Constructive processes in civil engineering

:

1.1. Planning system: Includes:

1.1. Previous terrain recognition: Consists of:

 Review of available maps in the area:

For the collection of necessary terrain information, we can use topographic, geological,
hydrogeological and geotechnical maps; whose reliability will be verified by establishing
real contact with the terrain.

 Comparison with studies in adjacent areas:

It is recommended to review reports written for the existing buildings in the immediate

areas to the terrain, which can provide interesting information about the terrain.

 Direct observation of the terrain.

1.2. Preliminary studies: Preliminary information necessary for the design of the construction.

 Studies of soil mechanics: With the results of resistance and characteristics of the
soil; we can decide the type, depth and materials of the foundations, in addition to
the maximum load capacity that the terrain accepts.
 Environmental impact study: It analyzes the interaction of a project with the
environment, especially when the project has an effect on the flora, fauna and
population.
 Topographic study: Information is collected on the relief of the terrain, graphically
representing its surface characteristics, indicating its location, height above sea
level, area and measurements of the perimeter of the terrain.

1.3. Basic project:

It contains more complete studies than in the previous phase.

The basic formulation of the project is done, which consists of the design of plants and
elevations, without determining the exact dimensioning.

The cost of the construction is estimated and the feasibility of the project is analyzed.

1.4. Project of execution:

They contain the design, blueprints, detailed specifications, temporary programming of project
execution and budget.

2. Development System:

2.1. Provisional constructions and preliminary works:

recoverable.  Mechanics: .2. deforestation and elimination of the vegetal layer of the terrain.1. It includes the cleaning. prefabricated with light materials.3. 2.2. The stakeout is the operation that aims to transfer to the terrain the dimensions and shapes indicated in the blueprints that make up the documentation of the construction. Preliminary works: It includes all preliminary activities necessary for the execution of the works. beams. The leveling consists in establishing a permanent reference level during the construction. Excavations: The excavation of ditches will be carried out so that the trenches allow the foundations to have the dimensions and reach the depths specified in the blueprints.2. among others. to establish the unevenness of the terrain. Types:  Manual: It is performed by operators using their physical strength aided by hand tools such as shovels. that offer security and protection and that is kept in good condition while the work lasts. Strokes. simple. the depth of the foundations and the height of the walls. 2.2. etc. levels and stakeout: The stroke is the process of defining and measuring in a terrain the dimensions of the construction site.3.1. spikes.  Offices  Warehouses  Guard stalls  Dining rooms  Dressing rooms  Hygienic services  Perimeter fences  Constructions poster 2.1. Provisional constructions: They must be fast.1. Provisional installations: Includes all installations such as:  Water  Drainage  Electric power  Telephone and communication installation 2.

4. Beams: Linear constructional element that works mainly in bending.10.foundations: Structural elements are found above the foundations and serve as a link between the wall and the foundation. which are calculated with the bending moment. 2. It should be taken into account that whenever you are running any excavation the land that is removed increases in volume by 20 to 40 percent according to the nature of the terrain. Cutting forces occur in areas close to the supports. hollow blocks or light elements that serve to lighten the weight of the slab. Columns: The columns are structural elements that serve to support axial loads that come from the factorized loads of all the mezzanines or roofs. Foundations: The foundations are the part of the structure that allows the transmission of the loads that act. 2. Can be:  Solid slabs: These are slabs of flat or curved surfaces.5. towards the ground or towards the underlying rock. or restore a level after excavation. Slabs: Structure of reinforced concrete used as a mezzanine or roof of a building. producing in them compression and tension. To absorb these forces produced in the column due to the loads is added structural steel as longitudinal reinforcement. 2. 2.8. Upon .7.It is carried out with heavy equipment or excavating machines. It has a continuous emptying and in large sections. whose function is to transmit to them the loads due to the weight of the structure. 2.6.9.  Lightened Slabs: These are slabs made of concrete joists and light filler elements. Filling is the work carried out in the construction to raise the elevation of the natural profile of the terrain. as well as transverse steel. Masonry walls: . 2. The filler elements consist of bricks. Cuts and fillings: The cuts are open-pit excavations in the natural terrain to reach the level specified in the blueprint. The bending stress causes tension and compression. The joists are joined together by a concrete slab or top layer. made up of concrete in all its thickness and extension. producing the maximum values in the lower and upper cord. 2.

Linear and vertical construction that is obtained with the units of masonry ordered in rows and joined with mortar. These walls do not support loads due to the material with which they are built. vaults. beams. Non-bearing walls: Only act as enclosure and divisions. . joists and roof. They may be: Supporting walls: They have the structural function. they support loads of other structural elements such as arches.

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