4.

Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes

The law states that “when gaseous reactants combine to give gaseous products they do so in volume
which bear a simple whole number ratio to one another and to the volume of products, provided
the volume are measured under the similar conditions of temperature and pressure”.

Explanation:

1. H 2 (g ) +C l 2 (g ) → 2 HC l ( g )

1 Volume of H 2 combines with 1 volume of C l 2 to give 2 volumes of HCl gas. The
ratio is 1:1 :2 this is a simple whole number ratio

5. Avogadro law

In 1811 Avogadro stated a law which can explain gay lussac’s law of combining volumes. Avogadro
law states that “ equal volume of different gases measured under the same number of molecules”.

If 22.4 litre of C O2 at STP (at 273K and 101.3 k pa pressure) contain 6.002× 1023 molecules,
then 22.4 litres of oxygen at STP also contain 6.002× 1023 molecules.

Dalton’s atomic theory

In 1808 Dalton put forwards a new system of chemical philosophy called ‘’ Dalton’s atomic theory”
This theory was proposed to explain the observed laws of chemical combination and the other known
facts.

The Postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory

1. Matter is composed of very minute indivisible particles called atoms

2. All the atoms of the same element have identical properties like mass, size, shape etc and the
atoms of different elements differ in mass, shape, size etc.

3. An atom is the smallest particle that can take part in chemical reactions.

4. Atoms of different elements combine in a fixed, simple whole number ratio to give
‘compound atoms’ called molecules’

5. Atoms can neither be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reactions. They are
indestructible.

Atomic mass and molecular mass

An atom is smallest particle of an element which may not have independent existence. Its mass is very
small. For example the mass of an atom of hydrogen is 1.6 ×10− 27 kg . It is convenient to define
atomic masses with respect to the mass of some reference element fixed as standard.

In 1961 the international union of chemists selected C-12 as standard for atomic masses. In this
system c-12 is assigned a mass of 12 atomic mass units (amu). The scale in which the relative atomic
masses of different atoms are expressed is called is ‘amu scale’ or unified mass scale (u).

A molecule is also very small particle. So the mass of a molecule is determined relative to the mass of C 12 isotope. Molecular mass A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance (an element or compound). It means that 1 atom of oxygen is 16 times heavier than one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12. the cations (+) and the anions(-) are arranged alternatively in a regular pattern.66056 ×1 0−24 g Atomic mass of an element is defined as “the ratio of mass of an atom of the element to one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12” . Molecular mass of methane ( C H 4 )=1 × atomic mass of C+ 4 × atomic mass of H 1× 12+ 4 × 1 16 amu Formula mass In an ionic compound.Molecular mass is calculated by adding the atomic masses 12 th of all the atoms of various elements present in a molecule. Atomic mass of oxygen is 16. Formula mass is “the sum of atomic masses of all the atoms in the formula unit in an ionic crystal” Formula mass of NaOH=atomicmass of Na+atomic mass of O+atomic mass of H 23+16+1 . mass of one molecule of the given substance Molecular mass= 1 the mass of an atom of C − 12 12th Molecular mass is a number which indicates how many times mass of the given molecule is heavier 1 than the mass of an atom of C-12. Which is capable of independent existence.“ One amu is defined as the mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of one C-12 atom” 1 amu = 1. The molecular mass is “the ratio of the mass of one molecule of the given substance to one-tweifth the mass of an atom of c-12”. mass of an atom an element Atomic mass= 1 xmass of an atom of C − 12 12 Atomic mass of an element is a number which expresses how many times an atom of that element is heavier than one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12. It is not possible to determine actual mass of a molecule.

Thus 1 mole of Al ( 27 g of Al ) contains 6. Molar mass or gram mole of sodium hydroxide is 40g.23× 1023 molecules of S O2+1 ×6. Similarly gram mole of sulphuric acid is 98g.022 ×1023 molecule of O2 combine to give 2× 6. 23 Just like we use the term dozen to represent 12.022× 10 particles or entities. 40 Molar mass of gram molecular mass or gram mole Molar mass is defined as “the quantity of the substance equal to molecular mass in grams” The molecular mass of sodium hydroxide is 40. 2 S o 2+ O 2 → 2 S O 3 It implies that. we use a ‘mole’ to represent 6.4 dm3. Example : 1 mole of C O2=44 g . 44 g of C O2 at STP occupies 22. Percentage composition Percentage composition of a compound can be obtained by qualitative and quantitative analysis.0 . 2 moles of S O2+1 mole of O2 combine to give 2 moles of S O2+1 mole of O2 combine to give 2× 6.4 d m of any gas at STP is its gram-molar mass. The percentage composition refers to the amount of various constituent present per hundred parts by mass of the given substance.022× 1023 atoms of Al + ( 23 g ) ❑ 1 mole of ❑ contains 6. Let us consider the reaction. mass of elementx 100 Mass of an element ∈ a compound = mass of the compound .022× 1023 ions of +¿ N a Na Example: 2 S O 2 +O 2⇌ 2 S O3 2 molecules of S O2 combine with one molecule of O2 to give 2 molecules of sulphur trioxide..023 ×1023 molecules of S O3 . Mole concept A mole is defined as “ the amount of the substance that contains as many elementary particles as the number of atoms of carbon present in 12g of C-12 isotope” In generals ‘one mole’ is the quantity of a substance containing Avogadro number of particles-atoms or molecules or ions. 3 Thus it follows that the mass of 22.

thus by knowing mass of Mg and O 2 reacted. 2 Mg +O 2 → 2 MgO This equation implies that 1. is CH. Molecularmass EF and MF are related as MF=( EF ) nWheren= EFmass Stoichimetry and Stoichiometric calculations: Stoichiometry involves chemical calculations based on the balanced chemical equation for the reactions formulae or symbols of reactants are written on the left side of the arrow mark. By analysis. . These substances may be solids.Empirical and molecular formulae: Empirical formula: is the simplest formula of a substance. hydrogen and oxygen and oxygen is 2”1. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. a solution in which a relatively small amount of the solute is dissolved in the same amount of the solvent is said to be a dilute solution. Molecular formulae Molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in the molecule of the given compound. the ratio of the number of atoms of carbon. C and H atoms are in the ratio 1: 1 So the empirical formula for benzene. solution=Solid solute+liquid solvent Concentration of solution=amount of solute dissolved in given volume of solvent A solution in which relatively large amount of the solute is dissolved in a given volume of the solvent is referred as a concentrated solution. The atoms on either side are balanced introducing suitable coefficients. “Empirical formula gives the relative number of atoms of each element present in the compound”. By knowing the mass of Mg reacted. Example: Magnesium burns in oxygen to give magnesium oxide. Similarly in water. 2 moles of Mg combines with 1 mole of O2 to give 2 moles of magnesium oxide. This reaction is represented by its following chemical equation. The most common type of solution is the one containing a solid solute in a liquid solvent. 2× 24=48 g of Mgcombines with 32g of O2 to give 2× 40=80 g of MgO . gases or a mixture of them. The Formulae or symbol of the products are written on the right side of the arrow mark. liquids. 2. the volume of oxygen required for the complete burning of Mg can be calculated. it has been found that in benzene. Concentration or strength of solutions: A majority of chemical reactions occur in solutions. There are several ways of expressing the concentrations of solutions. This forms the bases for stoichiometric calculations. On the other hand. So empirical formula of water is H 2 O . the mass of MgO formed can be calculated.

is said to be a 10% solution of sodium chloride. molality. mole fraction and parts per million (ppm). nA Similarly. Mass percent(%): It is the number of gram of solute present in 100 g solution. nA In a binary mixture of A and B. Eg: A solution containing 10g of solute present in 100 g solution. N=normality ∈ equivalent dm^3 and E=equivalent mass in gram. the mole fraction of A= X A = n A +nb Where n A and n B are the number of moles of A and B respectively. Mass of solute Mass= × 100 mass of solution Molarity (M): Molarity of a solution is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in one cubic decimetre ( d m3 ) of the solution. m N= E . Number of moles of solute Mass of soluteinkgof solvent Molality= or Molality= mass of solventinkg molecularmass of solute Mole fraction(x):Mole fraction of a constituent in a mixture is.Mass percent. The ratio of the number of moles of that constituent to the total number of moles of all constituents in the mixture. mole fraction of B=X B= n A + nb Number of moles of aconstituent Mole fraction= Totalnumber of moles of allconstituents Normality (N): mass of solute Number of equivalents of solute= equivalentmass of solute MAss of solute ingram Normality of solution= 3 volume of solutionin d m xequivalentmass of solute Where m= mass of solute in gram dissolved in V d m3 . Eg: A solution containing 10g of sodium chloride dissolved in 100g solution. mass of solute ∈ grams present ∈1 d m3 Molarity= Molecular mass of solute Molality (m): Molality of a solution is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in one kilogram of solvent. normality.

Mass of 1 atom of an element Avogadronumber Grammolecularmass 4. That reactant is called the limiting reagent”. mass of solute ppm= ×1 06 mass of solution Limitation reagent: In a reaction. “The reactant taken in smaller amount then the amount required by the balanced equation limits amount of the product formed. 3 m= mass of solute in gram present in 1dm solution. then it only gets reacted completely and excess quantity of the other reactant remains unreached. The amount of the product formed depends on the quantity of the limiting reagent. If any one of the reactants present in a smaller amount then the required quantity. Parts per million (ppm): Parts per million abbreviated as ppm is used to express very small concentration. Temperature in Celsius scale and that in Fahrenheit are related as F= ( ° C ) +32 5 Gramatomicmass 3. For example: to express hardness of water and concentration of pollutant in a sample of water. if all of the reactants are available in proportions as required by balanced chemical equation then the reactions goes to completion and no reactant remains unreacted. % Mass of an element in a compound massof thecompound Massof solute 8. Important Relations(Formula’s) 1. EF and MF are related as MF=( EF ) n n= EFmass massof theelementx 100 7. Mass of 1 molecule of a compound Avogadronumber massingram 5. Mass and number of moles of a substance are related as. Temperature in Celsius scale and that in Kelvin are related as K=Celsius scale+273 9 2. The unit of ppm is usually milligrams. Mass ¿ ×100 Massof solution . 3 Parts per million is the mass in milligrams solute in 1 dm of solution. n= grammoleculermass Molecularmass 6.

Molarity 3 volume of solutiond m massofsoluteingramspresentin1 d m3 Molarity Molecularmassofsolute number of moles of solute 10. N= E 3 M=mass of solute in gram present in 1dm solution. massofsolute 15. ppm ×1 06 massofsolution Concept Based Questions Matter and it s classification 1. Similarly. In binary mixture of A and B the mole fraction of A= X A = n A +nb Where n A and n B are the number of moles of A and B respectively. Normality 3 Volume of solution∈ d m xe quivalentmassofsolute m N= or M =N ×V × E vxE 3 Where m=mass of solute in gram dissolved in V d m . Molality Or massof solventinkg Massofsoluteinkg of solvent Molality= molecularmassof solute nA 11. nA mole fraction of B X B= n A + nb ¿ Totalnumber of moles of allcostituents Mole fraction ¿ Number of moles of aconstituent ❑ Number of equivalents of solute 12. Number of equivalents of solute= equivalentmassofsolute M Assofsoluteingram 14. What is chemistry?[1] . N=normality inequivalent m dm 3 and E=equivalent mass in gram. Normality Volume of a solutionind m3 Massofsolute 13. Nmber of moleofsolute 9.

What is the difference between precision and accuracy?[1] 2. Write seven fundamental quantities and their units. State law of definite proportions. Differentiate solids. liquids &gases in terms of volume &shapes. How has chemistry contributed towards nation’s development?[1] 3. How can we separate the components of a compound? Properties of matter and their measurement 1. What does the following prefixes stand for-[2]. (a) pico (b) nano (c) centi (d) deci Uncertainty in measurement 1. 8.[2] 4. gold. What are the reference points in thermometer with Celsius scale?[1] 9. [1] 10. [2] 8. What are the two different system of measurement?[1] 3. 9. tea. silver. What is the SI unit of density?[1] 7. Convert 35 ° C to ℉ & K. carbondioxide and platinum [2] 7. How many significant figures are present in[3] 2 (a) 4. sodium and milk.[1] 10. steel. What is the difference between molecules and compounds? Give examples of each. Classify following substances as element. Name the different methods that can be used for separation of components of a mixture. 2. What is the SI unit of volume? What is the other common unit which in not an SI unit of volume. How is volume measured in laboratoty? Convent 0.5L into ml and 30 c m3 to dm 3 [2] 6.01 ×10 (b) 8. How is matter classified at macroscopic level?[2] 6. [1] 5. How can we say that sugar is solid and water is liquid? [2] 4. Classify following as pure substances and mixtures-air. compounds and mixture-water. glucose.[1] . How are physical properties different from chemical properties?[1] 2. What do you understand by significant figures? [1] 3. What is the difference between mass and weight? How is mass measured in laboratory? 5.256 (c) 100 4.

C 12 H 22 O 11 . H 2 S O 4 .. what is molecular mass?[1] 6. [2] 5.. H 202 .97g. Write an expression for molarity and molality of a solution.. H 3 P O 4 10..C 6 H 12 . Calculate the number of molecules present in 0.[2] 6. 5. What is stoichiometry?[1] 2.819g of H2O.2000g of vitamin C gives 0. What is the value of one mole?[1] 2.. Write empirical formula f following –[4] CO . What is formula mass?[1] Mole concept. Give one example each of molecule in which empirical formula and molecular formula are (i) same (ii) different.2998g of CO2 and 0. The substance which gets used up in any reaction is called. Explain law of multiple proportions with an example. Vitamin C is essential for the prevention of scurvy... What is the empirical formula of vitamin C? [3] Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric calculations 1. 7. Combustion of 0. Calculate the number of moles in the following masses-[2] (i) 7... Na2 CO 3 .. [2] 4. Calculate the weight of lime ( CaO ) obtained by heating 2000kg of 95% pure lime stone ( CaCO 3 ) [ 2 ] 5. Define one atomic mass unit (amu). At NTP. Write postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory.. Calculate molecular mass of − [ 2 ] C 2 H 6 . Fe 203 .. State Avogadro’s law{1} 7.85 g of Fe (ii) 7. 1L of a gas at STP weighs 1. percentage composition 1. [2] 3.. what will be the volume of molecules of 6.. H 3 P 04 .022× 1023 H 2 ? [1] 3.. [2] 8. What is the molarity of resulting solution?[2] . What is 1molal solution? [1] 7.9 mg of Ca 8.. N 204.5 moles of CO 2 ? [1] 4.. How much potassium for molarity and molality of a solution. 4 litres of water are added to 2L of 6 molar HCl solutions. [1] 9.[1] 6. KCI .

07% of hydrogen 24.9 . Calculation molar mass of the following a) C H 3 COOH b) C2 H 5 Oh ( 2 M ) 3.96g. Mass H=1. Express the following number in scientific notation 0.96g. a) A compound contains 4. Determine its molecular formula (at. C=12.27 of carbon and 71.65% of chlorine.O=16 ( 2 M ) 3.mass of Ca.(1M) 2. Mass h=1.=40. C=12. (1M) 2.000268.0048 in scientific notation.4 g of C O2 in the following equation CaC O3 CaO+ C O2 → (at.7 and the rest is oxygen. a) a compound contains 4. a) An organic compound on analysis gave the following percentage composition. C=12.=40. (1M) 2. (2M) . Determine its molecular formula (at. Cl=35. The molar mass is 98. The molar mass is 98. State Avogadro law.07% of hydrogen 24.mass of following equation Ca. What is the mass of calcium carbonate decomposed to produce 4. What is the mass of calcium carbonate decomposed to produce 4. 8. What volume of 10M HCl and 3M HCl should be mixed to obtain 1 L of 6M HCl solution? QUESTIONS APPEARED IN PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPERS & MODEL QP Total Part-A Part-B Part-C Part-D Weightage 1M 2M 3M 5M BM 1 1 1 March-2013 1.65% of chlorine. C=39. Find its empirical formula (3M) b) define the terms mass and weight.4g of C O2 in the CaC O3 CaO+ C O2 → (at. H =6.5) (3M) b) define the terms limiting reagent and molarity (2M) 2014 (may) 1. Express 0.O=16 ( 2 M ) 3. (2M) 2014(Feb/March) 1.27% of carbon and 71. cl=35.5) (3M) b) Define the terms limiting reagent and molarity. C=12.

Write the IUPAC name of the compound C H 3 CH =C ( C H 3 )2 (1M) 2. Cl=35.2015 (Feb/March) 1. Mass H=1.65% of chlorine. a) Explain the mechanism of chlorination of benzene.96g. (2M) 2. how is benzene is converted into cyclohexane? Give reaction. State markownikoff’s rule. (2M) 3. Draw staggered conformation of ethane. How do you convert ethane to ethane? Give equation. a) State law of definite proportions b) express 0. (2M) Model QP-II 1. The molar mass is 98. (2M) 3. C=12. a) A compound contains 4. (2M) . a) Calcium carbonate decomposes to give C O2 gas according to the equation CaC o3 → caO+ C O2 Calculate the mass of CaO and C O2 produced on complete decomposition of 5g of CaC O 3 (3M) b) define the terms limiting reagent and molarity. (1M) Model QP-I 1.2500g? If the mass of one molecule of water is 18u. Define Mole fraction.05% of hydrogen 24. (2M) Model QP-III 1. (1M) 2. (1M) 2.006234 in scientific notaion. How many significant figures are in 0. (1M) 2.3% of carbon and 71. State law of definite proportions. (2M) 3. Explain Friedel Craft’s reaction with an example. what is Huckel’srule? Give example. (3M) b) how is ethyne prepared from calcium carbide? (2M) Model QP-IV 1. determine its molecular formula (at. what is the mass of one mole of water molecule? 3.5) (4M) b) define the term molarity. (2M) 4. a) Explain the free radical mechanism of chlorination of methane (3M) b) Explain Wurtz’s reaction with example.

. What is homogeneous mixture? Give an example. Write the relationship between ℃ and Kelvin. 3. (2M) 3.88% hydrogen and 94. a) Explain the free radical mechanism of chlorination of methane (3M) b) explain Friedel Craft’s reaction of benzene with an example. Find the molecular formula of this compound.12% oxygen. (1M) 2. Write an equation for molefraction of a solute. (2M) May-2016 1. b) define mole fraction. a) A compound with molecular mass of 34g/mol is knows to contain 5.