# 1.

Law of Conservation
of Mass

It states that “matter can neither be created nor destroyed”.

2.Law of Definite Proportions

It states that “a
given compound always
contains exactly the same
proportion of elements by
weights”.

3.Law of Multiple Proportions

According to this law “if two elements can
combine to form more than one compound, the
masses of one element that combine with a
fixed mass of the other element, are in the
ratio of small whole numbers”.

4. Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes
The law states that “when gaseous reactants combine to give gaseous products they do so in volume
which bear a simple whole number ratio to one another and to the volume of products, provided the
volume are measured under the similar conditions of temperature and pressure”.
Explanation:
1. H 2 ( g ) + C l 2 ( g ) → 2H C l ( g )
1 Volume of H 2 combines with 1 volume of Cl 2 to give 2 volumes of HCl gas. The ratio is 1:1 :2 this
is a simple whole number ratio.

In 1811 Avogadro stated a law which can explain gay lussac’s law of combining volumes. Avogadro
law states that “ equal volume of different gases measured under the same number of molecules”.
23
If 22.4 litre of CO 2 at STP (at 273K and 101.3 k pa pressure) contain 6 . 022×10 molecules, then
23
22.4 litres of oxygen at STP also contain 6 . 022×10 molecules.

Dalton’s atomic theory
In 1808 Dalton put forwards a new system of chemical philosophy called ‘’ Dalton’s atomic theory”
This theory was proposed to explain the observed laws of chemical combination and the other known
facts.

The Postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory
1. Matter is composed of very minute indivisible particles called atoms
2. All the atoms of the same element have identical properties like mass, size, shape etc and the
atoms of different elements differ in mass, shape, size etc.

Atomic mass of oxygen is 16. Formula mass is “the sum of atomic masses of all the atoms in the formula unit in an ionic crystal” . The molecular mass is “the ratio of the mass of one molecule of the given substance to one-tweifth the mass of an atom of c-12”. It is convenient to define atomic masses with respect to the mass of some reference element fixed as standard. Atoms can neither be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reactions. 3. In this system c-12 is assigned a mass of 12 atomic mass units (amu). Molecular mass A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance (an element or compound). “ One amu is defined as the mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of one C-12 atom” 1 amu = 1. An atom is the smallest particle that can take part in chemical reactions.Molecular mass is calculated by adding the atomic masses of all the atoms of various elements present in a molecule. simple whole number ratio to give ‘compound atoms’ called molecules’ 5. They are indestructible. the cations (+) and the anions(-) are arranged alternatively in a regular pattern. The scale in which the relative atomic masses of different atoms are expressed is called is ‘amu scale’ or unified mass scale (u). 6×10−27 kg . 4. For example the mass of an atom of hydrogen is 1. Its mass is very small. So the mass of a molecule is determined relative to the mass of C 12 isotope. Atoms of different elements combine in a fixed. mass of one molecule of the given substance 1 the mass of an atom of C −12 Molecular mass= 12th Molecular mass is a number which indicates how many times mass of the given molecule is heavier 1 than 12th the mass of an atom of C-12. mass of an atom an element Atomicmass= 1 x mass of an atom of C −12 12 Atomic mass of an element is a number which expresses how many times an atom of that element is heavier than one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12. It is not possible to determine actual mass of a molecule.A molecule is also very small particle. In 1961 the international union of chemists selected C-12 as standard for atomic masses. Which is capable of independent existence. 66056×10−24 g Atomic mass of an element is defined as “the ratio of mass of an atom of the element to one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12” . Molecular mass of methane(CH4)=Atomic mass of C+ 4(atomic mass of H)= 1× 12 + 4× 1 = 16 amu Formula mass In an ionic compound. Atomic mass and molecular mass An atom is smallest particle of an element which may not have independent existence. It means that 1 atom of oxygen is 16 times heavier than one-twelfth the mass of an atom of C-12.

Thus 1 mole of Al ( 27g ofAl ) contains 6 . 022×1023 atoms of Al 1 mole of Na+ contains 6 . Molar mass or gram mole of sodium hydroxide is 40g. 2 moles of SO 2 +1 mole of O 2 combine to give 2 moles of SO 2 +1 mole of O 2 23 combine to give 2×6 . . 2S O +O → 2S O Let us consider the reaction. “Empirical formula gives the relative number of atoms of each element present in the compound”. Thus it follows that the mass of 22. 022×1023 ions of +Na Example: 2S O 2 +O2⇌ 2S O 3 2 molecules of SO 2 combine with one molecule of O 2 to give 2 molecules of sulphur trioxide. Percentage composition Percentage composition of a compound can be obtained by qualitative and quantitative analysis. C and H atoms are in the ratio 1: 1 So the empirical formula for benzene. By analysis. 023× 1023 molecules of SO 3 . Molecular formulae Molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in the molecule of the given compound. 022×1023 particles or entities. 44 g of CO 2 at STP occupies 22. The percentage composition refers to the amount of various constituent present per hundred parts by mass of the given substance. 022×10 molecule of O 2 combine to 23 give 2×6 . m ass of elem ent x 100 Mass of an elem ent in a compound= m ass of the com pound Empirical and molecular formulae: Empirical formula: is the simplest formula of a substance. it has been found that in benzene. is CH. hydrogen and oxygen and oxygen is 2”1. Mole concept A mole is defined as “ the amount of the substance that contains as many elementary particles as the number of atoms of carbon present in 12g of C-12 isotope” In generals ‘one mole’ is the quantity of a substance containing Avogadro number of particles-atoms or molecules or ions.Formula mass of N aO H = atom icm assofN a+ atom icm assofO + atom icm assofH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 amu Molar mass of gram molecular mass or gram mole Molar mass is defined as “the quantity of the substance equal to molecular mass in grams” The molecular mass of sodium hydroxide is 40.23×10 molecules of SO 2 +1 ×6 . 2 2 3 It implies that. So empirical formula of water is H 2 O . the ratio of the number of atoms of carbon. 0 . Just like we use the term dozen to represent 12. we use a ‘mole’ to represent 6 . Example : 1 mole of CO 2 =44g . Similarly gram mole of sulphuric acid is 98g.. 4 dm 3 of any gas at STP is its gram-molar mass. Similarly in water.4 dm3.

The Formulae or symbol of the products are written on the right side of the arrow mark. thus by knowing mass of Mg and O 2 reacted. 2 moles of Mg combines with 1 mole of O 2 to give 2 moles of magnesium oxide. molality. On the other hand. 2Mg +O 2 → 2MgO This equation implies that 1. Molality (m): Molality of a solution is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in one kilogram of solvent. There are several ways of expressing the concentrations of solutions. Mass percent. Eg: A solution containing 10g of solute present in 100 g solution. Eg: A solution containing 10g of sodium chloride dissolved in 100g solution. Mass percent(%): It is the number of gram of solute present in 100 g solution. so lu tion = S olid so lute+ liq u id so lven t Concentration of solution=amount of solute dissolved in given volume of solvent A solution in which relatively large amount of the solute is dissolved in a given volume of the solvent is referred as a concentrated solution. M olecularm ass MF= ( EF ) n Wheren= EFm ass EF and MF are related as Stoichimetry and Stoichiometric calculations: Stoichiometry involves chemical calculations based on the balanced chemical equation for the reactions formulae or symbols of reactants are written on the left side of the arrow mark. the mass of MgO formed can be calculated. The most common type of solution is the one containing a solid solute in a liquid solvent. Num ber of m oles of solute Mass of solute in kg of solvent m ass of solvent in kg m olecular m ass of solute Molality= or Molality= . 2× 24 = 48g of Mgcombines with 32g of O 2 to give 2× 40= 80g of MgO . liquids. This reaction is represented by its following chemical equation.it depends on temperature. The atoms on either side are balanced introducing suitable coefficients. mole fraction and parts per million (ppm). 2. the volume of oxygen required for the complete burning of Mg can be calculated. a solution in which a relatively small amount of the solute is dissolved in the same amount of the solvent is said to be a dilute solution. Example: Magnesium burns in oxygen to give magnesium oxide. These substances may be solids. is said to be a 10% solution of sodium chloride. gases or a mixture of them. This forms the bases for stoichiometric calculations. By knowing the mass of Mg reacted. Concentration or strength of solutions: A majority of chemical reactions occur in solutions. normality. M ass of solute Mass= × 100 m ass of solution Molarity (M): Molarity of a solution is defined as the number of moles of the solute present in one cubic decimetre ( dm 3 ) of the solution. 3 mass of solute grams present in1 dm Molarity= Molecular mass of solute Since it involves volume term. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

the mole fraction of A=X A = n +n A b Where n A and n B are the number of moles of A and B respectively. A n Similarly. Important Relations(Formula’s) 1. Parts per million is the mass in milligrams solute in 1 dm 3 of solution. Temperature in Celsius scale and that in Fahrenheit are related as F= 5 ( °C ) + 32 G ram atom ic m ass Avogadro num ber 3. The amount of the product formed depends on the quantity of the limiting reagent. Temperature in Celsius scale and that in Kelvin are related as K = C elsius scale+ 273 9 2. “The reactant taken in smaller amount then the amount required by the balanced equation limits amount of the product formed. Parts per million (ppm): Parts per million abbreviated as ppm is used to express very small concentration. Mass of 1 atom of an element = . mole fraction of B=X B = n +n A b N um ber of m oles of a constituent M olefraction= Total num ber of m oles of all constituents Normality (N): m ass of solute equivalent m ass of solute Number of equivalents of solute= Mass of solute in gram 3 Normality of solution= volume of solution in dm x equivalent mass of solute Where m= mass of solute in gram dissolved in V dm 3 .N=normality ∈equivalent dm^3 and E=equivalent mass in gram. If any one of the reactants present in a smaller amount then the required quantity. The unit of ppm is usually milligrams. m ass of solute ppm = × 10 6 m ass of solution Limitation reagent: In a reaction. A n In a binary mixture of A and B. That reactant is called the limiting reagent”.Mole fraction(x):Mole fraction of a constituent in a mixture is. m N= E m= mass of solute in gram present in 1 dm3 solution. if all of the reactants are available in proportions as required by balanced chemical equation then the reactions goes to completion and no reactant remains unreacted. The ratio of the number of moles of that constituent to the total number of moles of all constituents in the mixture. For example: to express hardness of water and concentration of pollutant in a sample of water. then it only gets reacted completely and excess quantity of the other reactant remains unreached.

ppm= Concept Based Questions Matter and it's classification 1. [1] . Normality= Volume of a solution in dm Mass of solute equivalent m ass of solute 13. EF and MF are related as m ass of the elem ent x 100 m ass of the com pound 7. m ass of solute × 10 6 m ass of solution 15. Mass of 1 molecule of a compound= m ass in gram n= gram m oleculer m ass 5. % Mass of an element in a compound= Mass of solute × 100 Mass of solution 8. Normality= Volume of solution ∈dm x equivalent mass of solute m N= or M = N × V × E vxE Where m=mass of solute in gram dissolved in V dm 3 . Number of equivalents of solute= Mass of solute in gram 3 14. How can we say that sugar is solid and water is liquid? [2] 4. Gram molecular mass Avogadro number 4. Mass%= Nmber of mole of solute mass of solute in grams present in 1dm 3 3 9. N=normality inequivalent dm 3 m and E=equivalent mass in gram. What is chemistry?[1] 2. Similarly. Molarity= volume of solution dm . Mass and number of moles of a substance are related as. N= E M=mass of solute in gram present in 1 dm3 solution. How has chemistry contributed towards nation’s development?[1] 3. Molality= Or Mass of solute in kg of solvent Molality= m olecular m ass of solute A n 11. mole n A fraction of B X B = n +n A b Number of equivalents of solute 3 12. Differentiate solids. liquids &gases in terms of volume &shapes. Molecular m ass MF= ( EF ) n n= EFm ass 6. In binary mixture of A and B the mole fraction of A=X A = n +n A b Where n A and n B are the number of moles of A and B respectively. Molarity= Molecular mass of solute num ber of m oles of solute m ass of solvent in kg 10.

Write an expression for molarity and molality of a solution. Convert 35 °C to ℉ & K. [2] 8. What is the empirical formula of vitamin C? [3] Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric calculations 1. Write empirical formula f following – [ 4 ] C O . How are physical properties different from chemical properties?[1] 2. Give one example each of molecule in which empirical formula and molecular formula are (i) same (ii) different. sodium and milk. 01×102 (b) 8 . 9. What is the value of one mole?[1] 2. 256 (c) 100 4. 022×1023 H 2 ? [1] 3. [2] 3. steel. Write postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory. [2] 8. Classify following as pure substances and mixtures-air.H 3P 04. [1] 10.N a2C O 3.F e203.2000g of vitamin C gives 0. 1L of a gas at STP weighs 1. What does the following prefixes stand for-[2].H 2 SO 4 .C 6H 12. What is formula mass?[1] Mole concept. 7.2998g of CO2 and 0. What is stoichiometry?[1] 2.H 202.[1] 5. glucose. What are the reference points in thermometer with Celsius scale?[1] 9. percentage composition 1.5 moles of CO 2? [1] 4. carbondioxide and platinum [2] 7. (a) pico (b) nano (c) centi (d) deci Uncertainty in measurement 1. What do you understand by significant figures? [1] 3. How can we separate the components of a compound? Properties of matter and their measurement 1. tea. Write seven fundamental quantities and their units. Calculate molecular mass of 10. 85g ofF e (ii) 7 . what will be the volume of molecules of 6 . How many significant figures are present in[3] (a) 4 . What is the SI unit of volume? What is the other common unit which in not an SI unit of volume. What are the two different system of measurement?[1] 3. silver.5L into ml and 30 cm 3 to dm3 [2] 6.N 204 . compounds and mixture-water. What is the SI unit of density?[1] 7. Explain law of multiple proportions with an example. gold. what is molecular mass?[1] 6.K C I. What is the difference between molecules and compounds? Give examples of each. Define one atomic mass unit (amu). How much potassium for molarity and molality of a solution. [1] − [ 2 ] C 2 H 6 . 8.H 3 PO 4 9. Combustion of 0.C 12 H 22 O 11 . 5. What is the difference between precision and accuracy?[1] 2.[1] 10. [2] 5. At NTP. [2] .[2] 4. How is volume measured in laboratoty? Convent 0. State Avogadro’s law{1} 7. State law of definite proportions. Calculate the number of molecules present in 0. Calculate the number of moles in the following masses-[2] (i) 7 . Name the different methods that can be used for separation of components of a mixture.97g. How is matter classified at macroscopic level?[2] 6.[2] 6. Vitamin C is essential for the prevention of scurvy.819g of H2O. Classify following substances as element. What is the difference between mass and weight? How is mass measured in laboratory? 5. 9 m g ofC a 8.

C= 12.05% of hydrogen 24... 4 litres of water are added to 2L of 6 molar HCl solutions.5) (3M) b) define the terms limiting reagent and molarity (2M) 2014 (may) 1.3% of carbon and 71.mass of Ca.4g of CO 2 in the following equation CaCO 3 CaO+CO 2 → (at. Calculation molar mass of the following a) CH 3 COOH b) C 2 H 5 O h ( 2M ) 3. 4. Mass H=1. Find its empirical formula (3M) b) define the terms mass and weight.96g.2500g? If the mass of one molecule of water is 18u. The molar mass is 98. C=12. (2M) 2014(Feb/March) 1. Express 0. Mass h=1. State law of definite proportions.96g.. The molar mass is 98.07% of hydrogen 24 .. determine its molecular formula (at.. Express the following number in scientific notation 0. (1M) 2..H = 6 .= 40. a) a compound contains 4. a) State law of definite proportions b) express 0.07% of hydrogen 24.27% of carbon and 71..5) (3M) b) Define the terms limiting reagent and molarity. (1M) 2.. What is 1molal solution? [1] 7..0048 in scientific notation. Mass H=1. (1M) 2. C= 12.65% of chlorine.O= 16 ( 2M ) 3. C=12. 7 and the rest is oxygen. What volume of 10M HCl and 3M HCl should be mixed to obtain 1 L of 6M HCl solution? QUESTIONS APPEARED IN PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPERS & MODEL QP Total Part-A Part-B Part-C Part-D Weightage 1M 2M 3M 5M BM 1 1 1 March-2013 1. a) Calcium carbonate decomposes to give CO 2 gas according to the equation . a) An organic compound on analysis gave the following percentage composition.96g.= 40..006234 in scientific notaion. Cl=35... a) A compound contains 4. (1M) 2. 9 . What is the molarity of resulting solution?[2] 8. what is the mass of one mole of water molecule? 3.. (2M) 2015 (Feb/March) 1.000268. State Avogadro law. What is the mass of calcium carbonate decomposed to produce 4. The molar mass is 98. (2M) 3. Cl=35. C=12.65% of chlorine. (1M) Model QP-I 1. a) A compound contains 4. Define Mole fraction. The substance which gets used up in any reaction is called..[1] 6.65% of chlorine.5) (4M) b) define the term molarity. How many significant figures are in 0. 4g ofCO 2 in the following equation CaCO 3 CaO+CO 2 → (at.O= 16 ( 2M ) 3. C = 39 . Determine its molecular formula (at.mass of Ca...(1M) 2. Calculate the weight of lime ( CaO ) obtained by heating 2000kg of 95% pure lime stone ( CaCO3 ) [ 2 ] 5.. cl=35. 27 of carbon and 71. Determine its molecular formula (at. What is the mass of calcium carbonate decomposed to produce 4 .

Draw staggered conformation of ethane. . what is Huckel’srule? Give example. (2M) Model QP-III 1. (2M) 4. (2M) 3. (2M) May-2016 1. Write the IUPAC name of the compound CH 3 CH=C ( CH 3 ) 2 (1M) 2. b) define mole fraction. CaCo 3 → caO+CO 2 Calculate the mass of CaO and CO 2 produced on complete decomposition of 5g of CaCO 3 (3M) b) define the terms limiting reagent and molarity. a) Explain the mechanism of chlorination of benzene. (2M) 3.12% oxygen. (3M) b) how is ethyne prepared from calcium carbide? (2M) Model QP-IV 1. Write the relationship between ℃ and Kelvin. a) A compound with molecular mass of 34g/mol is knows to contain 5. How do you convert ethane to ethane? Give equation. Find the molecular formula of this compound. a) Explain the free radical mechanism of chlorination of methane (3M) b) Explain Wurtz’s reaction with example. (2M) Model QP-II 1. State markownikoff’s rule. (1M) 2. Explain Friedel Craft’s reaction with an example. (2M) 3. What is homogeneous mixture? Give an example. (2M) 2. a) Explain the free radical mechanism of chlorination of methane (3M) b) explain Friedel Craft’s reaction of benzene with an example. Write an equation for molefraction of a solute. (1M) 2. how is benzene is converted into cyclohexane? Give reaction.88% hydrogen and 94. (2M) 3.