Atoms consist of sub-atomic particles such as electrons, protons and neutrons. The protons are
positively charged particles and are present in the nucleus of the atom. The electrons are negatively
charged particles revolving around the nucleus and neutrons are present in the nucleus along with the
protons. Most of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.


A discharge tube fitted with metal plates connected to high voltage source. The tube is also connected
to a vacuum pump for controlling the pressure of gas inside the discharge tube. The inner side of the
tube is coated with a thin layer of fluorescent material.

Figure 1: A cathode ray discharge tube

When the high voltage is applied some rays are emitted from the cathode which started moving
towards anode. It can be seen by fluorescence produced. These rays are called cathode rays because
they started from cathode and ended at anode. These rays were found to consist of negatively charged
material particles, called electrons.


The cathode rays possess the following properties.

1. Cathode rays travel in straight lines.

2. Heating effect: When cathode rays are focused on a thin metal foil, it gets heated up to

3. Effect of electric field: When electric field is applied to a stream of cathode rays, they get
deflected towards positive place. It showed that cathode rays themselves are negatively

4. Effect of magnetic field: When magnetic field is applied, perpendicular to the path of cathode
rays, they get deflected in the direction as expected for negative particles. This further
confirmed that cathode rays are negatively charged.

CHARGE TO MASS RATION (E/M) ELECTRONS Sir J. The above mentioned properties of cathode rays indicated that they consist of a fast-moving stream of negatively charged material particles.Thomson.758820 × 1011 ???−1 The e/m ratio for the particles in the cathode rays was found to be same irrespective of the nature of cathode pr the nature of the gas taken in the discharge tube. CHARGE ON THE ELECTRONS The charge (e) on an electron was determined by R.A. thus showing that the electrons are basic constituent of all atoms. Millikan in 1909 by ‘oil drop’ experiment. Thomson (1897) studied the deflection of cathode rays under the simultaneous application of electric and magnetic fields. These particles were named electrons by J. This further confirmed that cathode rays are negatively charged.758820 × 108 ??−1 or 1. The value of e/m was found to be 1.J. Figure 2 The apparatus to determine the change to the mass ratio of electron The electric and magnetic fields applied in this way deviate the path of cathode rays in opposite directions. In this method a spray of oil droplets is produced by an atomizer. applied perpendicular to each other as well as to the path of cathode rays. It is possible to adjust the magnitudes of the two fields so that the cathode rays strike the fluorescent screen at the same position as they do when neither field is applied it is possible to calculate charge (e) to mass (m) ratio of the electrons. .J.

discovered the existence of a new type of rays in the discharge tube. The mass of electron is very small and is approximately 1⁄1837 times the mass of n atom of hydrogen. The oil droplet as a result becomes negatively charged. The space between charged plates is irradiated with X-rays. “An electron is a fundamental particle of atom carrying one unit negative charge and having mass nearly equal to 1⁄1837th of mass of an atom of hydrogen”.Figure 3 The millikan oil drop apparatus for measuring charge ‘e’ In chamber the The oil droplets enter the apparatus through a small hole and are allowed to fall in between two charged plates. The charge on the electron is found to be 1. ANODE RAYS OR CANAL RAYS Goldstein in 1886. Millikan found charge on all oil droplets could be expressed as whole number multiple of e. Some the characteristics properties of anode rays are: 1.60 × 10−19 ? ⁄???????? Mass of the electron. MASS OF THE ELECTRON By combining the e/m ratio and charge (e) of the electron.6022×10−19 ? ⁄???????? ? = ?⁄? = 1. it is possible to calculate mass of the electron.1094 × 10−31 ??⁄????????. . it is possible to calculate charge (q) on the droplet. ? Thomson experiment:? = 1. ? 1.1094 × 1028 ?⁄???????? 9. Anode rays travel in straight lines. On passing the electric discharge at low pressure he observed a new type of rays streaming behind the cathode. 2.6) in the discharge tube.6022 × 10−19 ?. The motion of the droplets is observed with a telescope. This is taken as one unit negative charge. One or more electrons. Further investigations of these rays showed that they consist of positively charged material particles.758820 × 108 ? ⁄? Milikan experiment:? = 1. which was considered to be electronic charge.75882×108 ? ⁄? =9. By measuring the velocity of a given oil droplet as it falls freely under influence of gravity and then in an electric field. These rays were named anode rays or canal rays. thus produced may be absorbed by an oil droplet. He used a perforated cathode (Fig. The X-rays ionize the molecules of air.

1. When a magnetic field is applied in a direction expected for positive particles.. electrons. Anode rays are deflected by electric field towards negatively charged plate. the atoms of all other elements contain all the three fundamental particles.0005 0 Proton p +1 +1.673 × 10−27 ??. “A proton is a fundamental particles of atom carrying one unit positive charge and having mass nearly equal to the mass of an atom of hydrogen”. 4. Charge on portion is opposite but equal in magnitude to the charge on the electron i.6022 × 1019 9. The mass of the atom is largely due to protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.675 × 10−27 ?? and were named neutrons. He bombarded a thin foil of beryllium with fast moving ? −particles and observed that highly penetrating rays consisting of neutral particles were produced. This indicates that they are positively charged.00727 1 1. These highest positively charged particles were named protons. protons and neutrons.6022 × 1027 1. Except for the hydrogen atoms. DISCOVERY OF THE PROTON The charge to mass ratio of the particles in the anode rays was found to depend upon the nature of the gas in the discharge tube. 3. Properties of Fundamental particles of Atoms Particles Symbol Relative Absolute charge Mass (kg) Mass Approximate mass charge (C) (amu) (amu) Electron e −1 −1. Anode rays consist of material particles. The atom of hydrogen contains only one proton and one electron. 9 4?? + 42?? → 12 6? + 10? These neutral particles were found to have mass 1.6022 × 10−19 ? and mass of portion is 1.10939 × 1031 0.67262 × 1027 4 1 Neutron n 0 0 1.675 × 10−27 kg which is almost equal to that of a hydrogen atom.67493 × 1027 1.0086 . A neutron is a subatomic particle carrying no charge and having mass 1. DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON Neutrons were discoverd by James Chadwick in 1932. This further indicates that they are positively charged. It was observed that e/m ratio was maximum when hydrogen gas was taken in the discharge tube. This indicated that positive ions formed from hydrogen are lightest. 2.e.

7 RADIOACTIVITY The discovery of cathode rays and anode rays showed that the atoms are divisible into subatomic particles. Atom is spherical with the uniform distributions of protons. (b) The rays which deflected towards positive plate were named as ? −rays. iii. Mass of the atom is evenly spread over the entire atom. The spontaneous emission of active radiations by certain element like uranium is called radioactivity and the elements are called radioactive elements. 2+ ? − ????????????????????????ℎ????? particles. In atom the electrons are distributed similar to seeds in watermelon or raisin pudding. . the radiation is resolved into three directions. This was further supported by the phenomenon of radioactivity discoverd by Becquerel in 1896. (a) The rays which deflected slightly towards negative plate were named as ? −rays. ?? THOMSON’S MODEL OF ATOM Thomson (1898) was the first to propose a detailed model of the atom: Assumptions: i. Total positive charge of protons in neutralized by the negative charge of electrons thus the atom is neutral. (c) The rays which remained undeflected were named as ? − ????. On placing a sample of uranium mineral in a lead block and allowing the emitted rays to pass through strong electric or magnetic fields. This model of atom is known as the ‘plum-pudding model’ or raisin pudding model’ or watermelon model. ii.

ii. Figure3: Thomson model of atom This model could explain electrical neutrality of atom but failed to explain the observations of Rutherford’s ? −particle scattering experiment. Since the number of such ? − ????????? is very small. A very few ? − ????????? (1 in 20000) were either deflected by very large angle or were actually reflected back along their path. The small angle of deflection of ? − ????????? indicated the presence of a heavy positive centre in the atom. Some of the ? − ?????????were deflected by small angles. It indicates that the most of the space in an atom is empty. ? − ????????? being positively charged and having considerable mass could be deflected only by some heavy. Rutherford observed that: i. Rutherford named this positive centre as nucleus iii. Schematic molecular view of the gold foil Whenever an ? −particle struck the screen a tiny flash of light was produced at that point. positively charged centre. a circular fluorescent screen coated with zinc sulphide (???) was placed around the foil to detect the deflection suffered by ? − ?????????as shown in figure. RUTHERFORD’S NUCLEAR MODEL OF ATOM ALPHA PARTICLE SCATTERING EXPERIMENT Rutherford bombarded ? − ????????? obtained from radioactive element on a thin sheet of gold foil. the space occupied by the heavy positive centre must be very small. Figure-4 B. Most of the ? − ????????? (nearly 99. ? − ????????? which make head-on collision with heavy positive centre are deflected through large angles. RUTHERFORD’S NUCLEAR MODEL OF ATOM .9%) passed through the gold foil undeflected.

Nuclear model of atom can be compared with the solar system. therefore. Main points of this model are: 1. 3. 4. Size of the nucleus is very small as compared with the size of the atom. Electrons are revolving around the nucleus in circular path. 5. Thus it would slow down and get attracted by the nucleus. FAILURE OF RUTHERFORD’S MODEL According to Maxwell a moving charged particle when accelerated emits energy in the form of electromagnetic radiaton. Due to this comparison revolving electrons are sometimes called planetary electrons and Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom is known Planetary model of atom. Most of the mass and all the positive charge of an atom is present in a very small region called nucleus. electron revolving in an orbit should continuously emit radiations. Total negative charge on the electrons is equal to the positive charge on the nucleus so that atom on the whole is electrically neutral. Figure 5 Electron . The positive charge on the nucleus is due to protons. 2. This means atom should collapse. The electrostatic force of attraction between electrons and the nucleus is balanced by the centrifugal force acting on the revolving electrons. Most of the space inside an atom is empty. hence. On the basis of scattering experiment Rutherford put forward nuclear model of atom. But actually we known atom is stable. it moves closer and closer to the nucleus and finally falls in the nucleus by following a spiral path (Fig). Since electrons are charged particles. In an atom the electrons revolve around the nucleus in just the same way as the planets revolve around the nucleus in just the same way as the planets revolve around the sun.

ISOBARS Isobars are the atoms having same mass number but differ in atomic number for example. Rutherford’s model failed to explain stability of atoms. 2. 3. Atomic Number (Z)= Number of protons = Number of electrons MASS NUMBER protons and neutrons are present in the nucleus are called nucleons. It is denoted by the letter Z. It does not explain the arrangement of electrons in the atom. 21? ∧ 31? 2) three isotopes of carbon are represented as 126?. Rutherford’s model also failed to explain the existence of certain definite lines in the hydrogen spectrum. . 1. Isotopes contain same number of electrons hence they show similar properties. it is generally represented by the letter A.Thus. Ex: 1) Three isotopes of hydrogen can be represented as 11?. total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is called mass number of the atom. Mass Number (A) = Number of protons+ number of neutrons = Number of nucleons ISOTOPES Isotopes are the atoms having same atomic number but differ in mass number or the atoms having same number of protons but differ in number of neutrons. ATOMIC NUMBER AND MASS NUMBER ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protein in the nucleus or equal to the number of electrons in a neutral atom. 136? ∧ 146?.