in- terfacial friction factor. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. ranges from 1.5 and a bubble size. Bubble flow is encountered in steeply inclined pipes and is characterized by a continuous liquid phase containing a dispersed phase of mostly spherical gas bubbles. Bubble Flow. σ 2 ρL δ̃L can be found using an iterative procedure to obtain the liquid film height at which the minimum shear stress occurs.305 f . These are determined empirically and are given by:  0. Hence.3. db = 7 mm.4 to 1. the flow will either be intermittent. When the liquid fraction in the slug is greater than 0. gρL2 2. ranges from 0. It can exist if both of the following conditions are satisfied: 1. γ . Ct . NB . is defined as: µL2 v2sG ρG NB = . between 4 and 10 mm.735NB .1 to 1. We take for this model: Ct = 0. froth or bubble flow. and the liquid fraction entrained. Petalas & Aziz correlation 222 .48: 1 ELs = > 0.3.3.3.8.24. 4 2 g db The lift coefficient. the transition from annular flow occurs when vsG EL = 1 − (1 − 2δ̃L )2 vsG + FE vsL and EL ≤ 0.24 Re0. fc ρc v2c Dc where the dimensionless number. the bubble distortion (from spherical) coeffi- cient. annular and dispersed bubble flow regimes have been eliminated.66 and the stratified.2 FE 0. γ = 1. Large diameter pipes when (ρL − ρG ) 1/2   D > 19 .39  1+ 8. FE .2. fi . 1 − FE vsL  0. Annular flow instability occurs when the supply of liquid in the film is sufficient to cause blockage of the gas core by bridging the pipe. 6.

3. ρL2 When both of the above conditions are satisfied. The parameter C0 is a distribution coefficient.031 mL .). 1 ELs = . The modified Reynolds number in the given equation is based on the mixture velocity and liquid properties: ρL vm D RemL = . where ELs vt + vGdb (1 − ELs ) − vsG EL = vt (Note: if EL > 1.39  1+ 8. The translational velocity of the elongated bubbles is given by vt = C0 vm + vd . vb . bubble flow is observed even at low liquid rates where turbulence does not cause bubble breakup.2 The bubble swarm rise velocity in a stagnant liquid. which determined from the following empiri- cally derived correlation: C0 = (1. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. vd can be calculated by: vd = fm vd∞ . The transition to bubble flow from intermittent flow occurs when the gas void fraction (during slug flow) drops below the critical value of 0. 6.25: EL > 0.25.3. Petalas & Aziz correlation 223 . vt Intermittent Flow. vm 1. The intermittent flow model used here includes Slug and Elongated Bubble flow regimes.3. and ELs is the volume fraction liquid in the slug body. where ELs vt + vGdb (1 − ELs ) − vsG EL = .41 sinΘ. µL The elongated bubble drift velocity.24.12sinΘ)Re−0.66 vm = vsG + vsL . then EL = vsL /vm . Intermittent flow exists if: EL ≤ 0.6. is given by:  1/4 g(ρL − ρG )σ vb = 1. where vGdb represents the velocity of the dispersed bubbles„ vt is the translational velocity of the slug.64 + 0.

Bo = (ρL −ρ σ G) gD2 . Froth flow implies a transitional state between the other flow regimes.56 . Let’s determine superficial gas (vsG ) and liquid (vsL ) velocities. If none of the transition criteria for intermittent flow are met. and ρL vd∞ D Re∞ = .6. 2µL The elongated bubble drift velocity at high Reynolds numbers as: vd∞ = vdh∞ cosΘ + vdv∞ sinΘ.2 √ where fm = 0.76 gD(ρL − ρG ) vdh∞ = 0. β . the flow pattern is then designated as «Froth». the liquid volume fraction can be calculated once the velocity of the dispersed bubbles in the liquid slug is obtained from: vGdb = C0 vm + vb .316 Re∞ for fm < 1. ρL2 Froth Flow. Petalas & Aziz correlation 224 .54 − 0. ρL The coefficient. The drift velocity of elongated bubbles in a vertical system at high Reynolds numbers is given by: s gD(ρL − ρG ) vdv∞ = 0. Bo ρL The Bond number. otherwise fm = 1. Then gas velocity (with dispersed bubbles) determined from: vGdb = C0 vm + vb .3. then vGdb = 0).424 ln(Bo)) .345(1 − e−β ) . Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. Dispersed Bubble Flow. is given by: β = Bo e(3. Mixture velocity (vm ) is given by: vm = vsL + vsG .3. The rise velocity of the dispersed bubbles is calculated from: g(ρL − ρG )σ 1/4   vb = 1. 6. Finally.278−1. The drift velocity of elongated bubbles in a horizontal system at high Reynolds numbers is given by:  s 1.53 sinΘ. There is a separate calculation of liquid holdup EL for each flow type. Hydrostatic Pressure Difference.3. (Note: if vGdb < 0. Once the flow type has been determined then the liquid holdup can be calculated.

The ∆PH is then calculated from the hydrostatic portion of the gas and liquid phase momen- tum balance equations: g ∆PH = ρL ∆h sinΘ.6. Liquid volume fraction (EL − liquidholdup) is determined using geometric considerations and a known liquid thickness.3. ρL2 Now. The mixture density can now be used to calculate the pressure change due to the hydrostatic head for the segment of pipe being investigated. gc g ∆PH = ρG ∆h sinΘ.53 sinΘ. c0 vm Once the liquid holdup (EL ) has been calculated. A where: ˆ AL — area of transverse section of liquid phase. then EL is given by: vsG EL = 1 − . µL And vb (the rise velocity of the dispersed bubbles) determined from: g(ρL − ρg )σ 1/4   vb = 1. by the following equation: vcG EL = 1 − (1 − 2σ˜L )2 . (EL ) is given by: vsG EL = 1 − . Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. gc Stratified Flow.031 mL .3. g ∆PH = ρm ∆h sinΘ. ˆ A — area of transverse section. ρL vm D RemL = .64 + 0. vGdb If vGdb ≤ 0.12sinΘ)Re−0. Liquid volume fraction (EL − liquidholdup) is given by: AL EL = .2 where C0 is determined from the empirical correlation: C0 = (1. Petalas & Aziz correlation 225 . gc Annular-mist Flow. vsG + FEvsL 6.3. it is then used to calculate the mixture density (ρm ): ρm = ρL EL + ρG (1 − EL ).

ρL2 The value of EG is characterized by the range where: vsG 0 ≤ EG ≤ CG = .3. vm Once the volumetric gas fraction (EG ) has been calculated. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. it is then used to calculate the mixture density (ρm ): ρm = ρL (1 − EG ) + ρG EG .6. g ∆PH = ρL ∆h sinΘ. The bubble flow volumetric gas fraction is given by: vsG EG = . The mixture density can now be used to calculate the pressure change due to the hydrostatic head for the segment of pipe being investigated: g ∆PH = ρm ∆h sinΘ. vt where (vt ) – is the translational bubble velocity: vt = c0 vm + vb . gc Intermittent Flow. The mixture density can now be used to calculate the pressure change due to the hydrostatic head for the segment of pipe being investigated: g ∆PH = ρm ∆h sinΘ. gc Bubble Flow. vt Once the liquid holdup (EL ) has been calculated.2 The ∆PH is then calculated from the hydrostatic portion of the gas and liquid phase momen- tum balance equations.3. gc g ∆PH = ρG ∆h sinΘ.2 and vb given by the equation below: g(ρL − ρg )σ 1/4   vb = 1. gc 6. With C0 assumed to be 1.41 sinΘ. Liquid volume fraction (EL ) is given by: ELs vt + vGdb (1 − ELs ) − vsG EL = . Petalas & Aziz correlation 226 .3. it is then used to calculate the mixture density (ρm ): ρm = ρL EL + ρG (1 − EL ).

Dispersed Bubble Flow. Rem : Dρm vm Rem = . gc D 6. AL −τwG SG − τi Si ∆PF = . AL −τi Si ∆PF = .6. Petalas & Aziz correlation 227 . Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. The first step to determine the frictional pressure loss is to obtain a friction factor. The friction factor is obtained from standard methods using pipe roughness and Reynolds number. The frictional portion of the overall pressure gradient is determined based on pipe geom- etry and flow distribution.3. D Stratified Flow. µm where mixture density (ρm ) and mixture viscosity (µm ) are calculated from: ρm = EL ρL + EG ρG . The friction factor for bubble flow. The expression for the pressure loss due to friction is: 2 fm v2m ρm ∆PF = . The expression for the pressure loss due to friction is determined from a portion of the momentum balance equations: −τwL SL + τi Si ∆PF = . AG All these variables were defined earlier during flow type definition.3. the expression for the pressure loss due to friction is: 2 fmL v2m ρm ∆PF = . The expression for the pressure loss due to friction is determined from a portion of the momentum balance equations: −τwL SL + τi Si ∆PF = . fm . Each flow type has a separate calculation used to determine the pressure losses due to friction. Annular-mist Flow. The details of these calculations are summarized here. µL Now. fmL is obtained from standard methods using pipe roughness and the following definition of Reynolds number: DρL vm RemL = .3. µm = µL EL + µG EG .2 Friction Pressure Loss. AC Bubble Flow.

dL . is calculated as f rAM in case of annular-mist flow. The frictional pressure loss for intermittent flow is taken from the momentum balance written for a slug-bubble unit:      1 τLs πD τL f SL f + τGdb SGdb ∆PF = Ls +Lf . is obtained from: 2 fm v2m ρm   dp = .3. dL dL f rSL dL f rAM Where η is a weighting factor determined empirically relation the slug length to the total slug unit length Ls /Lu : (0.75−EL ) η = CL Where η ≤ 1. Petalas & Aziz correlation 228 . of the frictional pressure loss in the gas bubble. To calculate film height the following formula is used:  s  1 (EFvsL + vsG )  δ̃L = 1 − (1 − EL ) .0. the frictional pressure gradient for the annular-mist flow portion. 2 vsG The annular-mist frictional pressure gradient is calculated from:   dp 4τwL = . Now the frictional pressure gradient for the slug portion is obtained from: fmL v2m ρm   dp =2 .6. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. dL f rSL gD   dp The frictional pressure gradient for the annular-mist flow portion.       dp dp dp − =η + (1 − η) . dL f rAM D When the calculated film height δ̃L is less than 1 × 10−4 . Lu A A There is no reliable method to determine the slug length. Therefore.3. Ls .3. the length of the bubble region.2 Intermittent Flow. L f . dL f rAM gc D 6. the following simplified approach is adopted given the stated uncertainties.

4. First the appropriate flow regime for the particular combination of gas and liquid rates (segregated.2 6. the corresponding flow pattern is identified when the following inequalities are satisfied: Segregated flow.01 and Frm < L2∗ 6. intermittent (plug and slug flow). to obtain the hydrostatic pressure difference. The transition lines for the modified correlation are defined as follows: L1∗ = 316 CL0.3.302 L2∗ = 0.738 The Froude number is a dimensionless number which relates the inertia with respect to the gravitational forces. distributed (bubble and mist flows) and transition.5 CL−6. To generate flow pattern map the Beggs and Brill correlation requires that a flow pattern be grouped the following way: segregated (stratified. If CL < 0. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4.01 and Frm < L1∗ or CL ≥ 0. the in-situ density of the gas-liquid mixture is then calculated according to the appropriate flow regime. Flow Pattern Map.3. it can be obtained by: v2m Frm = gD Once the input liquid content CL and Froude number of the mixture (Frm ) are determined. A two-phase friction factor is calculated based on the ”input” gas-liquid ratio and the Fanning friction factor.6.1 CL−1.4 Beggs & Brill correlation The Beggs and Brill multiphase correlation ([14]) deals with both the friction pressure loss and the hydrostatic pressure difference.3.4516 L4∗ = 0. The liquid holdup.4684 L3∗ = 0. wavy and annular flows). Beggs & Brill correlation 229 . For a mixture.0009252 CL−2. and hence. intermittent or distributed) is determined.

Afterwards. is determined.01 ≤ CL < 0. The horizontal holdup must be EL (0) ≥ CL . If 0. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. in the event that EL (0) < CL .4 and L3∗ < Frm ≤ L1∗ or CL ≥ 0. If CL ≥ 0. First the liquid holdup for horizontal flow. Therefore.2 Intermittent flow.4. The expression used to calculate the horizontal holdup changes per flow pattern group as follows: Segregated. If CL < 0.6. Beggs and Brill divided the liquid holdup calculation into two parts.3.0868 Frm 6.3. the horizontal holdup is set to EL (0) = CL .01 and L2∗ < Frm < L3∗ Hydrostatic Pressure Difference.4846 EL (0) = 0. Beggs & Brill correlation 230 .4 and L3∗ < Frm < L4∗ Distributed flow.4 and Frm ≥ L1∗ or CL ≥ 0. EL (Θ).4 and Frm > L4∗ Transition flow. EL (0).98 CL0. this horizontal holdup is corrected for inclined flow to obtain the actual holdup. and then this holdup is modified for inclined flow. Once the flow type has been determined then the liquid holdup can be calculated. 0.

011 N 3.539   β = (1 −CL ) ln 3.4. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4.3.614 CL Frm Intermittent 2.4473 NvL Distributed β =0 For DOWNHILL flow: 6.0609 Frm Transition.0173 Frm Distributed.305 Frm0. 1.0978   β = (1 −CL ) ln 0.938vsL gσ For UPHILL flow: Segregated: 0.8 Θ) 3 β is a function of flow type.96 CL0. 0.2 Intermittent. the actual liquid volume fraction is obtained by multiplying EL (0) by an inclination factor B(Θ): EL (Θ) = B(Θ)EL (0) where:   1 3 B(Θ) = 1 + β sin(1.845 CL0.065 CL0. the direction of inclination of the pipe (uphill flow or downhill flow). Beggs & Brill correlation 231 .5824 EL (0) = 0.5351 EL (0) = 0.6.8 Θ) − sin (1. And  1/4 ρL NvL = 1.768 vL1.3. EL (0)transition = A EL (0)segregated + B EL (0)intermittent where: L3∗ − Frm A= and B = 1−A L3∗ − L2∗ Once the horizontal in situ liquid volume fraction is determined. the liquid velocity number (NvL ) and the mixture Froude Number (Frm ).

it is used to calculate the mixture density (ρm ).18y − 0. The no-slip Reynolds Number is also used. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. if a negative value is calculated for β .3692 vL0. calculated using the Chen equation. Therefore.2 ALL flow types: 0.5. and it is defined as follows: ρNS vm D ReNS = µNS Finally.011 N 0. then S = ln(2. y S= −0.2) otherwise. ρm g∆z ∆PH = 144gc Friction Pressure Loss. β = 0.5 Orkiszewski method Orkiszewski ([12]) distinguished four types of flow patterns: ˆ Bubble Flow. the expression for the pressure loss due to friction is: 2 ft p v2m ρNS L ∆Pf = 144gc D 6.6. Once the liquid holdup (EL (Θ)) is calculated. We use the Fanning friction factor.1244   β = (1 −CL ) ln 0.3. ˆ Slug Flow. used to calculate the pressure change due to the hydrostatic head of the vertical component of the pipe or well. Orkiszewski method 232 . The first step to calculating the pressure drop due to friction is to calculate the empirical parameter S : if 1 < y < 1.2y − 1.0523 + 3.01853y4 where: CL y = ln EL2 A ratio of friction factors is then defined as follows: ft p = es fNS fNS is the no-slip friction factor. in turn. 6.3.2. The mixture density is.5056 CL Frm Note: β must always be ≥ 0.872y2 + 0.3.

To determine flow regime one of the following conditions should be satisfied: ˆ Bubble Flow: vsG < Lb . NvG < Ls .071 − (0. d NvG vsL Ls = 50 + 36 .3. Liquid holdup (EL − liquid holdup) is determined by:  s  2 1 vm vm vsG  EL = 1 − 1 + − 1+ −4 . For each one he developed some relations to establish the hydrostatic and the friction losses Flow pattern determination.3. Where: v2m Lb = 1. 6. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. gσ Dependence of pressure loss calculation of flow pattern. 2 vs vs vs where (vs ) is the slip velocity and is considered constant with a value 0.2218 ) but ≥ 0.6. vsG and:  0.5. vsG NvG vsL 0. NvG > Lm .8 ft/s.2 ˆ Transition Flow.13. It is necessary to determine flow regime for Orkiszewski method for multi-phase flow. vm ˆ Slug Flow: vsG > Lb . Bubble Flow.25 ρL NvG = vsG . vm ˆ Transition Flow: Lm > NvG > Ls . Mixture density is calculated as: ρm = ρL EL + ρG (1 − EL ). ˆ Mist Flow. Orkiszewski method 233 .75   Lm = 75 + 84 . ˆ Mist Flow.

The following are the steps to calculate vs : √ 1.546 + 8. These variables can be expressed as: 1488ρL vs D ReS = .74 ∗ 10−6 ReL ) gD p (2) 6. µL EL Pressure loss due to friction is calculated as:  2 vsL f ρL EL ∆PF = . Calculate vs from equations (1) – (3).5. Rem : 1488ρL DvsL Re = . the hydrostatic head component of the total pressure gradient is: g ∆PH = ρm sinΘ. µL 1488ρL vm D ReL = . gc The friction factor f for bubble flow is obtained from standard methods using pipe roughness and Reynolds number.3. Assume that vs = 0.2 Having obtained the mixture density. If they are not close enough repeat steps 2 – 4.35 + 8. Orkiszewski method 234 .74 ∗ 10−6 ReL ) gD p (1) If ReS ≥ 8000: vs = (0. 2gc D Slug Flow. 2. Compare vs assumed and vs calculated.3. Mixture density is expressed as: ρL (vsL + vs ) + ρG vsG ρm = + ρL δ . 4.5 gD. If ReS ≤ 3000: vs = (0. µL Because of relation between vs and ReS it is necessary iterational procedure to calculate vs . vm + vs where vs is bubble rise velocity. Determine ReS using current vs .6. and given by: p vs = C1C2 gD where C1 is a function of the Reynolds number ReS and C2 is a function of Reynolds number ReL . 3. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4.

p δ can be determined from the following equations according to some conditions.3.63 lnD . D1.0127 − 0.3. 2gc D vm + vs Transition Flow.167 lnvm + 0.2 If 3000 < ReS < 8000: s ! 13.397 + 0.799 − 0. D The value of δ is restricted by the following limits: If vm < 10: δ ≥ −0.709 − 0. If vm > 10:   vs ρm δ ≥− 1− .162 lnvm − 0.113 lnD. vm + vs ρL Pressure change due to the hydrostatic head: g ∆PH = ρm sinΘ.38 − 0. Pressure gradient in transition flow is given by: ∆P = M∆slug + (1 − M)∆mist . In transition flow regime pressure gradient is given by linear interpolation between limits of bubble flow and mist flow regimes. D If vm ≥ 10: lnµL δ = 0.013 1.371 where   ln(µL + 1) X = −lnvm 0.415 If vm ≥ 10: ln(µL + 1) δ = 0.5699 lnD + X. D1.0274 + 0. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4.5.74 ∗ 10−6 ReL ) gD.59µL vs = 0. D1.571 Continuous liquid phase-oil: If vm < 10: lnµL δ = 0.251 + 8.681 + 0.01 + 0.045 0.284 + 0. Contin- uous phase-oil: If vm < 10: ln(µL + 1) δ = 0. 6. gc Pressure loss due to friction is given by: f ρL v2m    vsL + vs ∆PF = +δ .888 lnD.161 + 0.065vm . Orkiszewski method 235 .6.232 lnvm − 0.428 lnD.5 ψ + ψ2 + √ (3) ρL D ψ = (0.

Gray correlation 236 . Mixture density is given by: vsL vsG ρm = ρL + ρG . gc Pressure loss due to friction is given by: f ρG v2sG ∆PF = . vsG And σ – surface tension – is given by: QO σO + 0.617QW σW σ= . Hydrostatic Pressure Difference.0814 1 − 0. vm vm Mixture density can be used now to calculate pressure change due to the hydrostatic head: g ∆PH = ρm sinΘ. gσ (ρL − ρG ) gD2 (ρL − ρG ) N2 = . To correct the pressure drop for situations with a horizontal component. we have implemented it in both vertical and inclined pipe pressure drop calculations.0554 ln 1 + . 2gc D Friction factor f is determined using Reynolds number: 1488ρG vsG D Re = . QO + 0.6.2 where Lm − NvG M= .6 Gray correlation Although Gray correlation was developed for vertical flow ([17]). Rv + 1 where: vsL Rv = . µG 6. σ    730Rv N3 = 0.6. Lm − Ls Mist Flow.3. It is assumed that slip velocity is 0. the hydrostatic head has only been applied to the vertical component of the pipe while friction is applied to the entire length of pipe. Gas phase is continuous in this flow regime. The Gray correlation uses three dimensionless numbers: 2 v4 ρNS m N1 = . Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. that is we have homogenous flow.3.617QW 6.3.

must be larger than or equal to 2. vsG The effective roughness. N2 Once the liquid holdup (EL ) is calculated it is used to calculate the mixture density (ρm ): ρm = EL ρL + (1 − EL )ρG . if Rv < 0. then k0 − k   ke = k + Rv .007 where: 28. 144gc Friction Pressure Loss.2 where σO and σW – surface tension between gas/oil phases and gas/water correspondingly. Gray correlation 237 .6. then ke = k0 . The Gray Correlation assumes that the effective roughness of the pipe (ke ) is dependent on the value of (Rv ) and k is absolute pipe roughness. the expression for the friction pressure loss is: 2 f v2m ρNS L ∆PF = . Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. The relative roughness of the pipe is then calculated by dividing the effective roughness by the diameter of the pipe.77 × 10−5 .5σ k0 = . The mixture density is. The conditions are as follows: if Rv ≥ 0. 0. where: 205 N3    f1 = −2.314 N1 1 + . ke . The Fanning friction factor is obtained using the Chen equation and assuming a Reynolds Number (Re) of 107 . in turn.3.007.3.6. Finally. The liquid holdup is calculated as follows: EL = 1 − (1 −CL ) · (1 − exp( f1 )). 144gc D 6. ρNS v2m vsL Rv = . used to calculate the pressure change due to the hydrostatic head of the vertical component of the pipe or well: ρm g sin(Θ) ∆PH = .007.

3.8NY .4 σL  1/4 72 ρL NY = vsL . Aziz. Transition Flow: B23 < NX < B34 and NY < 4. Slug Flow: B12 < NX < B23 and NY < 4. Four flow regimes are considered: Bubble. B12 < NX < 26. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. slug.7 Aziz.6. The flow regimes are identified with the following variables:  ρ 1/3  72 ρ 1/4 G L NX = vsG . The flow regimes may be identified as follows: Bubble Flow: NX < B12 . Govier and Fogarasi ([11].2 6.3.6 + 3. Govier and Fogarasi correlation 238 .3. 1972)proposed a multiphase flow correlation that was de- pendent on the flow regime. 0. B34 = 70(100NY )−0. transition.7.0764 62. and annular-mist (see figure below). 6. The flow regime identifying. Govier and Fogarasi correlation Aziz.5 and NY > 4. B23 = 8.4 σL NX and NY give the location within the flow map while the boundaries of the flow regimes are given by: B12 = 0. This correlation type has some theoretical justification and is considered to be one of the least empirical correlations available.172 .51(100NY )0.152 . 62.

41 .3. The liquid holdup as (EL − liquid holdup) defined as: vsG EL = 1 − . NX > 26. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. Flow-Pattern map proposed by Aziz. Bubble Flow.5 and NY > 4. µL The expression for the pressure loss due to friction is: f ρm v2m ∆PF = . 2gc D 6.6.7. The mixture density can now be used to calculate the pressure change due to the hydrostatic head: g ∆PH = ρm sinΘ. vBF where: vBF = 1. ρL2 Once the liquid holdup (EL ) has been calculated.3.2 Annular-Mist: NX > B34 and NY < 4. Rem : ρL Dvm Re = . it is then used to calculate the mixture density (ρm ): ρm = ρL EL + ρG (1 − EL ). Aziz.2vm + vBS . Govier. gc The friction factor is obtained from standard methods using pipe roughness and Reynolds number. Govier and Fogarasi correlation 239 . and Fogarasi is presented in the figure: Pressure calculation due to flow regime. σL g(ρL − ρG ) 1/4   vBS = 1.

3. the hydrostatic head component of the total pressure gradient is: g ∆PH = ρm sinΘ.7. 2gc D Transition Flow.3. The density component in the slug flow regime uses the same definition for liquid holdup and vBF employed in the bubble flow regime. a region of transition between the slug flow region and the annular-mist flow region. However. then m = 15. a region of transition between the slug flow region and the annular-mist flow region. gc The friction factor f is obtained from standard methods using pipe roughness and Reynolds number. Having obtained the liquid holdup. The transition flow region is. vBS is defined as: gD(ρL − ρG ) 1/2   vBS = C ρL where:     3.029NV ) 1 − exp m gD(ρL − ρG ) NE = σL 1/2 gD3 (ρL − ρG ) NV = µL where m in expression for C is evaluated as follows: ˆ if NV ≤ 18.345 1 − exp(−0. Rem : ρL Dvm Re = . For modeling the annular-mist flow regime it is assumed that the high gas velocity of the 6. ˆ if 18 < NV < 250. The interpolation is performed as follows:     B34 − NX NX − B23 ∆Ptrans = ∆Pslug + ∆Pmist . The transition flow region is. Govier and Fogarasi correlation 240 .37 − NE C = 0. then m = 69NV−0.35 . µL The expression for the pressure loss due to friction is: f ρL EL v2m ∆PF = . ˆ if NV ≥ 250. as the name indicates.2 Slug Flow. B34 − B23 B34 − B23 Annular-Mist. as the name indicates.6. then m = 10. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. Aziz.

gc The friction component for the annular-mist region is based solely on the gas phase and is given by: ρG f v2sG ∆PF = . The expression for the density component is: g ∆PH = ρNS sinΘ. The first is a form of the Weber number: ρG v2sG ε NW E = . The mixture density used to calculate the density component is. µG Duns and Ros method is based on suggestion that the pipe roughness was altered by the thin layer of liquid on the wall of the pipe. 6.8.6.8 Mukherjee & Brill correlation To calculate pressure change via Mukherjee & Brill correlation ([15]) it is necessary to de- termine flow pattern at first. 2gc D where the Moody friction factor f is based on the Reynold’s number of the gas: 1488ρG DvsG Re = .3. and then to calculate pressure change by formulas for according regime. the no-slip density.005 ε 0. σL and the second is dimensionless number based on liquid viscosity: µL Nµ = ρ L σL ε Duns and Ros proposed the following relationship to model the relative roughness: if NW E Nµ ≤ 0. Two variables are used to characterize this effect.5.3. ρNS . therefore. Mukherjee & Brill correlation 241 . Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4.3713σL = (NW E Nµ )0.302 D ρG v2sG D The value of the relative roughness Dε is constrained to be no less than the actual relative roughness of the pipe and no more than 0.0749σL = D ρG v2sG D if NW E Nµ > 0.3. Flow-Pattern prediction. The following procedure to determine flow regime is used: 6.2 annular-mist region would allow no slippage to occur between the phases.005 ε 0.

138 log NLv sin Θ−0.003NL −1.8. g ρL (0.074 sin Θ−0.00010197σ  0.25 1 NL = 0.033(log NGv ) .25 ρL NGv = vsG 2 .972NL −0.3. The following scheme is used to determine flow pattern: 6.329 } NGvSM = 10{1.694NL +0.94+0.6. g 0. The slug-annular mist transition equation: NGvSM .001 µL 2 .3.00010197σ )3 Calculate dimensionless value NLv 2 Θ+3. g 0.429(log NLv ) . Equation of transition ”bubble-slug” for downhill or horizontal flow is given by: 2 sin Θ} NGvBS = 10{0.431+1.132 sin Θ−3. Equation of transition of stratified regime for downflow horizontal flow is given by: 2 −3.855 sin L .00010197σ  0.25 ρL NLv = vsL 2 . Let’s define several values:  0.401−2. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. 0.267 sin Θ−2. Mukherjee & Brill correlation 242 .925 sin2 Θ} NLvST = 10{0.521NLv .321−0.017NGv −4.695N } NLvBS = 10{log NGv +0.2 The bubble-slug transition equation for upflow (NLvBS ).

f .01.3561.2488ER + 0. ˆ if 0.2.380113 -1. Bubble and Slug Flow.519214 c5 0.129875 4.516644 c2 0. the value of factor of liquid fraction ( fR ) can be estimated by the following: ˆ if ER ≤ 0. then fR = 2. 6. then fR = 1. Pressure gradient for bubble flow and slug flow is determined from: f ρm v2m 2D + ρm ggc sin Θ ∆P = 1 − Ek where ρm vm vsG Ek = p The friction factor.371771 c6 0. A ratio of liquid fraction to liquid holdup is calculated as: CL ER = EL Using the value of (ER ).079951 0.01 < ER ≤ 0..288657 0. ˆ if 0.789805 c3 -0.393952 Pressure loss calculation.262268 15. is obtained from standard methods using pipe roughness and Reynolds number. .1053ER + 1.6.551627 c4 2.475686 0.2 Estimation for liquid volume fracture. ˆ if ER > 1.0011.0.171584 0.8.C6 are taken from the table below: Uphill Downhill Stratified Downhill Other c1 -0.504887 0..1863ER3 − 5.343227 56. Mukherjee & Brill correlation 243 .119788 4.2 < ER ≤ 1.808139 0.0.7901ER2 + 4. Re: 1488ρNS Dvm Re = µNS Annular Flow. then fR = −0. The liquid holdup (EL − liquid holdup) data were correlated with an equation of the form: " # N c5 EL = exp (c1 + c2 sin Θ + c3 sin2 Θ + c4NL2 ) Gv c6 NLv Coefficient C1 .3. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4.3. then fR = 1.330282 -0.

3.8. Mukherjee & Brill correlation 244 . dL gc Let’s define some geometrical parameters:: 2hL δ = 2 cos−1 (1 − ). dL gc dP g AL = −(τwL PL + τiWi ) − ρL AL sin Θ.3.6. δ + 2 sin(δ /2) 6. Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. 1 − Ek Stratified Flow. Pressure loss values for this flow can be calculated from a steady-state momentum balance on the gas and liquid phases: dP g AG = −(τwG PG + τiWi ) − ρG AG sin Θ. D s  2 hL hL Wi = 2D − . And pressure gradient for annular flow is calculated as: f ρm v2m 2D + ρm ggc sin Θ ∆P = . D D 1 EL = (δ − sin δ ). 2π Hydraulic diameters for the gas and liquid phases can be defined by (δ − sin δ ) DEL = D .2 Friction factor is given by: f = fR ∗ fNS .

2π − δ + 2 sin(δ /2) Perimeter of gas phase is given by:   δ PG = 1 − · P. 2π and total perimeter: P = PG + PL . Mukherjee & Brill correlation 245 .3.2 2π − (δ − sin δ ) DEG = D . The wall shear stresses can be evaluated by assuming a single-phase flow to occur in the cross section occupied by a given phase: 4 fL ρL v2L τwL = .6. Pressure loss can be calculated as 1 ∆P = ((τwL (πD − PG ) + τwG PG ) + (ρL AL + ρG AG )sinΘ). Multiphase Flow Theory tNavigator-4. A 6. 2g 4 fG ρG v2G τwG = .3.8. 2g where fL and fG based on Reynold’s numbers of liquid and gas phases.

ACTIONX (see 12.62). Full description of notion ”right answer” in dynamic modelling is given in section 7. Significant difference in calculation can be obtained especially if we have long time steps. but difference in the results is significant. FAQ 246 .18. Difference in results in many cases occurs due to the fact that these keywords are triggered at different times in tNavigator calculation on different numbers of cores (or at different times in tNavigator calculation and another simulator calculation).134). ˆ How to speedup model calculation without its simplification – 7.18.7. ˆ economical limits WECON (see 12.102). ˆ What is the "right" answer in hydrodynamic simulation – 7. 7.2.135).131). GECON (see 12.18. Why? How can I match together the results of tNavigator calculation and another simulator? Usually. ˆ keywords UDQ (see 12. Reasons for the difference in calculation results tNavigator-4. water.2.2 7 FAQ In this section we have the overview of interesting questions: ˆ Reasons for the difference in calculation results – 7.133).1. This section gives a detailed answer to the following questions: ˆ Model was calculated by tNavigator on different numbers of cores. All the keywords in the model are supported by tNavigator. gas production. ACTIONG (see 12. ˆ well control mode is THP and VFP table number can change in case if user-defined ACTION condition takes place.138).18. We have different values of oil.1 Reasons for the difference in calculation results In this section is given brief description of reasons for difference of tNavigator calculation results on various number of cores and difference between tNavigator calculation results and other simulators. ACTIONR (see 12.3.18. 7.18. ACTIONW (see 12. visible differences between tNavigator calculations on different number of cores and differences between tNavigator and another simulators calculation take place in models where there are: ˆ group controls.132). Why does the answer depend on the number of cores? Which answer is correct? ˆ Model was calculated by tNavigator and other simulator.18.1. ˆ keywords ACTION (see 12. and there are no tNavigator-specific keywords that other simulator doesn’t support.18.

W. Water cut is 90%.1.119)). We specify the economic constraint WECON (see 12. the well is shut on 4 cores calculation. the simulator immediately steps on 100 days (default maximum time step is 100 days – DTMAX in RUNCTRL (see 12. by continues to produce in 10 core cal- culation. The watercut is - 89. As a result.1. d . the well will be shut if it exceeds 90% watercut.7.18.00%.62). ˆ a + b + c + d – non-parallel programme code (for one core). 7. which is constructed for solving systems of linear equations). We calculate on 4 cores. In the model there is user-defined condition for ACTION (G. X). Example 1 of possible difference in calculation results.2 Example DATES 1 JAN 2020 / 1 JAN 2021 / 1 JAN 2022 / / In the example the given length of time steps is one year. b. Example DEFINE WUVFPTAB (WUVFPTAB 'W*'+(WUVFPTAB 'W*'< 5)*(WTHP 'W*'>45)+(WUVFPTAB 'W*'== 5)*(WGOR 'W*'> 1200)+(WSTAT 'W*'== 4)) This condition can have significant influence on calculation results. An example of different number rounding. then it can lead to the situa- tion when the well is closed in one case. In this case. On the N-th time step the watercut is 90. so this means 300 cubic meters of oil. Even a small fluctuation within the accuracy of numerical solution can lead to the fact that in one case the operation is triggered. Ac- cordingly. We calculate on 10 cores. Question: Why does the answer depend on the number of cores? The reason of different results on different number of cores is: the quality of number rounding and the preconditioner quality depend on the number of cores (preconditioner is the special matrix. R. but continues it’s operation otherwise. and in other – no. the operation at different times can have significant influence on calculation results. Reasons for the difference in calculation results 247 . Example 2 of possible difference in calculation results. If the keywords (that are listed above) trigger at different times. fluid production from these two options will vary by 30 cubic meters * 100 days = 3000 cubic meters. In the model there is one production well. In the calculation process they are divided into small computational steps.99%. If this well rate is 30 cubic meters per day (and restrictions on the time step length is not set).18. Reasons for the difference in calculation results tNavigator-4. c. The reason is that when THP exceeds 45 atmospheres and GOR exceeds 1200 then the VFP table number and well limits will be changed. Let there are 4 numbers to sum a.

As for the choice of one variant of the two equal variants. Uncertainty is present in the initial data. we would advise to choose calculation on the maximum available number of cores. all results are equal and correct. we can construct a model porosity cube (from LOGs) different ways by using different interpolation methods. economic constraints and ACTIONs. Further the results don’t match (see examples above). and in the other – no. Simulator does not solve the equations precisely. Taking into account the shortage of time. It is the fastest. Question: At what number of cores we obtain the most accurate result? The question is not correct. you can choose any one you like. There is a numerical error in the solution (residual).7. Reasons for the difference in calculation results tNavigator-4. but in one case the conditions have been triggered. You should set in TUNING (see 12. this calculation can be considered as the best. However. even a small deviation in the solution on a specific step may lead to large differences in the results in the next step if the complex ACTION and economic constraints are used. the sensitivity of the model to the conditions in SCHEDULE can be reduced by specifying restrictions of the maximum time step length. Both answers are correct.1. it is not correct to say that one or the other calculation result is more correct. The uncertainty generated by numerical methods for solving systems of equations is significantly less than the uncertainty in the input data.114) maximum time step – 1 day – to calculate your 7. Question: How can I match together the results of tNavigator calculation and another simulator? If necessary. Thus. these will be different variants of one model. In parentheses different cores sum numbers.1.2 ˆ (a + b) + (c + d) – parallel programme code for two cores. In fact. All results are accurate and correct and they form a set of solutions. In this case we observe a model sensitivity to a particular combination of group controls. The difference may be in the thousandth percent. A solution is a set of solutions. We shouldn’t call one number a correct solution. Question: What calculation result should I take? In our opinion. For example. Reasons for the difference in calculation results 248 . The forecast itself is an estimation. It may be distributed differently on a different number of cores. Within the task of production forecasting it is logical to consider all the options as equally correct. Any result inside the particular area is also a solution. The answer will be different because of rounding. Simulator works correctly in both cases.18. In tNavigator this can be done via the command: Example RUNCTRL DTMAX 1 / / where DTMAX – maximal allowed time step (days).

7. For the correctness of comparison run calculations on one core.1.1. in this case calculation time may significantly increase due to increase of the number of steps. Most probably the results of calculations will match together. However. 7. Reasons for the difference in calculation results tNavigator-4. Reasons for the difference in calculation results 249 .2 model by another simulator.

The solution "sensitivity" to ˆ maximal time step limit.1. 7.2. ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling 250 . Algorithm to find solution: Time approximation (fully implicit) → half-discrete scheme ⇓ Space approximation (finite volumes to fulfil conservation) → a system of non-linear equations on each step ⇓ Newton method → a system of linear equations on each iteration of Newton ⇓ BCGStab or GMRES algorithms with preconditioners to solve system of linear equations with non-symmetric matrix → calculating preconditioner on each linear system solution iteration Parameters which influences calculation ˆ Time step – there may be limits on min and max step. ˆ linear and non-linear problem convergence tolerance.2. ˆ number of cores used will be analyzed.2 7. and parameters controlling automatic step choice.7. ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling tNavigator-4.1 Problem discretization and solution We are finding solution of differential equations system – 2.2 ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling In this section we’ll identify some of uncertainty factors that influence the dynamic problem solution.2. Standard three-phase three-component isothermal filtration problem(black-oil) taking into account compositional in main variables – molar densities. 7.

ˆ Well equations solution parameters – accuracy. ˆ Linear problem solution parameters – choice of algorithm. 7.2.2.7. Linear problem solution The linear problem looks like Ax = b. ˆ Group control parameters – accuracy. the ancestor of generalized minimal residual method (GMRES). max number of iterations. b – the right-hand side. ˆ Surface network parameters – accuracy to satisfy conditions. and the residuals in some blocks (usually near well perforations) may be higher than in other blocks. ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling tNavigator-4. its parameters. min and max number of of iterations. Different methods minimize different norms. The simplest solution of this problem is given by minimal residual method.2 ˆ Non-linear problem solution parameters – accuracy.1. where A is matrix. ˆ The norm of residual (sum of squared elements) is minimized. Ark ) where (·. number of Newton iterations when wells may be switched to other controls. The common traits of all linear problem solution algorithms: ˆ new solution xk+1 is a subtraction of previous solution and residual with multiplier τ : xk+1 = xk − τ k rk So. rk ) τk = (Ark . minimal and maximal Newton iterations number. Problem discretization and solution 251 . s n  2 k+1 k+1 kr k = ∑ ri i=1 so the residual (and the error) goes to zero «in average». accuracy. ·) – vector scalar product. so there may be different answers for wells even for the same accuracy. max number of iterations. the new solution is very sensible to the value of τ k . The algorithm looks like xk+1 − xk + Axk = b τk Where iterational parameter τ k is chosen to minimize the length of residual rk+1 = b − Axk+1 . kb − Axk+1 k → min as (rk .

When the so-called preconditioners are used to speed up convergence. ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling tNavigator-4. If we know it. p cores: (a. the answer is different! The answer will be different even on one core.2 Influence of the number of cores Parallel calculation With parallel calculation. Let n – vector length. For example. Rounding error Machine accuracy is maximal ε such that 1 + ε is 1. 1016 + 1 is equal to 1016 . 7. the work is distributed evenly between all cores – picture 10.7. n p+1 = n.2. b) = ∑ ai bi .2. if we sum the item in different order.2 Figure 10: Work is distributed evenly between all cores 7. we can calculate difference between two numbers at any point. Sum of products will be calculated as: ! n p ni+1 one core: (a. p – core numbers.2. b) = ∑ ∑ aibi i=1 k=1 i=ni Due to differences in rounding error summation. On most modern computers this ε is 10−16 .2. It’s calculated from vector scalar products. characterising density of real numbers near 1. the result of the above minimal residual algorithm co- incides with non-parallel version. Influence of the number of cores 252 . each core working with vector elements from ni to ni+1 . Influence on the result Scalar product calculation Iterational algorithms are very sensitive to iterational parameter tau. n1 = 1. the structure of preconditioner will depend on number of cores and the solution will be «a little» different. If there are no rounding errors.

The answer (for example.2. Solution calculation So. different solutions. for different number of cores we’ll get different values of τ and. group. ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling tNavigator-4.2. network production The same way renumbering of items in the sum influences the result. hence. 7.3 Influence of timestep Calculation and reporting steps 7. Remember that solution accuracy is largest in wells with wells and depends on number of cores due to preconditioner.7. but a numeric interval – picture 11. In this case the reserves will be ! n p ni+1 on one core: S = ∑ si . What to do to get «the correct answer»? Nothing! All these results are correct.2. on p cores: S = ∑ ∑ si i=1 k=1 i=ni Due to differences in rounding error summation. Let s = (si ) be reserves in any grid block.2 Figure 11: Different answers.3. Reserves calculation Another example: reserves calculation. Which of them is «most correct»? None! They are all equally correct and all are solutions. field production) is not a number. This uncertainty interval due to calculation is much smaller than the uncertainty due to initial data. Influence of timestep 253 . the answer is different Which reserves are «most correct»? Calculating well.

For example. iteration number limits. like.7. water cut. there will be different timesteps and different well switch times.2. these limits are checked on each calculation time step. or Average for this step. The well rate on a reporting step is rate on step 3 (picture 12). BHP and THP. As a result. average rate for the step is cumulative production during this time step divided on it’s length. Influence of timestep 254 . ˆ Settings of non-linear and linear problem solution – accuracy. linear system algorithm choice. The current well modes are uncertain If the well has several limits. so the values depend on size and number of calculation steps during current reporting step. Instead of Current data. ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling tNavigator-4. the size of these steps is chosen to optimize approximation and convergence – picture 12. well rate depends on time step sizes during reporting step. it is better to use either Cumulative. liquid production. BHP etc) for last calculation step during current reporting step. This is a function of: ˆ Limits on Max and Min timesteps.2. As a result. 7.2 Figure 12: Rate at reporting step Often during one reporting step (where the well conditions are set) the simulator passes several calculation steps. for different calculation settings. ˆ Number of cores used – since linear problem solution algorithm changes. Current indices uncertainty The simulators report all current measurements (such as rates.3.

How to reduce uncertainty? ˆ Calculate several scenarios.2. Example. This is how small rounding errors produce large differences in calculation. In the first case. As a result of WECON.99% on 8 cores.62) Typical case: well water cut or Gas-oil ratio is checked and the well is closed (WECON (see 12. 7. the well regimes change. ˆ It’s checked on calculation time step.3. ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling tNavigator-4. in the second it may work one more year (calculation step) and produce 100 m3 of oil. ˆ Non-linear and linear problem settings. Conditions checked on calculation time steps If some condition is checked on every time step. ˆ Number of cores The model behavior can change by a «jump» . global model changes – the well or perforations close.62)). and if it is fulfilled. well is closed. then at moments depending on the following settings: ˆ Min and Max timestep limits. In this case.18. Economic limits – WECON (see 12. Here two uncertainties influence: ˆ Current value of parameter is used. Influence of timestep 255 . On January 1 well has water cut 99.7.01% on 1 core and 98. that’s 30% of it’s yearly production on previous year Which answer is «more correct»? How do we cope with this uncertainty? ˆ As with one of possible scenarios.18.2. BHP above block pressure).2 Well closure time is uncertain If the limits make the well shut in (like. the cumulative indices also change. for different time steps the well may be shut in at different moments of time. Example. with different maximal time step limits.

The result is global model change. ˆ Triggers (ACTIONX (see 12.18. Influence of timestep 256 . The result is global model change.158) may reopen the well. because injection well regime changes.2. ”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling tNavigator-4. This global model change due to one current value of parameter on calculation time step is really a winner among all instability and uncertainty options.18. designed to reduce uncertainty influence on global model (well closure). based on current value of parameter on one well. ˆ Group mode changes.135)). ACTIONX (see 12. Also. ˆ Surface network regime changes. because injection well regime changes.18.18. The WTEST (see 12. ˆ The check is on calculation timesteps. Compensation – WCONINJP (see 12.18.2 ˆ Use WTEST (see 12.18. There are several uncertainties: ˆ current parameter value used. ˆ the check is on calculation timesteps.158).38) Injection well rate is calculated from production well rates.3.7. ˆ wells in group can be calculated by different cores.2.135) can generate most unstable calculations since it can set: ˆ Well mode changes.72) Group production is distributed between wells – members of group. Group control – GCONPROD (see 12. There are two uncertainties: ˆ Current parameter value used. it’s checked on calculation time steps so it’s subject to uncertainty too. 7. ˆ Surface networks. Group control and others ˆ Economic limits for groups. then answer depends on order of summing.

”The correct answer” in dynamic modelling tNavigator-4. 7.7. ˆ Sensitivity to layer permeability increase. We should check the solution sensitivity to changes in model parameters. but a set of graphs. ˆ Sensitivity to number of cores..2 7. we should check ˆ Sensitivity to time step size limit. showing the uncertainty of this solution. ˆ Sensitivity to GOC and WOC. The oil production depending on time is not a one graph.2. In other words.2.4.2. What can we do? 257 . There are many of them.4 What can we do? We should change the definition of solution. All the graphs in this band are solutions – picture 11. ˆ Sensitivity to accuracy of linear and non-linear problem increase. Sensitivity analysis We should check the solution sensitivity to changes in calculation parameters. Check at least those that may be automated easily: ˆ Sensitivity to relative permeability end-points.

3 How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification In this section we analyse the problem how to speed-up model calculation without its sim- plification or increasing computing capacity. ˆ speed of simulator. ˆ the complexity of the field development scenario. 7.2 7.3. We will analyse examples and give recommendations on model optimization. ˆ the number of active blocks in the model. We will discuss the effect of model data quality at the time of its calculation. What affects the calculation time ˆ CPU frequency. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification 258 . dual permeability. ˆ model physics.7. ˆ the number of processors. which follows from the mathematical model and approximation conditions.3.3. 30 LGRs on each of 1000 multisegment horizontal 7. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4.1 Problem statement How to calculate THIS (picture 13) fast? Figure 13: Model with big number of LGRs A simple way to reduce the time: Instead of the compositional model with 15 compo- nents. dual porosity.

7. Let’s analyze the possible improvements of model quality. ˆ the possibility to do manual or assisted history matching. Motivation to speed-up: ˆ improve life quality of reservoir engineer.3.2. Block number 1 2 3 Flow between blocks 10m3 /day 10m3 /day 10m3 /day Block pore volume 1000m3 1m3 1000m3 Figure 14: Blocks with different pore volumes What slows down the simulation: Large ratio of the flux through the block face to the pore volume.2 Flow through the block The simplified formulation of the mixture approximation in the block: the flow during one step does not exceed the pore volume of the block. Flow through the block 259 . ˆ quality of the model – how to do your work perfectly using existing data. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4.2 wells with gas re-injection through one of the stages of the multistage separator with surface network and 15 million active grid blocks – calculate two-phase black oil model with all vertical wells and 100 thousand active grid blocks on the high-speed cluster.7.3.3. What can be improved without model simplification: ˆ quality of the input data – this is “ ageless ” problem – usually reservoir engineer can’t change it. A large amount of fluid is flowing through a small pore volume so it will lead to significant pressure increasing 7. ˆ opportunity to make sensitivity analysis.

3. Press the button Statistics. How to deal with this problem: 1. The presence of blocks with small pore volume doesn’t slow down calculation. Reduce the flow through the block faces. Use Cut for visualization. 2. is equal to the number of blocks with small pore volume that are selected via Cut. then the time step will be reduced.picture 14.3. it can be equal 1 or 10 as well). The big variation in pore volumes slows down calculation . Apply. In Map arithmetic command line enter porv < 1 (minimal pore volume can be different for different models.2 in the block. Flow through the block 260 . Create User Cut for pore volume. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4. An example how to find the blocks with small pore volume – picture 15. If during the time step the volume of the fluid that is passing through the grid block is significantly larger than its volume. So the time step length will be increased according to approximation conditions. Figure 15: Cut for blocks with small pore volumes 7.2. Reduce the pore volume variation. Pore volume variation. The value in the box Entries. calculation will be slower.7.

How to calculate resources in these blocks – picture 16. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4. 7. Cut should be switched on for visualization.7.2 Resources in blocks with small pore volume.2. Figure 16: Resources in the blocks with small pore volume Removal of the blocks with small pore volume. Oil in place.3. In Statistics in the box Sum we can see the value of sum of oil resources in these blocks.2.3. Flow through the block 261 . In the section GRID we add the keyword: MINPV 1 / The keyword MINPV (see 12. The value of minimal pore volume should be chosen for each model independently. Go to map Resources. So the variation of the pore volume is decreased.30) makes blocks with the pore volume less then specified value inactive.

Right mouse click on Cut and choose Export. Choose the tab Connected Components. Figure 17: Marking out connected components These components can be excluded via the keyword ACTNUM (see 12. Select the components via User Cut (Cut can be created via depth. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4. Map.7.2. How to select model parts that are not connected to each other .3.picture 17.1. User Maps. that are not connected and we want to exclude. layer number in Z direction. then they can be excluded from the grid to speed-up model calculation.2 7.3.3 Grid connection If we have in the model parts of the grid that are not connected to each other and there are no well perforations in these parts. Show all connected components. values of User map Map etc).3. In components. 7. Then the saved file should be included into GRID section via the keyword INCLUDE (see 12. In main model part we assign value 1 to blocks. we assign value 0 to blocks.3. Right mouse click on the Map to open Model Editing. Grid connection 262 .73). Save 3D to ACTNUM.29).

PINCH / Lateral links through the blocks with zero permeability. then the production from the block 3 is impossible.7. arising from pore volume cut-off – picture 7. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4.3.4 Grid stratification factor In case of high grid stratification factor we recommend to increase connection.4. Additional connections for blocks. Due to the dominant gravitational component it is particularly important to make vertical connections. In this case averaged permeability will be used in 7. Now we consider only the “holes”.2.4. If permeability in the block 2 is equal to zero. Grid stratification factor 263 . Figure 18: The permeability of the neighboring blocks This problem can be solved using lateral links through the blocks with zero permeability via the keyword PERMAVE (see 12.3.3. They can be introduced using the keyword PINCH (see 12. For existing pore volume the flow can be reduced by increasing block’s connections to neighbouring blocks.36).2.3. Well has a perforation in the block 1.2 7.54). Look at the picture 18.

The detailed description of system of equations is in the section Transition from physical model to system of equations. We should add to the model: PERMAVE 1 1 -1 / Then: 1 Ki + K j Ki j = or Ki j = 1 1 2 + Ki K j 7. There is a jump on the curve of parameter.7. the usage of which in the model can lead to calculation slow down.2 transmissibility calculation. The usage of averaged permeability in transmissibility calculation will help to produce fluid from block 3 (permeability in block 2 is equal to 0). that will provide the flow from block 3 to block 1.5.3.5 Influence of smoothness of the data On the pictures 19 and 20 there are examples of relative permeability curves and capillary pressure. that derivatives matrix is used in the solution process. Figure 19: Jump on the capillary pressure curve With a large jump on the curve the value of the derivative of this parameter will be very large as well. that can slow down the calculation. where we have well perforation. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4.3. We can briefly mention here. Influence of smoothness of the data 264 . Using averaging the permeability of block 2 will be small but not zero. Picture – 18. 7.3.

N1 . the derivative has a large number of points of discontinuity. the faster the solution. So. SGOF (see 12. In this case RP is specified in certain points and linear function is used between them.6. LETWO 7.4).3. At each step of Newton’s method it is necessary to solve the system with asymmetric ma- trix ∂ F(U m )/∂ U .6.2). How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4. N — number of grid blocks. what is bad for the calculation speed: ˆ High values of derivatives (pictures 19. Nc = (Nci ) — values in grid blocks. Nnc ) = 0 where p = (pi ).1). The “better” the matrix (e. N): −1 ∂ F(U m )  m+1 m U =U − F(U m ) ∂U Where ∂ F(U m )/∂ U — matrix R(1+nc )N → R(1+nc )N × R(1+nc )N . U ≡ (p. closer to the diagonal). . Each interval between two points has its own function.5. ˆ A large number of points of discontinuity of the derivatives (picture 21). As a solution for this problem we propose to set the smooth RP curves via Corey or LET correlation using the keywords COREYWO (see 12. On the picture 21 there are RP curves specified via tables SWOF (see 12. COREYGO (see 12.3).g. . . Influence of smoothness of the data 265 .3. So.6. 20).2 Figure 20: Jump on RP curves The resulting system of equations (after approximation) is a non-linear system of algebraic equations of the form F(p.7. Let’s discuss where a large number of points of discontinuity of the derivatives comes from. Standard Newton method is used to solve non-linear system of equations F(U) = 0.6..

We set only end-points. LETGO (see 12. After conversion in the USER folder there will be a new file with new RP defined by keywords COREYWO (see 12. Approximate RP. can be converted to Corey or LET correlation – picture 21. In the menu Document.8). 7.9). SGOF (see 12.8).6. This conversion may lead to calculation speed up. COREYGO (see 12.1).3.6.6.6. Choose Convert to Corey or LET correlation.7.6.3.6.5.2 Figure 21: Convert RP in Corey correlation Figure 22: Smooth RP curves (see 12. Influence of smoothness of the data 266 . Available tables SWOF (see 12.4) or LETWO (see 12.3).6.2) etc. LETGO (see 12.6.9). smooth curve is constructed auto- matically by taken into account the defined curvature – picture 22. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4.

SPR Gas-Oil (scaled relative permeabilities). Influence of end-points match 267 . Please pay attention on the following messages during model loading – picture 23: Warning: SWU is not equal to ISWU in block[ . Drainage and imbibition curves for blocks can be analysed in the option Properties. SPR Water-Oil.6.6 Influence of end-points match RP end points for drainage and imbibition process (hysteresis) must be the same.3.3.3. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4. .2 7. Figure 23: Unmatched end-points in hysteresis 7.7. ].

How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4.7.2 7. In this situation. Conservation of fluid volume – mass is not saved: Flowed from 1 Flowed into 2 Oil volume -100sm3 +100sm3 Oil mass -90ton +60ton Conservation of mass – volume is not saved: Flowed from 1 Flowed into 2 Oil mass -90ton +90ton Oil volume -100sm3 +150sm3 7. conservation of fluid volume is possible (while mass is not saved) or con- servation of mass (then the volume is not saved). Conservation equation 268 .7. Figure 24: Neighboring blocks with different PVT Properties in these blocks: Blocks number 1 2 PVT region 1 2 Oil density in surface conditions 900kg/sm3 600kg/sm3 Oil volume in surface conditions 1000sm3 1000sm3 Oil weight in block 900ton 600ton Then when fluid flows from one block to another it changes its properties immediately.7 Conservation equation It is unacceptable to have blocks in different PVT (EOS) regions with a hydrodynamic con- nection – picture 24.3.3.3.

8 VFP tables Non-monotonic VFP tables (picture 25) can slow down calculation significantly if the well control mode occurs on the problem area.3. and edit VFP tables if necessary. as shown on picture 25.7.2 7. it turns out that 2 different THP values correspond to one value of BHP.8.3. that can lead to the instability in calculation.3. Usage of monotone curves is necessary to provide the correct work of the simulator: one BHP value should correspond to one THP value. 7. This applies both for THP control mode and to surface network simulation. Otherwise. How to speed-up model calculation without its simplification tNavigator-4. Figure 25: Non-monotonic VFP tables Please pay attention on the corresponding messages during model loading. VFP tables 269 .

exe [OPTIONS]. – go to upper folder To see help you can run console the following way: ˆ tNavigator-con.1 License for console tNavigator Console version always starts work with checking for file license available.. and exit) All console version options are listed in the section 8... Run command prompt: cmd 2.exe --help (Print help and exit) ˆ tNavigator-con.data (from the FOLDER1) in two-pass mode.exe -h (Print help and exit) ˆ tNavigator-con.exe 3. License for console tNavigator tNavigator-4.. Folder in Application Data like C:\Users\userName\AppData\RFD\tNavigator 8.2.1. [FILES]..exe --large-model FOLDER1\OILFIELD.exe --full-help (Print help. To run console version: 1.8. including hidden options. 8. Useful commands in cmd: ˆ cd – change directory ˆ Arrow up /down – previous or next command ˆ Tab – continue the name of the file from this folder ˆ Dir – list all files in the current folder ˆ Cd . cd path_to_tNavigator-con. Console version folder 2. It looks in two standard paths: 1. Usage: tNavigator-con.2 8 tNavigator Console version tNavigator has GUI and console version.data This will open model OILFIELD. For example: tNavigator-con. tNavigator Console version 270 .

including hidden options. [FILES]. by setting the path to license server explicitly with option --server- url=PATH.. Console can take network license.2. If a network license was successfully installed in tNavigator GUI. --version Print version and exit Input data: 8. Important: If there is a file license in one of the paths indicated above. Help: OPTION Description -h. 8. Possible problem: old expired file licenses.8. console will use it. Diagnostics: run console with no arguments (run only tNavigator-con. run a new cmd for console. it appears in environment variables. even an expired one. Possible solutions: ˆ go to this folder and delete expired or non-suitable file license. --help Print help and exit --full-help Print help. Check: MyComputer->Properties->Additional system properties-> Environment variables->local variable tNavigator_LICENSE_SERVER Check that it’s set to correct servers license path.. This is not true only if license server path or license type is set directly when console version is called (using options --license-type or --server-url). the console will look for server license only if there is NO file license in corresponding paths. ˆ use argument --license-type and choose proper value: file\usb\network. and exit -V.2 Console version options Usage: tNavigator-con.. Console version options tNavigator-4. it will output information what license it’s using and where is the license file. the console will not use server license from the environment variable.2. By default.exe). The console run from existing cmd will not get new path. Console version options 271 .exe [OPTIONS].2 If file license if there. Important: If you change this variable. ˆ use server license..

network (network license). mored.2 OPTION Description -c. Possible values = file (file license). --continue Continues calculation from last calculated step (default=off) --restart=INT Continues calculation from input step or last calculated step if input step is not calculated (default=0) --input=ENUM Input data file format (possible values=e100. imex. stars.2. Console version options 272 . usb (usb license) --no-license-exit Exit with status 69 if there is no license on first step (default=off) --license-wait-time-limit=INT How many seconds wait for network license (default=0) Interpolation: 8.8. e300. Default=e100) --large-model Open model in two-pass mode (default=off) --fast-array-reader=ENUM Use fast array reader (experimental)=on (de- fault=off) --single-pass Do not open model in two-pass mode (for MPI only) (default=off) --force-first-pass Force first pass in two-pass mode (default=off) --nousersch Do not read user schedule. (default=off) --source-dir=STRING Prefix for models directory --dest-dir=STRING Prefix for results directory --base-dest-dir=STRING Prefix for base results directory Client-server options: OPTION Description --license-type=ENUM Specify license type. gem. Console version options tNavigator-4.2.

De- fault=none) --interpolation-ignore-vlinks Ignore vertical links in 3D interpolation (de- fault=off) --interpolation-tr-threshold=DOUBLE Transmissibility threshold (default=1. universal. (default=off) --interpolation-method=ENUM Interpolation algorithm to use (possible values=least-squares.0) --kriging-type=ENUM Type of kriging interpolation (possible values=simple. ordinary.) --stream-flight=INT Streamlines max flight time (default=50000) --stop-step=INT Last calculated step. Default=wells) --interpolation-geometry=ENUM Geometry for 3D interpolation (possible val- ues=none.8. kriging.0) --interpolation-beta=DOUBLE Second derivative smoothing extent (de- fault=1. Console version options tNavigator-4. (default=off) --low Set prioriry to low. distances. least-squares-3d.0) --interpolation-default-value=DOUBLE Value for layers without interpolation sources (default=0. (default=off) --stream-flux=DOUBLE Streamlines density (rate per one streamline) (default=5.2.0) --interpolation-novalue=DOUBLE Value to be considered unknown (default=0. De- fault=simple) Simulation proccess: OPTION Description --nosim Parse and check only. valid-blocks.2.2 OPTION Description --interpolate-map Enables interpolation if set. (default=-1) Parallel computation: 8. Don’t start simulation. Default=least-squares) --interpolation-detalization-x=INT Detalization: block x size (in mesh blocks) (default=1) --interpolation-detalization-y=INT Detalization: block y size (in mesh blocks) (default=1) --interpolation-silent-mode Do not print per-layer messages (default=off) --interpolation-alpha=DOUBLE First derivative smoothing extent (default=1. transmissibilities.0) --interpolation-source=ENUM Interpolation sources (possible values=wells. Console version options 273 .

init. node_uniform. Default=full) --sync-method=ENUM Synchronization method (possible val- ues=mutex. --cpu-num=number of available Number of computational threads (de- CPUS fault=number of available CPUS) (default=-1) --memory-bind-logic=ENUM NUMA bind logic (possible values=off.number of threads).8. cpu_uniform. Default=barrier) --mppn=INT Number of MPI processes running simultane- ously on each node. (de- fault=off) --time-detailed=ENUM Display detailed information about CPU us- age time (possible values="off".2. (possible val- ues=none.CPU-N (N . Default=node_uniform) --thread-bind-to-cpu=CPU-1... barrier.. Where (id of logical CPU) to bind each thread 2. "total" (for all processes at the end of calculations). CPU numeration starts from 0. (default=1) Group: thread to CPU bind logic model OPTION Description --thread-bind-logic=ENUM Thread bind logic.CPU.2 OPTION Description -n. "all" (for all processes at each time step) (default=off) Result files: 8. Console version options tNavigator-4. process_to_first_cpus. (default=0) --drainage-matrix Compute and dump drainage matrix..2. Debug: OPTION Description --dump-matrix=INT Dump matrix. full. Console version options 274 .

Console version options tNavigator-4. aquifer_on. well_on. group_on. orthomin. step_maps_on".2. frac_on. Can be used with option --ecl-dump (default=off) --summary-only Print to log file only summary information. (default=off) --dump-step-summary Print time step summary. all_off. mesh_off. (default=off) --ecl-rsm RSM file export for E100/E300 models Linear solver: OPTION Description --linear-solver-alg=ENUM Force use of algorithm for linear solver (possi- ble values=bcgstab. initial_maps_off. conn_off. (de- fault=off) --dump-result-files=ENUM Modify set of result files to dump (pos- sible values=all_on. mesh_on. conn_on. rst_on. group_off. no. frac_off. Default=bcgstab) --linear-solver-param=INT Parameter (default=15) --linear-solver-restart=INT Number of iterations before restart (de- fault=50) --solver-preconditioner=ENUM Type of linear solver preconditioner (possible values=ilu_ikj. well_off. Default=ilu_ikj) Boundary conditions: OPTION Description --bc-dont-correct Don’t correct boundary conditions if they seem to be wrong (default=off) Client/server options: OPTION Description --server-url=STRING Url to license server 8. initial_maps_on. rst_off. aquifer_off. statistics_on.9).2. qgmres. (default=off) --dump-res Dump res files. statistics_off. Console version options 275 .2 OPTION Description --no-dump-res Don’t dump result files. (default=off) --export-avg-maps Export average maps on each step.8. Default=all_on) --ignore-lock Compute model even if *. jacobi.lock file exists (is model is calculated by another version of tNavigator at this moment) (default=off) --use-rptrst-map-freq Use information about output results map fre- quency from keyword RPTRST (see 12.1. step_maps_off. dqgm- res.

--ecl-summary Dump summary information. (default=off) Annual summary reports: OPTION Description -t. SLNxxxx files. (default=off) --ecl-upscaled-dump-xyz=X-scale. (de- fault=off.2. files are dumped in RESULTS folder) -l. Z directions. (default=off) -d. --ecl-dump Dump UNSMRY.Y. --ecl-unsmry Dump result binary UNSMRY file. --ecl-little Switch eclipse binary output to little-endian format. --ecl-init Dump INIT file. --report-tables Tables for output.8. --ecl-smspec Dump result binary SMSPEC file. SMSPEC files to model di- rectory.Z-scale Y. Dump Eclipse binary files upscaled along X. (de- fault=off) -m. Console version options 276 . (default=off) -r. Console version options tNavigator-4. (default=off) TMORE options: 8.2 Eclipse compatibility output: When binary files are dumped calculation data is saved at calculation time steps. (default=off) -s. This option is used for default and casn be switched off using the keyword RPTONLY in SUM- MARY section (then results will be saved at reporting time steps). (default=off) --ecl-sln Dump streamlines data in SLNSPEC. --ecl-egrid Dump EGRID file. OPTION Description --ecl-root Dump binary files to model directory. (default=off) -i. scale. --ecl-unrst Dump result binary UNRST file.2. (default=off) -e. (default=off) -u. (de- fault=off) --rfd-summary Dump short (FIELD only) SMSPEC and UN- SMRY files.

(default=off) Remote GUI: OPTION Description --task-id=INT Task ID on server (default=0) --dispatcher-ip=STRING Dispatcher IP --dispatcher-task-port=INT Dispatcher port for tasks (default=0) Model save: OPTION Description --save-model=STRING Save model in eclipse format --save-scaled-model-xyz=X-scale. (default=off) --no-gl-vbo Don’t use OpenGL VBO. The pattern is set with FIPPATT (see 12. Console version options tNavigator-4.2. --split <the path to the folder with patterns model>.13) region. --split=split/variant_1 Client-server options: 8. For example.Y. Save model scaled by X. --no-gl Don’t use OpenGL (no graphs and maps at all).4. Console version options 277 .Z-scale --split Auto split input models.2 OPTION Description --dump-converter-maps Use disk space to prevent the memory peak (default=off) --dump-intermediate-eclipse Save intermediate eclipse model to data files (default=off) --not-dump-intermediate-eclipse-maps Don’t save intermediate eclipse model to data files (default=off) --dump-intermediate-eclipse-sch Save intermediate eclipse SCHEDULE section to file (default=off) --multiple-error-messages Don’t hide multiple messages on conversion (default=off) GUI: OPTION Description --auto-run Run simulation. Z directions scale.2.8. (default=off) --auto-exit Exit at end of calculation. Y. (default=off) If this option is used one needs to set the path to save the results of splitting. (default=off) --ini-file=STRING Ini file name.

Console version options tNavigator-4.2. Possible values="file" (file license).8. Console version options 278 .2. "network" (network license).2 OPTION Description --license-type=ENUM Specify license type. "usb"(usb license)) --no-license-exit Exit with status 69 if there is no license on first step (default=off) --license-wait-time-limit=INT How many seconds wait for network license (default=0) 8.

If the model had been calculated.old. View Results. problems.data (console version – section 8). It’s better to use modes ViewResults/ViewGraphs when you are not going to calculate the model.1.sdata — text file. closed and then opened again a new . ˆ <name>. or from command line with one argument – name of data file <name>. warnings in the model. – <name>.log. This file is created when the model is opened second time.err — text file with report on all errors in input data and during simula- tion.log file with results of previous model opening.log — text file with report on simulation process. well modes description.old — saved copy of a . – <name>_*.1 Results of tNavigator calculation Results of tNavigator calculation can be saved in the following formats: ˆ tNavigator format files that are saved in the RESULTS folder: – <name>.9. Results of tNavigator calculation – section 9.res.3.end — text file with number of errors.inc — files included into data file (if they exist). Data files 279 .14)). USER folder – section 9. – <name>.log file is written.log.1. Old file is saved as <name>. – <name>.log-file is in the section 9. 9. Initial data file contains description of input parameters. Opening a model creates RESULTS and USER folders.1). This file is used when the model in opening in the modes View Graphs. tNavigator uses the following files: ˆ <name>. In addition to it the following files can be loaded to tNavigator or exported form it – section 9.1. these files are also used restarting previously carried out computations (RESTART (see 12. should be passed to the program as an argument.). The detailed descrip- tion of the . These modes should be used when you are not going to calculate the model. It is written on keyword language (see 11. etc.2 9 Data files tNavigator may be started either directly (version with graphical user interface). — binary files with simulation results (pressure and saturation maps.2. Results of tNavigator calculation tNavigator-4. – <name>. 9.data — file with initial data.3.4.

17.EGRID.UNRST).RSSPEC.sum.meta. Keywords to record data only for first and last time steps – RPTMAPL (see 12. Opening by this instance may lead to unexpected results.1. *. <name>. ˆ Binary file in E100 format (*. *. Keywords to record data in selected time intervals – RPTMAPT (see 12. it’s better to use modes ViewResults/ViewGraphs when you are not going to calculate the model. User can manage a record of calculated maps and graphs to the hard disc (record data only for time steps selected by the user).2). computer power was switched off). Thus. RPTGRAPHL (see 12. and the model is closed. Keywords to record data in specified dates – RPTMAPD (see 12. So when you open the model you will see a message: "This model is being calculated by another instance of tNavigator. Note. the amount of data written to disk. <name>.4). The following possibilities are available: 1.17. the lock-file will stay in the RESULTS directory..3). Simulation result binary files produced by tNavigator may be viewed using tNavigator post-processing environment.2).SMSPEC.INIT.rlog — and other files from the folder RESULTS that are not listed above are tNavigator inner files. *. for example.lock file is automatically deleted. can be reduced. The list of the data that should be saved is specified in the section SUMMARY (see 9.4). 3. specified in the model. RPT- GRAPHD (see 12. 2. To avoid confusion.2 In these modes you can’t change results: i. In this case results stay unchanged and lock-file is not created. Results of tNavigator calculation 280 .1. *.e. Do you really want to proceed?" If you are sure that this model is not opened anywhere else. to continue work with the model.9.17. – <name>.lock — this file is created by tNavigator in RESULTS folder each time the model is opened for calculation. *. Results of tNavigator calculation tNavigator-4. RPTGRAPHT (see 12. This protects this model from spoiling the results by occasional model opening in two different tNavigator versions or from opening same model from network disk by different users. If the model was closed abnormally (for example.17.17. they can not be deleted or rewritten. – <name>.UNSMRY.17. press Yes in the dialogue. For default all maps and graphs for all objects are saved at each time step. When the calculation is complete. *.3). Text files created by simulator may be viewed using any program that can work with text files.

COREYGO (see 12. the next opening of the model will loaded modified properties and well constraints.16). DENSITY (see 12.5.6. ˆ <name>_sch. flow functions .2. new wells.8. well settings.9.6. The list of available options of the console version is in the section – 8.6.17. ˆ Text RSM-file.keywords NPROPANTS (see 12.1. From graphical interface.3)).7).2. PROPANT- TABLE (see 12.2). 9. RSM-file can be created from graphical interface. with changes of phase permeability parameters. wellbore zone treatment).8.inc.8.5. The settings to save maps are saved via RPTRST (see 12.6).8.key- words FLOWFUNC (see 12.keywords SWOF (see 12.4) etc. USER folder tNavigator-4. <name>_pvt.1).1).6. PVDG (see 12. Files <name>_rp. IMEX. USER folder 281 . hydraulic fractures.7) and RUNSUM (see 12. SGOF (see 12.4). PVT. User data is saved automatically by default in USER folder: Automatically Save User Files is checked in tNavigator’s Settings. SEPARATE (see 12. ˆ <name>_pvt.17.8. GEM. fracs. STARS. wellbore zone treatment: ˆ <name>_rp.5). Also by default Automatically Read User Files is checked in the Settings.17.17. MORE. UNI- FOUT (see 12. properties editing doesn’t change initial model files.5. COREYWO (see 12.3). Output of binary files in E100 format can be done from graphical interface of from console version. So.5. PVTW (see 12.inc (phase permeabilities .1.inc (User-added wells.2 USER folder In USER folder will automatically save User files (created when the model is modified).5.inc etc. The model will be visualized and calculated with properties and well data from the USER folder. well constraints.23) etc.2).11). See also the keyword RPTONLY (see 12.2 12. FLOWFNAMES (see 12. tNavigator just writes a new data to the USER folder. In the console version RSM-file can be exported using --ecl-rsm..keywords PVTO (see 12. remote graphical interface RSM-file can be exported for models in all formats: E100.). with new values in the corresponding keywords. E300.5). ROCK (see 12.12).1). The keywords in the USER folder can be edited manually or deleted.2. 9.4). PROPANTNAMES (see 12. File format is controlled via the keywords MULTOUT (see 12. proppant properties .1.7) set the option to dump RSM file for models in E100 and E300 formats correspondingly. remote graphical interface and con- sole version. These files are read after initial model files.9).inc (PVT-PVT-parameters .

This map should be requested 9. one more iteration is required.3). |F| = 8. ˆ 7 – criterion of material balance error for field is not satisfied. Log-file tNavigator-4.3. Blocks with convergence problems The visualization of the map of linear solver residual is available in graphical user inter- face Calculated Maps. closed and then opened again a new . is always done.log is saved — text file with report on simulation pro- cess.00e+000.2 9. Detalization of the log can be set via the keyword REPORTFILE (see 12. ˆ 5 – compositional or thermal modifications are made. The reason of each Newton iteration. Number of Convergence problems. Possible reasons: ˆ 0 – first iteration.82e-007.log. one more iteration is required. (2) The value (2) at the end is a value of reason. dp = 1. The line of the log-file for Newton iteration looks the following way: Newton # = 1. one more iteration is required.9.119)).3 Log-file In RESULTS folder the file <name>. its = 2. ˆ 8 – criterion of variation of aquifer flow rate is not satisfied. Old file is saved as <name>. ˆ 2 – criterion of variation of the main variables is not satisfied.log file is written. If the model had been calculated. ˆ 1 – in RUNCTRL (see 12.119) user set to do the specified minimum number of iterations and the current number is less than the specified one. MBErrTot = 1.18. It’s better to use modes ViewResults/ViewGraphs when you are not going to calculate the model.43e-003.28e-004. ˆ 6 – criterion of material balance error for wells is not satisfied.3. Log-file 282 . ˆ 4 – modification of pressure and (or) molar densities is made.old. ˆ 3 – modification of saturation is made according to CHOPSAT (RUNCTRL (see 12.1. dN = 1.18. ˆ 9 – criterion of variation of rates and (or) pressure for wells is not satisfied.76e+003. MBErrProd = 0.

. Export file formats tNavigator-4..4.4. Example of this file format ’Layer_1’1-1 ’Layer_2’2-2 ’Layer_3’3-3 ’Layer_4’4-4 Trajectories 1. Option CONV itself is not supported in tNavigator.1 Load Well Data The following well data can be loaded to the model in the corresponding tabs in Schedule Files Dialog: Layers File type: Layers. Export file formats 283 . z1-z2 (numbers along Z. Data description: layer name.. Export file formats 9. File format – . If they are always in the same grid blocks.4 Loadable file formats. x.4). Loadable file formats.. then you need to understand what speciality or a problem is in this grid block. File type: GWTD.1.9)..txt. y. Data description: measured depth. This method is analogous to CONV RPTRST (see 12. or Chop molar density. File format – .4. 9.2 via the option CONVERGENCE_PROBLEM_NUM of the keyword TNAVCTRL (see 12. z (negative).1. 9.txt. Also there is a possibility to see the most offending blocks the following way: Example REPORTFILE ALL LOW ITERS DEBUG / Study carefully the messages looking like Chop p. Loadable file formats. to which this layer corresponds).9.

95680241 -3359. Export file formats tNavigator-4.las. File type: Trajectory.13983138 50129. Example of this file format welltrack ’WELL1’ 100 110 2500.20096452 50128.05636316 57365.97016088 57365. Data description: Standard las-format (X. The order of the columns can be changed in the emerging dialogue.1. absolute depth. Y.92539399 2. measured depth).01963798 3364. 3.4. Load Well Data 284 . Loadable file formats.0 2500.99849282 57365.08379542 50133. 9.36235500 3350.dat. File format – .000 100 110 2510 2510 100 110 2530 2540.4.9. Y. Data description: well name. MD (depth along the well bore).15669689 -3352. File format – .40792386 57364.30935266 -3346.78811816 -3331.51853724 3356.2 Example of this file format Well name: WELL1 3335. Z (absolute depth). File type: LAS. X.53042953 50131.

4. 1.9. 9.00: Increment NULL. FIELD NAME: LOC.1.00: Top Depth STOP.00: Bottom Depth STEP.M 10. Company: ~Other Information #--------------------------------------------- ~A 2500 100 110 2500 2510 100 110 2510 2540 100 110 2530 4. Company: FLD. Load Well Data 285 . Well names must begin with WELL- NAME: (any letters size).25: Null Value UWI. Values Z Ű not negative. Well: 107L DATE.UNIT DATA INFORMATION #--------.M 10. NO: ~Well Information #-------------------------------------------- #MNEM.2: WRAP. LOCATION: PROV. ------------------. Province: SRVC.M 2288.------------- STRT. It is possible to check the box Reverse Z in the dialogue. File type: Generalized. UNIQE WELL ID: 3070010341 WELL.dev. Loadable file formats.2 Example of this file format ~Version Information #--------------------------------------------- VERS. The order of the columns can be changed in the emerging dialogue. Data description: Generalized GWTD format. File format – .4. Export file formats tNavigator-4. Date: 15022009 COMP. -999.

File format – .50 206.7 5. File type: Dip-circle. Data description: well name.7 -10.50 140 13.txt. Data description: measured depth. Load Well Data 286 . WellHead file must be loaded if Dip-circle file is loaded.50 60 1.00 206.7 1. Example of this file format 20 0.030384e+007 5733795 -135.50 80 4.50 6.00 205.1.030384e+007 5733795 -85.4.7 1.7 -135.030384e+007 5733795 -10.4.50 160 15.9. File format – . File type: WellHead.2 Example of this file format WELLNAME: ’WELL1’ 1.030384e+007 5733795 -60.50 206.75 206. Well names must correspond to the file names.75 206. azimuth (angle between Y-axis and well vector in X direction).7 -110.7 1.7 1.50 120 11.50 40 1.7 1.25 206. Loadable file formats.12 205.030384e+007 5733795 -35. Export file formats tNavigator-4. altitude z0 and wellhead coordinates (x0.7 -85.030384e+007 5733795 -110.7 -60.7 -35. angle (between Z-axis and well vector). y0).trj. Columns and their order can be selected in the emerging dialogue.50 100 9. 9.

File format – .9 Groups 1.8 3451 54. date. File format – .2 3359 54. group to which this well belongs. File type: Group – Wells.txt. event.8 20401. File format – . Load Well Data 287 . Example of this file format ’GRUP1’ ’PROD1’ ’PROD2’ ’PROD8’ ’PROD9’ ’GRUP2’ ’INJ1’ ’INJ2’ ’INJ3’ ’INJ4’ ’INJ5’ ’GRUP3’ ’WPR1’ ’WPR9’ ’WPR17’ ’GRUP4’ ’WELSEGM3’ Events File type: Events. Data description: well name. Data description: group name.txt.3 30162.2 Example of this file format 40R 57 33025. diameter.4. 9.5 30890.3 20405. Data description: well name. Example of this file format ’WELL1’ ’SAT-1’ ’WELL2’ ’SAT-1’ ’WELL3’ ’SAT-2’ ’WELL4’ ’SAT-2’ 2. Export file formats tNavigator-4. upper depth.1.8 3452 61.7 31386. lower depth. Loadable file formats.9 3405 57.7 23427.4.7 31384.1 20212. layer.txt. radius. wells which belong to this group. File type: Well – Group.9 21500.9.

gas rate.7.08.2 -3 History File type: Prod.2 skin.3 0. THP. Loadable file formats. Export file formats tNavigator-4.7. Columns that are in the file should be selected in the drop-down menu. history. BHP.txt.1997 perforation 3393.06.3 0 Well Logs 1.7 0.1997 14.4 0.07.7 0.1997 16.8 0.6 0.1997 perforation 3378. Columns that are in the file should be selected in the drop-down menu.5 0 V42-1 01.6 0.9. multiplier.7 0 V42-1 01.1997 perforation 3397.7.2 -3 WELL1 1.1997 18 0. Data description: Standard las-format. Example of this file format V42-1 01. Order of boxes can be changed (in accordance with the data in the file).2 3381.1997 perforation 3354. liquid rate.8 1. well efficiency factor.2 0. gs injection.09.1997 18.1.1997 11.las.4 3394.5 3399.6 0 V42-1 01.8 3358. Load Well Data 288 .4. File format – .4 0 V42-1 01.2 -3 WELL1 1. 9. water injection.2 -3 WELL1 1. date.4. Data description: well name.1997 perforation 3383 3390. oil rate.10. File type: Well Logs (LAS).7.7. File format – .2 -3 WELL1 1. Order of boxes can be changed (in accordance with the data in the file). Example of this file format WELL1 1.

5490000248 0. : LOCATION SRVC.00000 0.m3/m3 : PHIE_west SW_west .4.25 1570. Load Well Data 289 .25 -999.m 1791.30993 1.25 -999.9. 1 : WELL FLD.5490000248 0.33996 1.00000000 : NULL . : SW_west SW1_west . Friday.1199999973 -999.00000 0.1199999973 -999. : API NUMBER #=========================================== ~Curve DEPT .25 1570.1199999973 -999.250000 -999.25 -999.25 1570.31994 1.25 -999.4. April 01 2011 11:47:28 : DATE PROV.34997 1.1199999973 -999.5490000248 0.250000 : COMP. OR__1 : UNIQUE WELL ID API.txt.2 Example of this file format # LAS format log file from PETREL # Project units are specified as depth units #=========================================== ~Version information VERS. : COMPANY WELL.1199999973 -999.0: WRAP. File type: RFT (MDT) pressure measurement.5490000248 0.25 1570.m : DEPTH Facies_west . : PROVINCE UWI.7999268 : STEP .25 2. : SW1_west ~Parameter #=========================================== ~Ascii 1570. : FIELD LOC. NO: #=========================================== ~Well STRT .25 -999.00000 0.m 0. Loadable file formats. File format – .25 -999.mD : KINT_west PHIE_west .m 1570.5490000248 0.32995 1.25 -999. 9. : SERVICE COMPANY DATE.250000 -999. 2.00000 0.00000 0.1. : Facies_west KINT_west .2999268 : STOP .25 1570. -999. Export file formats tNavigator-4.29992 -999.

9. Y.2008 WELL10 1719.4.12.2 Data description: well name.58 150.4.Layer 1 -- +2. Export Common parameters of maps export: ˆ Inactive Block Placeholder – a number which specifies that map value in respective block is absent ˆ Separate Layers by Comment – each layer in the file will be headed by its number. Maps. Export file formats tNavigator-4.43 157. 1.737400e+003 +2. pressure on this depth.48 15. Save 3D. The coordinates of blocks ascending by X. Data description: values of parameter are written to the file for all grid blocks.2008 WELL10 1714. measured depth.12.748260e+003 +2. If RFT measurement date is before 0 time step then tNavigator assigns RFT data to zero time step. Example of this file format Wellname Depth Pressure Date WELL10 1709.12. File type: Map of the parameter values (tNavigator format).4.20 150. Example of this file format --Map: Depth --Time step: 0 Depth -. File format – .12.262 15. date.2008 WELL10 1720.293 15. Z.733930e+003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9.2008 WELL10 1712. Loadable file formats.2 Maps. Check in GUI in the dialogue Data is RFT (MDT) pressure measurement.742420e+003 +2.59 157. Export 290 .12.55 157.2008 9.742420e+003 +2.733930e+003 +2.075 15.737400e+003 +2.307 15.2.map.

4.9. Data description: According to AQUANCON syntax coordinates of start and end of cube connected to aquifer are written to the file. This option can be used to export blocks to connect aquifer to the blocks insede the reservoir.4.face in direction opposite to X axis direction. Syntax corresponds to the keyword ACTNUM. File format – . Data description: values 1 and 0 are written to the file for all grid blocks. Export 291 . K.Layer 1 -- +0 +0 +0 +0 +0 +0 +0 +0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +0 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 3. Z. Block faces connected with aquifer are chosen the following way: all blocks that bordering with the inner blocks. Save 3D to .10) equal to YES (for default it is NO).2. I. Save 3D to ACTNUM File type: the map of active (corresponding 1 value) and inactive blocks (corresponding 0 value) is saved. J. But after this export one need to set 11 parameter of AQUANCON (see 12. Example of this file format -. 4.inc. File format – . To do this one can add in the exported AQUANCON keyword to each line 2* YES /. Export file formats tNavigator-4. 9.2 2.inc. J+ face in direction parallel to Y axis. The following faces are possible: I+ face in direction parallel to X axis. The coordi- nates of blocks ascending by X. Maps. File format – .face in direction opposite to Z axis direction (axis Z is directed down).Time step: 0 ACTNUM -.Map: Map -.grd.grd File type: Binary file.face in direction opposite to Y axis direction.16. K+ face in direction parallel to Z axis. Loadable file formats. Y. Syntax corresponds to the keyword AQUANCON. Save 3D to AQUANCON (#1) File type: aquifer map is saved.

Save 3D to AQUANCON (#2) File type: aquifer map is saved. File format – .face in direction opposite to Z axis direction (axis Z is directed down). / 1 4 4 65 65 1 1 J. K+ face in direction parallel to Z axis. Export 292 . Block faces connected with aquifer are chosen the following way: all boundary blocks. / 1 2 2 65 65 1 1 J.4. / 5.Map: Cut -. 9.Time step: 0 AQUANCON 1 1 1 65 65 1 1 J. / 1 5 5 65 65 1 1 J. Syntax corresponds to the keyword AQUANCON. Loadable file formats.4.9.2 Example of this file format -.face in direction opposite to X axis direction. J+ face in direction parallel to Y axis. Maps. K. The following faces are possible: I+ face in direction parallel to X axis. J.2. Data description: Data description: According to AQUANCON syntax coordinates of start and end of cube connected to aquifer are written to the file. / 1 3 3 65 65 1 1 J.face in direction opposite to Y axis direction. Export file formats tNavigator-4.inc. I.

Syntax corresponds to the keyword AQUANCON. 9.9. I.face in direction opposite to X axis direction. connected with active blocks. / 1 4 4 65 65 1 1 J+ / 1 4 4 65 65 1 1 K+ / 1 4 4 65 65 1 1 K.4.2 Example of this file format -. Export file formats tNavigator-4.2. One also can specify whether connections from faces. Block faces connected with aquifer are chosen the following way: all boundary blocks in user-specified direc- tion. Save 3D to AQUANCON (#3) File type: aquifer map is saved.4. / 1 2 2 65 65 1 1 J+ / 1 2 2 65 65 1 1 K+ / 1 2 2 65 65 1 1 K. File format – . Loadable file formats. K. Export 293 . / 1 3 3 65 65 1 1 J+ / 1 3 3 65 65 1 1 K+ / 1 3 3 65 65 1 1 K.inc. are allowed. K+ face in direction parallel to Z axis.face in direction opposite to Z axis direction (axis Z is directed down). / 6. J+ face in direction parallel to Y axis.face in direction opposite to Y axis direction. Maps. / 1 5 5 65 65 1 1 J+ / 1 5 5 65 65 1 1 K+ / 1 5 5 65 65 1 1 K. / 1 1 1 65 65 1 1 J+ / 1 1 1 65 65 1 1 K+ / 1 1 1 65 65 1 1 K.Map: Cut -. Data description: Data description: According to AQUANCON syntax coordinates of start and end of cube connected to aquifer are written to the file. J.Time step: 0 AQUANCON 1 1 1 65 65 1 1 I. The following faces are possible: I+ face in direction parallel to X axis.

175400 ’103’ 7 4 1 0. Data description: Text file with the following data: well name. Export file formats tNavigator-4. value of parameter in this block.4. Example of this file format ’102’ 1 4 1 0. IJK coordinates of block with connection.2.Time step: 0 AQUANCON 1 1 1 65 65 1 1 J+ * * NO / 1 2 2 65 65 1 1 J+ * * NO / 1 3 3 65 65 1 1 J+ * * NO / 1 4 4 65 65 1 1 J+ * * NO / 1 5 5 65 65 1 1 J+ * * NO / 7.176300 File type: Block center data.2 Example of this file format -.4. Loadable file formats.176300 ’103’ 7 4 2 0.175400 ’102’ 1 4 3 0. Data description: Text file with the following data: well name. 9. Save 3D to Wellpics File type: IJK data.176300 ’103’ 7 4 3 0.175400 ’102’ 1 4 2 0. File format – no format is specified.Map: Cut -. File format – no format is specified.9. value of parameter in this block. XYZ (metres) of centre of block with connection. Export 294 . Maps.

175400 ’102’ 0.xyz format.030000 0. File format – .000000 300. Data description: X coordinate of the block (metres).4. Export 295 .175400 ’103’ 600. Save 2D map in .xyz.5536 +81. Data description: Text file for the program Surfer.0649 +69.176300 8.030000 0.151 +108.544 +120.92 +57.2.2801 +87.4596 +59.000000 300.4933 +58.175400 ’102’ 0.000000 300.511 +117. Export file formats tNavigator-4.000000 0.2 Example of this file format ’102’ 0.5382 +110.000000 300.000000 2719.3193 +67.4258 +60.2017 +94.000000 2724.2647 564. 9.392 +61.xyz File type: XY data.176300 ’103’ 600. Maps.000000 0.8945 +75. Save 2D to .626 +124.9.216 +126.4282 +65.000000 0. Loadable file formats.grd (Surfer) File format – . Save 2D to .000000 2735.000000 300.030000 0.631 +98.4625 +87.000000 300. Example of this file format DSAA 40 65 -50 3950 -50 6450 30.3583 +62.000000 2745. Y coordinate of the block (metres).8773 +79.598 +123.9514 9.176300 ’103’ 600.000000 2729.000000 2740.4. value of the parameter in this block.grd.3242 +73.

989450e+001 10.135830e+001 5.000000e+000 6. Data description: block numbers along X. value of the parameter in this block. Save 2D to . The resulting data array can be transposed (reflected relatively the main diagonal).4.242820e+001 7 1 6.000000e+002 0. ascending or descending order of blocks on the axes. Save 2D map in .000000e+002 0.2 Example of this file format 0.000000e+002 0.942580e+001 3.xyz format. Maps.000000e+002 0.506490e+001 8 1 6. Example of this file format 1 1 5. Y axes.845960e+001 3 1 5. Loadable file formats. Export 296 .039200e+001 5 1 6.4.000000e+002 0.000000e+000 5.506490e+001 File type: IJ data.000000e+002 0. 9.000000e+000 5.749330e+001 2 1 5.000000e+000 0.942580e+001 4 1 6. Data description: To save 2D map in this format one can specify number of values along the axes X and Y.xyz.000000e+000 6. Export file formats tNavigator-4.000000e+000 6.2.cps.cps (CPS-3 ASCII) File format – .135830e+001 6 1 6.9.845960e+001 2.039200e+001 4. File format – .749330e+001 1.000000e+000 5.000000e+000 6.242820e+001 6.

Array file[M] – .2647 564.0630000 271.733930e+003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2. Loadable file formats.9200 FSNROW 195 120 FSXINC 33.8970000 271. Export file formats tNavigator-4.3333 -33.333333 -> generated by tNavigator 259.7910000 271.9130000 271.grd File type: binary file.9130000 271.4.map File type: Map in tNavigator format. Data description: file is loaded the following way: blocks sequentially assigned values from the file.742420e+003 +2.7910000 271.9130000 271. The coordinates of blocks ascending by X.6710000 259.737400e+003 +2.grd. generated via Roxar MORE.7910000 271.2 Example of this file format FSASCI 0 1 COMPUTED 0 1.4.3 Maps.4820000 267. 3. generated via Roxar MORE.6710000 259.4820000 271.9.6340000 271.6710000 267. Import 1.8970000 271.742420e+003 +2. Data description: you will be offered a choice of which cubes of properties available in the file to load.3.4. File format – .4820000 267. GRD file[M] – . 9.ara File type: binary file.0630000 271.3333 6433. tNavigator map – . Maps.Layer 1 -- +2. Y.733930e+003 +2.333333 33.8970000 271.map.6340000 9.748260e+003 +2.3333 3933. Example of this file format --Map: Depth --Time step: 0 Depth -.737400e+003 +2. Z.3333 30. File format – .0630000 271. Import 297 .000000e+030 FSATTR 0 0 FSLIMI -33.

Data description: you will be offered a choice of which cubes of properties available in the file to load and for which time steps. 9.3.4. 4.9. Maps. Restart file – . Data description: you will be offered a choice of which cubes of properties available in the file to load and for which time steps.UNRST File type: binary file. Loadable file formats. File format – . Export file formats tNavigator-4.4.UNRST. generated via Eclipse. Import 298 .2 File format – .ara.

10.01325 bars.00694 for field unit system. Units 299 . depth.0000980665 for metric unit system. Standard conditions pressure and temperature in metric system (METRIC) are: ˆ p = 1.00852702 for metric unit system. radius m m ft cm Time s day day hr Density kg/m3 kg/m3 lbl/ft3 gm/cc Pressure (absolute) Pa Barsa Psia Atma Pressure (difference) Pa Bars Psi Atm Temperature (absolute) K K ◦R K Temperature (difference) ◦C ◦C ◦F ◦C Compressibility 1/Pa 1/Bars 1/Psi 1/Atm Viscosity Pa*s cpoise cpoise cpoise Permeability m2 mDarcy mDarcy mDarcy Liquid surface volume m3 sm3 stb scc Gas surface volume m3 sm3 Mscf scc Reservoir volume m3 rm3 RB rcc Liquid surface volume rate m3 /s sm3 /day stb/day scc/hr Gas surface volume rate m3 /s sm3 /day Mscf/day scc/hr Reservoir volume rate m3 /s rm3 /day RB/day rcc/hr Rate per unit area m3 /s/m2 m3 /day/m2 stb/s/ft2 scc/hr/cm2 Formation volume factor (liq. m3 /m3 rm3 /sm3 RB/stb rcc/scc uid) Formation volume factor (gas) m3 /m3 rm3 /sm3 RB/Mscf rcc/scc Gas-oil ratio m3 /m3 sm3 /sm3 Mscf/stb scc/scc Oil-gas ratio m3 /m3 sm3 /sm3 stb/Mscf scc/scc m3 cp ∗ m3 cp ∗ RB cp ∗ cm3 Transmissibility s ∗ Pa day ∗ Bars day ∗ Psi hr ∗ Atm Unit conversion factor βc depends on the unit system and defined as follows: ˆ βc = 0.2 10 Units A table of units supported: Quantity SI METRIC FIELD LAB Length. Units tNavigator-4.00112712 for field unit system. Gravity conversion factor g depends on the unit system and is equal to: ˆ g = 0. ˆ βc = 0.10. ˆ g = 0.

ˆ MORE data format – systems METR (metric) and POFU (the same to FIELD). If units are not specified explicitly in this User Manual.8). ˆ IMEX.13. Units 300 . STARS data formats – systems SI and FIELD. E300 data format – systems METRIC and FIELD.2 ˆ T = 16◦C In case of compositional run. 10. those conditions can be changed by user. then METRIC system is used by default (In keywords examples METRIC system is used). In the current version the following units systems are supported: ˆ E100. Units tNavigator-4.10. STCOND (see 12.

1.11. In addition: In models in conventional syntax you can use special tNavigator keywords that are not implemented in other simulators. 11. GEM (c) Computer Modelling Group Ltd.2. E100. Input data format 301 . So. STARS. ˆ Tempest MORE. E300 format keywords are red.11). ˆ IMEX.26). ˆ Hybrid format (this is tNavigator format: extension of E100. ˆ Tempest MORE (c) Roxar. tNavigator reads keyword notations of these simulators and converts them into its inner data notations. ˆ IMEX. ˆ tNavigator format (extension of E100. E300 formats that provide more convenient definition of well data) – section 11. Index of Eclipse format keywords – 15. tNavigator supports the following data formats: ˆ E100 (black oil). thermal models). ˆ GEM. E300 formats where the keywords in format E100 (or E300) can be used in combination with Tempest MORE format keywords) – section 11.1. STARS.5. IMEX. Index of CMG format keywords – 16. For example: TEMR (see 13. For example: TABDIMS (see 12. GEM format keywords are pink. ˆ E300 (compositional. Input formats tNavigator-4.1 Input formats For best adaptation of user experience the keyword notations in tNavigator are chosen to be close as much as possible to the most common simulators: ˆ Eclipse (c) Schlumberger.2 11 Input data format 11.3. Keywords description in this User Manual. ˆ STARS.

We recommend to use this format in tNavigator. To use this keyword first define well using the keyword WELSPECS (see 12. After that all conventional keywords in format E100 (E300) can be used to define well data. Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS The keyword can be used in sections GRID and EDIT.11.14. 11.9). Connection factor and effective KH are calculated.18. In the second part of the table the sections are checked. All the sections before SCHEDULE can be described with the keywords in formats E100 (E300) and tNavigator special keywords (index 17). E300.10).3).2. E100. If this keyword COMPDATMD is used tNavigator automatically intersects the well bore with the grid and open connections inside defined values of MDU and MDL. For example: IDATe (see 14. In this table it is checked that the keyword is used in formats tNavigator. Index of MORE format keywords – 18. including different well branches via WELLTRACK (see 12.18.18. In SCHEDULE section well data is defined via special tNavigator keywords to set well trajectory and perforations in measured depth. Then define well trajectory. The keywords that can be used only in tNavigator are blue. In the description of each keyword there is a table where it is checked in which data format can it be used in tNavigator (first part of the table).2 tNavigator format This format is an extension of E100. E300 formats that provide more convenient definition of well data. Index of RFD format keywords – 17. For example. RUNSPEC x GRID x EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE 11.50). tNavigator format 302 . For example: REACCONC (see 12.1.2.2 MORE format keywords are green.5). then define well perforations in measured depth COMPDATMD (see 12. tNavigator format tNavigator-4.

18. hydraulic fracture (WFRACP (see 12. events. This problem can be solved by one of the following methods: Method 1.62)) and other.inc. Set time slider to zero time step in GUI. well trajectories. Attention! In the Case 2. history) are loaded via GUI. that are specified in MORE format.11. 3. For wells. All data will be converted into Eclipse format.18. (All files in USER folder should be deleted too. Following the algorithm. except sched- ule section).124)). It is necessary to specify manually in hybrid model .3. For example. One need to delete original schedule section from . Hybrid format 303 . 2.218). These events are recorded in a new file in USER folder (the events are added via GUI). Well events are created additionally in Eclipse format. message that an event is specifying for nonexistent well will appear if you reload the model. There is a model in Eclipse format.18. Example for Case 1 is shown in the description of the keyword RECU (see 12. If USER folder exists.) 11. tracer injection (WTRACER (see 12.inc). new events in Eclipse format are spec- ified. Tick only Schedule. economical limits (WECON (see 12. In this case the file con- taining events in MORE format is automatically saved in USER folder (file name is MODEL_NAME_more_schedule_0000_User wells data. events. then User_Eclipse_schedule is always read before User_MORE_schedule.data-file. Schedule section is specified in MORE format – the keyword RECU (see 12. File MODEL_NAME_saved_sch.data-file the order of user files. Basic model is specified in Eclipse format (all sections. history are loaded).148)). in the file MODEL_NAME_schedule_0000_User wells events.2 11. because a new including file replaces them all. Basic model is specified in MORE format. 3. Usually such models are the result of the following case: 1. Basic model is specified in Eclipse format.18.3 Hybrid format tNavigator supports hybrid model of input data: 1. Well data (trajectories. Well data in MORE format can be loaded additionally (for example. 2. All data types are combined in this file and saved as Eclipse data format.218). Case 2. Case 1.inc will be saved. Saving schedule section. that is described above. For example. Hybrid format tNavigator-4. then press the button Save model.18.3. and include a saved file instead of deleted section. Case 3. What to do in the Case 2.

inc' / / READ 1 JUL 2000 / STOP Description of actions: 1.3. the following way. The keyword RECU (see 12.txt contains wells data in MORE format and includes as INCLUDE. Schedule section should be manually converted for correct run of simulator. 11. 2. for example: Example RECU RATE 1 MONTH EXACT STAT FIELD GROUP WELL SLIM CRAT FREQ 0 0 1 / INCLUDE 'welldata. Hybrid format 304 . Data confluence will not be happened.2 Example SCHEDULE INCLUDE 'v42_saved_sch. File welldata.inc' / / END Method 2.3.txt' / / USERFILE 'wfracp. MORE and Eclipse keyword can be used simultaneously in the model. Manual editing of schedule section.218) specifies the beginning of data in MORE format in Eclipse model.11. Hybrid format tNavigator-4.18.

000 100 110 2510 2510 100 110 2530 2540 .11..2 Example welltrack '5' 100 110 2500.15 0 / 5 01.15 0 1 / . Then the second reading takes place. 3.219) is used in this case. can only be used inside the including file. .0 0.3.219) will be read.0 2560.data-file.3.inc) but was renamed to well- data.18.2000 PERF 2500. that are specified in the model already.. As a result.15 0 / 5 01. For example. ETAB 3 03.0 2520. The keyword USERFILE (see 12.. It is skipped at first reading.01. Hybrid format 305 .12. Hybrid format tNavigator-4.0 0..0 2500.18.txt and was put nearby to a model .1994 PERF 2525. event in Eclipse format overlays on the MORE format data. Example DATES 11 'FEB' 2000 / / WFRACP '2' 36 4 1 36 4 3 100 0 200 200 0 0 0.12. that follows the given file.02 3* 1 6* 0 / / DATES 01 'MAR' 2000 / / 11. Then all MORE data. It tells that the data in Eclipse format is included. it can be file which was automatically saved in USER folder (MODEL_NAME_more_schedule_0000_User wells data.0 2555. Dates. is read to the end of .0 0. 4.data-file. Events can bind only with dates that were already occured (new dates shouldn’t be specified in including file). Now the data included via USERFILE (see 12.1994 PERF 2510.

Restart for hybrid models 306 . STARS. PERF (see 13.11.2 Split and merge of hybrid models Automatic split and merge can be used for hybrid models the same way as for models of standard types – 5.13)). it can be a file that was automatically saved in USER folder (MODEL_NAME_schedule_0000_User wells events. tNavigator) or can be on the same string with the keyword (formats IMEX.18. 2.4. E300.9.1 Restart for hybrid models The following data must be copied from base model to restart model: ˆ well trajectories (WELLTRACK).4 Keywords’ syntax In this section we describe the general features of keywords reading: 1. For example.3.data-file.2 In the example hydraulic fracture is specified via the keyword WFRACP (see 12. 11. Keywords’ syntax tNavigator-4. All keyword names are case insensitive. ˆ perforation data (ETAB (see 14.5).inc).3. After splitting in model parts there are the following keywords: Example SKIP SKIPOFF RECUMESH SKIPON ENDSKIP You shouldn’t delete these keywords! .inc and was put nearby to a model .patterns . 11.1.14.3.6.124). MORE). but was renamed to wfracp. 11. 3. Values of parameters usually follow on the next string (formats E100. If keyword value is not specified by user tNavigator uses a default value if it is defined or an error message is issued.file (whole model file) can not work correct without them! 11.

This setting is used for compatibility with input language of simulator Eclipse. If less elements than array length are specified than the rest elements are filled by default values if possible. So the wells’ names LONG- WELL1 and LONGWELL2 are both read as LONGWELL. E300 have the first 8 significant characters. Reading the keywords in formats E100. where NUM – is the number of equal values. For example: FLUI and FLUId. Keywords’ syntax tNavigator-4. For default only first 8 symbols in well names are read.1. Sometimes for clarity all characters of the keyword may be written. otherwise an error message is issued.2 4. 6.1. Reading is performed by cutting the first 8 characters. 7. Keywords’ syntax 307 . 5. So any keyword that is longer than 8 characters is a complete analog of its 8 literal version.4. If you need to read full long well names use the setting LONGNAMES 1 of the keyword TNAVCTRL (see 12.4). 9. Reading of keywords after space at the beginning of the line in formats E100. Reading the keywords in format Tempest MORE. ENDACTIO and ENDACTION are equivalent. Reading of well names that are longer then 8 characters in formats E100. E300. To read these keywords use the setting KEYWORDS_SPACE 1 in the keyword TNAVC- TRL (see 12.4). and VAL – the value itself. 11. Data issues are terminated with a symbol slash / (formats E100. tNavigator). 8. Keywords in format MORE have the first 4 significant characters.11. FLUI the keyword with 4 significant characters. Keywords in format E100. E300. This setting is used for compatibility with input language of simulator. For convenience (analogous to MORE) keywords are written in upper case. For equal values the standard form NUM*VAL can be used. For default the keywords that are written after the space symbol in the beginning of the line are ignored. E300. E300.4. For example.

1) ˆ Grid section (12. Keywords compatible with tNavigator and E100. keywords’ syntax and reading of keywords in different formats are in the section – 11.16) 12.2) ˆ Arithmetic section (12.14) ˆ Initialization section (12.15) ˆ Schedule section (12.6) ˆ Compositional properties (12.5) ˆ Relative permeabilities and capillary pressures (12. E300 308 . E300 The general description of data formats that can be used in tNavigator.2 12 Keywords compatible with tNavigator and E100.13) ˆ Thermal properties (12. ˆ E100.12. This description pointed out if there are parameters of the keyword which are ignored by tNavigator or which use is different from Eclipse. Keywords compatible with tNavigator and E100. This section describes all keywords which can be used in tNavigator in the following model formats: ˆ tNavigator. ˆ E300. E300 tNavigator-4. For convenience keyword descriptions are grouped in several sections: ˆ Definition section (12.4) ˆ Property section (12.3) ˆ Region section (12.18) ˆ Inflow from aquifer (12.

12. Definition section 309 .1.1 Definition section Definition section contains initial data necessary for oil-and-gas reservoir model specification.1.12. Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12.

1. 12. RUNSPEC 310 .2 12.12.1.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.1 RUNSPEC Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword specifies the beginning of data section which contains initial data necessary for oil-and-gas reservoir model specification.1.

1. 12.1.12.2. Note that the informa- tion from the second line was ignored. TITLE 311 .2 TITLE Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE Used to specify model title.1. Any alphabet can be used. Example TITLE Model of field with large number of blocks / This example specifies title for model "Model of field with large". Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12. The title should be one line long. Example TITLE Test Example / This example specifies title for model "Test Example".

and to the screen. The following values should be specified: ˆ section. RE- PORTFILE and REPORTSCREEN keywords provide more advanced capabilities for tuning of output to log file.data-file. keywords REPORTFILE and REPORTSCREEN should be specified in the very beginning of *. To provide most correct reporting on read input data.3 REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC x GRID x EDIT x PROPS Section x REGIONS x SOLUTION x SUMMARY x SCHEDULE The keywords are used to specify reporting level for log file and for the screen. characterizing the amount of output to log file (to the screen).3. REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN 312 .1.12.1.2 12. All output to the log-file and to the screen will be performed using unit system that is defined in the model. The following options are possible: 12. the following options are available: <Section> <Description> READ Information on reading input data WRITE Information on writing input data CHECK Information on checking input data INIT Information on initialization of simulation process ITERS Information on iteration process FIP Information on FIP SOLVE Information on solving GUI Information on user interface RSV Information on reservoir GROUP Information on well groups WELL Information on wells CONN Information on connections GRID Information on grid PRINT_LOGS All log messages and tables ALL All sections listed above ˆ priority.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.

tables) only about reservoir.3. finally. 12. since all messages for this section are warning and error messages. low priority means that all infor- mation on reservoir. groups. If a section is not present in the table. high priority means information on reservoir and groups. The list should be terminated by a slash /. this means that priorities choice will not reflect on output to *. REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN 313 . for section PRINT_LOGS highest priority means information (i.2 <Priority> <Description> WARNING Report only warnings and errors HIGHEST Report information with highest priority and above HIGH Report information with high priority and above MEDIUM Report information with medium priority and above LOW Report all information For example. Definition section tNavigator-4. and. you will get all messages indicated for this section and this priority and messages to the right. For other sections similar information priority system is used.1.1. One or more pairs <section> <priority> should be specified after keyword REPORTFILE (or REPORTSCREEN). medium priority also includes well information. Having set a priority for a section.e.log file and to the screen. wells and connections will be written to log file (displayed on the screen). The effect of REPORTFILE and REPORTSCREEN keywords is illustrated in the following table.12.

messages tive due to mini- • Total memory allo. cated teria. for DIMENS.err. Definition section DIMS keywords the values are listed CHECK • Messages on block • Number of connec. *.• List of included • Error and warning TRL parameters read word successfully *. *.2 314 . MINPV (see *. TAB- 12. REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN for deactivation are of blocks switched listed to inactive for each constraint type INIT • Total number of ac.data.30) *. 12.log files to be continued on the next page tNavigator-4. • Error and warning tive blocks switched to inac.inc-files and messages read: its name and their names number of lines (values) read.1.• 1 line for each key. Priority LOW MEDIUM HIGH HIGHEST WARNING READ • Values of RUNC.res. mal pore volume cri. for ex- block and reason ample.• Error and warning deactivation: each tions in the model messages.1.• Number of blocks.2.3.for. total number 12.• Names of *.

and iterations (Total physical solution elapsed . Definition section ds (or dn). on time step comple- responding informa. FOR DAY .. tion and summary – tion: restart moment. rates. average region with the same reservoir pressure. (SIMULATION number of iterations. • After simulation gence problems that is finished – total cause restart – too elapsed time.1. STARTED FROM variable change – dp. step length. dv • After each report • In case of time time step – message step restart – cor. num- slow convergence or ber of time steps convergence to non. DATE.. data pore volume tNavigator-4...) FIP • Summary tables are • Summary tables for • Error and warning enlarged with one all FIP regions – messages column for each FIP reserves. average pres- old and new time sure (REPORT N step lengths . continued from previous page Priority LOW MEDIUM HIGH HIGHEST WARNING ITERS • Information on each • Restart time • Message on sim. REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN DONE) • Messages on New- ton process conver..• Error and warning simulator time step ulation start date messages – time..2 to be continued on the next page 315 . IS 12.1.) 12.3.

messages nections tNavigator-4. pa- rameters change 12. limit on rate or wa- lems with well cal.• Error and warning group controls pensation switch off.1.3. tercut culation CONN • Messages on cross. Definition section RSV • Information on mate. REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN if total injection for group is too small WELL • Messages on well • Information on well • Error and warning switch / perforation clo.2 to be continued on the next page 316 . messages 12. continued from previous page Priority LOW MEDIUM HIGH HIGHEST WARNING SOLVE • Information on each • Error and warning Newton iteration – messages number. messages sure due to economic • Messages on prob. residual. • Error and warning rial balance error messages GROUP • Information on • Message on com. • Error and warning flow through con.1.

2 317 . continued from previous page Priority LOW MEDIUM HIGH HIGHEST WARNING GRID • Messages on grid • Error and warning messages PRINT_ LOGS • Injection/production • Injection/production • Injection/production • Summary injec.1. REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN tNavigator-4. Definition section tables for each tables for each well tables for each group tion/production messages connection tables for reservoir • All data on new well perforations 12.3.• Error and warning 12.1.

REPORTFILE / REPORTSCREEN 318 . summaries only for reporting time steps will be accompanied by information on well control changes.1. Definition section tNavigator-4. relative pres- sure and saturation variation after this time step and relative material balance error for this time step will be written to the screen.3.1. 12.2 Default: REPORTFILE ALL HIGH / REPORTSCREEN ALL HIGH PRINT_LOGS WARNING FIP WARNING / Example REPORTFILE READ LOW PRINT_LOGS MEDIUM / REPORTSCREEN PRINT_LOGS MEDIUM / This example defines that all names and number of read variables will be written to log file. groups and wells will be written both to the screen and to the log file. In the log file there will be no information on calculation time steps. and all tables concerning production from reservoir. Example REPORTFILE ITERS HIGH WELL LOW / REPORTSCREEN WELL LOW ITERS MEDIUM / This example defines that information on each calculation time step length.12. The information on well control change will also be written to the screen.

12. The following options can be used: 1. Option DPGRID_PRE2014 with the same functionality is obsolete. desorp- tion is starting. Definition section tNavigator-4. at each time step the value in the block is plus one if there are convergence problems in this block. because of decreasing of foam/tracer concentration in solution due to decay process. Calculated Maps. Desorption is performed until equilibration is achieved. adsorbed foam/tracer doesn’t participate in decay process.2. This option is used in E300 dual porosity models.4. ˆ 2 – foam/tracer decays instantaneously at the end of timestep. the residual value is greated than the specified value A% from the maximum residual value. This map has interger values in blocks. So. DECAY_MODEL: ˆ 1 – foam/tracer decays instantaneously at the end of timestep.12.4 TNAVCTRL Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used to set settings of model reading and calculation in tNavigator. CONVERGENCE_PROBLEM_NUM – this option allows to request the map of blocks with convergence problems. which was used in ECLIPSE simulator before 2012. After the option a number A% (from 0 to 100) should be specified – value in percents. So.2 12. ˆ ECL_PRE2012 – additionally to the functionality descripted above this option turns on logic of using MULTREGP (see 12. It has the following parameters: ˆ ECL_PRE2014 – if this parameter > 0.1.1. at the end of timestep there is no equili- bration between foam/tracer concentration in solution and in rock. and desorbed foam/tracer takes part in decay process. then.15). TNAVCTRL 319 . The map Number of Convergence problems will be available in user graphical interface in the option Maps. COMPATIBILITY – this option is used to match initialization/computation logic of a model with one of other simulators’ different versions.e. at the end of timestep there is the equilibration state between foam/tracer concentration in solution and in rock. 2.3. i.25) values from matrix to fracture blocks will be turned off.1. 3. The data should be terminated with a slash /. then copying of NTG (see 12.

8). Possible values: ˆ YES– the volumetric water rates for both injectors and producers are calculated at reference salt concentration for stock tank water. option is not used if 0 is specified (or NO). This concentration is set in PVTWSALT (see 12. LONGNAMES – if this setting is set to 1 then tNavigator will read well names that are longer than 8 symbols.1.4. 7.e. i. This option can decrease material balance error in some cases. STOCK_TANK_WATER_CREF. As a conclu- sion. so all the keywords after it will be read the right way.18. pressure should not increase). KEYWORDS_SPACE – if this setting is set to 1 the keywords that are written after the space symbol at the beginning of the line are read. For default without this setting there is a cut for names that are longer that 8 symbols. and initial quess to the solution. and the following mes- sage will be visualized: Warning: keyword ’XXXXX’ was skipped. TNAVCTRL 320 . 6. Definition section tNavigator-4. 8. If this option is used we recommend to set the keyword TNAVCTRL at the be- ginning of the section. 9. INCREASENETWORKP – option is enabled if the value 1 is specified – it allows pressure to increase going up the network.1. 12. This option can be used only with option ZT of the keyword TFORM (see 12. So the wells’ names LONGWELL1 and LONGWELL2 are both read as LONGWELL. SCALE_MATRIX – option is enabled if the value 1 is specified (or YES). This option provides the more accurate solution of the system of linear equations. and for producers rates are calculated for average salt concentration in the wellbore (so. right hand side. When this option is applied at the stage of solving the system of linear equations the following parameters are modified: matrix. it’s the concentration of salt for water produced from reservoir). For default this option is not used.14). grid cell temperatures will not change from their specified initial values.152). these keywords are ignored.2 4. Use TNAVCTRL KEYWORDS_SPACE 1 in RUNSPEC to prevent skipping keyword or remove spaces to use keyword without warning. due to the convergence of all the components of the solution vector to the exact value (not just the components with highest magnitude). ˆ NO – the volumetric rates of injectors are calculated from reference salt concen- tration from WSALT (see 12. it may be a situation when pressure on the underlying network node is below than on the overlaying network node (default: 0.7. produced by Newton method. ISOTHERMAL – energy conservation equation is not imposed in model.12. second parameter of the first keyword data line. So this option can possibly slow down the solving of the system of linear equation. space found at the first position of cur- rent line.1. 5.

One of the following values can be specified: ˆ 0 – correction is not used. ˆ 2 – values of SWCR in blocks in which they weren’t specified will be calculated via specified formula.4. TNAVCTRL 321 . for models run as E100: NO. Example TNAVCTRL DPGRID_PRE2014 1 / In the example copying of NTG (see 12.1. SWL. option is not used. pressure should not increase. ˆ LONGNAMES – 0. Definition section tNavigator-4. then SWCR values in these blocks will be recalculated via specified formula. ˆ 3 – SWCR values in all blocks will be recalculated via specified formula. ˆ KEYWORDS_SPACE – 0. ˆ INCREASENETWORKP – 0.2 10. New values are calculated by the following formula: (SWCR_value − SW L_value) · (SWU_value_s − SW L_value_s) SWCR = SW L_value_s+ (SWU_value − SW L_value) Where the value without s (_value) is a table value. Example TNAVCTRL CONVERGENCE_PROBLEM_NUM 90 / / 12. Only first 8 symbols in well names are read (this setting is used for default to compatibility with input language of simulator Eclipse). Default: ˆ DECAY_MODEL: 1.2.12. The keywords that are written after the space symbol at the beginning of the line line are ignored (this setting is used for default to compatibility with input language of simulator Eclipse). SWCR_CORR – used to correct SWCR values in grid blocks using SWU. and a value with s (_value_s) – scaled value (from the corresponding array).1. ˆ SCALE_MATRIX – 0. ˆ 1 – if table value of SWCR is not greater than SWL value in some blocks.25) values from matrix to fracture blocks is turned off. ˆ STOCK_TANK_WATER_CREF – for models run as E300: YES.

e.1. if there are convergence problems in this block.1.4. At each time step the value in the grid block is plus one. the residual value is greated than the specified value 90% from the maximum residual value.2 In this example the map of blocks with convergence problems is requested with the residual value 90%. TNAVCTRL 322 . Definition section tNavigator-4. 12. i.12.

5. if this criterion is satisfied a fully implicit scheme is used in filtration equation in a cell (dimensionless). Fully implicit scheme is used for blocks with open connections. ˆ Neighbors – 1. 5. Definition section tNavigator-4. above which a fully implicit scheme is used in filtration equation in a cell (METRIC: Bar/day. ˆ Ñritical point tolerance – 0. The data should be terminated with a slash /.125.05. above which a fully implicit scheme is used in filtration equation in a cell (dimensionless). Neighbors – radius (in grid blocks). max_dP_dt – maximum capillary pressure derivative.119). AIMCTRL 323 . The following parameters should be specified: 1. 12.1. ˆ Saturation change target – 0.18. This parameter can be specified only for compositional models. 2. Default: ˆ Throughput target – 0. FIELD: Psi/day). 4.2 12. above which a fully implicit scheme is used in filtration equation in a cell (dimensionless). Saturation change target – maximal phase saturation variation in a grid block at one time step.12.05.1. 3. ˆ max_dP_dt – 0.1. To use AIM in black-oil one need to set AIM parameter of the keyword RUNCTRL (see 12. around the blocks with open connections. AIM is used by default for compositional models. In black-oil models fully implicit is used by default. inside this area for all blocks a fully implicit scheme will be used in filtration equation (dimensionless).01. Critical point tolerance – criterion if a grid block state is close to critical point.5 AIMCTRL Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword sets settings of adaptive implicit method (AIM). Throughput target – fractional throughput target threshold of the grid block.

2 12. ˆ PH_STBLTY_QNSS_PREC: 1E-6. QNSS) and 0 (Newton method). PH_STBLTY_QNSS_TRIV_TOL n – tolerance used to find trivial solution of test stability system by QNSS method. 12. Default: ˆ FL_TOL: 1E-6.12.1.6. 2. Allowable values are 1 and 0. PH_STBLTY_QNSS n – system of algebraic equations solution method in stability test. The following options and their parameters can be specified: 1. 5.1. Definition section tNavigator-4. FL_V_PREC n – tolerance of material balance equation solution. Allowable values are 1 (quasi-Newton successive substitution method. 6. FLASHCTRL 324 . SHADOWREGION n – flash boost option. ˆ PH_STBLTY_QNSS: 1. FL_TOL n – flash solution tolerance. and flash solving algorithm didn’t converge.1. PSCALESHADOW n – parameter of SHADOWREGION option which defines how much pressure of one-phase hydrocarbon can change to stay it one-phase. ZSCALESHADOW n – parameter of SHADOWREGION option which defines how much component parameter of one-phase hydrocarbon can change to stay it one-phase. 4. then without running stability test it is decided that hydrocarbon is in one-phase state (OIL or GAS). 7. If certain criteria are satisfied. The data should be terminated with a slash /. Allowable values are 1 and 0. 9. 3. PH_STBLTY_QNSS_PREC n – QNSS tolerance in stability test. ˆ FL_V_PREC: 1E-6. 8. ADD_PF_FL_CALC n – option runs ”path finder” algorithm in case if stability test found out unstability of one-phase states.6 FLASHCTRL Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY x SCHEDULE The keyword allows to change convergency preferences for compositional flash.

Example FLASHCTRL SHADOWREGION 0 / 12.05. ˆ SHADOWREGION: 1. ˆ PSCALESHADOW: 0. ˆ ADD_PF_FL_CALC: 1. FLASHCTRL 325 . Definition section tNavigator-4. ˆ ZSCALESHADOW: 0.12.1.1.6.1.2 ˆ PH_STBLTY_QNSS_TRIV_TOL: 1E-4.

1.gas velocity in the flow direction.relative permeability which is modified by capillary number of i-th phase in flow direction at previous time step. There are two model of capillary number: ˆ Model 1 It is calculated by the following formula: vg µg Ncp = σ where: – µg . For each phase p Forchheimer models are: ˆ Model 1 It is calculated via the following formula: ap βp = c p φ b p S p (Kkrvp )d p 12.2 12. Definition section tNavigator-4.gas-oil surface tension. – σ .12.length of block along flow direction.1. – L .absolute permeability. – vg .7 VELDEP Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets parameters of velocity dependent relative permeabilities. – ∆Pi . VELDEP 326 .pressure drop of i-th phase.7. – krvi .1. ˆ Model 2 It is calculated by the following formula: Kkrvi ∆Pi Ncp = σL where: – K .gas viscosity.

Capillary numbers are set by the keywords VDKRO (see 12. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. By default: ˆ 0 for all parameters (i. or gas and oil.): 1. but they can be changed using the keyword VDKRGC (see 12.1. Forchheimer number model which will be active for the oil phase (1 or 2).e. VELDEP 327 .13. 3. 5. number which sets whether an alternative model for Capillary Number effects in near wellbore flows in gas condensate reservoirs is active for the gas.7.13. phases (number 1 – model is active for gas phase.49) correspondingly. capillary number model which will be active for the gas phase (1 or 2). IGNORED. 2 – for oil and gas phases). 4.2 ˆ Model 2 It is calculated via the following formula: c β p = βd p S pp (Kkrvp )d p .50). 12.13.12. capillary number model which will be active for the oil phase (1 or 2).51) and VDKRG (see 12. When using this alternative model. where S p is normalized saturation of p-th phase: (3P) Sp Sp = 1 − Sw The following parameters should be specified (The data should be terminated with a slash /. parameter 2 must be set to 0. Definition section tNavigator-4. models are inactive). Example VELDEP 1 1 1 0 0 / In the example first models of capillary numbers are set. 2. Forchheimer number model which will be active for the gas phase (1 or 2). Parameters of alternative model (5-th parameter of the keyword) have default values.1.

8 TFORM Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX x STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets primary variable in thermal equation.12. ˆ MIX – each block can has its own primary variable. 12. One of the following parameters should be specified: ˆ ZH – primary variable is system fluid enthalpy. TFORM 328 . ˆ ZT – primary variable is temperature.8.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12. This option is compatible only with tNavigator and can be used in STARS and E300 format models (variables are chosen automatically by tNavigator).1.1.

volume coefficients and relative permeabilities. ˆ BASIC=n. – n = 6. The following mnemonics are used in SCHEDULE section: ˆ ALLPROPS – saving data includes values of density.9.2 12. – n = 2. RPTRST 329 . – n = 3. then old ones are using for output. If the keyword is specified in SOLUTION section. The list should end by (/). The value of parameter k is specifying by parameter FREQ.1. Possible cases: – n = 1. These mnemonics corresponds to saving parameters. Then data will be saved to binaries at every time step. If value 2 is set for this mnemonic. then data will be saved to binaries at every k -th month.1.1. Then data will be saved to binaries at every k -th report step. If the value of parameter FREQ is k . Then data will be saved to binaries at first report step of every year. ˆ BOIL – output of oil reservoir molar densities. – n = 4. ˆ BO – oil formation volume factor. Then data will be saved to binaries at every report step. while this param- eter is not changed. ˆ BGAS – output of gas reservoir molar densities. Then data will be saved to binaries at every report step. If the value of parameter FREQ is k . viscosity.12. Definition section tNavigator-4. ˆ BG – gas formation volume factor. Then data will be saved to binaries at first report step of every month. ˆ BSOL – output of solid reservoir molar densities (SoLID option). then initial maps and graphs will be saved. then data will be saved to binaries at every k -th year. – n = 5. Then the list of mnemonics follows. 12. and if the one is specified in SCHEDULE section.9 RPTRST Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS x SOLUTION SUMMARY x SCHEDULE This keyword allows to save additional calculated data to results file and specify the options of its saving in E100 format. then calculated maps and graphs will be saved.

ˆ BWAT – output of water reservoir molar densities.12. ˆ HWAT – output water enthalpy values (for models in E300 format Thermal). ˆ PORV – output of reservoir pore volumes at reference conditions. ˆ PRES – for models in E100 format output of water and gas phase pressures. In models of E100 format this is the product of pore volume at reservoir conditions with saturation. ˆ KRG – output of gas relative permeabilities: outputs the array GASKR (E100 models) or KRG (E300 models). ˆ DENO – output of oil mass densities at reservoir conditions.2 ˆ BW – water formation volume factor. Definition section tNavigator-4. Since FIP is simulator-specific it is recommended that the user uses RFIP or SFIP. ˆ KRW – output of water relative permeabilities: outputs the array WATKR (E100 models) or KRW (E300 models).9. ˆ KRO – output of oil relative permeabilities: outputs the array OILKR (E100 models) or KRO (E300 models). ˆ PCOW – output of oil-water capillary pressures. ˆ HSOL – output solid enthalpy values (for models in E300 format Thermal and SoLID option). ˆ RFIP – output of fluids-in-place at reservoir conditions. if the value of BASIC greater than 2. 12. and at reservoir conditions for E300 format. ˆ FREQ specify frequency of data saving to binaries. In models of E300 format.). ˆ DENW – output of water mass densities at reservoir conditions. ˆ ENERGY – Internal energy / bulk volume (THERMAL option). ˆ PRESSURE – output of grid block pressures (equivalent to PRES). ˆ FLOWS – output of interblock flows (Includes non-neighbor connection flows and flows between global and local grids. a basic restart file includes global fluids-in-place only: this mnemonic also outputs local fluids-in-place. this is a synonym for FIP.1. for models in E300 format output of grid block pressures.1. ˆ DEN – output of phase reservoir densities. ˆ FIP – output of fluids-in-place at separator conditions for models in E100 format. RPTRST 330 . For E100 models.

ˆ VGAS – output of gas viscosities. ˆ SSOLID – output of grid block solid saturations.1. ˆ VWAT – output of water viscosities.9. 12. ˆ TEMP – output of reservoir temperatures (THERMAL option). ˆ SGAS – output of grid block gas saturations. ˆ RV – output vaporized OGR (RV) (In compositional runs this is interpreted as the OGR at surface conditions of what was the vapor phase in the reservoir).1. ˆ SFIP – output of fluids-in-place at surface/separator conditions.12. Definition section tNavigator-4. ˆ VISC – output of fluid viscosities. ˆ SFIPWAT – output of separator volumes for water FIP data (single component water only at present).2 ˆ RS – output dissolved GOR (RS) (In compositional runs this is interpreted as the GOR at surface conditions of the liquid phase in the reservoir). ˆ SOIL – output of grid block oil saturations. Example RPTRST 'BASIC=3' ' FREQ=2'/ In the example the rule of saving calculation results to binaries is set: data will be saved at every second report step. ˆ VOIL – output of oil viscosities. ˆ SWAT – output of grid block water saturations. RPTRST 331 .

2 12. Definition section tNavigator-4.1.1.1.10. 12. OUTSOL 332 .1.10 OUTSOL Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS x SOLUTION SUMMARY x SCHEDULE The keyword is identical with the keyword RPTRST (see 12.9).12.

UNIFOUT 333 .2 12.11 UNIFOUT Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used for saving calculation results as Eclipse binary files. You need to use the keyword MULTOUT (see 12. Definition section tNavigator-4.1.1.1.1.12. It sets mode of output of RESTART and SUMMARY files. If the keyword is specified.1.11. then output of every reporting step is saving into unified file of corresponding type. By default: ˆ MULTOUT (see 12.12). Example UNIFOUT 12.12) to create one output file for one reporting step (multiple-files).

Definition section tNavigator-4. then output of every reporting step is saving into one file. This keyword is used by default. It sets mode of output of RESTART and SUMMARY files.12 MULTOUT Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used for saving calculation results as Eclipse binary files. If the keyword is specified.1.1.2 12. Example MULTOUT 12.12.1. You need to use the keyword UNIFOUT (see 12. MULTOUT 334 . which corresponds to this step (multiple-files).11) to create one unified file for all reporting steps.1.12.

The date should be terminated with a slash /.1. SEP. DEC. APR. NOV. The date should be written in format: DD MONTH YYYY. MAR.1.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.105) must be later than the start date. FEB.12. OCT.13. which is acceptable alternative to JUL.13 START Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets the start simulation date.18. JUN.2 12. Any report dates in the keyword DATES (see 12. JUL. AUG. Example START 01 JUL 1984 / 12. MONTH can take the follow- ing values: JAN. START 335 . MAY. or JLY.

Included file modelSmall_FORECAST_sch.inc can be like this (keyword DATES goes after WCONPROD. base model should be calculated in tNavigator. Restart is available for the model calculated in tNavigator. Note.1. The following data should be specified (The data should be terminated with a slash /.14 RESTART Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS x SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword is used for calculation restart basing on already calculated model from N-th time step.inc'/ END In this example results data are loaded for the model modelSmall.12. RESTART 336 . Example 1.data-file of restart model. Schedule section SCHED- ULE. file extension need not be specified. see RESTARTDATE (see 12.15).1.14. and computation starts from 139-th time step (first step to be calculated will be step 140). ˆ time step number from which computation should restart.e. file modelSmall_FORECAST_sch. Restart from calculation results of another simulator is not available. WCONINJE): 12. Definition section tNavigator-4.): ˆ model name with saved calculation results data.inc is included.1. Restart data is read from saved results files of the corresponding model.2 12. I.1. Whole . It is also possible to restart computation process from the date specified. Style of forecast model created by tNavigator Example RESTART 'modelSmall' 139 / SCHEDULE INCLUDE 'modelSmall_FORECAST_sch.

2 Example WCONPROD W1085 OPEN BHP 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* +1.1.data-file of restart model (style of E100.84194000e+001 1* +3. E300 models) 12.32256675e+002 / W244 OPEN BHP 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* +1.1. Definition section tNavigator-4. RESTART 337 .23806000e+002 1* +4.12.35565959e+002 / / DATES 01 OCT 2004 / / DATES 01 NOV 2004 / / DATES 01 DEC 2004 / / Example 2.63650355e+002 / W1072 WATER OPEN BHP +1.14. Part of the .18884682e+002 / / WCONINJE W1054 WATER OPEN BHP +8.

.inc'/ END In this example sections are going in their usual order ..inc'/ RESTART 'modelSmall' 139 / SUMMARY ALL SCHEDULE INCLUDE 'modelSmall_FORECAST_sch. Definition section tNavigator-4. SCHEDULE.2 Example ..1.inc'/ SOLUTION INCLUDE 'init. RESTART 338 .inc'/ REGIONS INCLUDE 'regs. PROPS.inc'/ INCLUDE 'rp. SOLU- TION..1.14. Next there are sections SUMMARY.. 12.12. PROPS STONE1 INCLUDE 'pvt. REGIONS. In SOLUTION section restart of the model modelSmall is from time step 139.

15.1. Schedule section SCHEDULE. date from which computation should restart. file extension need not be specified.14). and computa- tion starts from the 1-st September of 2004. I.1. see RESTART (see 12.inc is included. RESTARTDATE 339 .2 12. Restart from calculation results of another simulator is not available.1. if start of model time step does not coincide with this date.): 1. field is ignored. file modelS- mall_FORECAST_sch. It is also possible to restart calculation from specified time step.inc can be like this (keyword DATES goes after WCONPROD.1. The following data should be specified (The data should be terminated with a slash /. Included file modelSmall_FORECAST_sch.e. WCONINJE): 12. * symbol. 2. then computation starts from the nearest date before specified one.12. Definition section tNavigator-4. Example RESTARTDATE 'modelSmall' 1* 01 SEP 2004 / SCHEDULE INCLUDE 'modelSmall_FORECAST_sch. Note. 3.15 RESTARTDATE Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS This keyword is used for calculation restart basing on already calculated model from the date specified. Restart is available for the model calculated in tNavigator.inc'/ END In this example results data are loaded for the model modelSmall. model name with saved calculation results data. Restart data is read from saved results files of the corresponding model. base model should be calculated in tNavigator.

23806000e+002 1* +4.63650355e+002 / W1072 WATER OPEN BHP +1.2 Example WCONPROD W1085 OPEN BHP 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* +1.18884682e+002 / / WCONINJE W1054 WATER OPEN BHP +8.15.12.32256675e+002 / W244 OPEN BHP 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* +1.1. RESTARTDATE 340 . Definition section tNavigator-4.84194000e+001 1* +3.35565959e+002 / / DATES 01 OCT 2004 / / DATES 01 NOV 2004 / / DATES 01 DEC 2004 / / 12.1.

2 12.16 METRIC Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keywords defines that METRIC system is used in the model. METRIC 341 .1.12.1.16. Definition section tNavigator-4.1. 12.

12. Definition section tNavigator-4.17.17 FIELD Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keywords defines that FIELD system is used in the model. 12.1. FIELD 342 .1.1.2 12.

18 LAB Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keywords defines that LAB system is used in the model. LAB 343 .18. Definition section tNavigator-4. 12.1.1.2 12.1.12.

Example LANGUAGE RUS. ˆ RUS.1.19 LANGUAGE Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword is used for language and encoding used for input and output data. 12. ˆ RUS.Russian in KOI8 (UNIX) encoding.1. The language and encoding specified are used: ˆ for input data.ALT . ˆ for generated by simulator files with reports.Russian in cp866 (DOS) encoding.1. ˆ RUS.WIN . Definition section tNavigator-4. ˆ for all messages output on terminal.English. The following combination of language and encodings are supported: ˆ ENGLISH .KOI .Russian in cp1251 (windows) encoding.19.ALT In this example simulator will use Russian in DOS encoding. LANGUAGE 344 .12. Default: ENGLISH.2 12.

1.13.2 12.12.20.1. BLACKOIL 345 . Definition section tNavigator-4.20 BLACKOIL Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword defines that black oil model is used. Example BLACKOIL 12.3). Compositional run is defined via the keyword COMPS (see 12.1.

for example 1. For each variable the following parameters should be specified: 1. 3.21 DEFINES Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC x GRID x EDIT x PROPS Section x REGIONS SOLUTION x SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword is used to specify variables to tNavigator Assisted History Matching and Uncertainty Analysis Module for models in formats E100 and E300 (for MORE format mod- els one should use the keyword VDEF (see 12. which syntax is analogous to DEFINES (see 12. The data for each variable should be terminated with a slash /. 3.1.22). First variables are defined in DEFINES.44. Minimum and maximum values can’t depend on other variables. type. 2. All data should be termi- nated with a final slash /.. How to use variables. . DEFINES 346 . 12. If the Type is INT then min and max must also be integer numbers! Default: ˆ type – FLOAT.21)). variable default value.1..1. Note: spaces or any other symbols can’t be used between variable name and @.789999).21.2 12. Definition section tNavigator-4. In history matching process the variable will be replaced by a number (from the range. variable name (name should contain letters.) or FLOAT (float number.1. 3. minimum value (parameter value will vary between minimum and maximum according to the distribution specified by the user in graphical interface later (normal or uniform). then they can be used in any part of model text files (also in arithmetic expressions) via the syntax @variable name@.1. Type can be INT (the variable can be only integer number. numbers and _ symbols. Minimum and maximum values can’t depend on other variables.12. variable name can not start with number or _ symbol). spec- ified in DEFINES via min-max). 2. 4. maximum value (parameter value will vary between minimum and maximum according to the distribution specified by the user in graphical interface later (normal or uniform). 5. If the Type is not specified it is considered by default as FLOAT. History matching can go for any variables. for example 2.

.1. 12. type are not specified). Opening of a model with the keyword DEFINES in tNavigator. minimal value is 0. tNavigator opens and calculates the model with the keyword DEFINES. Its default value is 0. as a normal model. Example DEFINES 'SWL' 0.3. We should set only value for dependent variable as a formula with other variables (minimum. Example 1.1 0.27) the value of this variable in all grid blocks. DEFINES 347 .4/ / . maximum. maximal value is 0. Dependent variable – if the value of this variable is calculated from the values of other vari- ables. History matching can be performed only for independent variables.22) is used to assign to an array SWL (see 12.6.21. Dependent variable can be used to simplify work with expressions @variable_name@ in model files. Define a simple variable. Define the dependent variable. all the variables are assigned values that are set for them by default. One variable depends on the other.1.. Definition section tNavigator-4. The the keyword EQUALS (see 12.2.2 0. In this case.1. without starting a history matching module. Don’t define in each grid block its own variable. In all places in the model files where the syntax @variable name@ is used the default variable values are substituted.4.2 Variables can’t be used in the maps with dimensions NXxNYxNZ. EQUALS SWL @SWL@/ / In this example the variable is minimum water saturation SWL. Example 2.12.

e. Example 3. sin. DEFINES 348 . min. Arithmetics. exp.9@/ / 12. ˆ arithmetic operations: +.1@ / – dependent / .. ∗. Example EQUALS KRW @KRW@/ KRWR @KRW*0. that is calculated from SWL.2 Example DEFINES 'SWL' 0.1. if (see description in the keyword ARITHMETIC (see 12. log10. rand.21. Definition section tNavigator-4.. arand. cos. rnd. ˆ numbers. avg. ˆ functions: round..4/ – independent 'SWCR' @SWL+0..@.12.1 0. Arithmetic expressions can contain: ˆ variable names. abs. Use formula inside @. ^.. sqrt. EQUALS SWL @SWL@/ SWCR @SWCR@/ / In this example independent variable SWL is introduced (minimal water saturation) and a dependent variable SWCR (critical water saturation). ˆ constants: pi. sum. log.1. /.. Example EQUALS SWCR @SWL+0.@.2 0. tan.3. ˆ brackets.2)).1@/ / Example 4. max. Use formula inside @. −.

. Example DEFINES 'per1' 6 5 8 / 'per2' 6 5 8 / / . ARITHMETIC PERMX = @per1@ * exp(PORO * @per2@) / The variables per1. MULTIPLY 'PERMX' @PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_1@ 1 19 1 28 1 1 / 'PERMX' @PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_2@ 1 19 1 28 2 2 / 'PERMX' @PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_3@ 1 19 1 28 3 3 / 'PERMX' @PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_4@ 1 19 1 28 4 4 / 'PERMX' @PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_5@ 1 19 1 28 5 5 / / COPY 'PERMX' ' PERMY'/ / In this example multipliers for PERMX (permeability in X-direction) are specified for layers (1. min and max values). Use permeability multipliers for layers.12.1. 12. 5). The coefficients per1 and per2 will be chosen in assisted history matching process. Definition section tNavigator-4. 2.2 Example 5. Permeability in X-direction (PERMX) depends on porosity (PORO)..1 3 FLOAT/ / . Example DEFINES 'PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_1' 1 0. Let’s set the permeability dependence on porosity.. DEFINES 349 .1 2 FLOAT/ 'PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_4' 1 0. Use complex formulas. 3. 4.1 3 FLOAT/ 'PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_5' 1 0.1.21. per2 are defined (their default. Example 6..1 3 FLOAT/ 'PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_2' 2 1 5 INT/ 'PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_3' 1 0.

8 4/ 'NO2' 3 0.6.2 / 'SWCR1' 0.3 1/ 'KRW1' 0.21.4)) and LET (LETWO (see 12.6 0. This functionality is very convenient for AHM because you don’t need to edit manually all RP table if you change one point (tables for example SWOF (see 12.8 4/ 'NW1' 3 0.1.5 (integer).2 1/ 'KRW2' 0. Other variables are float numbers – FLOAT.05 0.3 1/ 'KRO2' 1 0.05 0.4 / 'SOWCR1' 0. If has initial value . COREYGO (see 12.4 / / .1 and maximum .1.3).6.3 0. Then the values of PERMX are copied to PERMY. Define RP end-points as variables.1).2 0. In the EDIT section PERMX is multiplied by factors (PERMX in the 1-st layer (Z-axis) is multiplied by the value of the variable PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_1.6.6 0. SGOF (see 12.2.1 0. Analogously for other layers). Example 7.2 0.6. In tNavigator RP can be set via Corey correlation (COREYWO (see 12.6.4 / 'SWCR2' 0. At the end of the row INT type is specified.3 0.2 / 'SWL2' 0.1 0.9)). Example DEFINES 'NO1' 3 0.8).2 0.4 / 'SOWCR2' 0.6. minimum value .8 4/ 'KRO1' 1 0.12. Then in PROPS section these variables are used as parameters of the keyword COREYWO 12.8 4/ 'NW2' 3 0.2 0.05 0.2 1/ 'SWL1' 0..2 Integer variable PERMH_MULT_LAYERS_2 is specified.. PROPS COREYWO @SWL1@ 1 @SWCR1@ @SOWCR1@ 1 @KRO1@ @KRW1@ 1 1 @NO1@ @NW1@ 4 / @SWL2@ 1 @SWCR2@ @SOWCR2@ 1 @KRO2@ @KRW2@ 1 1 @NO2@ @NW2@ 4 / / In this example relative permeability points are taken as variables for 2 saturation regions.2)). Definition section tNavigator-4. LETGO (see 12. DEFINES 350 .05 0. You can set only end- points and RP curves are constructed automatically by tNavigator Corey (LET) correlation.

These keywords are not intended for self-use in models. 12.24).inc ' / In this example we define integer variable PORONUM (type . Example DEFINES 'PORONUM' 2 1 20 INT/ / . If you have files with different geological realizations of the model (different grid.3). INCLUDE 'MODEL_PORO_@PORONUM@. It is used in the file name that is included and contains model porosity realization.23). Different geological realizations.1. porosity etc.12. OPEN_BASE_MODEL (see 12.INT).) it is possible to define integer variable to switch between file names. If you use Assisted History Matching and Uncertainty Analysis module tNavigator generates automatically the keywords PREDEFINES (see 12.. DEFINES 351 .2 (see 12.1..6. Example 8.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.1.21.

The syntax of this keyword is analogous to DEFINES (see 12.1.1.1.1.21).2 12.1.12. Definition section tNavigator-4.21)). 12. VDEF 352 .22 VDEF Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword is used to specify model variables to tNavigator Assisted History Matching Module for models in MORE (for E100 and E300 format models one should use the keyword DEFINES (see 12.22.

0000000 0. maximum variable value and type. The keyword is not intended for self-use in models.24) puts the value of the variable in the original model instead of @variable_name@.1.1. The syntax of this keyword is analogous to DEFINES (see 12.0000000 0.1000000 3. PREDEFINES is written in model variants and it sets variables’ values in this variant. Definition section tNavigator-4.12.23.1.23 PREDEFINES Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS This keyword is automatically generated by tNavigator if you use Assisted History Matching and Uncertainty Analysis module.1000000 3. The keyword OPEN_BASE_MODEL (see 12.1.0000000 FLOAT / MULT4 1.0000000 0. PREDEFINES 353 .DATA'/ 12.1000000 3.0000000 FLOAT / MULT5 1.0000000 FLOAT / MULT2 2 1 5 INT / MULT3 1.21) (for models in formats E100.21). To define variables for AHM use the keyword DEFINES (see 12.1.1.0000000 0.2 12. Example PREDEFINES MULT1 1.1000000 2. E300) or VDEF (see 12. and also minimum.22) (for models in format MORE).1.0000000 FLOAT / / OPEN_BASE_MODEL 'PUNQ_exp1.

2 12. 12.1.24 OPEN_BASE_MODEL Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS This keyword is automatically generated by tNavigator if you use Assisted History Matching and Uncertainty Analysis module.12. OPEN_BASE_MODEL 354 .1. Definition section tNavigator-4. See the description of the keyword PREDEFINES (see 12.24.1. The keyword is not intended for self-use in models.23).1.

25 DIMENS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword defines numbers of grid blocks NX.25.1. DIMENS 355 . with 30 blocks in X direction. Definition section tNavigator-4. Total number of blocks is 3450. Y . The total number of cells is a product of these three numbers: NX*NY*NZ. 23 blocks in Y direction and 5 blocks in Z direction. and Z axis is directed vertically downward. Z directions.2 12.12. 50 blocks in Y direction and 1 block in Z direction. The grid will consist of 2500 blocks. NY. Example DIMENS 30 23 5 / This example defines a 30 ∗ 23 ∗ 5 grid. X and Y are surface coordinates. Default: 100 100 1 Example DIMENS 50 50 1 / This example defines grid having 50 ∗ 50 ∗ 1 blocks. 50 blocks in X direction.1. 12.1. NZ in X .

PVTO (see 12. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.5.4.8).12. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically.1. 7.6).2) (IGNORED).4). maximum number of nodes of pressure in one PVT table. 6.21)).5. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. entered by keywords PVTG (see 12. Default: is equal to the 9-th parameter of this keyword. PVCO (see 12. 5. TABDIMS 356 .1.8).1. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. 10. number of regions with different PVT properties (PVTNUM (see 12. maximum number of nodes of oil-gas ratio RO. 3. maximum number of nodes of saturation in one PVT table.5. maximum number of equation of state regions for reservoir conditions (these regions are entered using the keyword EOSNUM (see 12.2)).4.5. PVDG (see 12.5. maximum number of saturation end-point versus temperature tables (tables are specified using the keyword ENPTVT (see 12.14).7). number of saturation function regions (SATNUM (see 12.6.14. SGOF (see 12. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. entered by a keyword PVTG (see 12.6.2 12.4).10)).G in one PVT table of wet gas.26.O in one VPT table. Definition section tNavigator-4. number of fluid-in-place regions (FIPNUM (see 12. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically. 12. describing number of regions with different parameter values. 4. entered by keywords PVTO (see 12.69)). 8. entered by keywords SGFN (see 12.26 TABDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The data consists of five items. 2. PVDO (see 12.4.5. maximum number of nodes of oil vaporization in gas RG. 9. maximum number of equation of state regions for surface conditions.2) (IGNORED).5. The numbers specify: 1.3)). In tNavi- gator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically.4.

This is an Eclipse compatibility field.4. the number of temperatures for Ki (p. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically. Default: 1 1 20 20 1 20 20 1 1 Example TABDIMS 2 4 2* 3 / In this example the grid representing the reservoir is ˆ divided into two regions with different flow characteristics. maximum number of flux regions (IGNORED). T ) tables (KVTEMP (see 12.14.14. TABDIMS 357 . This is an Eclipse compatibility field.6). each of them with different PVT properties tables.12. 12.1. ˆ divided into four PVT regions. The division of grid blocks into regions and setting of appropriate values should be specified below. 15.26. KVTABTn (see 12. maximum number of thermal regions (IGNORED). 13. 12. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically.1.2 11. maximum number of pressure maintenance regions (IGNORED).7)). ˆ 3-rd and 4-th numbers are equal 20 (default) ˆ divided into three FIP regions. for each of them fluid-in-place data will be reported. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. Definition section tNavigator-4. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically. number of rock tables (these regions are entered using the keyword ROCKNUM (see 12. 14.14)).

27. 20. 20. Example EQLDIMS 3 2* 2 5 / In this example the grid will be divided into three regions. 1.15.39)).1.2 12. number of depth nodes in any table of pressure versus depth constructed internally by the equilibration algorithm. Default: 1. IGNORED. maximum number of tables of initial tracer concentration versus depth (TVDP (see 12. 4. 1. 2. Maximum number of lines in the table of initial tracer concentration versus depth – 5 lines.4. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically. 5. maximum number of depth nodes in any table RSVD (see 12. number of equilibration regions (EQLNUM (see 12. 2.27 EQLDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword specifies dimensions of the equilibration tables. Definition section tNavigator-4.15. 4.12.15. for each of them initial distri- bution of saturations and pressure will be calculated basing on thermodynamic equilibrium.3).15. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the tables are allocated dynamically.38)).15.9). Maximum number of tables of initial tracer concentration versus depth – 2 tables. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. 3. 5. RVVD (see 12. The data should be termi- nated with a slash /. 12.2)).1.1. 3.5). this is an Eclipse compatibility field. EQLDIMS 358 . IGNORED. 1. EQUIL (see 12. maximum number of lines in the table of initial tracer concentration versus depth (TNUM (see 12. 100.

131). ignored. 1. ACTIONG (see 12. 2. In tNavigator number of lines does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. 2.133). this is an Eclipse compatibility field.18. the maximum number of lines of SCHEDULE data (including the ENDACTIO keyword).1. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. The data should be terminated with a slash /.18. ignored. the maximum number of characters per line of ACTION (see 12. ACTIONR (see 12. this is an Eclipse compatibility field.18. the maximum number of types of keywords ACTION (see 12.134). 3.132).12.18. 2. In tNavigator number of characters does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. In tNavigator number of types does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. 80. 50.18.18. ignored. Example ACTDIMS 5 40 100 / 12.1.28 ACTDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets dimensions for the keywords ACTION (see 12.18.28. ACTDIMS 359 .131). that can be defined in any one ACTION (see 12. Default: 1. 3. Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12.1.131). ACTIONW (see 12.131) data.

maximum number of sets of user-defined fluid-in-place regions (FIP (see 12. The data should be terminated with a slash /. 5. which are specified via PLMIXNUM (see 12. maximum number of independent reservoir regions.4.18)). that can be used in OPERATE (see 12. In tNavigator number of regions does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. 9.29 REGDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The data consists of items.1.3. also may be specified with keyword TABDIMS (see 12. In tNavigator number of regions does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.1. 7.25). this is an Eclipse compatibility field. In tNavigator number of regions does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.1. 2. describing number of regions with different parameter values. (IGNORED).10)). IGNORED. 4. 3. the number of arrays WORK (see 12.29. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. In tNavigator number of regions does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. Definition section tNavigator-4. the number of arrays IWORK (see 12.25).11)). this is an Eclipse compatibility field.2.2 12. 6.4. maximum number of flux regions (FLUXNUM (see 12. maximum number of Coal Bed Methane regions (COALNUM (see 12.95).12. 10. IGNORED. REGDIMS 360 .3.1. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. maximum number of fluid-in-place regions (FIPNUM (see 12.6). (IGNORED).26). The numbers specify: 1.6). This is an Eclipse compatibility field.3. 8.4. In tNavigator number of regions does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. maximum number of polymer flooding mixing region. that can be used in OPERATE (see 12. In tNavigator number of regions does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.15)) (IG- NORED). IGNORED.4. Default: 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 12.3.

REGDIMS 361 .29. ˆ divided into two sets of FIP regions. for each of them fluid-in-place data will be reported.12.1.1.2 Example REGDIMS 2 2 0 0 / In this example the grid representing the reservoir is ˆ divided into two FIP regions. Definition section tNavigator-4. 12. for each of them fluid-in-place data will be reported.

12.30.1. 3.1. maximum number of BHP tables for injectors. The data should be terminated with a slash /. 2. maximum number of tubing head pressure values (THP) in each table. Default: 0 0 0 Example VFPIDIMS 10 5 3 / This example sets: maximum number of flow values (FLO) in each table – 10.1. The following parameters are to be specified: 1.2 12. VFPIDIMS 362 . 12. which are specified using the keyword VFPINJ (see 12.30 VFPIDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets the dimensions of BHP tables for injectors. maximum number of tubing head pressure values (THP) in each table – 5. maximum number of BHP tables for injectors – 3. maximum number of flow values (FLO) in each table.56).18. Definition section tNavigator-4.

1. maximum number of artificial lift quantities (ALQ) in each table. maximum number of water fraction (WFR) in each table – 3. 4. 5. maximum number of tubing head pressure values (THP) in each table. which are specified using the keyword VFPPROD (see 12.31 VFPPDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets the dimensions of BHP tables for producers. The data should be terminated with a slash /.18. VFPPDIMS 363 .1.12.2 12. maximum number of BHP tables for producers. maximum number of gas fraction (GFR) in each table – 1. maximum number of water fraction (WFR) in each table. maximum number of tubing head pressure values (THP) in each table – 5.57). 2.1. 12. maximum number of gas fraction (GFR) in each table. Default: 0 0 0 0 0 0 Example VFPPDIMS 8 5 3 1 0 2 / This example sets: maximum number of flow values (FLO) in each table – 8. 3.31. 6. maximum number of BHP tables for producers – 2. maximum number of flow values (FLO) in each table. The following parameters are to be specified: 1. Definition section tNavigator-4.

1. maximum number of rows in recovery plant table.12.22). maximum number of gas plant tables.32.15. In tNavigator number of gas plant tables does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.1. 3. Definition section tNavigator-4.1.32 GPTDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword is used to specify gas plant table dimensions. 2. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. The following parameters are to be specified: 1. (IGNORED). This is an Eclipse com- patibility field. maximum number of rows in gas plant table. In tNavigator number of rows in gas plant table does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.23). (IGNORED). (IGNORED). GPTDIMS 364 .2 12. In tNavigator number of rows in recovery plant table does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. GPTABLE3 (see 12.24).15. The data should be terminated with a slash /. GPTABLEN (see 12. Example GPTDIMS 3 15 / 12. Gas plant tables are specified via the keywords GPTABLE (see 12.15.

33. The following parameters are to be specified: 1.1.1. Example PIMTDIMS 3 15 / 12.2 12. PIMTDIMS 365 . 2. Definition section tNavigator-4. In tNavigator number of rows in the table does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. (IGNORED). The tables are specified via PIMULTAB (see 12.12. (IGNORED). The data should be terminated with a slash /. In tNavigator number of gas plant tables does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.31). maximum number of PI scaling tables.1.33 PIMTDIMS Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword is used to specify PI scaling tables dimensions.18. maximum number of rows in the table. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.

For each grid block one should specify the rock region to which it belongs using ROCKNUM (see 12. 12. flag of the Water Induced Compaction option is used: YES or NO. 2.34) is used. ˆ IRREVERS – rock compaction is irreversible with increasing pressure (the pore space does not re-inflate).1.1.34).1. ˆ E300 format: the maximum value is taken from the 13-th parameter of TABDIMS (see 12.34).14).34 ROCKCOMP Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets the rock compaction option and maximum number of rock regions (tables of transmissibility dependence on pressure).1.): 1.26) and in 2-nd parameter of ROCKCOMP (see 12. 3. then the following logic is used to calculate the number of rock regions: ˆ E100 format: only the 2-nd parameter of ROCKCOMP (see 12.1. Tables of transmissibility dependence on pressure for each rock region are set using the keyword ROCKTAB (see 12. rock compaction option: ˆ REVERS – rock compaction is fully reversible with increasing pressure.18). Note: If the number of rock regions is specified both in 13-th parameter of TABDIMS (see 12.26). ROCKCOMP 366 .2 12.1.1. this is an Eclipse compatibility field.12. the maximum number of rock regions.4. Definition section tNavigator-4. Example ROCKCOMP IRREVERS 5 / In this example there are 5 rock regions and rock compaction is irreversible.1. The are three parameters (The data should be terminated with a slash /.34. (IGNORED). and 2-nd parameter of ROCKCOMP (see 12.5.

the maximum number of grid blocks which can be connected to any rock type is 6. 12. which will be used to model the heat exchange between the reservoir and surroundings. 3.1.1.79)).50) is present. Example ROCKDIMS 5 1* 6 / In this example the maximum number of types of cap and base rocks with different properties is 5.2 12.35.1.35 ROCKDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword can only be used if THERMAL (see 12.2.12. Default: The value of 3-rd parameter is equal to the value of 1-st parameter. Definition section tNavigator-4. ROCKDIMS 367 .1. the maximum number of grid blocks which can be connected to any rock type (this parameter is used in the keyword ROCKCON (see 12. The keyword specifies the number of types of cap and base rocks with different proper- ties. maximum number of types of cap and base rocks with different properties. 2. IGNORED. The are three parameters: 1. The data should be terminated with a slash /.

(IGNORED). WELLDIMS 368 . In tNavigator number of items in any mixture does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. the maximum number of well streams (WELLSTRE (see 12. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. the maximum number of wells in one group. (IGNORED). 9. In tNavigator number of connections does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. the maximum number of separator stages (the last one . (IGNORED).18.2 12. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. In tNavigator number of well streams does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. 7. (IGNORED).1. The data should be terminated by a slash /.36 WELLDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets up dimensions of the well data. 12.1. 2. Definition section tNavigator-4. 5. (IGNORED). 3. (IGNORED). This is an Eclipse compatibility field. 6. the maximum number of separators (field separator is included). (IGNORED). the maximum number of connections that one well can have.is included). the maximum number of wells. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. 8. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. 4. 12 parameters are to be specified: 1. This is an Eclipse compati- bility field. the maximum number of well groups in the model. (IGNORED). In tNavigator number of separator stages does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. In tNavigator number of wells does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. (IGNORED).36. In tNavigator number of mixtures does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. In tNavigator number of well groups does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.the stock tank . This is an Eclipse compatibility field. the maximum number of mixtures (using in injectors). In tNavigator number of wells in one group does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. the maximum number of items in any mixture (using in injectors). In tNavigator number of separators does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.1.159)).12. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.

12.12. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. the maximum number of connections groups allowed to cross domain boundary of one process during a parallel run. In tNavigator number of connections groups does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.1.2 10. the maximum number of dynamic well lists during the run. (IGNORED). In tNavigator number of the well lists does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. Default: any parameter — zero. Example WELLDIMS 200 7 10 20 5 10 5 4 2 0 1 1 / 12.36. (IGNORED). 11. In tNavigator number of dynamic well lists does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. Definition section tNavigator-4.1. WELLDIMS 369 . This is an Eclipse compatibility field. the maximum number of the well lists that one well can belong to simultaneously. (IGNORED).

2 12. The data should be terminated with a slash /.12. FAULTDIM 370 .2.1.1. maximum number of faults specified via FAULTS (see 12.1. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.2.37). In tNavigator number of faults does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. Example FAULTDIM 20 / 12.37. The following parameters should be specified: 1.37).37 FAULTDIM Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets the number of faults entered via FAULTS (see 12. Definition section tNavigator-4. (IGNORED).

4). In tNavigator number of multi-segment wells does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. Definition section tNavigator-4. maximum number of branches per multi-segment well. 2. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. 3. (IGNORED).1.38. The following data should be entered: 1.38 WSEGDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets dimensions for multi-segment wells (section 2.1. Example WSEGDIMS 10 20 4/ 12.12. In tNavigator number of branches per multi-segment well does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. maximum number of segments per well. The data should be terminated with a slash /.19.1.2 12. maximum number of multi-segment wells. WSEGDIMS 371 . In tNavigator number of segments per well does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. (IGNORED). This is an Eclipse compatibil- ity field. (IGNORED). This is an Eclipse compatibility field.

1. maximum number of heater connections. IGNORED. this is an Eclipse compatibility field.39.2 12.1. In tNavigator this dimension does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. Example HEATDIMS 20 / 12.1. The following data should be entered (The data should be terminated with a slash /. Definition section tNavigator-4. HEATDIMS 372 .12.31.39 HEATDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets heater dimensions. The description of heater simulation is in the section – 4.): 1.

(IGNORED). maximum number of user defined region quantities.1. 3.18. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.1. 5. This is an Eclipse com- patibility field. Definition section tNavigator-4. (IGNORED). UDQDIMS 373 . In tNavigator number of arguments does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. maximum number of user defined field quantities. 4. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. (IGNORED).18. 2. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.2 12.12. This is an Eclipse com- patibility field. maximum number of arguments that can be used in a quantity definition. (IGNORED). This is an Eclipse compatibility field. 6.138). maximum number of user defined group quantities. In tNavigator number of region quantities does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.1. maximum number of user defined segment quantities. In tNavigator number of well quantities does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. In tNavigator number of field quantities does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. The data should be terminated with a slash /.138). In tNavigator number of functions does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.40 UDQDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets dimensions for the keyword UDQ (see 12. 8. (IGNORED). The following data should be entered: 1. 7. In tNavigator number of segment quantities does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. In tNavigator number of group quantities does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. (IGNORED). 12. maximum number of functions (including brackets) that can be used in a quantity definition in UDQ (see 12. In tNavigator number of defined connection quantities does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. maximum number of user defined connection quantities. (IGNORED). maximum number of user defined well quantities.40. (IGNORED).

40. maximum number of user defined block quantities.12. In tNavigator number of block quantities does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. UDQDIMS 374 . This is an Eclipse compatibility field.2 9. Example UDQDIMS 20 10 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4/ 12.1. In tNavigator number of aquifer quantities does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. maximum number of user defined aquifer quantities. 10.1. (IGNORED). (IGNORED). Definition section tNavigator-4.

(IGNORED).133). 4.138) keyword. UDQPARAM 375 .132). a value given to undefined elements when outputting data or using in keywords AC- TIONG (see 12.2 12. Example UDQPARAM 2* 0.18.18. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.12.41 UDQPARAM Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets parameters for UDQ (see 12.1.135)).134). 2. 3.01 / 12. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.18.18. (IGNORED). Definition section tNavigator-4.18. ACTIONW (see 12. ACTIONX (see 12. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.41. The data should be terminated with a slash /. (IGNORED). The following data should be entered: 1. ACTIONR (see 12.1.1.

1. The data should be terminated with a slash /.138). WCONPROD (see 12.104). In tNavigator number of does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically.18. In tNavigator number of does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. GCON- PROD (see 12.18.18.34). This is an Eclipse compatibility field. (IGNORED). 2.12.1.42. maximum number of user defined arguments for well keywords.42 UDADIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword sets dimensions for user defined arguments UDA for the keyword UDQ (see 12.81).36).18. GECON (see 12.1. WELDRAW (see 12. (IGNORED). Definition section tNavigator-4.18. User defined arguments UDA can be used in keywords WCONINJE (see 12. Example UDADIMS 8 8 / 12.2 12.18. maximum number of user defined arguments for group keywords.62). WECON (see 12. UDADIMS 376 . The following data should be entered: 1.18. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.72). GCONINJE (see 12.102).18.

This is an Eclipse compatibility field.12. (IGNORED).1.1. (IGNORED). In tNavigator number of does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. In tNavigator number of does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. Example UDTDIMS 1 8 8 1 / 12.18.18.139).2 12. (IGNORED). This is an Eclipse compatibility field. This is an Eclipse compatibility field.18. 3.139).139). maximum number of dimensions in one table UDT (see 12.43 UDTDIMS Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword sets dimensions for user defined tables UDT for the keyword UDT (see 12. In tNavigator number of does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. This is an Eclipse compatibility field. The data should be terminated with a slash /.139). (IGNORED).18.43. maximum number of interpolation points in any one dimension. Definition section tNavigator-4. 2. 4. In tNavigator number of does not have to be specified because the memory is allocated dynamically. maximum number of user defined tables UDT (see 12. maximum number of rows in the table UDT (see 12.1. UDTDIMS 377 . The following data should be entered: 1.

7.1. 4.1)). ignored.12.7. ignored. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. Example TRACERS 4 5 / In this example there are: 4 passive oil tracers and 5 passive water tracers. ignored. the maximum number of passive water tracers (entered via the keyword TRACER (see 12. the maximum number of environmental tracers (for environmental tracer option). The data should be terminated with a slash /. 8.2 12. TRACERS 378 .7. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. 12. 3. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. ignored. 9. 2. 10. ignored. this is an Eclipse compatibility field.1)). the maximum number of passive gas tracers (entered via the keyword TRACER (see 12. 12.1)).1. 11. ignored. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. ignored. 1. ignored.44. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. 5. 6.7. ignored.1. ignored.44 TRACERS Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword sets dimensions for tracers. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. ignored. the maximum number of passive oil tracers (entered via the keyword TRACER (see 12. ig- nored. this is an Eclipse compatibility field. Definition section tNavigator-4.

1. By default non- neighbor connections are allowed. including explicit definition using keyword NNC (see 12. non-neighbor connections won’t be allowed.12.2 12. 12.1.48).45 NONNC Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE If this keyword is used.2. NONNC 379 . Such connections may be set differently. Example NONNC In this example non-neighbourhood connections are not allowed.45.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.

Example SURFACT 12.1.12.46 SURFACT Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword defines that surfactants will be used in the model (surfactant section – 2.25).46. Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12.1.1. SURFACT 380 .

SURFACTW 381 .25). In fact wettability calculation starts in case if one of the tables SURFDW (see 12.14) or SURFADDW (see 12.1.47 SURFACTW Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword defines that surfactants will be used in the model and change of wettability will be simulated (surfactant section – 2.13) is specified.8.47.1.12.1. Definition section tNavigator-4. This keyword is not obligatory in tNavigator. Example SURFACTW 12.8.2 12.

Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding – ASP model. Example POLYMER 12. Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12.1.12. POLYMER 382 . Full description of ASP mathematical model is in the section – 5.9.48 POLYMER Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword indicates that Polymer Flood will be used in the model (section – 2.48.1.1.20).

Full description of ASP mathematical model is in the section – 5. Definition section tNavigator-4.1. Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding – ASP model.1.24.49 ALKALINE Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword indicates that Alkaline Flooding will be used in the model – section 2.49.9. ALKALINE 383 .1.2 12.12. 12.

Definition section tNavigator-4. THERMAL 384 .1.1.50. Example THERMAL 12. The keywords which can be used in thermal simulation are described in the section "Thermal properties" (12.14).50 THERMAL Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used to label that the thermal simulation will be used.1.12.2 12.

51.51 REACTION Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword specifies the number of chemical reactions (nr ). Example REACTION 3 / In this example there are 3 chemical reactions.1. 12.1.12. Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12. The data should be termi- nated with a slash /. REACTION 385 .1.

1.1.12. 12.52. The keyword should be used if an oil phase exist or could exist in the model. OIL 386 . No parameters are to be specified.1. OIL is added automatically for any compositional model. Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12.52 OIL Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used to label that a model contains an oil phase.

12.53. No parameters are to be specified. 12. GAS is added automatically for any compositional model. GAS 387 .1. The keyword should be used if a gas phase exist or could exist in the model. Definition section tNavigator-4.1.2 12.1.53 GAS Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used to label that a model contains a gas phase.

No parameters are to be specified.12.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.2 12.54.1. WATER 388 .1. 12.54 WATER Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used to label that a model contains a water phase (active).

In that case a run can be more efficiency in the following way: OIL (see 12.52) and GAS (see 12.2) section. gas should be considered as a dry as.1. One can use this keyword only if OIL (see 12. specify vaporised oil concentration using keyword RVCONST (see 12. The model will be considered as a model with dry gas.1.1.1. Let’s consider two conditions: vaporised oil has constant and uniform concentration in a gas phase and the pressure is always above a dew point.53) are specified.55. but the constant vaporised oil concentration will be taken into consideration during a simulation. VAPOIL 389 .5.52) and VAPOIL shouldn’t be specified.2 12.55 VAPOIL Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used to label that there is vaporised oil in a wet gas.14) in the GRID (12. 12. Definition section tNavigator-4.1. No parameters are to be specified.1.12.

1.13) in the GRID (12. RSCON- STT (see 12. but the constant dissolved gas concentration will be taken into consideration during a simulation.53) and DISGAS shouldn’t be specified.1. In that case a run can be more effi- ciency in the following way: GAS (see 12.12). Let’s consider two conditions: dissolved has constant and uniform concentration in an oil phase and the pressure is always above a dew point.2 12. DISGAS 390 .1.1.5. No parameters are to be specified.52) and GAS (see 12. specify dissolved gas concentration using keywords RSCONST (see 12.2) section.56 DISGAS Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used to label that there is a dissolved gas in live oil.1.5. The model will be considered as a model with dead oil. oil should be considered as a dead oil.56. Definition section tNavigator-4. One can use this keyword only if OIL (see 12.53) are specified.1.12. 12.

2 12.57 SOLID Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE The keyword is used to label that there is a solid phase in the model (solid phase consists of one component – coke). SOLID 391 .57. 12.12.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.1.1.

BRINE 392 .58. 12.1. Definition section tNavigator-4.58 BRINE Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword indicates that the Brine Tracking option is enabled.1.2 12. to allow the modeling of waters with different salinities.1.12.

Definition section tNavigator-4.1.26.12.2 12.26. This keyword automatically turns on the option BRINE (see 12.59.1.59 LOWSALT Data x tNavigator x E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword indicates that low salinity option is used – 2.1.1. LOWSALT 393 .1.58) – simulation of waters with different salinities – section 2. 12.3.

30.1. TEMP 394 . 12.1.60.2 12.60 TEMP Data x tNavigator E300 MORE GEM format x E100 IMEX STARS x RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS Section REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE This keyword indicates that the temperature option is enabled.1.12. to al