THE ARUP JOURNAL

SHABANI SPECIAL ISSUE 1981

new asbestos mill in from the w e t ore stockpiles ( F i g . 4 and 5 ) and the treatment plant. lengthy a n d complicated process w h i c h vertical f l o w of materials through the varies between different ore bodies. the throughout Z i m b a b w e . Together with A A M . T h i s paper briefly describes A r u p s ' comfort and safety of staff. i. thirds the size of the one at S h a b a n i . rock. and approximately Z $ 4 3 m . at King Mine. the total plant. The monthly milling capacity of the n e w mill After a s u c c e s s i o n of similar processes. a part of the plant. Fig. screened.4 to 4 . operation and jointly. T h e ready for shipment.C a m b r i a n gneisses. THEARUP Vol. but also in places. structural and electrical aspects. 3 . are a l w a y s a serious disadvantage. w h i c h It is then blended to specification and bagged and an all-concrete structure provides fewer intrudes early P r e . 1 ) . graded by and erection. they decided to fibre is separated from the rock and is use a solid flat slab concrete solution. final structural design and production of w a s s o l v e d .e. the ore is mined at various levels f l o w previously adopted by this group. had to be c o n c e i v e d as a w h o l e . struction of concrete structures are available at a cost in e x c e s s of Z $ 1 0 0 m . and opened to the required degree. 16 Shabani special issue 1981 Published by O v e A r u p Partnership 13 Fitzroy Street. The design of the text d r a w s attention to certain of these The extraction of asbestos fibre from ore is a King Mine treatment plant w a s based on a aspects. Z i m b a b w e . 8 k m w i d e . All of one of the w o r l d ' s biggest and most fibreizers and screened again to separate necessary skills and materials for the c o n - modern asbestos mills in S h a b a n i . 6 ) and is crushed. in the opposite direction the experience gained on the M a s h a b a engineering skills that w e r e lacking in their to the mechanical design. the ore is carried on conveyor belts to the w o u l d f o l l o w tradition and have a steel frame w i t h reinforced concrete infill floors. alongside the mechanical and had to be able In order to be s u c c e s s f u l . T h e comfort and safety of the near the base of a lenticular ultrabasic sill length. 0 0 0 tonnes of ore. o w n organization. T h i s T h e civil engineering w o r k s w h i c h w e r e d o w n to a depth of about 5 7 0 m . At reduction process rather than the horizontal Civil design S h a b a n i .5km long and 2. 1 0 years The process features considered during the design. were among the built at M a s h a b a . 2 s h o w s diagramatically the w a s refined. ( F i g . A possible disadvantage of a concrete by African Associated M i n e s ( P r i v a t e ) Ltd. In broad terms A A M designs w e r e developed simultaneously. Historical development plines. roughly t w o costs. workers within the plant is of major c o n c e r n . T h e once the structure is complete. dried and fed into the Prior to the commencement of design of the King Mill. an agreed margin to allow for c h a n g e s . carried in a current of air to c y c l o n e s . 14. the ore is taken the structural concept and g i v e s rise to a n e w form of treatment plant. asbestos fibre from the ore is an art based on T h e design and construction w a s controlled years of experimentation and experience. T h e electrical design developed frame. breakdown of w o r k into the various disci. maintenance work. T h e rock residue is treated in siderations and it has other advantages. including those for d o w n time. a the concrete solution w a s further developed carried out the design of the plant and the structural system w h i c h could accept c h a n g e s at S h a b a n i to provide not only the structural mechanical equipment w h i l e Arups handled w a s required.. Testing of prototype items of plant w a s solution is in reduced flexibility for c h a n g e Secretaries and Consulting Engineers to carried out throughout the design period. A r u p s top of the treatment plant. The separated fibre in the c y c l o n e is the expenditure of foreign currency for supply fibre in Southern Africa. From and legs' service to A A M by supplying the dations upwards. Environmental conditions within the plant. A s the various Project as well as from other similar j o b s . maintenance. T h i s S h a b a n i and Mashaba M i n e s ( P r i v a t e ) Ltd. concept proved s u c c e s s f u l and w a s repeated broken d o w n into a number of contracts 2 T h e mill has t w o basic s e c t i o n s . Programming and cost control were handled to accept additional loads as the process including the construction. quality is good and the length of fibre is up to Delays in supplies of structural steelwork T h e process design for the removal of the 3 0 m m in places. T h e deposit occurs cleaned to remove dust and grit. it w a s assumed that the building Shabani. out the shorter fibres. It then gravitates w e r e commissioned to carry out the structural Introduction d o w n through a series of screens w h e r e the design. the feed at S h a b a n i . crevices for dust and is easier to w a s h d o w n . This problem S h a b a n i and M a s h a b a M i n e s (Private) Ltd. w a s availability of skilled labour. In the feed system. by n o w a fine s a n d . by overdesigning by Ove Arup and Partners provided an 'arms reinforcing s c h e d u l e s goes from the f o u n . From these stockpiles. It obviously radically c h a n g e s included upgrading existing services a n d . the civil. w h i l e the majority is designed to be 2 0 0 . Zimbabwe dry ore stockpile. w h i c h w a s completed at a cost of A similar mill. T h e earlier by the s a m e group. is sent to a discard of steelwork for large structures requires Shabani has the largest reserves of asbestos dump. Great Z i m b a b w e Design of a system ( F i g s . London W1 P 6 B Q JOURNAL Editor: Peter Hoggett Art Editor: Desmond Wyeth F S I A D Assistant Editor: David Brown Front c o v e r : Underground w o r k i n g s — s h o t holes being prepared ( P h o t o : B o b D a v e y ) B a c k c o v e r : C o n i c a l tower. w h e r e decision w a s based mainly on e c o n o m i c c o n - have recently completed the construction it is deposited. 4 0 k m a w a y . in effect.

3 Feed system : dryer building s h o w i n g top of vertical dryer Fig. lit: V: Fig.6 Site surfacing and feed system : wet ore stockpile . 5 Feed system : screening plant typical floor Fig.1 General v i e w of completed project Fig. 2 B r e a k d o w n of work into various disciplines Fig.d e c k dryer Fig.4 Feed system : w e t pick-up building s h o w i n g Q .

T h e planning of the mill examined and reported on. In v i e w of this. and the per capita c o n s u m p .s e c t i o n of the road T h e mill s i t e concrete. T h i s work w a s carried out in the period Au g u st 1 9 7 6 to J u n e 1 9 8 0 at a total cost of around Z $ 4 m . in population and the raising of living standards identical underground structures w i t h s u b - all these through services had to be diverted of the lower paid workers. T h i s platform w a s sion around the site. approximately 2km from S h a b a n i . Our report stations and approximately 4 k m of pumping but certain services. T h e entire mine complex is cost housing. All mine personnel. w o r k w a s already under w a y on the upgrading of the pumped s e w e r a g e system of the s e w e r a g e reticulation for the site. T h e first of these course. The philosophy of mersible pumps.5km of 1 for grit removal. P l a n s investigate the overall water reticulation of necessary to provide an earthwork solution had already c o m m e n c e d for an upgrading the mine. re-siting of one of the pump stations serving northern portion. Our more finalized it w a s possible to design the Lundi River. D i v e r s i o n of s e r v i c e s both potable and industrial water. T h e c r o s s . F i g . w i t h the other units in n e w t o w n s h i p areas. together with a in the areas not finalized. gravity s e w e r a g e . The next phase for w h i c h w e w e r e previously used for low density housing and and for garden watering. the site consisted of fairly rough. Fig. providing n e w facilities. w i t h requirements of 6 0 high cost units. thereby breaking a w a y from the tradition on the mine for c o m m u n a l facilities for l o w . T h e upgrading and roads and stormwater drainage over the Ngezi River to supply S h a b a n i with water. through the centre. B e c a u s e the planning of T h e main pipe services crossing the mill site the feed system w o u l d not be completed consisted of a s e w a g e pumping main. 8 of the likely extent of the mill site. T h e housing required w a s in three grades. the the mine is supplied free of charge to the upgrading of the system serving the southern national road from S h a b a n i to B u c h w a . w e r e for projects off-site. a length of approximately 8 0 0 m over some supply pipeline. and this. ran through the area. T h e four pipelines w e r e up of numerous small hills with housing generally graded to falls of 1 :100 to permit laid adjacent to each other in a single trench areas generally located in the valleys between. of reinforced difficult terrain. T h e services design maximized the use of locally available material with asbestos e5> cement piping being used extensively for water and s e w e r a g e reticulations and locally available gravel for road construction. T h e delivery main to the treatment w o r k s . w a s constructed on a hill over- w a s the Government standard for this c l a s s looking the n e w mill site and positioned to T h e civil engineering on the mill site w a s of road of 7 m of surface on a 10m base a l l o w for the construction of t w o future carried out in four stages. All housing units had Area of completed high cost housing individual c o n n e c t i o n s to water supply. T h e water course w a s with minimal cover around the western and Very limited use can therefore be made of diverted around the southern extremity of the northern boundaries of the site. it is a gravel road on a very poor the reservoir from the main pump station at of the order of 1 2m and a natural water course alignment. reticulation to cater for the projected increase The pumping stations w e r e all designed as Before bulk earthworks could c o m m e n c e . A complex of s e w e r a g e mill site. tree complied w i t h . w e w e r e appointed to produce a that allowed flexibility in the planning.c o s t housing. Traditionally the mine has provided housing for all its w o r k e r s . T h e l o w cost and some of the high cost units w e r e located in an infill pattern in existing t o w n s h i p s on the mine. O v e Arup and Partners carried out the planning for the housing and the civil engineering design for water and s e w e r a g e 7A 8T reticulations. and duplicating the delivery mains w h e n complex w a s in its early stages at this time A s a result of this report w e w e r e c o m m i s . part of the mine. w e w e r e asked to investigate the l o w . Water supply pumping stations existed over the mine with A s the planning of the mill complex became The water supply to S h a b a n i c a m e from the several of these obviously overloaded. Street lighting w a s provided in all housing areas. 2 0 0 medium cost units and 4 0 0 l o w cost units. All water used on appointed w a s the design of the necessary included. on the eastern boundary. 0 0 0 m storage reservoir and 2. T h i s consisted project. Geometric standards laid d o w n by reservoirs of similar size. w h i c h w a s 4 5 0 m m tion. T h e short-term need w a s to provide housing to replace that lost on the mill site and for the influx of construction workers required to complete the project. Off-site housing T h e decision to establish the n e w asbestos mill at S h a b a n i gave rise to an immediate requirement for additional housing on the site. so that ultimately the system w o u l d and conservative estimates had to be made sioned to implement the first part of the cope with the f l o w s anticipated in 1 9 9 5 . This consisted of four pump the houses in the area w e r e to be demolished tions are therefore enormous. Z $ 2 m . serving areas outside envisaged a rationalization of the main water main. 7 Fig.8 s h o w s an area of completed high cost S e w a g e pumping station housing. had industrial water is recovered from the under. Prior to c o n s t r u c - the Government for national roads w e r e required. A l l o w a n c e w a s made in the and the national road moved beyond the bulk water storage on the mine w a s also design for increasing the number of p u m p s confines of the site. It w a s of all these services and the immediate need similar report for the overall s e w e r a g e therefore decided to provide a cut and fill w a s therefore a short-term temporary diver- reticulation. supplied water to covered terrain with a m a x i m u m fall across it present. a step further and provided temporary drainage report on it. and to required as a result of the extension of the l o w . the limits of the mill site. w i t h a longer term requirement for the additional mine workers necessary to cope w i t h the increased production. required. and 4 k m of gravity s e w e r s . Sewerage reticulation until some time after the c o m m e n c e m e n t of potable and industrial water supply mains Simultaneously with the appointment to construction of the treatment plant it w a s and a return s e w a g e effluent main. . as the demand w a s the bulk earthworks.c o s t housing areas had already been T h e third stage took the stormwater drainage the water reticulation on the mine. been included in our brief for the housing T h e site c h o s e n for the n e w mill w a s an area ground w o r k i n g s and is used in the process services. Of this. stormwater drainage and Fig. w h i c h the Ngezi water supply w a s received. in spite of the fact that at the diameter asbestos cement. 7 electrical reticulations. At the time of the start of the mill report recommended the rationalization and s e c o n d stage of the civil w o r k s . T h e reservoir. recommendations w h i c h consisted of as h o w s a typical pump station w i t h inlet w o r k s T h e diversion of the B u c h w a road comprised 1 2 . T h e terrain of S h a b a n i is made platform over the entire site. drainage of the surface. T h i s w a s carried out 4 supplied with a dual reticulation supplying secondary pump station pumping into it and a priorto the 1 9 7 8 rainy s e a s o n . The pipeline. roads. w e r e part of the main project w h i l e Z $ 2 m . and design and construction of a new dam on the as a phased development. s e w e r a g e reticulation and electricity.

3 m .0m. seal surfacing in these areas. T h i s required that secondary drains entire building. although in some impeded by stormwater drainage or other surfaces. 1 4 . 6 m above the ground. Approximately t w o of w h i c h are on standby. through the centre of the site picked up a t o w a r d the treatment plant. T w o main drains ran civil/structural work force peaked at 2 . 1 1 ) . with double in some cases w e r e punched through the of the l o w portion. 0 0 0 m . levelling. make up the stairs and other services.e. larger c a s e s this w a s extravagant in terms of on the site s h o u l d be s h a l l o w dish' drains. C o l u m n sizes w e r e constant for the were used to a m a x i m u m . buildings 3 4 % . 0 0 0 m of air a minute for the 3 drains. Hanging rather The main a c c e s s road into the site carries the than propping the intermediate floors w a s Most of the plant is carried on the main floors. A t t h e double basement to a depth of 5.2m square. Figs. other than major eight provide 5 7 . hung floors are used for dry season. at the same time. w h e r e the central total floor area is 1 3 8 . w e r e decided before the materials. and has a complete floor area. etc. w o r k s on the mill site were completed for a In each flow line there are three service ducts the completion of the s e w e r a g e reticulation cost of Z $ 2 7 . floors. f l o w lines. T h e entire 2 5 h a slab w a s cast. T h e treatment plant repre.12 Site surfacing The fourth stage w a s the completion of the Structural design fell within the coffer topping and could stormwater drainage. T h i s w a s the only formal road space above and around the plant on the minimum restraints on the plant layout and on the site. 5 33. All floors. site roads. as the milling process produces large quantities of c o m m e n c e d in October 1 9 7 7 and w a s c o m . A s c a n be seen in F i g . Fig. the roads. a service bay and a perimeter slab.. made s p a n n i n g between the main vertical 1 1 m / s e c . the main floors w e r e a d d e d . the bulk earthworks contract nine floors are 1 0 0 . Underground stormwater drain- Building work on the treatment plant building required. T h e main floor to floor height is 6 m . 9 ) . openings c o m m o n to all typical main floors. O p e n i n g s are pro- of open concrete lined drains ( F i g . ( b o x c o l u m n s ) w h i c h act as air plenums and the intersection of the main a c c e s s road sents 5 8 % of the civil contract.9 S e c o n d a r y drain to south of treatment plant building Fig. but plant is the dust filter area. age w a s avoided wherever possible. c o u l d easily block invisible storm. the surfacing of the site. prior to passing it under the main 3 A typical main floor. 1 0 ) . Major floor openings. plant. 5 x 7 6 . provide a linear surface on w h i c h In order to maintain the rhythm of the c o n - remainder of the site w e r e that v e h i c l e s should to attach crane rails.11 S p i l l w a y from mill site Fig. system w a s completed in May 1 9 8 0 . one at the southern extremity in February 1 9 7 9 . T h e on one main floor are c o n n e c t e d to the plant western end of the site. identifiable heavy were added before the concrete w a s cast. situated at the top traffic routes w e r e demarcated. For this reason additional supports from c o n v e y o r corridor. T h e total working platforms to the machinery on the water drainage routes. and w a s a 7 m surfaced road on a main floors ( F i g s . T h e client's requirements for the c o l u m n s . gravel layer sealed w i t h a single seal surface designed and detailed. conveyor gantries and struction programme simple standard elements be able to drive a n y w h e r e w i t h o u t being so on. T h e hung floors are more n u m e r o u s and often natural ground level. T h e air c h a m b e r s operate at a negative 5 . vided in the sides to a l l o w a c c e s s w h e r e or culverted. 1 3 . T h e first main 2 on the floor above or below by s c r e w c o n v e y - drain discharged. W h e r e it w a s no longer possible to permitting v e h i c l e s to cross. T h e openings required in the had raised the finished level some 8 m above at the ninth level up to the 16th floor. than 1. vertical shafts to enclose electrical cables. B e t w e e n the first and s e c o n d floors and for fibrous dust w h i c h . together w i t h the box 10m base. is s h o w n in F i g . Fig. w h i l e the bulk e a r t h w o r k s . M a n y of the items of plant drained the majority of the site ( F i g . Within this. T h e box c o l u m n s also act a s diversion of existing services. stepped back ors or c h u t e s . 6 5 0 main floors. The stormwater drainage consists principally stormwater drainage. the remaining connecting the fan c h a m b e r s to the various to the site w i t h the Shabani to B u c h w a road. piped remaining 8%. T h e other main drain T h e main structural design effort w a s directed w a s h d o w n outlets. main floors. 1 5 a n d 1 6 ) . T h i s required a s p i l l w a y upper main floors are 1 0 0 . w h i l e many minor openings use or justify the use of standard elements. T h i s area h o u s e s 10 fans.5m. 5 m . finished product from the mill to the rail head decided upon to allow m a x i m u m w o r k i n g T h e column grid w a s selected to impose for d e s p a t c h . 6 and 12 coffer topping afterwards.10 M a i n drain through mill site Fig. 13 larger than in the main floors and w o u l d have structure to take peak flow of approximately s h o w s a section through the treatment plant. i. during S h a b a n i ' s long pleted in December 1 9 7 9 . w h i c h c o n s i s t s of four supports difficult w i t h a reasonable depth of mine hall road ( F i g . site w a s therefore topped w i t h a compacted w e r e added after the reinforcing had been conventional building t e c h n i q u e s w e r e u s e d . these T h e main non-typical section of the treatment dressing. w h i l e the feed 12 floors thereafter. including the hung through the site. Where possible. T h e remaining s h o w some of the surfaced area with d i s h ' 8 0 % of the openings. T h i s building the hung floors cover only portions of the small catchment outside the site and also rises 1 0 0 . 17. will be w a s h e d d o w n w h i l e the plant carrying the water from the diverted water is in operation and therefore openings are course as w e l l as water from the southern T r e a t m e n t plant provided with upstand surrounds except the portion of the site. finalization of the site T h e total civil and structural engineering therefore be ignored in the d e s i g n .

16 Treatment p l a n t : main floor w i t h c y c l o n e s projecting through h u n g floor as above 13A 14T 15T .14 Treatment p l a n t : seventh floor w i t h equipment installed Fig.13 S e c t i o n through treatment plant Fig.Fig.15 Treatment p l a n t : typical main a n d intermediate hung floor 3 w i t h equipment installed Fig.

S u p p l y air plenum 17. 2 2 ( 4 ) 2 m m thick waterproofing membrane of ment plant building proceeded simultaneously.17 F l o w line F l o w line i Service B a y F l o w line F l o w line '4 T y p i c a l main floor plan of the treatment plant Fig. A minimum of 1 in 8 0 falls w a s achieved forcement w a s provided locally in the coffer chutes. ) Ltd. T h e y w e r e also designed to have props glued together on site ment plant building except at roof levels. square to be added any time through the Additional reinforcement w a s added to cater In less critical areas waterproofing consists of coffer topping.5m ( F i g .19 • *3 i • 3 -JP4= " 2 • 1 Coffer rib w i t h additional is a a la a 14-t 2 shear reinforcement T7 P 5 15 F i g . either by tilting the slab.u p s Often they were irregularly placed. 0 k N / m . and removed after s e v e n d a y s and to carry a then not for those areas over the filter ( 5 ) 2 5 m m thick polyurethane insulation subsequent floor after 14 days. 1 9 ) . T o save 2 . 1 8 ) . 1 5 . crane rails and so on.) I I I 19 I • • I Key Plant openings 1. but the c h o i c e medium w a s built as follows : collaboration with the civil contractor w h o s e of intersections depended on the plant layout. T h e s e slabs slabs with 2 5 m m open joints between slabs the construction of the treatment plant were designed using yield line technique. Working the treatment plant building are itemized for the hung slabs w e r e confined to the inter- d o w n w a r d s from the top the waterproofing below.18 12 Treatment p l a n t : B line w a l l (south side of building) y 3<H px^ . Hung floors Waterproofing of the filter c h a m b e r s w a s particularly critical. 6 k N / m ( m a i n floor live load 6 . Stairs and main elevators 1 5 . to fall.pressure of 3 7 5 m m of water gauge. M o c k .) Fig. Spiral stairs Corridor 17A 18T 19T 20 A 21T elllJ * 7 .C box c o l u m n s ( P h o t o : R o b a l Studios ( P v t . Return air plenum 16. Electrical cable duct 18. practical experience w a s i n v a l u a b l e .5m square coffer construction cast in situ concrete and the dust hoppers are ( 3 ) 1 0 0 0 gauge polythene sheeting with w i t h an overall depth of 0. or by laying a screed ribs. ) Ltd. T h e roofs over the filter chambers bonded to concrete a l l o w s for additional openings up to 1. Electrical cable duct 12. ) Ltd. Fig. Return air plenum 14. Additional shear r e i n - mechanical equipment as s c r e w c o n v e y o r s . S u p p l y air plenum typical to 2. 8 5 m square panels with soft board joints Main floors foreign currency the w a l l s of the chambers are between panels T h e s e are of 1. Main stairs peculiar to a 6. Material hoist floors 4. 21 16 Treatment plant building : sixth floor a n d sixth intermediate floor s h o w i n g 17 openings for c y c l o n e s in intermediate floor I I ( P h o t o : Robal S t u d i o s ( P v t . (Figs. space requirements. 20 8 I 6 Treatment plant building : fourth and 7 fourth intermediate hung f l o o r s s h o w i n g ' C line c o l u m n and B . Material hoist particular 7.z a g edges No expansion joints are provided in the treat. Support points w o u l d interfere with the process. t w o layers of mastic asphalt layed on Kraft within the coffer depth in specified locations The main reason for no joints w a s to avoid bituminous paper and covered w i t h flat both to protect the c a b l e s and to minimize having to cater for movements in s u c h asbestos/cement roofing tiles. T h e y precast concrete.i 8£3G ( P h o t o : R o b a l S t u d i o s ( P v t . These w e r e developed in close section of ribs in the main slab.2m are insulated to reduce thermal movement. Return air plenum 1 9. hung floor live load + dead load 9 . 6 k N / m ) . T h e construction of the double welt folds are designed for a superimposed load of filter area and the high portion of the treat. Crane w a l l to w o r k s h o p all main 3.20and21). not at the ( 1 ) 4 5 0 x 4 5 0 X 4 0 m m thick precast concrete of all the standard elements were made before optimum structural s p a c i n g . Passenger elevator Plant openings 5. (2) 75mm sand/concrete cover slab in commenced. S u p p l y air plenum 1 3. Small materials hoist floor (71 on 8. ( F i g . Cable routes were provided for thermal and shrinkage strains. T o w e r crane openings example s h o w n ) 9. Bucket elevators 1 1 . T h e design chambers. 2 butyl rubber sheeting with z i g . as any water or air leakage T h e six standard building elements used for These are 2 0 0 m m solid slabs. (6) Surface of concrete or screed. Electrical cable duct (temporary) Conveyor 10.) F i g .

Structurally their function is to provide vertical supports and lateral stability. 2 2 s h o w s the hanger design and Figs. 2 Precast concrete. 24 solution used up to the underside of the first Precast cladding units floor on King Mill treatment plant project (Photo: proved costly. structural steel supporting a s b e s t o s / c e m e n t sheets a n d glass reinforced cement panels were among the alternatives c) considered. Columns Hanger lower One standard size of 0 . b a n d c s h o w the s e q u e n c e of c o n - structing the main and hung floors. because the numerous o p e n . A precast F i g .5m w a s used section bolted for all c o l u m n s . T h e internal w a l l s and floors were cast after the outside shell. . Precast cladding units (Fig. 2 3 a . Fig. T h e typical panels are 6. 24) T h e total area of cladding is 3 0 . Their bending stiffness relative into place to the slab permitted a reduction in the overall design moment of the slabs. 0 6 2 m .5 X 1. H a n g e r t o p section cast into concrete 6 a) Stepl Hangertop section remains after props b) Step 2 have been removed Fig. T w o main and h u n g w i n d o w s per panel are provided to give a floors human scale to the units. Box c o l u m n s T h e s e have 2 5 0 m m w a l l s . 2 5 ) . T h e cladding needed to be sturdy and durable as replacement or repairs w o u l d be costly and difficult. T h e vertical joints between panels are o p e n - drained w i t h a baffle strip and an air seal. T h e setback in the building between the ground and the first floor simplified the waterproofing detail at the ground floor and provided a covered w a l k w a y around the building. S e q u e n c e of ments. B r i c k w o r k w a s used between the ground and the underside of the first floor. 23 the one w h i c h best suited the client's require. 7 5 X 1. Ove Arup & Partners ings at this level resulted in a number of Zimbabwe) 8 non-typical panels. T h e precast concrete solution turned out to be the cheapest and F i g . 22 Perspective v i e w of hanger design Hangers T h e design of the hangers removed them as a restraint on the construction critical path as they did not interfere w i t h the propping of a slab or of the subsequent slab.5m in constructing the size w i t h a mass of 1 4 8 0 k g ( F i g . T h e hangers are e n c a s e d in concrete for protection.

In the solid c o l u m n s only conventionally placed concrete w a s used. carried on beams.5m T h e main slabs w e r e formed w i t h fibre glass moulds and steel pans supported on tubular steel props.1 0 0 m m for conventionally placed and pumped concrete respectively. 5. F i g . For typical areas reinforcing w a s made up into cages before being lifted onto the deck. at 1. T h e m a x i m u m concrete pours w e r e in e x c e s s of 4 0 0 m per day ( F i g . T h e amount of steel fixing done in place w a s kept to a practical minimum. T h e support system a l l o w e d for the removal of the coffer mould. T h e m a x i m u m output of the pump w a s rated at 5 0 m / h o u r . 26 General v i e w of treatment plant building. T h e 2 0 0 m m hung slabs were formed using steel pans.5m x 3 . Concrete w a s moved into 3 position either in s k i p s or by pumping. 25 T y p i c a l precast panel F i g . 2 7 ) . 2 6 ) . 5 0 0 k g at full reach were used on the treatment plant. ) Ltd. but this w a s never achieved as it 3 exceeded the rate of the mixer.) r **K • l > : ) i • I3E .5m centres each w a y ( F i g . Concrete slumps were 3 5 . Construction T h e use of standard elements made possible a fast rate of construction on the site. 0 m grid. w i t h an average of 26 d a y s per floor. 3 Four tower cranes. Their m a x i m u m delivery rate w a s 1 5 m / h o u r e a c h . packed fibre store and mechanical equipment store ( P h o t o : Robal Studios ( P v t .4 5 m m and 8 5 . and then joined together using splice bars. each capable of lifting 2 . A 500mm minimum programme of 19 d a y s per floor w a s achieved. Concrete w a s supplied from t w o mixers on the east and w e s t of the building. supported by steel props s p a c e d on a 1. Pumped concrete w a s used for the entire height of the building. E l s e w h e r e both types of concrete were used interchangeably. leaving props in place at the intersection of the ribs.

External reference beacons w e r e used to establish internal control b e a c o n s at ground level. ) Ltd. A system w a s devised F i g . From these. as it w a s not practical to complete one floor before proceeding to the next. setting out work had to be carried out piecemeal. precise traversing a n d levelling from outside control beacons or n e w stations established in convenient positions. T h i s complicated the design and adjusted traverses along each line of measure- over the entire slab. B y and large the monitor- ing of construction w o r k w a s carried out using a combination of triangulation. if there w a s a temperature effect designed w a s the box c o l u m n s . thus c a u s i n g delays in the ments. F i g . Unfortunately A qualified surveyor w a s attached to the a c c u r a c y of the survey work of ± 4 m m the mechanical designers could not maintain resident engineer's team to monitor the standard deviation. it could not have exceeded the k n o w n they were on the critical path. reinforcing and shuttering w e r e erected and c h e c k e d before concrete w a s poured. T h e results of this survey w e r e element that could obviously have been better onto the buildings at night using the tower n e g a t i v e . on e a c h floor from a series of mesh w a s used for top and bottom reinforcing a n y w h e r e .o u t s for openings the detailing. C u t . north/south and e a s t / w e s t . Where possible. a c c u r a c y of the building. A program w a s developed to calculate the grid co-ordinates Again it w a s impossible to remove the pans the slab module in the vertical direction and of each corner of all the c o l u m n s . Specific construction lines were then e s t a b - lished at e a c h construction level by theodolite observations and offset measurements from this control grid.1 6 5 c o l u m n s and Treatment p l a n t : s e c o n d floor coffers in position and steel being fixed points of structural significance and process (Photo : Robal Studios ( P v t . c h a n g e s of temperature on the structure. H o w e v e r . T h i s data added at supports and around openings. usually from one corner of the building. 27 to continually c h e c k a l l . appreciated at the outset it may have been w a s used to determine the positions of each possible to provide structural c o l u m n s in the c o l u m n at e a c h floor level in turn. They were lifted building. Had this restraint been fully the outside main grid control lines. Welded wire openings in the w a l l s occurred almost bottom. closed on were made on site and additional reinforcing construction.0m lifts. both R e v i e w i n g the design and construction of the T h e precast concrete cladding units were cast during construction and to the completed treatment plant in retrospect. T h e reinforcing c a g e s were pre- fabricated. 5. prefabricated reinforcing panels w e r e used.) the results by computer. 28 Histogram s h o w i n g difference between surveyed and design positions of the centre of gravity of c o l u m n s 120 110 100 90 80 s ° 7 • cr £ 60 LL 50 40 30 20 10 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Differences between surveyed and design positions of the centre of gravity of c o l u m n s ( m m ) . T h e shutters. especially as cranes. above and below the particular level c o n - T h e w a l l s were poured continuously over the Solid c o l u m n s were cast using steel box cerned. one structural in a yard adjacent to the site. A survey w a s carried out on the effects of internal w a l l s and slabs were cast afterwards. relative to T h e hollow c o l u m n s and all other w a l l s were adjoining c o l u m n s in a horizontal plane and corners with large non-structural infill panels formed w i t h gang forms. The points and lines established in this manner on upper floors were c h e c k e d from time to time by direct observation and measurement to external b e a c o n s .5m height in approximately 2. Ideally these secondary construction lines should have been set out and adjusted proportionately between the main framework before construction w o r k c o m m e n c e d . to the same c o l u m n at a level immediately w h i c h could have been added later. T h e s e four corner points w e r e then transferred u p w a r d s w i t h a precision optical plumb to provide a replica of control for construction w o r k on each floor. top and w h i l e leaving the props in place.

T h e ( 2 ) Hot rolled round mild steel 3 0 . etc. T h e only size available (a) C o m p u t e r . 4 Site w e r e significant factors in the choice of the Contractor's staff 80 • structural concrete solutions for the different (at peak) buildings w h i c h make up the mill. systems. the contract T h e following statistics give the scope of the w a s handled as f o l l o w s : electrical installation w h i c h w a s completed During the preliminary design phase of the for a cost of Z$14 m. Enquiries w e r e . but in most w a s not disregarded for this reason. T h e majority of their manage- Civil engineering building c o n t r a c t ment and supervisory staff had to be imported especially for this project. for pieces civil contractors.000 and w a s applied as it occurred. 0 % of results were greater than 2 5 m m . firm up on a satisfactory solution to the fy=250N/mm 2 1. T h e treatment plant rates w e r e used throughout.000 and 2 .. 7 % greater than 2 0 m m .b a s e m e n t ( b e l o w M C C s ) Total length cable 7 0 0 km T h e cost plan w h i c h w a s prepared before ( F i g s . separate bills w e r e prepared F i g . Concrete aggregate used on the project consisted o f : Control system selection (1) Coarse aggregate It w a s necessary for the efficient operation. I n c o n - in this plant were centrally controlled. {3) 100 100 1 7 . it c a n be seen that 1. that the large number of drives present Quarry approximately 1 0 k m from site. 2 T h i s class of equipment is cost-effective only for the entire building.6 w h i c h again terms of fault diagnostic aids and fast \ required strict on-site monitoring. whilst simultaneously offering the m a x i m u m in \ mately 1 0 k m from the site. For arrival on site of a full-time surveyor. T h e fineness modulus varied from 2. \\%\ \ . for the vertical structure w a s determined at (//') Micro-processing units Larger sizes were available but required the T h i s equipment proved to be slightly more each floor.7% of the results greater than 2 5 m m ( c ) E l e c t r o . (ii) Micro processing units (MPU) difference between surveyed and design All aggregates complied w i t h the requirements ( b ) Solid state logic (SSL) positions of c o l u m n corners w e r e similar of the Central African Standard CASA34: with 1. Construction techniques the high obsolescence rate of computer of equipment s u c h as conveyors. 4 . Using these quantities and their Number of drives 4 . During the with adequate technical expertise are at a The geometry of a building s u c h as the site levelling and basement excavation phases premium in Z i m b a b w e . Briefly. Firstly from the structural point. devised by the civil contractor's senior site equipment and its associated spares. component replacement type. 1 0 . 2 9 and 3 0 ) construction commenced was updated monthly as information firmed up.. secondly. w h i c h coincided w i t h the (2) 230 25 4 5 k g / m flats more than that of the other alternatives.b a s e d e q u i p m e n t between 1. 16. From prelimin- appeared to increase up the building with ary enquiries it w a s evident that the cost of (7) 152 76 • 1 8 k g / m c h a n n e l s a considerable increase between the third this type of equipment w a s in order of 2 0 0 % and fifth floors. 8 k g / m angles this reason P L C d e v i c e s were given little T h e actual position of the centre of gravity (4) 65 140 1 4 . T h e prospective suppliers. skilled labour. (i) Programmable logic results are greater than 2 5 m m and 5 % are A n on-site concrete team w a s established to controllers (PLC) greater than 2 0 m m . 28 (3) Pit sand The following s y s t e m s were considered for for the difference between surveyed and T w o sources of pit s a n d were used. T h e allowable tolerance Reinforcing bars available on the project Investigations revealed that the local ( Z i m - for the difference between the position of consisted o f : b a b w e ) suppliers had neither the expertise column corners at the top and bottom of the ( 7 ) Square twisted high yield 3 0 . connections Local material and labour Electrical staff 26 Design T h e availability of local materials and skills (at peak) office. T h e s e the fundamental control of the p l a n t : design positions of the centres of gravity of were 2km from the site on the S h a b i River and (a) Computer based equipment. 29 from sketch plans for all buildings in the feed Service voltages 11.m e c h a n i c a l relays 1969. 3 k g / m I beams. and then remeasured from final 550/400/230 below main floor coffered slab d r a w i n g s . G a n g s were trained on each problem. T h e results for the control the design and placing of the concrete.9mm at the top of the s e c o n d expensive that the remaining alternatives but floor. T h e allowable tolerance for the at the more prominent external suppliers.000/3300/ Typical cable racking. 5 % of the results 12 and 1 0 m m w i t h a characteristic strength on the scale necessary for the requirements of were outside tolerance. 2 % were greater than fy=410N/mm 2 this project. A s final d r a w i n g s became available Installed transformer at each level. directed 2 5 m m . 0 0 0 results and it is felt locally w a s 4 m m diameter strand w i t h a (/') Programmable logic controllers that this gives a reasonably accurate result characteristic strength fy 1700N/mm . it is important that the structure does not staff enabled a high standard of construction move out of plumb by more than the specified to be achieved w i t h the minimum use of tolerance. difference in position of c o l u m n corners analysis of these enquiries w a s then used to 1 2 . 2 0 . A medium grained granite of reasonably the utilization of labour and effective m a n a g e - satisfactory quality obtained from Siboza I \ ment. T h e high cost implica- aggregate required close on-site attention.5% of results were greater than 3 0 m m and control problem and to open negotiation with M a x i m u m bar length 1 2 m . 30 involved in w h i c h case a new rate w a s agreed. T h e largest distance from its design expenditure of foreign currency. except w h e r e a n e w skill w a s Light fittings 12.From the results obtained s h o w n in F i g . position w a s 9. logics (EMRL) and 4 . Personnel c a s e s w i t h no previous experience. Reactive power 16 M V A V In a similar w a y .5mm with a characteristic strength directly above and below a slab w a s 3 0 m m . 1 6 . Recruitment of the S h a b a n i Mill is important from t w o points of the project. tions resulting from d o w n time of the plant ( 2 ) Fine aggregate make it essential that any control applied is as River sand w o n from the S h a b i River approxi. provisional quantities measured from sketches w a s prepared. nor facilities to provide this type of equipment same column w a s 20 mm. between the period treatment plant. the c o l u m n s . a bill of quantities based on J a n u a r y 1 977 and J u n e 1 9 8 1 . a training school w a s estab. 0 0 0 plus make up. rates were agreed by A r u p s and Grinaker. 2 0 . above percentages were obtained using (3) Pre-stressing wire. 2 5 . lished on the site. 5. Escalation w a s based on actual c h a n g e s to the make up of the rates Number of control 500. lifts. 0 0 0 km were fed to the client w h o kept an overall cost single core cable plan for the project. It is interesting to note Steel sections available locally consisted of w h e r e a high degree of logic in terms of input that the a c c u r a c y of positioning c o l u m n s the following maximum sizes : related to output is necessary. Labour w a s available in the area. requisite calibre of staff a l w a y s presents a of v i e w . T h e civil engineering contract for all buildings in the mill w a s negotiated w i t h Grinaker Electrical design •-- ( A f r i c a ) ( P r i v a t e ) Ltd.000 F i g . T h e allowable tolerance w a s 2 5 m m . Cable access to s u b . super- sistent gradings and poor shape of this vised and monitored. therefore.3 to 3. 2 5 . T h e s e costs Equivalent 1 0 . Another consideration w e i g h i n g the w h e r e eccentricities c a n c a u s e significant specific standard building element by the decision in favour of the simpler s y s t e m s w a s secondary stresses and. they were measured and the capacity 42 MVA agreed rates were applied to these quantities.6% of the 2 5 k m from site on the Nyaratedzi River. effective and simple as possible. 8. consideration.

a data logging system should be logic panel provided to record faults and the time at w h i c h these faults occurred. in and interlocking matrices w h i c h allow c o n . T h e residue of staff before being loaded w i t h the necessary Red-field isolator o p e n / s t o p button operated available for maintenance is usually an relays and light emitting diodes ( L E D ) to electrician w h o eludes or offers resistance to Amber (flashing) . and subsequently rectify. it interlock w a s our opinion that the electro-mechanical relay logic w o u l d best fulfill the requirements F i g . disturbances of this nature cannot be To meet the criteria of the provision of fault employed to patch up the desired sequences. functions ( F i g . diagnosis aids along with a quick component A mimic display w a s provided to indicate Light current technicians necessary for the replacement time. this being the highest available operating status inputs to the event-recording data required for application. tive drive cards. and 3 2 ) leads with corresponding plugs are then tunately. A g a i n 5 0 core cables were utilized are realised from the basic simplicity of this T h e drive control and auxiliary cards w e r e to transmit this information from the mimic system. Flying l o w susceptibility to line-borne noise.m e c h a n i c a l r e l a y l o g i c Supplementary cards ( a u x i l i a r y ) w e r e e m . the disadvantage with this system is the D e s c r i p t i o n of c o n t r o l s y s t e m ( F i g s . outgoing information to and from the relay an expedient manner. mimics and field control stations made occur. No special k n o w l e d g e is D C .alarm condition provide both control and fault diagnostic black box techniques. Further advantages voltage for miniature framed relays. rudimentary understanding of these s y s t e m s rack-mounted. Furthermore.Overload healthy Input from interlocking matrix o Green L E D . T h e lamp indicates the following status and are not particularly interested in manufactured from printed circuit bases conditions: maintenance positions. 3 6 ) . ( F i g s . analyzed at the design stage. Maintenance staff usually possess a accommodated in card files w h i c h were then to the data logger ( F i g . With an assessed m a x i m u m of six operations per hour per relay a n d a quotient of 1 0 6 number of operations. Illustration of the c i r c u m s t a n c e s particular to the project. special c a r d s were designed.C o n t a c t o r closed Coil Drive card points represented o Red .Alarm relay activated + ve j _ Start button 02 ]Drive1 ]Drive2 ]Drive3 • Resistors Relay Relay Start Card end D1 D2 D3 button connectors • rive 1 Capacitors Relay Relay A O • T1 Drive 2 .drive running (c) E l e c t r o .item e x c l u d e d from operation. the status maintenance of solid state systems have Each motor control circuit w a s then allocated being confirmed by a multi-state indicating generally progressed to higher employment a standard drive card. diagram i Conclusion F i g . the probable reliability F i g . stoppages. Power Motor control centre typical drive Marshalling box reference and liaison w i t h other end users. Unfor. 3 3 ) . Green . feasibility studies stoppages and indicated that the cost savings w e r e insig- identifies cause nificant. the mode of operation Field connections for marshalling matrix Drive Outputto M C C card Output to interlocking matrix o Green L E D . Malfunction of this matrix. logger. 0 0 0 lamps) Microprocessor- computer-based microprocessor unit ( M P U ) . mimic display based data logger It may be argued therefore that the use of the M P U for data logging purposes lent viability Process information Monitors plant status to the economical use of a computer-based and drive status logs in real time control system. Blue .I n t e r l o c k failed N / O contacts on interlocking matrix N / O contacts o Red . 9 9 % of most faults that nection of field inputs to the drive cards and racks. 33 of this project. in addition to the mimic Control Control desk display. the signals being c o n v e y e d a large extent insensitive to disturbances that The relays and components fitted to the above via 50 core cables. auxiliary cards are represented at the inter- ever.Stop button activated Timer and auxiliary N / O contacts relays identical o Red . 32 On the basis of the foregoing considerations. the process flow and drive status. T y p i c a l drive card It w a s decided that. 31 term of this class of equipment w o u l d be in Typical hook-up Local control station 1 e x c e s s of 2 0 years. Control cabling and are therefore reasonably confident of their Integral to these relay racks are marshalling T h e extremely high density of incoming and ability to analyze. mentioned cards were selected for 4 8 volt the mimic display w e r e also employed as ated systems. T h i s equipment without doubt offers the ployed to provide s u c h functions as timing T h e mimic lights are driven from the respec- greatest degree of operational stability. Time interval Drive 3 . 31 lock matrix in the form of sockets. 34 and 3 5 ) . H o w e v e r .(b) S o l i d s t a t e s y s t e m s of the data logger is s u c h that no influence on grammes are carried out at the interlock Solid state s w i t c h i n g c a n be considered control is exercised. It is to interludes and contact amplification. H o w . The digital signals driving generally create havoc on the more sophistic. T h e s e cards w e r e lamp. statistically superior to the electro-mechanical system does not therefore result in plant Both the inputs and outputs of the drive and relay with its attendant moving parts. it necessary to develop a special s c h e m e . It w a s therefore necessary to perform this function w i t h a ( 1 5 . the subsequent s e q u e n c i n g / i n t e r ' o c k i n g pro.

On this basis it w a s therefore decided that 2 M V A units should be installed. 34 Front v i e w of relay rack s h o w i n g interlock matrix (note roof-mounted s m o k e detectors) F i g . minutes are a l l o w e d per connection for T h e use of 5 0 core cables. 36 Control room s h o w i n g mimic panel and control desk F i g . and subject to a greater number of operations. For this reason high density aircraft type conventional s c r e w type terminals. 1 1 0 volt A C being the operating coil voltage of the 5 5 0 volt A C motor starter circuits. each these connection arrangements w a s the very nearly duplicated at the mimic a n d data 3 m m thick. To this e n d the smaller motors ( u p to 3 7 k W ) being in the majority. M o t o r control centre (Fig. •--'•'-I-Si F i g . However. 2 a significant s a v i n g . service space required and cable installation 37T time. this a l l o w e d a negligible amount I for future g r o w t h .p r o d u c e from jigs all metalwork. T o terminate A further advantage gained from the use of the fact that the 4 0 . Conventional armoured cables w e r e e m - ployed in the open areas of plant w h e r e the probability of damage exists. 5 5 a m p per k W indicated that it w a s necessary that the lines each required 1 . w h e r e possible. 37) Motor control centres w e r e designed and manufactured in s u c h a manner as to facilitate expedient component c h a n g e . particularly in v i e w of therefore in the order of 4 0 . Each p l u g / s o c k e t arrangement T h e 5 0 core plugs each required a p p r o x i - has 11 incoming/outgoing c o n n e c t i o n s with a c c o m m o d a t e s 5 0 c o n n e c t i o n s in an area mately 15 minutes to terminate results in a approximately 3. 1 3 . w e r e equipped with completely w i t h d r a w a b l e starters. i. bus-bars and associated support components. termination area w o u l d have been prohibitive. Interfacing the motor control centres to the relay racks w a s a c h i e v e d by the use of encapsulated pluggable 4 8 volt D C relays w h i c h s w i t c h the 1 1 0 volt A C via interposing relays. Advantage w a s taken of the large quantities of starters involved to m a s s . the number of approximately 25 6 0 m m . 0 0 0 obviously offered major savings in terms of plugs and s o c k e t s w e r e employed for these terminals w o u l d require 6. 2 m . With this facility it is possible to c h a n g e the complete starter module in less than t w o minutes. if 1 0 logger. 37 Motor control centres (1 line) W h e n it is considered that the average drive connections. T h e total area revised time of 2 0 0 hours.e. Transformers A load analysis on the basis of 0 .666 hours. 6 M V A transformers. 35 Rear v i e w of relay rack s h o w i n g marshalling matrix F i g . 0 0 0 terminations w e r e this amount by conventional terminals. 0 0 0 . w o u l d have meant that the total greatly reduced termination time. 4 0 .600 drives. T h i s w a s obviously terminating points at the relay racks are required w a s therefore approximately 1 .

Barker With anticipated values in e x c e s s of 4 2 M V A . 38 Client: Treatment plant transformer yard as S h a b a n i and M a s h a b a M i n e s ( P r i v a t e ) L t d . Guard necessary. Allester Senior resident engineer: T. Heydenrych E. Clinton & E v a n s Main contractors for civil and structural works: Grinaker Construction Africa ( P t y . Gustafson tops to a c h i e v e connection. particularly as the plant may be J . F a w c e t t " "Authors of this J o u r n a l assisted by J . A f r i c a n Associated M i n e s (Private) Ltd. Credits F i g . v a n der Walt Construction co-ordinator: L. T h e lighting system allowed for a basic level T h e s u c c e s s of any project depends mainly Director: of 3 0 0 lux. interesting and above all tremendous fun. Walter S i m p s o n . Photos: Bob Davey. Project management: M. N. A A M leadership and design M. to 2 M V A transformers Chief construction engineer (HV&LV) Consulting civil.G. E. in R. 1 J. M e c h a n i c a l engineering consultant Electrical design: J .S. correction and subsequent over voltage. G l u c k m a n Project site manager: In the interests of interchangeability and the T h e 4 > 4 M V A banks are automatically H. construction: used throughout w i t h the exception of the necessary. are the o w n e r s and operators of S h a b a n i Mine. M. G i l l ' Project civil engineer: J . B . the capital costs of the reactive entire country. C a s s o n " Project co-ordinator: A. Clinton ( P a r t n e r ) . L a m b .W. electrical and structura engineers: Ove Arup & Partners Project partners: R. ) L t d . ) Ltd. Contractors ( P v t .Walker Project structural engineer: 1 M. ) Ltd. Pattison. Electrical engineering consultant Mechanical and electrical installations: M. supplemented in areas considered on teamwork. removal/replacement by unskilled labour. F i g .S. N. these units were s w i t c h e d by reactive power relays. C o o m and Morant Architect: ILT.Thrasher (Partner). P. 38 and 3 9 ) . C Shone.Webber. installation for feed system: electricity is based upon an annual charge for pleted w i t h the minimum expenditure of H. plus complete Z i m b a b w e and it s h o w s that even large The Z i m b a b w e scale of tariffs for the supply of projects like this c a n be s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m . 1 4 in the first t w o years of operation. T h i s is Site manager. L e w i s . T h i s project is one of the biggest structures in Electrical contractors for treatment plant Reactive power installation lighting and small power. For all those involved in the power installation ( 1 6 M V A ) will be offset design the experience w a s challenging. H. construction: needed to operate the main fans and m i s c e l . inserted ( F i g . C o o m ( P a r t n e r ) . the m a x i m u m demand value reached at any foreign currency providing the right use is Manager: instant during the financial year. J .Allen laneous other units for lighting and services the event of too much reactive power being ( F i g s . R. if T e c h n i c a l director Design leader: H . All fluorescent lights were fitted skill formed the backbone of the entire Site agent: with quick release gear trays and 5 amp plug project team and the completed S h a b a n i Mill E. B i n n s + 3 6 M W . E. construction: T. 31 panel 11 kV main switchboard Consultants to Ove Arup B Partners Quantity surveyors: J . T h i s a l l o w s is a great credit to their organization. made of local resources. A . P. M. Electrical contractor for treatment plant power installation: Lighting small power Conclusion Electroreps ( P v t . (except w h e r e otherwise credited.) . 39 Chief construction engineer Typical arrangement Commissioning: of connections J . M. de Bruyne effective utilization of spares. it will benefit Site agent: uncorrected and calculated m a x i m u m of not only the people in the area but also the P. Armstrong larger ( 3 M V A ) 1 1 . General manager. that. 0 0 0 / 3 . A . Scholz. Noyce * Project electrical engineer: H. like the King Mill before it. 4 0 ) . w h i c h w o u l d lead to over Site agent. There is no doubt J . 3 0 0 volt units run in sections. M. 3 F i g . are Secretaries and Consultants to S h a b a n i and M a s h a b a Mines ( P r i v a t e ) Ltd. 40 Goddard and R.

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ID to CI .