Workshop on Device to Device communications for 5G NETWORKS (WD5G 2016


A Two Dimensional Beam Scanning Array Antenna
for 5G Wireless Communications
Stella Ifeoma Orakwue *, Razali Ngah, T. A. Rahman
Wireless Communication Centre,
Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM),
81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Corresponding author. E-mail:

Abstract—This paper presents the planar implementation of a is achieved by a lateral cascading of two 2 × 2 BM BFN. This
two dimensional (2-D) beam steering array antenna with a not only eliminates the problem of switches used by [5], but
cascaded 2 × 2 Butler Matrix (BM) as the beamformer. A single also achieve 2-D multi-beam antenna. Apart from this
layer has been chosen to ensure low cost and ease fabrication. introductory remark, this paper has additional three sections.
The four input ports of the proposed antenna have the capability While Section II describes the antenna design analysis, Section
of producing four independent directional beam patterns III discusses the results. The performance in terms of the return
scanning from -18o to 23o at x-y plane and from -20o to 22o at the loss, beam scanning ability and realised gain will be discussed.
y-z plane respectively. The radiation efficiency obtained from Finally, a conclusion will be drawn in Section IV.
each of the four ports at the designed frequency are 92.6%,
92.1%, 91.4%, and 87.8% respectively. The maximum antenna
gain of 15.1 dBi is obtained at port P1. The proposed antenna has II. ANTENNA DESIGN
a null free elevation plane and therefore will be suitable for base Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the proposed antenna. The
station application of the proposed fifth generation mobile
proposed antenna is composed of the feeding network and a
3 × 3 array antenna. For easy fabrication and mass production,
Keywords—two dimensional; beam scanning; fifth generation; low hardware complexity is a key factor to consider [7]. To
multi-beam, base station achieve this, Rogers RT/duroid 5880 substrate material with
dielectric constant of 2.2, thickness of 0.254 mm and loss
tangent 0.0009 is chosen to realize a uniplanar switched beam
I. INTRODUCTION antenna. Thin substrate is carefully selected to avoid increase
Millimeter wave band has been proposed for fifth generation in surface wave along the substrate that would occur if thick
(5G) mobile communications systems [1, 2]. Due to increase in material is used and to decrease the dimension of the feed
propagation loss with frequency, omnidirectional and fixed network.
beam antenna may not work effectively at millimeter wave The feeding network is based on 2 × 2 BM. However, the
frequency band [3]. Hence, the need for smart antenna to ports separation of 2 × 2 BM is quarter wavelength which
maintain a good communication link [4]. Smart antenna system makes it difficult to connect 50 Ohm connectors at millimeter
uses adaptive array or switched multi-beam antenna to wave frequency. Refer to [13] for design equations of 2 × 2
BM and to [14] for patch antenna design. For instance, quarter
concentrate energy in the desired direction and form nulls
wavelength at 28 GHz frequency is 2.75 mm but the dimension
towards the undesired interferer. These amidst other benefits
of a 50 Ω connector is 7.5 mm. Moreover, the element spacing
improve the link quality, spatial reuse and significantly reduce must be satisfied to prevent grating lobe. To overcome these
the amount of energy used in cellular networks. problems the ports are extended as shown. Extending the ports
Recently, special interest has been dedicated to multi-beam distort the network symmetry. However, adjustment of the
antennas [5, 6]. The multi-beam antenna constructed using series and shunt arm of the component are used to obtain
Butler matrix (BM) as a beamforming network (BFN) has insertion loss of 3dB and isolation better than 35 dB at design
received much attention due to its simplicity and low cost of frequency when the port is extended by approximately λ/4
implementation. The 2 × 2 BM (3 dB branch line coupler) is distance. Afterwards, a 3 × 2 steerable array antenna of
the simplest version of a BM. The use of 2 × 2 BM to achieve dimension 26 mm × 14.2 mm × 0.254 mm was achieved and
switched beam antenna has been demonstrated [5, 7-12]. published in [5]. Further study leads to the proposed 2-D beam
However, all of these designs did not demonstrate 2-D steerable antenna. This is accomplished by lateral cascading the
functionality except in [12]. Here, eight-port hybrid network two 2 × 2 BM array antenna and duplicating the patch element
was deployed to achieve a 2-D multi-beam antenna. However, to form a 3 × 3 array antenna. The size of the patch is made
the maximum gains of 13 dBi, and the radiation efficiency of square for uniform current distribution on the patch elements.
46% and 44% in the both planes are too poor for application in The circuits are combined directly without minor tuning.
millimeter wave frequency due to high propagation loss However, there is an impedance mismatch that was corrected
associated with it. In this study, a 2-D beam scanning based on with Wt. This impedance mismatch could be due to impedance
2 × 2 BM is proposed. A unique and simple 2- D array antenna

978-1-4673-8666-1/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE

The -20 through and coupled ports of the coupler have 90o phase difference. All the antenna 0 parameters are optimized and the detailed design parameters -5 listed in Table 1. The reflection coefficients and isolations between input ports are lower than -10dB over the -10 S-parameter (dB) frequency band of 24. 2.mismatches in the transmission lines between various subassemblies of the proposed antenna. while Fig. The layout structure of the proposed 2-D steerable beam antenna.84 -15 dy 5.0 dBi at P1 and P2.2o in the two planes. 3. respectively at the designed frequency.3(a) and (b) show that the array has the gain of 15.5o to 45. .4 L 30. Simulated S-parameters (a) P1 (b) P2 (c) P3 (d) P4 it scans from 20 to 22 degrees in the y-z plane. the 3-D radiation S 44 -50 pattern is presented in Fig. The (d) scanning angle in the x-z plane is from 18 to 23 degrees. S 24 -50 24 26 28 30 32 Frequency (GHz) TABLE I DETAILED DIMENSIONS OF THE PROPOSED ANTENNA (b) Parameter Value (mm) 0 Wp 3. The radiation pattern is to some 24 26 28 30 32 extent symmetrical with the HPBW over the operating Frequency (GHz) frequency ranging from 36.2 -30 S 32 S 33 -35 S 34 -40 24 26 28 30 32 Frequency (GHz) III. In this way all the S 41 S 42 current in the array are added in phase to yield directive fixed -40 S 43 beams in the four quadrants. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (c) The performance of the proposed array antenna is evaluated using CST 2015 microwave studio. S-parameter (dB) -10 -15 -20 -25 S11 -30 S12 S13 -35 S14 -40 24 26 28 30 32 Frequency (GHz) (a) 0 -10 S-parameter (dB) -20 -30 S 21 S 22 -40 S 23 Fig.3 GHz to 32 GHz except S21 and S34.84 -5 Lp 3. While in the y-z plane. P2 and -30 P3.74 -10 Wt1 0.1 dBi and 15. The simulated x-y plane pattern given in Fig. 1.6 -20 dx 6. Fig 2 plots the S.84 S-parameter (dB) Wt 0.2 -25 S 31 W 30. P4 causes additional 90o phase shift. The lateral feeding of the antenna from P1. For more clarity. 0 parameters from P1 to P4.

4 presents the array gain of the four ports. the proposed antenna is also compared to similar (c) recent published 2-D antenna in Table 2.8 dBi Fig.6% and 101.3(c) and (d) show the array gain of 13. TABLE 2 PROPOSED 2-D VERSUS OTHER SIMILAR PUBLISHED ONES Proposed Enhancement Features Ref. 12 Antenna Centre Frequency 30 GHz 28 GHz 30. The phase and amplitude dispersion of the feeding network. feeding network has advantage of producing a null filled vertical plane pattern as illustrated in Fig. 91. 5.2 × Physical size ----------- (d) 0. 3.2% 13 dBi realized gain Radiation 92. 92. 4. Simulated array gain (a) P1 (b) P2 (c) P3 (d) P4 0 0 330 10 30 330 5 30 0 0 -5 300 -10 60 300 -10 60 -15 -20 -20 -30 -25 (b) 270 -40 90 270 -30 90 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 -25 -30 -20 -20 -15 240 120 240 -10 120 -10 -5 0 0 5 210 10 150 210 150 180 180 P1 P2 Fig. P1 and P2 Finally. and the frequency of operation.6%. (a) & (b) Beam Substrate Single layer Single layer -------- scanning in the x-yx-y plane (c) & (d) Bean scanning in the y-z plane Maximum 15. This comparison proves that this work enhances the gain and radiation efficiency at both planes which show an outstanding performance of the proposed antenna.4%. This could be attributed to the 87. This will allow for increased signal levels to users who might otherwise be without coverage and make the designed antenna a potential base station antenna. P2. Elevation plane pattern of Ports.7% planes respectively .25 mm3 Fig.2 × 30. Polar pattern of the realized beam at 28 GHz.8 dBi and 14.4% 107. 16 15 14 Gain (dBi) 13 (a) 12 Port 1 Port 2 11 Port 3 Port 4 10 24 26 28 30 32 Frequency (GHz) Fig.8% for ports P1. P3 and P4 respectively at 28 GHz. The gain variation of about 1dBi is obtained at radiation efficiency is calculated as 92.Fig. The at P3 and P4.1%. 5.3% and Efficiency in both 46% and 44% 91. The nulls in the elevation plane under the antenna are not deep.1 dBi 16.

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