Energy 93 (2015) 1321e1327

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Characteristics of rice husk tar secondary thermal cracking
Ming Zhai*, Xinyu Wang, Yu Zhang, Peng Dong**, Guoli Qi, Yudong Huang
Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A two-stage fixed bed pyrolysis system for rice husk tar high-temperature thermal cracking was
Received 22 May 2015 designed. Pyrolysis of rice husk and high-temperature thermal cracking of the rice husk tar were
Received in revised form separated. High-temperature flue gas was used to promote rice husk pyrolysis, and then high-
4 October 2015
temperature secondary thermal cracking tar started in the high-temperature environment. The char-
Accepted 11 October 2015
acteristics of secondary thermal cracking of rice husk tar were investigated. Results show that rice husk
Available online xxx
tar yield is 18 mg/kg of dry rice husk, or 11.7 mg/Nm3 at 1200  C, and no tar is collected at 1300  C. At the
temperature of 1200  C and residence time of 0.5 s, the rate of decline of tar reaches the maximum. The
Rice husk tar
oxy-organics content in the tar at 700  C reaches the maximum 24.5% and becomes zero at 1100  C. The
High-temperature pyrolysis naphthalene content in the tar reaches the maximum 26.4% at 800  C. With the increase in temperature,
Secondary thermal cracking all the tar converts into non-condensable gas and char finally.
Tar yield © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cracking rate

1. Introduction Broido proposed the formation and variation model of tar in the
process of biomass pyrolysis [7]. According to Broido-Shafizadeh
Biomass tar is a complex mixture of condensable hydrocarbons, model [7,8], biomass pyrolysis generates gaseous product (pyroly-
which is generated from the process of biomass chemical conver- sis gas), liquid product (tar and water) and solid product (semi-char
sion [1]. It is generally defined as an organic matter with a mo- and ash) after pyrolysis. It is defined as the first reaction. The tar
lecular weight larger than benzene, including oxygen-containing generated will continue to produce gas, char, and secondary tar in
and complex polyaromatic hydrocarbons [2]. The definition on the pyrolysis reaction under a high-temperature environment. The
biomass tar is made mostly from condensing temperature of tar process is defined as the secondary reaction. Kinetic model [9],
and molecular weight, which is mainly confirmed according to the product yields and kinetics [10], particle pyrolysis [11] and heat of
research scope and condition of the investigators, or based on reactions [12] for the process were studied, but till now, no state-
specific requirements [3,4]. However, there is no uniform definition ment has been widely accepted in the secondary reaction. The
on tar. Any organic matter that is generated by organic materials secondary pyrolysis of volatile matter involves a series of compli-
under heated condition or partial oxidation (gasification) effect can cated chemical reactions. Generally, it is a process where chemical
be considered as tar [5]. Also, it is usually believed that the tar is bond, which is supported by thermal decomposition and free
mainly composed of large molecular aromatic hydrocarbons. radical theory, breaks, recombines, and lowers the average molec-
Currently, more than 100 species have been analyzed while it is still ular weight of reactant. Under the condition of many pyrolytic re-
hard to define all of the components. What can be ensured is that actions, experimental data show that light gas was the prominent
the number of the main components is more than 20. Most of the product generated in the process of secondary pyrolysis. Hence, the
components are derivative of benzene and PAH (polycyclic aro- simplest secondary reaction path “volatile matter / light gas” has
matic hydrocarbon). More specifically, there are seven types of been adopted widely. However, under such conditions, especially
benzene with its component greater than 5%, namely benzene, high temperature, and long residence time, semi-char will also
naphthaline, methylbenzene, dimethylbenzene, styrene, phenols, become an important product of the secondary reaction, and
and indene [6]. significantly influence the distribution of pyrolysis product. On the
other hand, the tar obtained from high-temperature pyrolysis was
significantly different from the liquid obtained after cooling the
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ86 18646218082.
primary volatiles [13]. According to the constituents of products of
** Corresponding author. Tel.: þ86 451 86413171. these two liquids, tar generated from conventional pyrolysis is the
E-mail addresses: (M. Zhai), (P. Dong). secondary product formed in the further disaggregation and
0360-5442/© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

accumulation of fuel gas in the tail region. b daf: dry. CST (Cold solvent trapping) and SPME (solid construction aggregate were applied inside. The operating conditions temperature flue gas generated from the primary burner entered for thermal cracking to reduce rice husk tar will be provided. Stainless steel featured by refractory concrete was weaknesses. The CST method is to the burner were tangential. The tar yield of using circulating fluidized beds for biomass pyrolysis and gasification is 1e30 g/Nm3 [15]. The temperature Table 1 Proximate and ultimate analysis of rice husk. The proximate and ultimate analysis of temperatures [3]. Materials and methods [3. the fixed bed reactor for the pyrolysis of rice husk. it could be replaced by respectively.3. The rice Tar can be reduced by thermal cracking that requires heating the husks in this paper are from a rice processing plant of Harbin. / Energy 93 (2015) 1321e1327 condensation of volatile matter. The influences of temperature and residence time on 0.15 45. stainless steel affecting the tar content in product gas. 1 mainly consists of a primary burner. but ceramic tubes with small diameter were a two-stage fixed bed pyrolysis system for rice husk tar thermal filled in the tail part of the secondary burner to increase the heat cracking. Propane and air sufficiently combusted in rolysis and secondary thermal cracking were monitored and both of the burners. both of the methods have their strengths and husk pyrolysis. was chosen as the raw material. c Qnet. then the moisture was removed from the tar for GCeMS and air to ensure there was no oxygen in the flue gas (O2 is less than analysis. Moreover. product gas generated from pyrolysis and gasification of the biomass itself for industrial application [23]. ash free basis. the tar to a high temperature or exposing the tar to catalysts at lower capital city of Heilongjiang. Rice husk is easy to collect product gas generated is high. required content of tar should be less than 0. the biomass resource. pyrolysis is the most effective method to reduce tar content [18.60 14. which are the main factors temperature flame was generated in the burners.02d 2. .03 14. In terms of most in 2014. valve 9 was opened and valve 10 was closed so that the high- rate and yield of the tar were investigated. Considering high- temperature and residence time. The fixed bed reactor was made of stainless steel with simpler and easier to operate [22]. extractives and ash.19]. An observation window was set on more convenient for sampling tar from the gas with a high content the end face of each burner for observing the ignition and burning of tar [20].dc(kJ/kg) 5. At For example. The objective of Dry rice husk in its original size (2e10 mm) with the amount of the work is focused on the characteristics of rice husk tar secondary 1. The two-stage fixed bed pyrolysis system which is illustrated in even if the reactors can operate at a higher temperature. This option has more 2. First. Thermal insulation phase microextraction) adsorption are widely used in practice for material was covered outside the burners. namely the so-called secondary tar 2. it is difficult to control the for the tar. Hence. However. filter. Propane and air supplied tar online sampling in pyrolysis gas [20e22].10 ± 0.62 ± 0. Experimental procedures energy cost. mesh was wired on the inner wall. and valve 10 was open thermal cracking.18 ± 0. cracking reactor made of stainless steel with ceramic heat accu- temperature flue gas was used to promote rice husk pyrolysis.89d 46. Experimental setup perature will reduce the energy content of the gas product. Rice husk.5 to 2 m and 448 to 4219 mm the fuel for combustion in the experiment. Moreover.15 63. mulator was for tar secondary thermal cracking into incondensable then high-temperature secondary thermal cracking tar started in gas. is 0. an agricultural biomass pyrolysis and gasification application equipment.1. but the tar content of benefit of the carbon neutrality [24]. The tar in the gas was condensed and oxygen content of the flue gas and adjust the proportion of propane collected.14].2%). It is believed that biomass high-temperature rice husk is shown in Table 1. a secondary burner. Several high-temperature cracking reactors were made with the high-temperature environment.1322 M. engine.08 ± 0. For online tar sampling in the the inner diameter of 148 mm and the length of 700 mm for rice pyrolysis gas. China's forms of gasification equipment. this paper designed burner were the same. The primary burner and the secondary To overcome these issues mentioned above.08 0. high. the process of biomass pyrolysis and gasification technology. Moistureada(%) Volatilead(%) Ashad(%) Fixed carbonad(%) Cdafb(%) Hdaf(%) Odaf(%) Ndaf(%) Sdaf(%) Qnet.16]. but there is less energy loss of tar condensing and post- reduction and no risk of inactivation of catalysts. is composed of fiber.1e150 g/Nm3 [14. installed on its inner wall.d: net calorific value.20 16.5e2 kg was fed to the grid plate initially. and refractory concrete and pling for analysis. a condenser.05 ± 0. The tar yield of other Rice husk typically found in Heilongjiang province. lignin. d By difference.08 ± 0. it is recognized that the product gas made from pyrolysis tar removal has become an urgent problem that must be resolved in or gasification of the biomass-derived material is carbon neutral. which expresses the biomass pyrolysis and gasification processes. but SPME adsorption is more precise and quicker. Fig. Although propane was used as the lengths and diameters from 0.05 g/Nm3 [17]. The flue gas analyzer was used to measure the controlled separately. Material for the experiment turbine. most conventional biomass gasification processes operate below 900  C. condition. 2. The high-temperature temperature thermal cracking of tar were separated. Zhai et al. such as downdraft gasifiers and largest rice-growing area where the rice production was 1.2. one ton of CO2 will be mitigated by combustion of present. The temperature and residence time for the py. High-temperature pyrolysis of rice husk and high. biomass limited oxygen combustion is adopted in most 2700 m3 of the gas made from rice husk char. and 2.556 ± 120 a ad: air-dry basis.50 6. and valve 9 was closed. Another issue is tar sam. Tar blocks and contaminates the burning line. since it primarily accumulates in rice processing plants. a high-temperature cracking reactor tar usually occur in one-stage gasifier.5  107 t updraft gasifiers. since the addition of oxygen to increase tem. When the temperatures at the exit of the burners were sta- compositions of the gaseous product and the tar. a since biomass pyrolysis and high-temperature thermal cracking of fixed bed reactor for pyrolysis. dry basis.98 ± 0. and a mixing chamber. and the cracking ble.

significantly at 800  C with a tar output of 1. bold [25]. The characteristics of the pyrolysis product. Therefore. The rice was dissolved by acetone and collected and calculated to determine husk tar generated in the fixed bed reactor began secondary ther- the total mass of the tar condensed.0 mL/min with initial 1600  C. The tem. The temperatures from the top to the bottom husk tar and gas composition. the can be determined by the length of the cracking reactor divided by gaseous product. Two-stage high-temperature pyrolysis system. According to Die- S type thermocouples. 20: deposition tank. Chromatographic temperature flue gas entered into the high-temperature cracking conditions were as follows. 31 and 32: thermal couples. . a heating rate of rice husk was 20  C/min and the sphere. 11-16. 5. mass range m/z from 15 to 650 amu reaction in the fixed bed reactor finished. 1. cellulose pyrolyzes predominantly to levoglucosan which ment from 0 to 1600  C. column temperature of 55  C. The condensed tar flew into the deposition tank. 28: secondary burner. HP-5 trace analysis chromatographic reactor for secondary thermal cracking. Composition of the pyrolysis product tion time was about 30 min that depended on the operating conditions. reaching the maximum at 500  C.25 mm  0. 33: high-temperature cracking reactor Fig. and when the bombardment energy of 70 eV. In this section.0kg Flue gas 400~1200¡ C ã 6 11 12 7 13 8 3 4 14 400~800¡ C ã 5 Flue 15 21 16 1 gas 2 400~1300¡ C ã 9 20 0. Results and discussions condenser to 20e30  C. 2 and 27: air tanks. carrier of the secondary burner was monitored and controlled from 400 to gas was high-purity helium with flow rate of 1. and equilibrium time of 0. and the non-condensable gas was discharged into the atmo. 7: primary burner. The Testo350 flue gas analyzer was used to yield. stant which meant the end of the pyrolysis at a certain layer in the 1000 and 1200  C respectively.25 mm capillary column. Lignin also makes some contribution to the liquid of air and fuel gas. The volatile con.8 g/kg of dry rice husk. GCeMC analysis was conducted on of the fixed bed reactor increased gradually and then reach a con. tar cracking rate and tar's composition were the flow rate of the gas in the creaking reactor. the temperature in the and scanning time of 3 min. Zhai et al. Measurement devices the rise of temperature. split ratio of 5:1. 26 and 29: pressure gages. mal cracking in the high-temperature cracking reactor after the rice The residence time of the pyrolysis gas in the cracking reactor husk pyrolysis. 3. 18: water pump. The liquid yield increases first and decreases with 2. thus contributing primarily to gas and perature of the burner. The total reac. the liquid decreases measure the composition of the flue gas at the exit of the burner. With the increase of temperature.89 psi. were adopted to measure the exit tem. The HP5973GCeMS gas fixed bed. heating rate was 10  C/min to increase to 300  C with residence perature at the exit of the secondary burner was set higher than time of 22 min and injector temperature of 320  C. Fig. 17: condenser. condensed tar after high temperature thermal cracking at 700. 4. It is mainly contributed by the production of bio-oil. The temperature at the exit column was 30 m  0. 30. M. chromatograph-mass spectrometer was adopted. 23 and 24: regulators. Rotameters were taken to measure the flow liquid yields.4. Ionization source was EI with electron high-temperature cracking reactor decreased first.1. Gas mixture exhausted from the high-temperature cracking reactor entered the 3. vaporizes above 500  C.5~2. with a range of temperature measure. 8: fixed bed reactor. 3. The flue gas from the secondary burner mixed directly pressure of 7. 22: exhaust tube. / Energy 93 (2015) 1321e1327 1323 22 10 Rice husk 1. were done to determine the flow rate of the gas in the creaking reactor by installing different sizes of the high-temperature cracking reactors at a certain operating condition. high-temperature cracking reactor would increase. The tar condensed in the condensing tube of the condenser average pyrolysis temperature of 700  C was considered.5 s residence time and different temperatures. the mixture of volatile matter and high. the densable matter converted into non-condensable gas. at the exit of the primary burner was monitored and controlled The GCeMS analysis technology was applied to analyze the rice from 400 to 1200  C. 9. 21: grid plate.5~4s 23 17 33 28 29 26 18 31 30 24 20~30¡ C ã 32 400~1600¡ C ã 19 25 27 1 and 25: propane. 900. 10 and 19: valves. The temperature in the conditions were as follows. Then. 6. 2 is the mass of each component of rice husk pyrolysis product under the condition of 0. mean velocity of 36 cm/s.5 min. Mass spectrum that at the exit of the fixed bed reactor. with the pyrolysis gas in the fixed bed reactor. pre-tests investigated.

reaching the maximum of 81% at 1300  C. the results are cracking temperature.8]. The volume fraction of H2 increases gradually down.2. aromatization. the tar content has reached milligram level.5% at 800  C. the tar yield will be 18 mg/kg of dry rice husk. CO and CH4 are mainly generated by the thermal cracking are the tar reduction. 2. According to the Broido-Shafizadeh model. the rise of gas yield slows lower temperature. cracking the vapor into secondary conventional biomass reactors. the tar need higher temperature. the tar content will be temperature is good-quality material for gasification due to its high reduced to 800 mg/kg of dry rice husk. Unlike physical cleaning. the condensable vapor Although the temperature required is higher than that for most undergoes secondary reactions. . Composition of pyrolysis product. When the reactivity and large specific surface area [27]. With the increase of collected. At the temperature of 1300  C. no tar is value without the CO2 generated by flue gas. the main advantages of the second gases. tar and char [7. 3 shows that the components of product gas vary with the condition of 0. and the vol- the fact that part of gasification of carbon residue has resulted in a ume fraction of CO and CH4 increases first and then decreases. Compared with that. The yield of the gas is mainly due to the fact that CO2 is primarily released by resolving product increases significantly with temperature from 400 to the carboxyl group of the rice husk or the organic steam at the 700  C and reaches 79. or 522 mg/Nm3. the pyrolysis thoroughness. Within the temperature between 1000 3. 4. / Energy 93 (2015) 1321e1327 Fig. which role in affecting the cracking of liquid product. Brandt et al. temperature reaches 1200  C. occurs includes decarboxylation. It is contributed to when the cracking temperature is lower than 800  C. The volume fraction of CO2 is the calculation similar to Brandt's results. the solid product (rice husk char) of the pyrolysis at high tion. It can be observed that temperature plays a significant temperature. The secondary reaction that organic stream not be condensed so that there is no heat loss for condensing. Composition of the gaseous product and 1200  C. Zhai et al. When the temperature reaches 1000  C. cyclization. decarbonylation.1324 M. The fraction Fig. [26] obtained 21 mg/kg of dry material cracked under the Fig. dehydrogena- Moreover. or 11. Variation of tar cracking rate. Composition of gaseous product. Then. slight increase of gas. Fig. et al.7 mg/Nm3.5 s and 1250  C. organic stream from the process of secondary reaction under the and the process simplicity. the volume fraction of CO2 decreases gradually. polymerization. 3.

high temperature may have a are almost the same.057 8.00 e e 2.374 5.500 3.00 20.3-dienyltetrahydrofuran-2-one C10H14O2 166 1. 4-methoxy-N-(3-pyridinylmethylene).01 e e e e e e 14 13.42 5.88 e e e e 27 16.332 2.2']:8.279 Pentadecanoic acid.89 e e e e e e 4 11.908 3.311 5. C14H28 196 e e 4.142 Anthracene.948 Anthracene C14H10 178 2. b RSD: relative standard deviation.12 e e e e e e 2 9. C17H12 216 e e e e e e 3.095 1.5 s. 4-(2-(pyridyl-4)ethenyl)-.99 34 18.098 2. The process of the second thermal cracking can be applied in an yield of the liquid product after pyrolysis was 105 g per kilogram of entrained bed. 2-methyl.38 e e 36 18. 4-methyl.204 Phenanthrene. high-temperature thermal cracking of temperature of 1000  C.139 5.6-dimethyl.801 5.714 Naphthalene.11 e e e e 21 15. C14H12 180 e e 1.092 1.45 e e e e 3. 6.124 4.277 4.87 e e e e 33 18.890 1. thermal cracking of tar generates kg of dry rice husk.107 Biphenylene C12H8 152 e e 8.9%. which are about 70%. presented a scheme for using a two-stage cyclone gasifier (an ison.568 2. N-[(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxy)carbonyl].3.724 2.09 4.77 e e e e 42 20.181 2.737 Fluorene C13H10 166 7. CH4 and CmHn.11 35 18. 1-methyl.90 e e e e 2.257 4.14.522 L-Valine.213 4.11-Octadecadienoic acid.716 3.methylester C17H34O2 270 e e 4. the tar content decreases significantly.209 4. Particularly.478 3.4.295 11H-Benzo[a]fluorene C17H12 216 4. 2.320 Phenol. 1methyl-2-pentyl.10 -Biphenyl.774 3.97 46 23.691 2.g]cyclododecene.5 to 4 s.137 Acenaphthylene C12H8 152 e e e e e e 3.39 7. C13H10O 182 1.045 2.98 e e e e e e 25 16.09 44 21.042 3. Tar cracking rate time is 0.0]undeca-2.544 9H-Fluoren-9-one C13H8O 180 e e e e e e e e 29 16. Therefore.224 Triphenylene C18H12 228 e e e e e e 3.05 e e e e e e 24 16.76 e e 12 13.942 Dibenzofuran C12H8O 168 1.735 3.135 4.55 e e e e 23 15.06 e e e e e e 32 18.99 e e e e 40 19.108 3.65 e e e e 11 13.125 Anthracene.80 e e 22 15.4-diene C15H24 204 e e e e e e 2.412 2.996 2.52 26 16. C9H18 126 1.645 3.182 2.189 Biphenyl C12H10 154 1.5 s.683 n-Hexadecanoic acid C16H32O2 256 1. C20H21NO4 339 e e 1.129 Pyrene.939 Pyridine. The tar cracking rate reaches 84.985 1H-Phenalene C13H10 166 e e 1.508 1. methylester C19H36O2 296 e e 1. .256 1-Heptene.519 4.02 8.361 4H-Cyclopenta[def]phenanthrene C15H10 190 e e 1. The experiment was conducted by selecting the temperature Since the residence time can be short for tar reduction.23 a RC: relative content.5 to 3 s.371 4.811 4-Hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone C9H10O2 150 1. which was regarded as the initial value for compar.806 3.881 3. 9-methyl.6-dimethyl.290 3.78 13 13.32 e e e e e e 18 14. C17H12 216 1. C11H10 142 e e 3. 2-methyl.30 6.268 Naphthalene.21 e e 6 11. C13H12N2O 212 e e 1.56 e e 9.400 Naphthalene C10H8 128 e e 2.19 17.14 12. Under the tempera- greater than 800  C.520 Cyclopropane.06 41 19.69 6.696 3.11 e e e e [a.28] done by the authors dry rice husk. 4-ethenyl.3-dimethyl.573 5.89 13.085 4.07 e e e e e e 16 13. which means 18 mg/kg of dry rice husk.01 37 18.365 2.16[10 .141 5.58 31 17.751 3.44 e e e e 19 14.8-Tetramethylbicyclo[6.15 6. C10H12O2 164 1.88 11. Under the H2.688 2.7.340 4.45 30 16. the tar will produce gas rich in hydrogen.281 2. when residence time is from 0. The tar cracking rate reaches 99.3.920 Naphthalene. the tar and CmHn also increases gradually.66 6.25 e e e e 28 16.544 1-Isopropenylnaphthalene C13H12 168 e e 2. the range from 900 to 1200  C and residence time from 0. 1-methyl. The cracking rates at 3 s and 4 s gas by the flue gas is considered. 2-methyl.178 Dibenzofuran.94 e e 15 13. 2. of 1100  C. C8H10O 122 1.009 2.193 4. At 4 s. 1-methyl. decreases significantly.526 4.412 3.783 4. C14H12 180 e e 1. trans.028 Naphthalene. C15H12 192 1.872 5.152 2.8% at 4 s.12 e e e e e e 8 12.00 2.476 5.14 4.849 4.54 4. The reason is that under the content decreases gradually.212 2.12 e e 9 12. The scheme uses part of the product gas for combustion in Table 2 Recognizable compounds in the tar at different secondary cracking temperatures.17 3.378 2. Zhai et al.915 Benzenamine.041 2.953 Phenanthrene C14H10 178 e e e e 18.45 20 14. and the tar cracking rate is 42.744 4. C11H10 142 e e 3.714 3.755 Naphthalene.82 3. 2-methyl. the residue tar content is 60 g/ high-temperature environment. ture of 900  C. C12H12 156 1. 4-ethyl.015 3. M.058 9H-Fluorene. 2-isohexyl-6-methyl.13[100 . When the temperature is time can significantly reduce the tar content.07 1. C12H10N2 182 2. when residence time is from 0.247 Pyrene C13H10 202 e e e e 7. Retention Name Molecular Molecular 700  C 900  C 1000  C 1200  C time (min) formula weight a b RC (%) RSD (%) RC (%) RSD (%) RC (%) RSD (%) RC (%) RSD (%) 1 9.132 3. 2-methoxy-4-propyl.941 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-.77 6. If the dilution of the product tar content decreases significantly.357 2. / Energy 93 (2015) 1321e1327 1325 of CmHn is zero at low temperatures. No.100 Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene C18H10 226 e e e e e e 6.802 4.47 43 21. Fig.055 Fluoranthene.07 10. methylester C19H34O2 294 1. C12H12 156 e e 1.55 45 23. the tar content because additional oxygen may be required for heat generation.33 e e e e 10 12.433 4. when residence 3.095 3.97 2.98% at 0.872 3.2'']-Dibenzen odibenzo C32H24 408 e e 1.915 3. 1. 4 shows the variation of tar cracking rate with time under entrained bed) for high-temperature rice husk pyrolysis and gasi- different temperatures.5 s to 4 s.56 e e e e 3 10. The previous work [23.540 4-Methyl-5-penta-1.747 Fluoranthene C16H10 202 2.338 3-(2-Naphthyl)acrylaldehyde C13H10O 182 e e 1.2. the volume fraction of CH4 begins to increase. 14-methyl-. Under the temperature negative effect of reducing the heating value of the product gas.15-tetrahydro- 38 18. The increase of temperature and residence fication.033 3.5 to 4 s.10 e e 5 11.34 39 18.59 e e 17 14. C12H12 156 e e 1.035 2. C15H12 192 e e 1. under the temperature of 1200  C.221 2. when residence time is from 0.989 3. C15H12 192 e e e e e e 1.173 Phenol.024 3.22 e e e e e e 7 11.

CeO bonds or C]O bonds are not secondary thermal cracking.4% at 800  C. A two-stage fixed bed pyrolysis system for 1000  C. There is hardly any tar content. At the temperature of 700  C. With the increase in the tar decreased with temperature due to decarbonylation temperature. it is more difficult to crack aromatic components than other components. On the other hand. PAHs in the tar in- temperature. while the other The main recognizable compounds in the tar at the secondary part cracks into non-condensable gas. 5. or 11. components in the tar convert to aromatic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the one hand. and there are at 1200  C. heterocyclic compounds with N or S also tend to break at high and the cracking rate and yield of the tar were investigated. Fig. content of fluorene increases slowly with temperature. number of species of the tar. the volume fraction of CH4 begins to rise. [1]. The reaches the maximum 26. biphenyl. The content of naphthalene is few at 700  C and gas. while the other part polymerizes into tet- 1% are selected. and composition of tar is primarily consisting of tricyclic and tetracyclic CmHn increases gradually. When the temperature reaches 1200  C. Number of species of the tar various with temperature. as well as to provide heat for pyrolysis and gasification.5 s. The objec- effect on the presence of these compounds. The reason is that the tive of the work is focused on the characteristics of rice husk tar compounds with hydroxyls. as part of the fluorene cracks into presented in Table 2. so 4. Composition of the tar oxy-organics. temperature due to their thermolability. Heat self-sufficient of the process can be achieved by using 1200  C. the mass Phenol components generated at 700  C disappear at a higher and components of the tar decrease gradually. the tar is mainly gas. and it almost becomes zero at 1100  C. secondary high-temperature thermal cracking to reduce tar con- furan and their derivatives increase with the temperature below tent in the pyrolysis gas. part of which polymerizes into isomer of fluorene and phenanthrene with greater molecular weight. Fig. the is higher than 800  C. When the temperature 129 types in total. The relative contents of the compounds above non-condensable gases. The contents of the main components in the tar such crease and then all tar converts into non-condensable gas and char as anthracene. fluoranthene and their de.1326 M. 5 shows the influence of temperature on the racyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. When the rice husk tar high-temperature thermal cracking was designed. dence time of 0. The relative content of fluorene is zero at 700  C. The bonds of residence time on compositions of the gaseous product and the tar.4% at 800  C. at 700  C. and the amount of tar and species decreases sharply. . The increase of temperature and residence time of secondary With the increase of temperature. / Energy 93 (2015) 1321e1327 an external burner to generate a high-temperature anaerobic flue reactions [29]. With the increase of temperature. 6 refers to the variation of the compounds in the tar at The oxy-organics content in the tar at 700  C reaches the maximum different temperatures. 900  C. Rice husk tar yield is 18 mg/kg of dry rice husk. and no tar is collected at 1300  C. The 15. which implies that high temperature has an adverse separated in the two-stage fixed bed pyrolysis system. pyrene. biphenylene. The influences of temperature and stable at high temperature and the bonds break. It is because with the decline of naphthalene and 3. The acids in tar reaches the maximum 26. The content of oxy-organics at 700  C 24. At the temperature of 1200  C and resi- organics.4. The motivation of this paper is the potential application of The contents of naphthalene. and it becomes zero at [28]. all the tar converts into non-condensable gas and char Fig. such as PAHs. the contents mentioned all decrease Rice husk pyrolysis and secondary thermal cracking for the tar were significantly.7 mg/Nm3 composed of oxy-organics and monocycle organics. The naphthalene content in the reaches 24. finally.5%. phenanthrene. 1000  C and 1200  C are clines rapidly at 1100e1200  C. Zhai et al. The content of naphthalene process and the gasesolid flow field in the gasifier were simulated decreases gradually with temperature.5% and becomes zero at 1100  C. thermal cracking remarkably reduces tar content in the pyrolysis creases gradually. the species in the tar de. The results are similar to that of Devi et al. Conclusions and recommendations the contents of aromatic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in- crease compared with other components. The content of fluorene de- cracking temperature of 700  C.4%e20. Fig. dibenzo.5% of the total product gas for combustion [23]. as the chemical bonds rupture and recombi- increase with the cracking temperature. but sharply at 1000e1100  C. the rate of decline of tar reaches the maximum. The reason is that other nation at higher temperatures. Variation of compounds in the tar. It can be inferred that decarbonylation and carbonization rivatives that are aromatic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reactions occurred. temperature is above 1000  C. 6.

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