lgikIf ;dfrf/ / k|:6 ljrf/sf nflu

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jif{ !), c+s #@, @)&$ ;fn h]7 @* ut] cfOtaf/ (June 11, 2017) d"No ?= !).– ;'Gg ge'Ng'xf]nf .
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g]tf, sfo{stf{ l/xf gu/] uDeL/ kl/0ffd ef]Ug'knf{
sf7df8f} F . g]skf -dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|_sf
s]Gb|Lo ;b:o s'nfgGb lu/Ln] kf6L{ Tofu
u/]sf 5g\ . kqsf/;Dd]ngdfkm{t\
/fhLgfdf lbPsf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf x'g \ . b]z
/ hgtfsf] cfjZostfeGbf kf6L{
gftfuf]tf / u'6ut ?kdf rNg yfn]sf]
sf7df8f} F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf u/L k|x/L lx/f;tdf /fv]sf] 36gfn]kf6L{ o; laifodf k|jQmf k|sf08åf/f hf/L blw/fd ;'jb] L nufotsf sd/]8x?nfO{ eGb} hgtfsf] ;]jf ug]{ sd{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf
k|jQmf k|sf08n] k|x/Ln] cfˆgf] kf6L{sf] cfqmf]lzt ePsf] hgfPsf 5g\ \ . pgn] k|;] lj1lKtsf] k"0f{ laa/0f o; k|sf/ b]pjf ;/sf/sf] u[x k|zf;gn] zky lbg cfk"mn] dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|af6 /fhLgfdf
sfo{qmdaf6 g]tf tyf sfo{stf{ lu/ˆtf/ cfˆgf] kf6L{sf] g]tf tyf sfo{stf{nfO{ /x]sf] 5– æh]i7 @$ ut] a'ns ] L Ko"7fg vfPs} lbgdf u}/ sfg'gL lu/Ktf/ u/L lbPsf] lu/Ln] atfPsf 5g\ \ . laxLaf/
/fhwfgLsf] cgfdgu/l:yt ;+jfb
8anLdf kqsf/;Dd]ng u/L lu/Ln] s]Gb|sf cWoIf k|r08 :jod\ kf6L{df
qmflGtsf em08f p7fpg] zlQmnfO{ ;fy dflyb]lv tn;Dd gftfjfb / u'6ut
lbg / hgtfsf] ;]jf ug{ cfk"mn] kf6L{ k|jl[ Q nfb\g v/fa xs{t u/]sf] cf/f]k
kl/Tofu u/]sf] hfgsf/L lbP . dfcf]jfbL -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

‘lgjf{rg alxisf/ ug]{dfly bdg ug{ kfO“b}g’
sf7df8f} F . g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -
qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL_ sf cWoIf df]xg
j}Bn] lgjf{rg jlxisf/ ug{ kfOg]
atfpF b } g] s kfsf g] t f tyf
sfo{stf{dflysf] bdg aGb ug{ cfJxfg
u/]sf 5g\ . cWoIf j}Bn] ;+;bLo
lgjf{rgx?df efu lng' tyf pkof]u
ug{' h:t} alxisf/ ug{' klg nf]stflGqs
clwsf/ ePsf] ;d]t atfPsf 5g\ .
u/]sf]df uDeL/ cfklQ hgfPsf 5g\ . tTsfn l/xf gu/]kf6L{n] ;+3if{sf] df]rf{af6 lhNnfdf kf6L{ sfo{qmdaf6 xfd|f] kf6L{sf ;b/d'sfd vn+uf k|x/L lx/f;tdf pgn] k|;] jQmJo hf/L ub}{ s]xL ;dootf
k|jQmf k|sf08n] cfh Ps k|; ] lj1lKt To;sf] k|ltjfb ug]]{ / To;af6 lg:sg] s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf /fKtL Ao"/f] O~rfh{ /fv]sf] 36gfn] xfd|f] kf6L{ cfqmf]lzt jt{dfg ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] lgjf{rg
hf/L ub}{ b]pjf ;/sf/sf] u[x k|zf;gn] u+le/ kl/0ffdsf] lhDd]jf/ b]pjf s=;'jf;, s]Gb|Lo ;b:o s=c;n, ePsf] 5 . k'/f hGd lnO{ g;s]sf] b]pjf alxisf/ cfGbf]ngdf ;+nUg g]kfn
zky vfPs} lbgdf cfˆgf] kf6L{sf] g]tf ;/sf/sf] u[x k|zf;g x'g] r]tfjgL ;d]t clvn g]kfn dlxnf ;+3 qmflGtsf/LsL ;/sf/sf] u[x k|zf;gsf] lg/+sz ' / sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf g]tf sfo{stf{x?nfO{ u}/nf]stflGqs lqmofsnfk eO/x]sf
tyf sfo{stf{nfO{ u}/sfg'gL lu/ˆtf/ lbPsf 5g\ \ . s]Gb|Lo cWoIf jGb' rGb / lhNnf ;]qm]6/L /fhg} l ts :jtGqtf lj?4 of] 7"nf] ;+Vofdf w/ks8 ug],{ oftgf lbg], ;dfrf/x? k|fKt eO/x]sf] eGb} To;df
-af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ h]n rnfg ug]{ / d'2f nufpg] h:tf -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

‘PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] k|of]un] /fHo;Qfsf] lgbx/fd’ lrlgof“ OG6/g]6 cem} clglZrt sf7df8f} F . uPsf] d+l;/ @! ut] kmfOa/ l/:6f]/ ug{k' g]{ a]nf afSnf] lxpF Joj;flos ?kdf OG6/g]6 g]kfndf
sf7df8f} F . :yfgLo r'gfj vf/]hL
cleofgsf qmddf pkTosfaf6 lu/ˆtf/ g]kfn 6]lnsd / rfOgf 6]lnsd hd]kl5 clK6sn dfu{sf] @) lsnf]ld6/ cfpg] hfgsf/L u/fPklg slxn];Dd
eO{ lx/f;tdf /flvPsf Unf]anaLr :yndfu{ x'bF } cfOkL ;]jf af6f] kl/jt{g ul/of] . dfu{ kl/jt{gsf] pQm sfd ;DkGg x'G5 eg]/ osLg x'g
cleofgsdL{x?nfO{ clegGbg ul/Psf] pknAw u/fpg] ;DaGwdf Jofj;flos qmddf Ps hgf sfdbf/sf] d[To' ePkl5 ;s]sf] 5}g .
5 . /fhwfgLsf] cgfgu/l:yt ;+jfb ;Demf}tf ePsf] lyof] t/ clxn]bDd cj?4 ag]sf] sfd ;'rf? x'g g;s]sf] o;}aLr, cfpFbf] c;f/ ! b]lv $
8anLdf cfof]lht Ps ljz]if sfo{qmddf rlglofF OG6/g]6 lelqg ;s]sf] 5}g . xf] . d] dlxgf;Dd pQm sfd ;DkGg ut];Dd PglkPgcf]hL–@ gfds $ lbg]
g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf pRr txsf slxn] lxpF k/]sf] ;d:of / slxn] x'g] lrlgofF kIfn] cfZjf;g u/fPklg sfo{qmd cfof]hgf x'g] ePsf] 5 .
g]tT[ jx?n] awfO{ tyf clegGbg u/]sf sfdbf/sf] d[To'nfO{ sf/0f b]vfpFb} sfdbf/sf] d[To'kl5 clglZrt ag]sf] OG6/g]6 ;]jf k|bfos Pj+ ;"rgf
x'g \ . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf g]tf Pj+ lrlgofF OG6/g]6 g]kfn lelqg ;s]sf] 6]lnsdsf ;xfos k|jQmf zf]eg k|ljlwsf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;+:yfx?sf] ;d"x
:yfoL ;ldlt ;b:o ;Gtf]if a'9fn] kf6Ln] 5}g . 6]lnsdn] s]xL xKtfcl3 h]7 !* clwsf/Ln] hfgsf/L lbP . g] k fn g6js{ c k/] 6 ;{ U?k -
lnPsf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzfsf] cyf{t\ h'g ! b]lv /;'jf gfsf eP/ rLgtkm{sf] efudf clK6sn …a|s ] Ú PglkPgcf]h_n] ;f] sfo{qmd cfof]hgf
k|of]u / qmflGtsf/Lx?sf] kxnsbdLn] g]kfndf rLgaf6 OG6/g]6 Aof08ljy ePsf]n] ;f]xL ?6af6 AofG8jLy k7fpFbf ug{nfu]sf x'g \ . sfo{qmddf g]6jls{ª
/fHo;Qfsf] lgbx/fd ePsf] atfP . u/]/ /fli6«otf / :jfwLgtf arfpg ;Sg] ePsf kf6L{sf g]tf tyf sfostf{x? 5g\ \ . Nofpg nfu]sf] hfgsf/L lbof] . t/, cj/f]w x'g] / Jofj;flos ?kn] cfbfg Pj+ ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/ k|ljlwsf]If]qdf
pkTosf Ao"/f] OGrfh{ ;d]t /x]sf a'9fn] vfsf :ki6 ePsf] atfpFb} a'9fn] cfufdL PsLs[t hgqmflGtnfO{ k|ltlqmofjfbLsf] Joj;flos ?kdf ;~rfng cfPsf] k|bfg ug{ cK7]/f] kg]{ ePsf]n] l/:6f]/ nfu]sf Joj;flos JolQmx?sf ;fy}
bf];f| ] r/0fsf] r'gfjdf kxnsbdL yk lbgdf ;+3if{nfO{ yk ;'b9[ agfP/ n}hfg] r'gfjdf k|of]u ug{ ;kmn ePsf] egfO{ va/ 6]lnsdn] xfn;Dd lbPsf] 5}g . u/]/ dfq k7fpg] eGb} rfOgf 6]lnsdn] k|ljlwsf] cg';Gwfg Pj+ lzIf0f ;+nUgx?
;zQm / k|of]ufTds agfpg] b[9tf JoQm atfP . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ -g]skf_sf g]tfx?n] ut dfr{df lxpF klUng] ;d:of cfPkl5 g]kfn 6]lnsdnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fPsf] lar o;If]qdf ljZjdf eO/x]sf pTs[i6
u/] . g]tf sfo{stf{n] cleofgdf b]vfPsf] cleglGbt x'gx] ?df * 306fb]lv #( /fv]2 . g]skfåf/f ;+rflnt :yfgLo r'gfj OG6/g]6 Nofpg] sfo{df cj?4 ePsf] clwsf/Ln] atfP . lrlgofF kIfn] pQm cEof;x?sf] af/]df 5nkmn Pj+ cg'ej
-af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ lyof] . rLgtkm{sf] efudf /x]sf] clK6sn dfu{ lgdf{0fsf] sfd ;lsg]ljlQs} -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
;fx; / ljj]sn] bnfn ;QfnfO{ vf/]h lbg;Dd k|x/Lsf] lx/f;tdf a;]/ l/xf

g]skfsf] kxndf dg;/fsf] pkrf/ ;'?
sf7df8f} F . ut h]7 @! ut] cfFvf
lj:kmf]6 eO{ l;ls:t la/fdL k/]sL
d+ u naf/ ck/fGx sf7df8f} F
NofOk'¥ofPsf x'g \ .
a'9Lu08sL lrlgof“ sDkgLnfO{ lbg' unt M 8f e§/fO{
sf7df8f} F . /fli6«o hgzlQm kf6L{ wf/0ff :ki6 ug{ of] k|;] lj1lKt hf/L If]qdf ljlzi6 of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] dfq a'9Lu08sL hnljB't cfof]hgf ljsf;
/f]:sf]6 gu/kflnsf–&, sflnsf]6sL dxf/fhuGhl:yt aLkL cfF vf g]kfnsf ;+of]hs 8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{n] ul/Psf] 5 . geP/ cGo If]qsf] ljsf;nfO{ ;d]t ;ldlt u7g u/]sf] xf] .
rf/ aifL{of aflnsf dg;/f n'xf/sf] c:ktfndf cfFvfsf] kl/If0fnuQ} ;/sf/n] a'9Lu08sL hnljB't cfof]hgf a'9Lu08sL kl/of]hgf ultzLntf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] ePsfn] g]kfn #= lxpFbdf ldn];Dd w]/} phf{ pTkfbg
pkrf/sf nflu dg;/fnfO{ sflGt afn lgdf{0f ug{ lrlgofF sDkgLnfO{ lbP/ /fli6«o != ljB'tLo nf]8;]G6/x? -sf7df8f},F ;/sf/n] o; cfof]hgfnfO{ laz]if dxTj ug],{ ldn];Dd w]/} jflif{s phf{ pTkfbg
c:ktfnsf] Odh]{G;L sIfdf egf{ efjgfdf 7]; k'¥ofPsf] atfPsf 5g\ \ . kf]v/f, lrtjgh:tf ljh'nL k|z:t vkt lbO{ /fli6«o uf}/jsf] cfof]hgfsf] ?kdf ug],{ lbgsf] sDtLdf klg ^–& 306f
ul/Psf] 5 . egf{ cufl8 5f]6f] ;do 8f= e§/fOn] kqsf/;Dd]ng u/L /fli6«o x'g] :yfgx?_ af6 glhs, kx'r F dfu{ k'us
] f] ljsf; ug]{ nIo lnPsf] xf] . pRrtd Ifdtf (Peak capacity) df
lnP/ kqsf/;Dd]ng u/]/ la/fdLsf] dxTjsf] ljifonfO{ ;/sf/n] ljgfk|ltZkwf{ / k|zf/0f nfO{g 5f]6f] / ;xhtfsf ;fy @= hnfzoo' Qm cfof] hgfx¿ lah'nL lgsfNg ;Sg], kfgL v]/ hfg
cfly{s cj:yfaf/] afa'n] hfgsf/L ;f] sDklgnfO{ lbP/ g]kfnLx?sf] cfkm} lgdf{0f x'g] :yfgdf /x]sf], k|z:t u} /hnfzoo' Q m cfof] hgfx?eGbf ;s];Dd glbg], ;~rfngdf nrstf
lbPsf 5g\ \ . r/d cfly{s cefjaf6 ljsf; ug]{ rfxgfdfly s'7f/f3ft u/]sf] hne08f/ x'g ;Sg] / jflif{s ?kdf /fd|f] ljQLo?kdf s]xL a9L af]lemnf dfq geP/ ckgfpg ;lsg] tyf sd nfutdf lgdf{0f
u'l| h/x]sf /g] kl/jf/n] 5f]/L arfpg cf/f]k ;d]t nufPsf 5g\ \ . 8f= e§/fO{n] phf{ pTkfbg ug{ ;Sg] h:tf ljz]iftfx? o;sf ;fdflhs tyf jftfj/0fLo kIfx? ug]{ cfwf/x?df /x]/ l/hef{o/ l;d'nz ] g
;a};uF ;xof]u ug{ clkn u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] ;f] k|so[ fnfO{ unt k|lqmof / ePsfn] g]kfn ;/sf/n] a'9Lu08sL gbLdf klg r'gf}ltk"0f{ x'g] x'gfn] xfnsf] ;Gbe{df (Reservior simulation) ubf{
b'O{ dlxgfklxn] 3/glhs} gx/df v;]/ unt ghL/ eGb} pQm ;dembf/Ln] hnfzoo'Qm hnljB't cfof]hgf ljsf; o:tf cfof]hgfx?sf] lgdf{0fdf /fHo :jo+ optimum ¿kdf cof]hgfsf] hl8t
;fdfGo rf]6 nfu]sf dg;/fsf] bflxg] b"/ufdL c;/ kg]{ k|:6 kf/]sf 5g\ \ . ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] . o;n] d'ns
' sf] phf{ ;lqmo x'gk' g]{ cfjZostf b]lvG5 . ev{/} Ifdtf !@)) d]ufjf6 x'g] kfOPsf] 5 .
cfFvf cfly{s ;+s6s} sf/0f yk pkrf/ o; ljifodf gofF zlQm kf6L{sf cf}Bf]uLs/0fsf] o'udf k|j]z u/]sf ;fy} of] cfof]hgfaf6 jflif{s $@%)
ug{ g;ls/x]sf] afa' /g] n'xf/n] ;+of]hs 8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{n] hf u/]sf] b]zx?df ;'?sf] r/0fdf cfwf/e"t 7"nf luufjf6 cfj/ cyf{t $@% s/f]8 o"lg6
kqsf/;Dd]ngdf hfgsf/L lbP . lj1lKtsf] k"0f{kf7 o:tf] 5– æa'9Lu08sL k"jf{wf/x?sf] lgdf{0fdf /fHoIf]qn] g} kxn lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ ;lsg] s'/f ljsf;
pkrf/ sflGt afn c:ktfndf ;'? cefjs} sf/0f 5f]/Lsf] :jf:Yon] hl6n hnljB't cfof]hgf ljsf; ;DaGwL g]kfn ug{k' g]{ P]ltxfl;s / cGt/f{li6«o cg'ej ;ldlt dfkm{t ul/Psf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf]
ePsf] 5 . :yfgLo :t/df pkrf/ ?k lnPsf] pgn] atfP . rf]6 nfu]sf] ;/sf/, phf{ dGqfnon] rLgsf] u]hj' f ;d]t /x]sf 5g\ \ . o;} eP/ hnljB'tsf] 5 . o; cfof]hgfnfO{ ;DkGg ug{ @
c;Dej ePkl5 yk pkrf/ ug{ g]kfn sl/a b'O{ dlxgfkl5 cfOtaf/ 3fOt] U?k sDkgL lnld6]8;Fu xfn} u/]sf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ u/L ljB't ;]jfnfO{ va{ ^) ca{ g]kfnL ?kofF nfUg] cg'dfg
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / ;fdflhs cu'jf, o'jf cfFvf PSsf;L lj:kmf]6 eO{ aflx/ ;dembf/L kq (Memorandum of ;j{;n' e tyf e/kbf]{ agfpg a'9Lu08sL ul/Psf] 5 .
k+lQmsf] ;xof]udf k}bn / uf8Lsf] b'O{ lglSnof] . To;af6 :jf:Yojf:yf uDeL/ Understanding, MOU) k|lt gofF hnfzoo'Qm hnljB't cfof]hgf lgdf{0f $= cfof]hgf If]qdf kf]v/fsf]
lbgsf] nfdf] ofqfkZrft afa' /g] n'xf/ ag]kl5 :yfgLosf] ;xof]udf dg;/fnfO{ zlQm kf6L{, g]kfnsf] uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu 8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{ km]jftfneGbf !% u'0ff 7"nf] hnfzo
/ cu'jf sfnLaxfb'/ dxt/fn] 5f]/LnfO{ -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ ePsf] 5 . To;af/] kf6L{sf] cflwsfl/s g]tT[ jsf] tTsfnLg g]kfn ;/sf/n] -afFs L clGtd k]h df_
2 @)&$ ;fn h]7 @* ut] cfOtaf/

dlxnf, 5fpk8L k|yf / /h:jnf
ltdL ltd|f] tl/sfn] n8, xfdL xfd|f] tl/sfn] n8f}
– s= dfcf]T;] t'ª
 ;DkfbsLo /h:jnf jf g5'g] x'g' gfd km/s x/] s g] k fnL dlxnfn] o;sf] s'/f :s'ndf l;s]sf] /x]5, ToxLcg';f/ k"j{bl] v klZrd;Dd}, ;DkGg x'g jf
hgtf dflysf] Hoflbt aGb u/ xf]nf t/ cy{ Pp6} . zAb h] ;'s}
aGg'xf];\, ha ef]ufOsf] s'/f cfFp5,
cgfjZos kL8f ef]Ub} cfO/x]sf 5f} + .
k|foM ;a}sf] 3/df dlxgfj/L x'Fbf
9f]Uof] clg dnfO{ klg eGof], ddf ca
ltd|f] kfnf] . d cjfs eP . s] u/f}+
ljkGg lzlIft eGb}df x'g ls clzlIft
;a} 7fpF, j{u / ;d"xdf af; kfPsf]
ef]ufO klg Pp6} . d]/f] Pp6f ;dsIfL efG5fdf hfg gx'g], k"hf ug]{ gx'g], eof], hlt cfw'lgs eP klg, hlt g} 5, h/f u8] s f] 5 of] 5fpk8L
;/sf/sf] kl5Nnf] r/0fsf] sfo{zn } Ln] hgtf ljw'zL ldq efif0f ub}{ x'g'x'G'Yof] cfkg} kl/jf/sf ;b:onfO{ 5'g ;d]t cfGtl/s lj/f]waf6 u'lh|P klg st} dfgl;stfn] . klxn] dfgl;stf ;'wf/f},F
k|tfl8t aGb} uPsf] b]lvG5 . vf;u/L, :yfgLo 5fpk8Lsf] af/]df . eGb} x'g'x'GYof] gx'g] rng clxn] klg Jofkt 5 . g st} of] dg leq To:tf s'/Lltn] k|yf cfkm}F x6\g5
]  .
5fpk8Ln] klZrdsf cfdf, lbbL,
lgsfosf] lgjf{rg ;kmn agfpg] gfddf ;/sf/n] alxgLn] y'k|} kL8f ef]uL /xg' ePsf] ;dLIff af:sf]6f
5 o;sf] sf/0f clzIff, c1fgtf
k|foM ;a} tx / tKsfsf hgtf dfly Hofblt ub}{ cflbcflb . ;'Gbf ;fFrf] nfUof] . x'g ToxLdlxgfjf/Lsf]
cfPsf] ;dfrf/x? ;fj{hlgs eO/x]sf 5g\ . klg xf] . t/, dgdf k|Zg pl7of] s]

g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf lgjf{rgdf efu lng}k5{ eGg]
of] k|yf klZrddf dfq 5 t < gfd
km/s xf]nf t/ of] k|yf x/]s g]kfnLsf]
sf/0faf6g};[li6
afWosf/L Joj:yf gePsf] / hgtfn] lgjf{rg 3/3/sf] sxfgL xf] hxfF !@ jif{sf] rln/x]sf]5eg]ToxL
pd]/ k'/f u/]sL 5f]/L, alxgLn] ef]uL
alxisf/ ug{ kfpg] nf]stflGqs clwsf/;d]t /x]sf 5g\ . dlxgfj/Ls;/Lc5'tf]
dnfO{ d]/} s'/f ug{ dg nfUof] .
ePsfn] ;/sf/L Hofblt nHhfhgs / lgGbgLo ;fob d !@–!# jif{sL lyPF xf]nf x'G5 . To;sf/0f hGd]sf
ha klxnf] rf]6L dnfO{ dlxgfj/L
5 . ;/sf/n] vf;u/L g] s kfsf g]tf tyf eof] . o;af/] dnfO{ s]xL ;fdfGo 1fg ;fGtfg/fd|f]/eujfg\
sfo{stf{nfO{ lgjf{rg alxisf/ u/]sf] eGb} zflGtk"0f{ t lyPg g}, g t 3/df s;}n] dnfO{
l;sfOPsf] lyof] g t :s'ndf . d x'G5g\eg]ToxLlgoldt
sfo{qmddf aGb]h nufpg], lu/ˆtf/ ug]{ / ljleGg sIff sf]7fdf a;L /fv]sf] a]nf s]
lsl;dsf e'm7f d'2f nufpg] u/]sf] ;dfrf/x? eof], s;/L eof] < dnfO{ s]xL yfxf dlxgfjf/L 5fpk8L s;/L
ePg t/ d al;/x]sf] 7fFpaf6 p7\bf
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s]xL klxnf dlxgfjf/L ;'? ePsf] dlxnfnfO{k"hfug'{k5{ .of]d]n},xfdLn];a}
cfˆgf] n'6sf] :ju{df hgtfn] cf}nF f 78\ofP eGb}df lyof] . pgn] dnfO{ ld; ePsf] 7fpFdf
pgLx?dfly bdg ug{ kfOFbg}  . To;}n] ;/sf/n] nlug\ . ld;n] 3/df kmf]g u/]/ ljqmd
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nflu/x]sf] lyof] . lsg xf]nf d}n] dfq
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kfNkf, ¿kGb]xL, slknj:t', bfª, ;'vt{ ] , afFs,] alb{of, s}nfnL / s~rgk'/_ h:tf] dfq s] nfu]sf] lyof] . csf]{ sf/0f s;}nfO{ yfxf 5}g . elgof] x'bF g} ug]{ eof] . lsgls cfh;Dd d}n] s'ky| faf6 hlt rfF8f] d'lQm lbnfpg
lglb{i6 s[lif pkhx¿sf] d"No z[ªv \ nfdf cfa4 ;fgf s[ifs, s[lif Joj;foL tyf k6ssf] lg ;'? eOxfNof] . dnfO{ ?g eg]/, clg xfdLn] kfngf ug{k' g],{ k|Zg dlGb/df g} uP/ rflxF 9f]u]sf] lyOg . h?/L 5 d . Tof] cleofg ;a}lt/
pBdLsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtfdf ;'wf/ ug{' /x]sf] 5 . of] cfof]hgf @)^% dfq dg nfUof], rf/ lbg;Dd 8/n] gu/L . olt;Dd ls 3/sf a[4a[4f afa' dnfO{ x'bF g} eg] afa'n] x'G5 eGof] . rnfpg TolQs} h?/L 5 . ;'?jft
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;DjGw / :jfy{ /x]sf] :ki6 x'G5 . pgn] ug' { n ] ltgsf] ;DjGw / To;sf] df/ l;w} stf/sf] cy{ ;b:o x'g\ ._
cGt/lj/f]wnfO{ k|i6 kfb{5 . cd]l/sL
ToxfF dWok"js { f ;j} b]zx?n] cfkm\g}
cf0fljs sfo{qmd ;+rfng ul//fv]sf]
/fi6« klt 8f] g fN8 6« D kn] ;fpbL
c/jsf] e|d0f u/] nuQ} oL b]zx?n]
g]skfåf/f em'7f d'2f rnfOP k|ltjfb ug]{ r]tfjgL
stf/dfly s'6g}lts, /fhg}lts / sf7df8f}+ . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ emfkfn] ;/sf/n] cfˆgf g]tf–
O{/fgnfO{ PSnf] agfpg lgb]z{ g lbP . cfly{s gfsfjGbL ug]{ lg0f{o lnPsf sfo{stf{dfly ;'lgof]lht ?kdf em'7f d'2f nufpg vf]h]sf] eGb} lgGbf
O{/fgsf] ?;;+usf] ;xsfo{ / olb p;+u x'g \ . To;}n] o; 36gf;+u cd]l/sfsf] u/]sf] 5 . laxLaf/ dfq /f}tx6 k|x/Ln] rGb|k'/af6 lhNnf ;ldlt ;lrjfno
cf0fljs zlQm ePdf p;n] dWok"jd{ f lgs} g} glhs ;DjGw / :jfy{ /x]sf] ;b:oåo tf/faxfb'/ yfkf …k|zfGtÚ / lblnk yfkf …lblnkÚnfO{ lagfsf/0f
:ki6 x'G5 . pgn] ToxfF dWok"j{sf kqmfp u/L em'7f d'2f nufpg vf]lhPsf] eGb} cfklQ hgfPsf] 5 . b'j}
cfkm\gf] k|efj hdfpg ;Sg] / To;n] hgfnfO{ ToxfFsf ;'bz{g xf]6ndf af; a;]sf] a]nf lu/ˆtf/ u/L lj:kmf]6s
;j} b]zx?n] cfkm\g} cf0fljs sfo{qmd
cd]l/sf / ;fpbL c/jsf] k|efjnfO{ sdhf]/ ;+rfng ul//fv]sf] O{/fgnfO{ PSnf] kbfy{ ;fydf le/fO{ km;fpg vf]lhPsf] g]skf emfkf lhNnf O{Grfh{ pd]zåf/f
kfg]{ 8/ cd]l/sfnfO{ /x]sf] 5 . t/, 8f]gfN8 6«Dksf] of] k|:tfjnfO{ stf/n] ;fj{hlgs agfpg lgb] { z g lbP . O{ /fgsf] z'qmaf/ hf/L Ps k|]; lj1lKtdf hgfOPsf] 5 . JolQmut sfddf emfkf 3/
?;;+ usf] ;xsfo{ / olb p;+ u kms{b} ubf{ af; a;]sf] a]nf kqmfp u/]/ algagfp ;dfrf/ k|x/Ln] lbPsf]
?kdf 7f8} c:jLsf/ u¥of] / eGof] sL O{/fgnfO{ c;xof]u ug'{ xFb' g}  . o; ljifodf
cf0fljs zlQm ePdf p;n] dWok"jd{ f
stf/n] Ps xb;Dd O{/fgsf] kIfdf jsfnt u¥of] . oL ;j} ljifox?n] ;fpbL c/j cfkm\gf] k|efj hdfpg ;Sg] / To;n]
nufotsf cGo b]zx?n] stf/dfly sf/jfxL ug'k{ g]{ wf/0ff agfP h;sf] kl/0ffd cd]l/sf / ;fpbL c/jsf] k|efjnfO{
clxn]sf] gfsfjGbL xf] . sdhf]/ kfg]{ 8/ cd]l/sfnfO{ /x]sf]
5 . t/, 8f]gfN8 6«Dksf] of] k|:tfjnfO{
)))) stf/n] ;fj{ h lgs ?kdf 7f8}
stf/Pp6f:jtGqb]zsf]?kdf;DjGwx?AfgfpFb}lyof]/cd]l/sf/;fpbL c:jLsf/ u¥of] / eGof] sL O{/fgnfO{
c/jh:tf7"nfb]zx?sf]k|efjeGbfjflx/hfFb}lyof] .of]kl/l:yltnfdf] c;xof]u ug'{ xF'b}g . o; ljifodf hgfpFb} lagf;t{ t'?Gt l/xf ug{ dfu u/]sf 5g\ . em'7f d'2f rnfOP
stf/n] Ps xb;Dd O{/fgsf] kIfdf ;+3if{af6} k|ltjfb ug]{ r]tfjgL lj1lKtdf nufOPsf] 5 . …JolQmut sfdsf]
;do;Dd/x]dfstf/nfO{cfly{s,/fhg}lts/s'6g}ltsb[li6n]gsf/fTds jsfnt u¥of] . oL ;j} ljifox?n] l;nl;nfdf sf7df8f}+af6 emfkf 3/ kms{g] qmddf /f}tx6 rGb|k/' sf] ;'bz{g
k|efjkg]{s'/flglZrt5 .o;sf]d'Vok|efj;g\@)@@dfstf/n]cfof]hgf ;fpbL c/j nufotsf cGo xf]6nsf] sf]7f g+= !)% df af; a;]sf] cj:yfdf kqmfp u/L lhNnf k|x/L
ug{nfu]sf]ljZjskkm'6jndfkg]{5 .l5d]sLb]zx?;+ultSts'6g}lts b]zx?n] stf/dfly sf/jfxL ug'{kg]{ sfof{no /f}tx6n] ;'lgof]lht / algagfp 9+un] lj:kmf]6s kbfy{;lxt
wf/0ff agfP h;sf] kl/0ffd clxn]sf] kqmfp ul/Psf] egL ;dfrf/ ;Dk|]if0f u/]sf]k|lt xfd|f] lhNnf kf6L{ 3f]/lgGbf
;DjGwePsf]j]nfstf/nfO{of]k|ltof]lutfcfof]hgfug{s'6g}lts/ / eT;{gf ub{5Ú hf/L ljl1Ktdf elgPsf] 5 .
gfsfjGbL xf] .
;'/Iffsfb[li6n]ljZjnfO{cfZj:tkfg{sl7gx'g]5 .olbof]cj:yfnfdf] ljZjjhf/df Uof;sf] lgof{t ug]{ o; laifodf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ emfkfsf O{Grfh{, emfkf pd]zn] hf/L
;do;Dd/x]dfstf/dfly;}lgssf/jfxLsf]xb;Ddklg;DjGwljlu|g k|d'v b]zx?dWo] stf/ Ps xf] . ;g\ u/]sf] lj1lKt o; k|sf/ /x]sf] 5– æbnfn, e|i6 / kltt /fi6«3ftL ;+;bLo
!(&) kl5 dfq} kQf nfu] s f Joj:yfsf] /Iffsf] nflu bnfn ;/sf/åf/f b] z }e / g] s kfsf g] tf
;Sb5 .stf/sf] cGob]zx?;+u ePsf]cGt/b]lzo cfly{s;DjGwx? / sfo{stf{x?nfO{ u}/sfg"gL 9+un] kqmfp ug]{ / u}/lhDd]jf/k"0f{ tl/sfn]
stf/;+ u lgs} 7" n f, cfly{ s /
xjfO{If]qdf/x]sf]stf/sf]Jofkf/sf];DjGwTff]l8PdfTo;sf]df/l;w} k|fljlws sf]0faf6 lgs} ;xh 9+un] algagfp em'7f d'2f rnfpg] sfo{ tLj| ?kdf ul//x]sf] 5 .
stf/sf]cy{k|0ffnLdfkg]{5 .;fd|fHojfbLb]zx?n]hlxn]klgcfkm\gf] lgsfNg ldNg] Uof;sf vfgLx? /x]sf oxL qmddf @)&$ h]7 @% ut] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ emfkfsf] lhNnf
s7\k'tnLjGggrfxg]h'g;'s}b]z/zf;s/zf;gk|0ffnLnfO{cfqmd0fug]{ 5g\ . h;sf] l5d]sL b]zx?n] Oiof{ ;lrjfno ;b:oåo tf/faxfb'/ yfkf …k|zfGtÚ / lblnk yfkf …lblnkÚ
klg ug]{ ub{5g\ . ljZjsf] ;j}eGbf JolQmut sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf sf7df8f}+af6 emfkf 3/ kms{g] qmddf /f}tx6
ub{5 .O{/fscfqmd0f,ckmuflg:tfgcfqmd0f,clxn]l;l/ofdfeO{/x]sf] 7"nf] Uof;sf] vfgL ;fpy kf;{÷gy{ rGb|k'/sf] ;'bz{g xf]6nsf] sf]7f g+= !)% df af; a;]sf] cj:yfdf kqmfp
u[xo'4cflbo;sfHo'bfFhfUbfpbfx/0fx?x'g .clxn]stf/sf];Gbe{df 8f]d stf/df cjl:yt 5 h;sf] s]xL u/L lhNnf k|x/L sfof{no /f}tx6n] ;'lgof]lht / algagfp 9+un] lj:kmf]6s
klg7LsToxLs'/fnfu"x'G5 .o;/Lstf/nfO{:jtGq?kdfcGt/f{li6«o efu O{/fg;+u klg hf]l8Psf] 5 . o;n] kbf{y;lxt kqmfp ul/Psf] egL ;dfrf/ ;Dk|]if0f u/]sf]k|lt xfd|f] lhNnf
klg stf/ / O{/fgjLrsf] ;DjGw kf6L{ 3f]/lgGbf / eT;{gf ub{5 . ;fy} kqmfp ul/Psf sfo{stf{x?sf] t'?Gt
;DjGwx?/fVg glbP/ cd]l/sf / ;fpbL c/jnfufotsf b]zx?sf] agfpgdf d2t u/]sf] 5 . ;g\ !((% l/xfOsf] dfu ub{5 . olb em'7f cleof]u nufO{ d'2f rnfpg] sfo{ ePdf o;sf]
s7\k'tnLag]geg]/s'6g}lts/cfly{sgfsfjGbLnufOPsf]5 .stf/sf] af6 stf/n] of] vfgLaf6 Uof;sf] k|ltjfb ;+3if{af6 x'g5
]  . To;af6 pTkGg x'g] ;Dk"0f{ 36gfsf] lhDd]jf/ bnfn
O{/fg/?;;+usf]glhssf]s'6g}ltsPj+Jofkfl/s;DjGw/cd]l/sftyf lgof{ t ul//x] s f] 5 . o;df ;/sf/ / u[xk|zf;g x'g] hfgsf/L ;d]t o;} lj1lKtdfkm{t lbg rfxG5f} + .Æ
dWok"j{sfb]zx?;+ulrl;/x]sf];DjGwn]o;If]qdfcem}klgczflGt,åGå/
c;xhtflg/Gt//xg]s'/flglZrtk|foM5 .
cd]l/sfdf ePsf k|To]s 3/nfO{ !))
aif{;Dd jfNg k'Ug] Uof; o;df /x]sf] ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg geO{ lgjf{rgdf hfg ;lsGg
5 . stf/ cfly{ s ?kdf ;jn sf7df8f}F . /fli6«o hgtf kf6L{, g]kfnn] gofF ;/sf/;Fu lgjf{rgdf
g} /x] s f] 5 . ;fpbL c/jn] j;/ cn c;fbsf] ;/sf/L kIfnfO{ / ;fpbL c/jnfO{ lrQ j'em]sf] 5}g . aGg' eGbf klxnf ;fpbL c/jsf] hfg] jftfj/0f tTsfn lgdf{0f ug{ dfu u/]sf] 5 . Joj:yflksf ;+;bsf]
stf/;+usf] l;dfgf jGb u/]sf] 5 ;xof]u ul//x]sf] 5 eg] cd]l/sf / ;fd'b|L l;dfgfaf6 O/fg;+u hf]l8g' 5fofdf /x]sf] lyof] t/ cfly{s ;Dj[l4 z'qmaf/sf] a}7sdf af]Nb} kf6L{sf g]tfåo dx]Gb|/fo ofbj / ;j]{Gb|gfy
eg] cGo b]zdf ePsf stf/Lx?nfO{ ;fpbL c/j nufotsf dWok"j{sf / stf/df /x]sf] ljZjs} ;j}eGbf kl5 stf/n] :jtGq ?kdf cfkm\gf] z'Snfn] ;/sf/n] cem} :yfgLo tx bf];|f] r/0fsf] lgjf{rgdf hfg] atfj/0f
@ xKtf leq cfkm\gf] b]z kms{g cfb]z b]zx?n] ljb|f]xL kIfx?nfO{ cfly{s 7"nf] Uof; vfgLsf] s]xL c+z O/fg;+u s'6g}lts / Jofkfl/s ;DjGw O/fg gagfPsf] eGb} c;Gt'li6 ;d]t JoQm u/] . gofF ;/sf/nfO{ z'esfdgf lbFb}
lbOPsf] 5 . stf/sf] lglDt of] Pp6f Pj+ ;}Go ;xof]u ul//x]sf] 5 . oxL ;fem] bf/Ldf /xg' n ] klg oL b' O { / cGo d'ns ' x?;+u agfO{/x]sf] ;fpbL g]tf ofbjn] cfkm"x? lgjf{rg lj/f]wL geP klg ;/sf/ / k|d'v k|ltkIf
lgs} uDeL/ vt/fsf] ;+st] xf] . stf/ o' 4 df dfq} ^) nfv l;l/ofnL b]zx?sf] ;DjGw glhs /xFb} cfPsf] c/jnfO{ dg k/]sf] lyPg . Uof;s} Pdfn]n] ;f] jftfj/0f agfpg grfx]sf] cf/f]k ;d]t nufP . g]tf ofbjn]
cfkm}Fdf k]6«f]lnoddf wgL b]z xf] t/ gful/sx? cfGtl/s ?kdf lj:yflkt 5 . ;g\ @)!! sf] c/j l:k|ªDff Jofkf/af6 stf/ ljZjsf ;j}eGbf d'ns' sf] cv08tfnfO{ arfpg ;d]t cfkm'x?nfO{ lgjf{rgdf hfg] jftfj/0f
klg vfBfGg nufotsf ;fdu|Lx? cGo ePsf 5g\ sl/j %) nfv dflg;x? OlhK6df xf]:gL d'jf/ssf] zf;gsf] wgL b]zx?df /x]sf] 5 . stf/sf] of] agfpg] lhDd]jf/L k|wfgdGqL z]/axfb'/ b]pjf / g]kfnL sfFu|];sf] ePsf]
b]zjf6 ;fpbLsf] :yndfu{ eP/ b]z 5f]8L z/0ffyL{sf] ?kdf o"/f]k / cGo eP klg ToxfF d'l:nd j|b/p8sf] cfly{s ljsf; b]v]/ l5d]sdf /x]sf klg pNn]v u/] .
cfoft ug]{ ub{5 . of] lg0f{osf] bf];|f] cGo b]zx?df efu]sf 5g\ . sl/j pTklt eof] . h;nfO{ ;fpbL c/jn] b]zx? c;'/lIft dx;'; ul//x]sf g]tf ;j]{Gb|gfy z'Snfn] cfkm'x?sf] dfu ;Daf]wg u/]/ lgjf{rgdf hfg]
lbg g} stf/sf] z]o/ jhf/df &=@ % nfv dflg;x?sf] Hofg uO;s]sf] dfGotf lbPg / c:jLsf/ u¥of] lyP . stf/n] n] j gfgdf jftfj/0f agfpg eO/x]sf] tof/Laf/] hfgsf/L lbg k|wfgdGqL z]/axfb'/
k| ltztsf] lu/fj6 cfpg' n ] o; 5 / sl/j @) nfv dflg;x? 3fOt] lsgls p dWok"j{df s'g} klg qmflGt x]hj'NnfxnfO{ ul//fv]sf] ;dy{g / b]pjf;Fu dfu klg u/] . pgn] ;/sf/n] tTsfn jftfj/0f gagfP cfGbf]ngdf
36gfn] stf/sf] cfly{s k|0ffnLdf /x]sf 5g\ . oL ;j} cfFs8fx?n] of kl/jt{gsf] kIfdf lyPg . ;fpbL ?;;+usf] j9\bf] cfly{s / /fhg}lts hfg afWo x'g] r]tfjgL ;d]t lbP . pgn] ;/sf/ cfkm} lgjf{rgdf hfg]
uDeL/ ;+s6 cfpg] ;+efjgf b]lvG5 . dWok" j { s f] eofjx hghLjgaf/] rfxGYof] ls dWok"jd{ f l:y/ jftfj/0f ;DjGwnfO{ klg cd]l/sf / ;fpbL jftfj/0f agfpg clgR5's b]lvPsf] lhsL/ klg u/] . g]tf z'Snfn] k|wfgdGqL
dWok"j{ If]q nfdf] ;dob]lv o'4 e"lddf cGbfh nufpg ;lsG5 . agL /fvf];\ / ;a} ldn]/ O{/fgsf c/jn] dg gk/fPsf] :ki6} 5 . b]pjf g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/sf] klxnf] a}7ssf] ;ft j6f k|fyldstf leq ;+ljwfg
kl/0ft eO/x]sf] 5 . ;g\ @))# df Ps dlxgf cufl8 stf/sf lj?4df hfg / PSNofpg kfOof];\ / ?;sf] ;/sf/L sDkgL /f] :g]km\ 6 ;+zf]wgsf] ljifo ufoj ul/Psf] eGb}cfklQ hgfP . /fli6«o hgtf kf6L{, g]kfnn]
;'? eO{ sl/j ;f9] * aif{ rn]sf]] cld/n] cd]l/sf / ;fpbL c/jn] cfkm\ g f] /fh dWok" j { d f ;w} F cf] P ndf stf/n] @=& ljlnog ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg geO{ lgjf{rgdf hfg g;lsg] r]tfjgL lbFb} cfPsf] 5 .
4 @)&$ ;fn h]7 @* ut] cfOtaf/

o:tf 5g\– Knfl:6s ;h{/Ldfkm{t ;'Gb/L ag]sf ;]lna|]6Lx?
sf7df8f}F . lrlsT;f lj1fgsf] Pp6f To:tf] pknAwL h;n] dflg;nfO{{ >'t L x;g\
oL x'g\ dfG5]nfO{ lgsDdf agfpg] afgL
sf7df8f}F . tkfO{ sfd t v'j} ug{'x'G5, t/ kl/0ffd tkfO{n] ;f]r]h:tf]
cfpFb}g . oltw]/} d]xgt u/kl5 klg ;a} h:tfsf] t:t} . ;f]Rg';\ tkfO{df
eujfgn] glbPsf] s'/f lbPsf] 5 . kl5Nnf] ;do ljsl;t b]zx?df km];gsf] >'tL To:tL Ps cleg]qL x'g\ h;n] 3f]if0ff u/] Knfl:6s ;h{/L ul/g\ . klg of] bz afgL t 5}g < lgb|fcl3 sfd : olb tkfO{ sfd ug{ olt dg
?kdf km:6fPsf] Knfl:6s ;h{/Ln] dflg;nfO{{ cfkm'n] rfx] cg';f/sf] ?k / ;g\ @))( df ns lkmNdaf6 8]Ao" u/]sL oLgn] kl5 gfssf] ;h{/L u/fOg\ . k/fpg' x'G5 ls lgb|f klg dfof dfl//xg' ePsf] 5 . To;f] xf] eg] ljZjf;
agfj6 lbPsf] 5 . To;}sf] kl/0ffd w]/} cGt/fli6«o ;]lna|]6Ln] cfkm'nfO{{ ug{';\, tkfO{sf] sfd ug]{ Ifdtf lj:tf/} gi6 x'Fb}65, tkfO{ lj:tf/} lgsDdf
kl/jt{g u/fPsf 5g\ . alnp8s} dfq s'/f ug]{ xf] eg]klg w]/} lx/f]Ogx?n] x'g'x'g]5 .
Knfl:6s ;h{/L dfkm{t cfˆgf] k|fs[lts agfj6df kl/jt{g u/]sf 5g\ . OG6/g]6sf] nt M sfd ubf{ub}{ s]xL s'/f ofb cfP / OG6/g]6df ;r{
cfkm'nfO{{ /fd|f] / cfsif{s agfpg Knfl:6s ;h{/L u/]sf alnp8 lx/f]Ogdf ug{' nfUg'eof] . km]l/ Psaf6 csf]{ csf]{af6 csf]{ slta]nf b;f}+df k'luof]
&) sf] bzsdf pbfPsfb]lv clxn]sf rNtLsL gflosf;Dd 5g\ . yfx} ePg . o:tf] eO/x]sf] 5 < OG6/g]6 Pp6f nt xf] .
>Lb] j L a|]skmf:6 gug{' M a|]skmf:6 gu/]/ tkfO{ ;do arfp x'Gg, PghL{ sd
;bfjxf/ ;'Gb/L >Lb]jLsf] gzfn' d':sfg / ;'Gb/ cfFvfsf] k|z+;s sf] ug{' x'G5 . laxfg vfgf vfg' ePg eg] lbge/ tkfO{sf] PghL{ sd /xg]5 .
5}g xf]nf < t/ klg oL ;'Gb/Ln] cfkm'nfO{{ yk ;'Gb/ agfpgsf lglDt zfxL n~rn] klg o;sf] k'lt{ ug{ ;Sb}g .
cfn6fn ug{' M c/] of/, ug{' t lyof] t/…=l7s 5 ;fFem ul/lbG5' . jf
ef]ln laxfg u5{' . a; of] nfOg klg tkfO{nfO{ lgsDdf agfpg sfkmL
x'g]5 . To;}n] elgPsf] xf]nf, ef]ln xf]Og, cfh}, cfh} xf]Og clxn] g} .
;g\ @)!# df l/lnh ePsf] /d}of j:tfj}of df b]vfk/]sL >'tL x;gnfO{{ b]v]/ k6s–k6s Od]n r]s ug{' M x/]s kfFr ldg]6df s'g} Od]n t cfPg
k|z+;s rlst} k/] . pgn] Knfl:6s ;h{/L dfkm{t gfsdfq geO{ cf]7 / cGo eGb} r]s ug{' . ljz]ifu/L :df6{kmf]gdf . tkfO{nfO{ yfxf 5 < dfq x]g{df
agfj6df ;d]t kl/jt{g u/]sf] ;xh}} b]Vg ;lsG5 . tkfO{n] lbgdf cfwf 306f ;do u'dfpg' ePsf] 5 <
lzNkf ;]¶ L cgfjZos ldl6ª M cgfjZos ldl6ªn]eGbf a9L dfG5]nfO{ lgsDdf
alnp8sL cf}wL ;'Gb/L gflosfdWo]sL Ps lzNkfsf] e'tS' s} kfg]{ d':sfg;Fu agfpg] afgL c? s'g} klg 5}g . olb Tof] ldl6ªlagf, dfq Od]n k7fP/
kl/lrt gePsf sd} rnlrqk|d] L xf]nfg\ . oxL ljz]iftfn] pgnfO{{ ef/ts} ;]S;L sfd x'g ;S5 eg] ug{';\ . lgsDdf x'g'eGbf pQd 5 .
gflosfsf] pkdf ;d]t lbOG5 . t/ lszf]/L cj:yfsL lzNkf x]g{ ] xf] eg] pgsf] dlN66fl:s· M of] klg u/f}F, Tof] klg u/f}F g . cWoog eG5 ls ;a}
sfd ug]{ Ifdtf dfq @ k|ltzt dflg;df x'G5 . Pp6f sfd ug{';\ / To;f]
ug{'; ls dflg;x? x]/]sf x]/]s} /x'g\ .
k|fyldstf to ug{ g;Sg' M olb tkfO{nfO{ yfxf 5 ls ;a}eGbf
klxnf s'g sfd h?/L 5 . olb of] ljifodf tkfO{ sGˆo'H8 x'g'xG' 5, To;f] xf]
Knfl:6s ;h{/Lsf] ;xf/f lnPsL 5g\ . alnp8df :yflkt x'Fbf;Dd logsf] eg] tkfO{ cfˆgf] ;do / zlQm aaf{b ul//xg' ePsf] 5 . o;af6 aRg';\ .
gfs xNsf df]6f] / 7"nf] lyof] . pgn] kl5 Knfl:6s ;h{/Ldfkm{t ;kmntfk"j{s Knflgª g} Knflgª M Knflgª ug{' lgs} /fd|f] s'/f xf] . t/, ;a} zlQm
gfsnfO{{ dl;gf] / ;fgf] agfOg\ . Knflgª /Xof] / ToxL rSs/df s]xL klg ul/Pg eP Knflgªn] g} 8'afpg]5 .
cg' i sf zdf{ To;}n] ug{'eGbf pQd c? s]xL x'Fb}g . – Ph]G;L
;g\ @))* df zfx?v vfg;Fu /j g] jgf lb hf]8Ldf clego ubf{
cfˆgf] k|fs[lts ;'Gb/tfsf ;fy k|:t't ePsL cg'isf kl5 PsfPs km/s z/L/sf] tf}n 36\bfsf] kmfOb} a]Un}
sf7df8f}F . tf}n a9\g glbg / lgoGq0f ug{sf nflu olb tkfO{ s;/t
tyf 8fO6sf] ;xL ;lDd>0f cfˆgf] ;dofg's"n agfP/ :j:y / :nLd aGg
rfxg'xG' 5 eg] o;sf ljleGg crlDdt kfg]{ kmfObfx¿ 5g\ . zf]wdf cfwfl/t
gfs lgs} e2f b]lvGYof] . kl5 pgn] Knfl:6s ;h{/L dfkm{t gfsnfO{{ dl;gf] ;'Gb/
s]xL tf}n 36fpg'sf kmfObfx¿ lglDg k|sf/ /x]sf] bfjL ul/Psf] 5 .
agfOg\ . h;n] ubf{ pgL yk ;'Gb/ / cfsif{s b]lvPsL l5g\ .
bf“tsf] /f]uaf6 5'6sf/f M s]; j]:6g{ l/hj{ o"lgel;{6Lsf zf]wstf{x¿n]
s+ u gf /gfjt
tf}n 36fpgfn] dflg;x¿sf] bfFt tyf luhfsf] ;d:ofaf6 5'6sf/f kfpg] /
Uof+u:6f/ / cf] nDx]dfkm{t ;g\ @))^ af6 cfˆgf] hah{:t kl/ro agfPsL
bfFt ;DaGwL /f]u Psbd} sd nfUg] ub{5 . df]6f]kgfn] luhfdf kL8f tyf
s+ugfn] y'k}| lkmNdaf6 cfkm'nfO{{ ;kmntf tkm{ ws]lng\ . kl5 pgn] cfkm'nfO{{ yk
;'hgsf] ˆof6 sf]ifx¿ lgdf{0f ub{5 . o;sf/0f ˆof6\ sd ePsf JolQmdf
cfsif{s agfpg :tgsf] Knfl:6s ;h{/L ul/g / 7'nf] agfOg\ . ;g\ @)!! df
bfFtsf] b'vfO{sf] ;d:of / cGo bfFt;DaGwL ;d:of Psbd} sd x'G5 .
l/lnh ePsf] /f:sn df lalsgL kf]hdf b]lvPsL s+ugfn] cfˆgf] a9]sf] :tg
t]h lbdfu M s]G6 :6]6 o"lgel;{6Lsf] zf]wsf cg';f/ df]6f]kgsf] sf/0f
dflg;sf] lbdfu / :d[lt ;DalGwt clws ;d:ofx¿ x'g] ub{5g\ . ha
df]6f]kg lgolGqt x'G5 pgLx¿df Psfu|tf a9L x'g hfG5 / t]h lbdfu x'g
hfG5g\ .
b]lvg yflng\ . sl6«gf s}kmsf] h:t} b]lvg] u/L cg'isfn] cfˆgf] cf]7sf] tgfj sd x'G5 M jflzª6g ;]G6/ km/ j]6 Dofg]hd]G6sf] cWoogsf
Knfl:6s ;h{/L ul/g\ . To;f] pgsf] o; kl/jt{gnfO{{ w]/} bz{sn] ?rfPgg\ . cg';f/ df]6f] JolQmx¿ ;fgf] ;fgf] s'/fdf klg clws tgfj lng] ub{5g\ .
t/ klg alnp8 lqms]6/ lj/f6 sf]xnL;Fusf] 8]l6ªdf eg] s'g} sld cfPg . ha ls sd tf}n x'g] JolQmx¿ sd tgfj lng] ub{5g\ . z/L/df ˆof6
h;n] ubf{ cg'isfsf] o:tf] ?k sf]xnLsf] rfxgf ePsf] l6Kk0fLx? klg y'k|} a9g'sf] ;fy;fy} sf]l6{hf]nsf] dfqf klg a9\b} hfG5 h;n] tgfj a9fpg]
;'lgP . ub{5 .
/fvL ;fjGt ue{ w f/0f Ifdtfdf j[l4 M 8\o"s o"lgel;{6L d]l8sn ;] G6/sf]
cfO6d un{sf] ?kdf alnp8 k|j]z u/]sL /fvL ;fjGtsf] pkl:ytL zf]wsf cg';f/ tf}n lgoGq0fdf /fVg] JolQmx¿sf] of}ghLjg Psbd} /fd|f]
bdbf/ aGof] . pgsf] ;'Gb/ cg'xf/ / agfj6n] w]/}nfO{{ df]lxt agfof] . x'G5 . o:t} cWoogsf cg';f/ df]6f dlxnfx¿df ue{wf/0f ;DaGwL ;d:of
/fvLsf] pkl:ytL klg kl5 lj:tf/} kl/jlt{t eof] . s]xL jif{sf] cGt/fndf clws x'G5 .
hf]gL{ b'vfO{df cf/fd M tf}n lgoGq0fdf /fVg] JolQmx¿df hf]gL{x¿sf]
;lxt b]lvPsL lyOg\ .
b'vfO{df sd x'g hfG5 . kmof6\ sf]if h;sf] z/L/df sd x'G5 pgLx¿df
sl6« g f s} k m
hf]gL{ b'vfO{x¿sf] ;d:of Psbd} sd x'G5 .
cfˆgf] ;'Gb/ cg'xf/ / agfj6sf sf/0f s/f}8f}+ bz{ssf] 9's9'sL aGg ;kmn
s}l6«gfsf] alnp8df babjf sfod 5 . df]8nsf] ?kdf /x]sL logsf] alnp8 ofqf
cf/De ePsf] nfdf] ;do ePsf] 5}g . bdfbf/ pkl:ytLsf ;fy ;g\ @))& df
gd:t] n08gdfkm{t 8]Ao" u/]sL sl6«gfsf] d'xf/df lj:tf/} kl/jt{g b]lvof] . c?n] em}+
cGwljZjf; / s'/Lltdf
nfUbf hLjgdf cfOkg]{
b'ikl/0ffdaf/]
hg;fwf/0fnfO{ ;r]t /
pgsf] agfj6df cfPsf] kl/jt{g ;a}n] dxz'z ug]{ vfnsf] 5 . Knfl:6s
;h{/Lsf af/]df pgn] v'n/] eg]sL l5g\ …8fS6/n] Tof] rLh lbg ;S5 hf]
lzlIft agfpg c;n
eujfg;Fu 5}g .Ú t/ c? ;]lnj|6] Ln] em}+ pgn] Knfl:6s ;h{/Laf6 kmfObf
lnPsf] b]lvFbg}  . ;fob To;}n] lxhf]cfh kbf{df /fvLn] vf;} …/sÚ u/]sL 5}gg\ . logn] klg Knfl:6s ;h{/L dfkm{t cf]7 a9fpg] / gfs 36fpg] sfd ul/g\ . – Ph]G;L
gful/sx¿ cu|;/ eO{
dfu{lgb]{zg ug'{kb{5 .
t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+
OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+ g]k fn ;/sf/
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno
kmf]g g++= $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
;"rgf ljefu
@)&$ ;fn h]7 @* ut] cfOtaf/ 5
;DaGwljR5]b ;DaGwL cgf}7f sfg'g
lbzfljxLg / lj;h{gsf] bf];f“wdf dw]z d'2f
pk] Gb| emf kf/:kl/s Pstf u/]/ rdTsf/ g} 5f]8\g} rfxFb}g . cfd hgtf r'gfjdf klg ;lsPsf] 7xg]{5 . To;kl5sf
sf7df8f}F . kltkTgLaLrsf] ;DaGw ljR5]b cyf{t\ l8ef];{ cfkm}Fdf clk|o
36gf xf] . l8ef];{sf] ljifodf b'lgofFsf ljleGg b]zdf ljleGg vfn] rng
;+ljwfgsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu b]vfP . ^ kf6L{sf] Pstfaf6 hlGdPsf] uPkl5 kf6L{sf] cfGbf]ng o;} klg lbgdf clxn] p7fO{Psf dfFux¿sf] tyf lgod sfg'g 5g\ \ . sltko b]zx? l8ef];s { f dfldnfdf a9L dlxnfd}qL
r'gfj ckl/xfo{ ljifo 7fg]/ ;/sf/n] /fli6«o hgtf kf6L{ g]kfnk|lt dw]z dxTjxLg x'g]5 . sfo{stf{sf] e/df s'g} dxTj gx'g] kSsf 5 . clxn] 5g\ eg] sltko b]zx?n] k'?ifnfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg agfPsf 5g\ . a]nfotL
cg]s 5n5fdsf ;fy ;+zf]wg lagf PskN6 km]l/ cfzfjfbL aGof] . dw]z cfGbf]ng rNb}g . lagf zt{ r'gfjdf dw]zsf] dfFuk|lt Pstfa4 ¿kdf cgnfOg d]6«f] 86sf] 86 o's]sf cg';f/ l8ef];{;DaGwL ljZjsf s]xL cgf}7f
bf]>f] r/0fsf] klg r'gfj cu|;/ 5 . d'2f g} ;a}sf] Ph]08f /x]sf] t/ slxNo} efu lb+bf kf6L{sf] cl:tTjdfly vt/f nl8 /x]sf k"j{ klZrddf afFl8Psf lgod sfg'g o:tf 5g\–
dw]zsf bnx¿;Fu ;/sf/sf] of] Ps csf{;Fu ldNg g;Sg] rfl/lqs a9 . cfkmgf] clwsf/sf nflu v; dw]zLx¿ kl5sf lbgdf k|lt:kwL{sf] ) ;fpbL c/adf olb s'g} dlxnfn] cfˆgf] >Ldfg\nfO{ x/]s laxfg ld7f]
lg0ff{os n8fO{ xf] . k'gZr ;xdtLsf ljz] i ftf /fVg] dw] z sf g] t [ T j zf;s;Fu ;+3if{ ul/ /x]sf] dw]zn] ¿kdf b]lvg] 5g\ . dw]zsf] gfddf skmL agfP/ v'jfOgg\ eg] >Ldfg\n] pgnfO{ tnfs lbg kfpF5 .
sfuh ydfP/ dw]zsf bnx¿nfO{ d08nLsf] Pstf lj:dosf/L t lyof] @)&) sf] ;+ljwfg ;efsf] r'gfjdf ;du| Pstf vl08t x'g]5 / ;a}
r'gfjdf k7fpg] ;/sf/sf] lgot k|i6 g}, dw]z klg ;a}sf] Pstf rfxGYof] . g]kfnL sfFu; ]| nfO{ %% ;L6, Pdfn]nfO{ cfkmgf cfkm\gf k|b]zk|lt lhDd]jf/
b]lvPsf] 5 . ;+zf]wg k|:tfjnfO{ If]lqo /fhgLltsf] sfo{ef/ ca /fhkf $) ;L6 / dw]zsf] ;a} bnnfO{ !@ x'g] 5g\ . vl08t dw]zsf] kL8f t
k|lqmofdf n}hfg bnx¿sf] c;xdtL, g]kfndfly cfPsf]n] o;sf] s'zn ;L6 lbPsf] 36gfnfO{ w]/} lbg ePsf] 5Fb}5, k/kL8ssf] kL8f klg Ps\n}
ul0ftLo hl6ntf cflb ljjztfsf g]t[Tjsf] ck]Iff ;a}n] u/]sf 5g\ . 5}g . of] glthfnfO{ ;sf/fTds jf ef]Ug' kg]{ l:ylt cfpF5 .
hlt;'s} sf/0fx¿ b]vfPklg ;+zf]wg r'gfj cufl8 5 . ;+zf]wg k|:tfj gsf/fTds h'g 9+un] x]/k] lg u|fp08df ;+ljwfg sfof{Gjogsf] lbzfdf
k|:tfjnfO{ cf]em]ndf kfg]{ ;/sf/sf] kf; x'g] s'g} ;Defjgf 5}g . tTsfn pgs} jr{:j sfod 5 . dw]zsf] of] k|r08 ;/sf/n] dfOqmf] d]g]hd]G6sf]
lgot :ki6 5 . :yflgo txdf ;Gt'i6 ug]{ :yflgo txsf] ;+VofTds u|fp08 l/ofln6L xf] . dfWodaf6 s;/L cfkmgf] sfo{ef/
a9f] Q/L u/]/ dw] zsf bnx¿sf] a[l4sf] lg0f{o ;/sf/n] ul/ lbPsf] ;+ljwfg 3f]if0ff kZrft\ Pdfn]sf] k"/f u¥of], hf] cf]nLn] ug{ ;s]g .
3fpnfO{ ;'D;'Dofpg] r]i6f ul/Psf] 5 . 5 . klxnf] r/0fsf] r'gfjsf] ;kmntfn] ;/sf/n] dw]z;Fu ljutdf u/]sf] a8f] ldlxg rfnfsL / ;flhzsf ;fy
cfGbf]n gaf6 lj:yflkt ug]{ bf>f] r/0fsf] r'gfjsf nflu dw]zsf] b'Jo{jxf/af6 dw]z b'MvL 5 . dw]zsf] dw]znfO{ Ph]08fljxLg agfO{ r'gfjdf
/0fgLltM– dw]znfO{ /0fgLlts ¿kd} hgtfnfO{ Psflt/ pT;fxL agfPsf] :jfledfgnfO{ Pdfn]n] wlHh p8fPsf] ws]lnb} 5 . cf]nLsf] h:tf] lj/f]wL
lg:t]h kfl/ cfTd;dk{0f jf d'2fsf] 5 eg] r'gfjdf efu lb+bf dw]zsf] 5 . cfGbf]ngdf aa{/ zf;s h:t} geP/ dw]zsf bnx¿;Fu ;xfg'e"lt
lj;h{g cj:yfdf NofO{ k'¥ofO{g] d'2f 5'6\g] 8/ klg 5 . b'ljwfo'Qm u/]sf] bdg, ckdfghgs b'Jo{jxf/ g} kfP/ k|r08sf] clxn]sf] /fhgLlts
zf;sju{sf] k|of; !) jif{b]lv hfl/ jftfj/0f lgdf{ 0 f ul/ dw] z sf / dw]zsf] dfFuk|lt s7f]/ /x]sf] cflb ;'ema'em s} sf/0f sfFu|]; / k|ltkIf
5 . )^# sf] dw] z cfGbf] ngn] bnx¿af6 d'2f vf]:g] ;/sf/sf] lgot sf/0fn] ;ToxL :t/df x]bf{ dw]zdf ;d]tn] /fhLgfdf gug{ cfu|x ul/ ) rLgsf] Ps k'/fgf] sfg'gcg';f/ s'g} klg dlxnfnfO{ cfˆgf] >Ldfg\n]
p7fPsf] ;du| dw]z Ps k|b]zaf6 lyof] g} . ;kmn x'g] jftfj/0f klg Pdfn]k|lt cfqmf]z 5 . Pdfn]d'Qm /x]sf 5g\ . cem} w]/} sfo{ef/ k"/f wf]sf lbO/x]sf] nfu]df l8ef];{ ug]{ xs 5 . olt dfq xf]Og wf]sf lbPsf]
dw]z nfO{ @ k|b]z, $ k|b]z ub}{ tof/ ePsf] 5 . ;+zf]wg k|:tfj dw]zsf] gf/f klg dw]zdf 3lGsPsf] ug{ k|r08nfO{ kbdf a:g ;a}n] cfu|x jf k/:qL;Fu nfu]sf] b]v]df xTof;Dd ug]{ 5'6 k'/fgf] sfgg'n] lbPsf]
;fdfGo ;+zf]wgdf NofP/ s]lGb|t kfl/t u/fpg] c8fgdf oltv]/;Dd xf] . ;Kt/Ldf dRrfPsf] g/;+xf/ kl5 ug'{ k|z+;gLo s'/f xf] . t/ dw]z lyof] . lgod o:tf] lyof] ls wf]s]afh >Ldfg\sf] xTofdf s'g} xltof/sf]
u¥of] . k|b]zsf] l;dfFsgsf] d'2fnfO{ sfod /x]sf] /fhkf a8f] b'ljwfdf Pdfn] dw]zdf cfd;ef klg ug{ k|r08sf] of] dfO{qmf] d]g]hd]G6nfO{ k|of]u ug{ kfOGgYof] .
dgu9Gt] cfof]usf] lhDdf nufP/ kmF;s] f] 5 . lgjf{rg cfof]udf /fhkf ;s]sf] 5}g . t/ Pdfn]sf] ;Fu7g dw]z ;w}+ ofb /fVg] 5 . ) ;df]cfdf olb kltn] cfˆgL kTgLsf] hGd lbgsf] z'esfdgf lbg e'Nof]
dw]zsf bnx¿nfO{ ;+zf]wg k|:tfjsf] btf{ ePsf] 5}g, r'gfj lrGx klg alnof] 5 . )&) tfsf dw]zsf zlQms]Gb|sf] lgb]z
{ gdf rn]sf] of] eg] ;SYof] . cfk"mnfO{ ay{8] lj; gug]{ nf]Ug]nfO{ l8ef];{ lbg] xs ;df]cfsf
d'Vo :jfdL agfof] . @) jif{b]lv kfPsf] 5}g . r'gfjdf ws]lng] bafj bnx¿ v; zf;ssf] lj/f]w ul/ /xFbf b]zdf Kofbfx¿ ;dfg b]lvPklg dlxnfdf ;'/lIft 5 .
:yflgo txsf] r'gfj x'g g;s]sf] cTolws 5 . dw]zL hgtfsf] ldl>t dw]zdf logLx¿ cfkmgf] lvr8L zlQms] G b| km/s km/s 5g\ \   . ) cd]l/sfsf] sG;f;sf sltko If]qdf k'?ifnfO{ cfˆgL >LdtLsL cfdf;Fu
clgjfo{tf b]vfP/ kxf8 / dw]z k|ltlqmof 5 . r'gfjdf efu lng] ksfO{ /x]sf] glthfaf6 yfxf kfof}+ . Kofbfdfkm{t g} cfkmgf] k|efj ;+rfl/t klg zf/Ll/s ;DaGw sfod /fVg' cfjZos x'G5 . o;f] gug]{ kltnfO{
u/]/ b'O{ r/0fdf r'gfj u/fpg] lg0f{o ;lqmotf klg 5 dw] z d' 2 fsf] glthf x]/]/ t dw]zdf logsf] jr{:j ePsf]n] g]kfnsf] /fhgLlt ax'/+uL p;sL >LdtLn] l8ef];{ lbg kfpF5] .
cg';f/ kxf8sf] r'gfj oxL a}zfv ;Daf]wgk|lt cfsif{0f klg . s'g /f]Hg] clxn] klg sfod /x] s f] n ] b]lvPsf] 5 . oxfF b]z agfpg'eGbf ) s'j]tdf olb sf]xL k'?ifn] dlxnfnfO{ 3'/]/ x]¥of] eg] sf/fuf/sf] xfjf
#! ut] ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg x'g g;s]sf] Tof] b'ljwf xf] . cfGbf]ngdfly k|Zg lrGx g} v8f ul/ klg JolQm aGg] xf]8afhLsf sf/0f vfg'k5{ . olt dfq xf]Og, s'g} k'?ifn] kf]yL hgfj/nfO{ klg of}gefjgfn]
sf/0f ;/f] s f/jfnfx¿sf] tyf r'gfjdf efu lng'sf] cy{ dw]z lbPsf] lyof] . t}klg dw]zsf bnx¿ /fhgLlt wldlnPsf] 5 . ;fy} x]¥of] eg] p;nfO{ ;d]t sf/fuf/ ;hfo x'G5 .
/fhfjfbL zlQmsf] r'gfj layf]Ng] d'2faf6 lj:yflkt x'g' xf] . r'gfjdf dw]zsf] dfFunfO{ hf]8bf/ ¿kdf g]kfnsf] df}lns /fhgLltnfO{ kfvf ) c:6«]lnofdf olb sf]xL cflbjf;L dlxnf cfˆgf] klt;Fu cnu x'g rfx]df
;DefJotfaLr zflGtk"0f{ 9+un] r'gfj efu lng'sf] cy{ Psflwsf/ If]qleq p7fP/ dw]zdf cfkmgf] cl:tTj nufP/ cfkm\gf cg'ofoLsf] jr{:j kltnfO{ dgfpg] sf]l;; ug{ ;S5g\ jf t'?Gt} s'g} bf];|f] k'?if;Fu lax]
;DkGg eof] . r'gfj layf]Ng] y|]6sf] ck]lIft ;kmntf k|fKt ug'{ xf] . olb vf]lh /x]sf lyP . sfod u/fpg] p2]Zon] zlQms]Gb|sf] u/]/ cfˆgf klxnf] bfDkTo ;DaGwnfO{ 6'+ufpg ;Sb5g\ .
Jofks rrf{ /x]klg Tof] ukm dfq o;f] ePg eg] dw]zsf bnx¿ 3/sf] g] k fnL sfF u | ] ; / Pdfn] n fO{ k|lt:kwf{n] g]kfnL /+ud~r k|of]u ) cd]l/sfsf] sf]nf]/f8f]df klxn] o:tf] sfg'g lyof] ls cfOtaf/ cfˆgf]
/x]5 eGg] s'/f yfxf eof] . g3f6sf] cj:yfdf k'Ug a]/ 5}g . dw]zaf6 olt w]/} dfqfdf uPsf] ePsf] 5 . of] k|lt:kwf{df clwsf/sf OR5f ljkl/t ;]S; ug{ rfxg] kltnfO{ kTgLn] sf/fuf/ xfNg ;lSyg\ /
pk]Gb| g]tt[ jsf] ;+3Lo ;dfhjfbL Ph] 0 8fljxLg eP/ dw] z sf] dtn] g} dw]zsf] dfFunfO{ lgisif{df df}lns /fhgLlt ˆofFlsPsf] 5 . åGå l8ef];{ lbg ;lSyg\ . cfOtaf/ ljbfsf] lbg cf/fd ug]{ lbg ePsfn]
kmf]/d cfk"m If]qLo ;+sL0f{tfjfbL /fhgLltdf l6Sg s7Lg x'G5 . 7"nf k' Ug lbPg . ToxL dtn] k|r08, lj:yfkg xf] O { g ;] n fO{ P sf] 5 . ;Def]usf nflu s/ ug{' x'Fb}g eGg] dfGotf eP/ xf]nf .
/fhgLlts 3]/feGbf aflx/ /fli6«o
/fhgLltdf k| j ] z u/] s f] eg] /
7" n f s' /f u/]/ dw] z sf bnx¿
nDk;f/ ePsf b[ Zox¿ dw] zn]
emngfy / g] k fnL sfF u | ] ; sf
g]tfx¿nfO{ eGg nufof]– dw]zsf]
dw]zsf] dfFu g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts
;+ / rgf g} laufg] { 7fg] / kfvf s6x/ vfg'sf kmfObfx?
r'gfjnfO{ pkof]u u/]/ hfg] lg0f{o gb]v]sf], ga'em]sf] xf]O{g . 7"nf s'/f 7]s]bf/ dw]zL bnx¿ dfq x'g < nufO{Psf] 5 . zlQms]Gb|n] dw]znfO{ sf7df8f} F . s6x/nfO{ /x:odo t/sf/Lsf] ?kdf lrlgG5 . s6x/ …t/sf/L
u¥of] . :d/0f /xf];\ ;+3Lo ;dfhjfbL u/] / JolQm :jfy{ d f nLg v; dw] z L hgtfnfO{ cfkmgf] 7fg] / lagf zt{ efu lng lgb]z { g u/]sf]af6 xf] sL kmnkm'nÚ o;df klg dte]b /xFb} cfPsf] 5 . sltkon] s6x/nfO{
kmf]/d / afj'/fd e§/fO{sf] gofF zlQm zf;sx¿nfO{ cfk"mafx]s g b]zsf] bnx¿k| lt s7f]/ aGg] , ef/tLo s;nfO{ kmfobf k'Uof], ;xh} cg'dfg df;'s} csf]{ zfsfxf/L ljsNk dfg]/ vfg] u5{g \ . lsgls df;'df kfOg] k|f6] Lg
kf6L{aLr Pstf jftf{ Jofks ¿kdf lrGt 5 g hgtfsf] . ;f]xL dgf]jl[ tsf] gful/stfsf] s'/f p7fpg], dw]zsf] ug{ ;lsG5 . / kf}li6s tTj s6x/df kfOG5 . ! ;o u|fd s6x/df #)# ldnLu|fd kf]6flzod,
eO{ /x]sf] 5 . cf;Gg r'gfjnfO{ ljsf; dw]zsf g]t[Tjju{df ljsl;t dfFu lnP/ pQ/ k|b]z / laxf/ hfg] /fhkfn] w/ftnLo oyfy{ nfO{ @$ u|fd sfaf]x{ fO8]«6, le6fdLg P, ;L / yfOldg, )=!)* u|fddf le6fdLg
pkof]u ug]{ t/ lgjf{rg cfof]uaf6 ePsf] kfO{G5 . Ph]08fljxLg /x]klg cflb cflb ckdfghgs Jojxf/ ;xg' a'em]/ ;+odtfsf ;fy lg0f{o lng aL^, #& u|fd Doflu|lzod, ($ u|fd Sofnf]/L, !$ Pd;LhL kmf]n6] h:tf
r'gfj lrGx gkfpFbf ;+3Lo ;dfhjfbL /fHozlQmsf] e/df pM zlQmzfnL 5 . k¥of] . o;sf/0f g} kxf8 / dw]zsf] h¿/L 5 . kf6L{ s f] kmfO{ bfeGbf kf]ifs tTjx? kfOG5 .s6x/ vfg'sf oL kmfObfx? lgDg k|sf/sf 5–
kmf]/dsf] r'gfj lrGx dzfnnfO{ g} dfcf]jfbL h:tf] ch]o zlQmnfO{ pm aLrdf b"/L a9\b} uof] . r'gfjsf] dw]znfO{ kmfO{bf x'g] b[li6sf]0f /fvL – s6x/nfO{ kf}li6s tTjo'Qm t/sf/L dflgG5 . s6x/df le6fdLg P,;L,
tTsfn ;+o'Qm ¿kdf pkof]u ug]{ cfkmgf] cg' o foL agfPsf] 5 . a]nf;Dd cfO{ k'Ubf dw]z / kxf8aLr b'b{zL{ lg0f{o lng' cfjZos 5 . kf]6flzod, SoflN;od, /fOaf]ˆn]ljg, cfo/g, lgofl;g / lh+s h:tf
;Nnfx cg';f/ pk]Gb| ofba / afj'/fd cfGbf] n gaf6 7" n f] r' g f} tL lbg] ;Ldf/]vf g} lv+lrPsf] 5 . bfgfkfgLsf] nfnrn] lbzfljxLgtf k|f]6Lgx? kfOG5g\ . olt dfq xf]Og, o;df kmfOa/ ;d]t kfOG5 .
e§/fO{ a8f] pT;fxsf ;fy r'gfjdf dw] z sf bnx¿nfO{ cfk" m h:t} dw]zsf bnx¿nfO{ wf]tL g 6f]kL Nofpg] kSsf 5 . c;Ifd lg0f{on] – s6x/df kfOg] kf]6flzodn] d'6'sf] x/]s lsl;dsf ;d:ofx?af6 aRg
xf]ldP . df]xg j}B r'gfj alxisf/ Ph]08fljxLg agfpg nfu]sf] 5 . agfpg] p2]Zon] dw]zn] k'gZrM )&) dw]znfO{ /fHosf] k'gZr u'n fd d2t k'U5 . o;n] /QmrfknfO{ ;d]t ;Gt'ngdf /fVg] sfd ub{5 .
u/]/ s] xljut ef]u] To;sf] tLtf] :yflgo :t/sf] r' g fj :yflgo ;fns} h:tf] dtbfg u¥of] eg] agfpg]df b'Od{ t 5}g . ;Kt/L k;f{df – sltkon] s6x/nfO{ kmn klg dfG5g\ . s6x/df cfO/g kfOg] ePsfn]
cg'ej t lyof] g} . ;/sf/sf] lgdf{0f ul/ hgtfsf] ofjt\ dw]zsf bnx¿sf] cf}lrTo g} d]6fP/ l;ldt dw] z sf] ;| f ] t ljxLgtfn] PgLldofaf6 arfpg d2t u5{ . o;n] z/L/df /Qm;~rf/nfO{ klg
otf ca dw]zsf] ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ef/ ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ ePsf]n] hfg] k|i6 5 . lagf zt{ r'gfjdf cGttM s]Gb| zfl;t aGg]df z+sf a9fpF5 .
xfdL;Fu 5 eg]/ dw]zsf ^ bnx¿ hgtfsf] ;/f]sf/sf] ljifonfO{ hgtfn] efu lnPkl5 dw]z d'2fsf] cf}lrTo 5}g . -dw]z bk{0 f lkmr/ ;]j f_

a]y]sf] ;fu vfg'sf] kmfObfx?
sf7df8f} F . a]y,] xfd|f] 3/jl/kl/, /;df ;Vv/ ld;fP/ b}lgs lkpg] hf]gL{ b'Vg] M a]y]sf] !) u|fd cf/fd dx;'z x'G5 .
s/];faf/Ldf klg k|z:t kfO{g] ;fu ug{x' f];,\ kYy/L un]/ emf5{ . bfgfnfO{ sl/j b'O{ ldlnln6/ kfgLdf slAhot M a]yn ] ] k]6nfO{ tfst
xf] . xfldn] a]ys ] f] ;fu vfO{/x]sf klg :tg SofG;/ M cfo'jb{ ] df ul/Psf] pdfNg'xf]; \ . %) ldlnln6/ /x'Gh]n lbG5 / slAhot x'g lbFbg}  . o;n]
x'G5f} t/ o;sf cglulGt kmfO{bf 5g\ Ps cg';Gwfgn] a]ys ] f] ;fu lgoldt pdfn]kl5 tfttft} lkpg'xf]; \ . o:tf] k]6nfO{ ;kmf u5{ .
eGg] yf]/n} fO{ dfq yfxf xf]nf . ;AhLsf] vfgfn] :tg SofG;/sf] ;Defjgf sd Ps dlxgf;Dd ljxfg–a]ns ' f lkpg'xf];,\ k]6;DaGwL /f]u M hlxn];Dd
?kdf vfg] ul/Psf] a]ys ] f] ;fusf] x'g] b]vfPsf] 5 . o;df pknAw hf]gL{ b'vfO{af6 tkfO{nfO{ /fxt ldN5 . a]ys
] f] ;fu kfO{G5, vfg] ug{x' f]; \ . a]yn] fO{
:jf:Yodf w]/} kmfObfx? 5g\–\ ;]lnlgod, cf]du] f / km}6L Pl;8 :tg o;sf] tfhf kftnfO{ lk;]/ xNsf ttfP/ kfgLdf pdfn]/ lkpg'xf]; \ . o;n] k]6sf
kTy/L M Ps lunf; sfFrf] a]ys ] f] SofG;//f]ws x'G5g\ \ . b'vs
] f] 7fpFdf /fv]/ afWg'xf]; \ . o;f] ugf{n] x/]s k|sf/sf /f]unfO{ klg l7s u5{ .
5fnf;DaGwL /f]u M a]y]nfO{
pdfn]/ lgrf]//] /; lkpg'xf];\ / ;funfO{
;AhL agfP/ vfg'xf]; \ . @ sk a]ys ] f]
kft lk;]/ agfPsf] /;df cfwf sk – yfO/fO8 la/fdLx?sf nflu s6x/ lgs} nfebfos dflgG5 . o;df
t]n ld;fP/ xNsf ttfpg'xf]; \ . ha kfOg] ;'Id vlghn] ubf{ yfO/fO8af6 lgjf/0f kfpg ;lsG5 .
kfgL ;'s/] t]ndfq /xG5, To;nfO{ 5fg]/ – xf8sf nflu s6x/nfO{ t /fdaf0f g} dflgG5 . s6x/df kfOg]
Ps ;kmf l;;fsf] a§fdf DofUg]lzodn] xf8nfO{ alnof] agfpg] sfd ub{5 .
/fVg'xf]; \ .To;nfO{ 5fnfdf b}lgs nufpg] – s6x/n] cN;/ / kfrgk|lqmof;DaGwL ;d:ofaf6 ;w}F 6f9f /fVg'sf
ug{x' f]; \ . nfdf] ;do nufO/fVg] ug{' ;fy} slAhotaf6 ;d]t 5'6\sf/f lbnfpF5 .
ePdf 5fnfsf bfu, bfb, lrnfpg], – s6x/n] z/L/df /f]u k|lt/f]w Ifdtf klg a9fpF5 . lgoldt ?kdf
s'i7/f]u cflb /f]u 6f9f efU5 . s6x/ vfg] ugf{n] z/L/ leqsf lhjf0f'x?nfO{ ;d]t gi6 ub{5 .
clgoldt dlxgfj/L M b' O { – s6x/sf] ;]jg ug{'sf kmfObf cfFvf / 5fnfdf :ki6 b]Vg ;lsG5 .
rDrf a]ys ] f] bfgf Ps lunf; kfgLdf s6x/df kfOg] le6fdLg …PÚ n] cfFvfsf] /f]zgLnfO{ a9fpg] / 5fnfdf
pdfNg'xf]; \ . kfgL cfwf ;'sk] l5 5fg]/ lgvf/ Nofpg] ub{5 .
lkpgfn] /f]lsPsf] dlxgfjf/L v'N5 .
6 @)&$ ;fn h]7 @* ut] cfOtaf/

o:tf] 5 pQ/ sf]l/of
x:taxfb' / s]; L
h' g a] n f pQ/ sf] l /of /
af/]df ;a} k|rf/x? em'¶f /x]5g\ .
;fd|fHojfbLx?sf] :jfy{df rNg] /
rnfpg ;Sg] ;Gtfg /x] ; Dd
pgLx?nfO{ g} df}sf lbg] sf]l/og
5}g . k};fsf] sf/f]af/ rNb}g . gf]6x?
rNb}gg\, a}+sx? ;+rfngdf 5}gg\,
hgsDo'g sf] x'g\ <
;Qfsf k"hf/Lx¿
j}/fuL h]7f

cd]l/sfaLrdf tgfj al9/x]sf] lyof] ltgs} kIfkf]if0f ug]{ ;+rf/ dfWodx?n] hgtfsf] OR5f /x]sf] kfOG5 . ljb]zLx?;Fusf] sf/f]af/ ldnfpg / s';L{ 5f]8g\ tof/ 5}gg\
/ ;f/f ;+;f/sf] Wofg pQ/ sf]l/oflt/ b'ik|rf/ u/] h:tf] 5}g pQ/ sf]l/of . ToxfF hgtfnfO{ nfpg, vfg glbP/ aflx/af6 ;fdfg cfoft ug{sf nflu nuftf/ u'nfdx¿ g}
s]lGb|t eO/x]sf] a]nf dnfO{ pQ/ pQ/ sf]l/ofn] @! cf}+ ztfAbLdf cfˆg} ef]sef]s} dfl/G5, s'kf]if0fn] hgtf ;fgf]b]lv %,))) .– ;Ddsf] gf]6
sf]l/of k'Ug] df}sf ldn]sf] lyof] . xfdL ljz]iftfsf] ;dfhjfb :yfkgf, k|of]u u|:t 5g\ eGg] k|rf/ ul/GYof] t/ ToxfF 5flkPsf] /x]5 . clwstd ?kdf cufl8 al9/x]5g\
g] kfn–hgjfbL u0ftGq sf] l/of / ljsf; ub}{ cfPsf] kfPF d}n] ToxfF k'u/] o; ljifodf a'‰bf s] kfOof] eg] pQ/ sf]l/ofdf rfOgf 8n/, cd]l/sL b'vb ;dfrf/,
n]vs÷kqsf/ d~rsf] tkm{af6 pQ/ k'u]kl5 . pQ/ sf]l/ofdf sDo'lgi6 oL cf/f]kx?sf] ljkl/t ;/sf/n] 8n/ / o'/f] 8n/ rNtLdf 5g\ \ . pQ/
sf]l/of k'us ] f] lyof} + . d~rsf cWoIf kf6L{sf] ;§f ;'?b]lv g} js{;{ kf6L{ hgtfsf] uf;, jf; / skf;sf] Uof/]G6L sf]l/ofdf pTkflbt j:t'x? :t/Lo / efiff ga'‰g] dflg;x¿
czf]s ;'j]bLn] g]tT[ j u/]sf] 6f]nLdf sf]l/of /fVb} cfPsf 5g\ / ToxL kf6L{sf] u/]sf] /x]5 . ;Dk"0f{ hgtfsf] lhDdf Hofb} dx+uf /x]5g\ . ToxfF ;"rgf /
czf]s ;'j]bL, x:taxfb'/ s];L, 8f= sfo{qmd, of]hgf / lgb]{zgdf sd/]8 ;/sf/n] lnPsf] /x]5 . hgtfn] * k|ljlwsf] pRr:t/n] ljsf; u/]sf]
w]/} w]/} sDo'g 5g\
;'/G] b| s];L, ch'{g s6'jfn, k"0f{axfb'/ lsd On ;'ªsf] g]t[Tjdf ;g\ !($% 306f clgjfo{ ?kdf >d ug'{ kb{5 . kfOof]  . cfˆg} ljz]iftfdf u' un ;Nnfsf kftx¿em}F
l;+x / z/b e08f/L u/L ^ hgf lyof}+ df ;fdGtjfb / hfkfgL zx/df ;/sf/n] $)–%) tn] ;+ rfngdf 5 . hgtfsf nflu
eg] Nepal–Korea Friendship and ;fd| f HojfbnfO{ k/f:t u/] / uugr'DaL dxn lgdf{0f u/]/ Ps 6] l nkmf] g , df] a fOnnufot ;a} of] b]zdf Û
Cultural Association sf] tkm{af6 pQ/sf]l/of ;dfhjfbsf] :yfkgf kl/jf/nfO{ Ps ˆNof6 lgMz'Ns ?kdf ;+rf/sf ;fwgx? lgMz'Ns ?kdf t/ sf] xf] <
dflgs nfdfsf] g]tT[ jdf uPsf] 6f]nLdf ul/Psf] lyof] . To:t} ;g\ !(*)– pknAw u/fpg] Joj:yf u/]sf] /x]5 pknAw u/fOPsf] 5 eg] ljb]zL
e/t ad -/0fjL/_ ;lxt b'Oh { gf, z+s/ !(%# sf] cd]l/sL ;fd|fHojfbl;tsf] eg] ufpFdf ls;fgx?nfO{ j}1flgs cfu'Gtsx?sf nflu eg] Hofb} dxFuf] hgsDo'g Û
ef/tLsf] g]t[Tjdf uPsf] 6f]nLdf b]jL eLif0f u[xo'4df klg lsd On ;'ªs} a;f]af; k|0ffnLcGtu{t tLg tn] ul/Psf] /x]5 . ;/sf/sf] cg'dlt / zq'x¿;Fu 3fF6L hf]8/]
g]kfn / >LdtL;lxt # hgf / k'/fgf g]tT[ jdf cd]l/sfnfO{ k/flht u/]/ ;dfg :t/sf 3/x? lgdf{0f u/]/ lgoGq0fdf xhf/f}+ ljb]zL gful/sx?
kqsf/ d~h'/Tg zfSon] g]t[Tjdf js{;{ kf6L{ sf]l/ofn] ljho k|fKt u/]sf] ls;fgx?nfO{ lgMz'Ns ?kdf a:g pQ/ sf]l/ofdf ko{6s nufot ljljw Psbd ;lhn};uF
u/]sf] 6f]nLdf $ hgf u/L !% hgf lyof] . kfpg] Joj:yf /x]5 . sfdn] k'Ubf/x]5g\ . olta]nf klZrdL elglbG5 lhGbfjfb .
n] v s÷kqsf/x? pQ/ sf] l /of js{;{ kf6L{ sf]l/ofn] dfS;{jfb– cfdhgtfnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ /fzg, d'n'ssf ko{6sx?sf] 3'Orf] b]lvG5
ToxfF . pgLx?sf nflu /fhwfgL hg;]gfsf cfF;' lkP/
Kof]ËofËdf % j6f % tf/] xf]6n cfˆg} 6fpsfsf] d"No tf]Sg];uF
;/sf/n] agfO lbPsf] /x]5 . ToxfFsf
hgtfsf nflu 7"n f xf] 6]n x?sf] s';L{ hf]ufpg
Joj:yf 5}g . hgtf ;/sf/åf/f
pknAw u/fOPsf 3/df a:g] /x]5g\
;+;b\ ejg sAhf ul//x]5
/ vfgf klg hgtfn] cfkm}Fn] ksfpg' Pp6f pNn"
kg]{ /x]5 . hgtfsf cyf{t dhb'/,
sd{ r f/L, ls;fgx?sf ;fdfGo dnfO{ nfU5 Û
JolQmut rfxgf k" l t{ s f nflu n]sfnL k"mnx¿n]
;/sf/n] dhb' / sd{ rf/Lx?af6
pgLx?n] >djfkt Go"gtd Hofnf cem} sDo'g a'em]s} 5}gg\
pknAw u/fpg] / ls;fgx?n] cfk"mn] ;f]emf ufpFn]sf
;/sf/sf] lgdGq0ffdf / sf]l/of n] l ggjfb–h' 5 ] ljrf/wf/f - kfgL, nQf sk8f, x/]s lbgb}Gosf pTkfbg u/]sf] j:t'sf] ljqmLaf6
;/sf/sf] ;+u7g KASS -sf;_ cfTdlge{/tfsf] l;4fGt_ nfO{ cfˆgf] cfjZos j:t'x? ;/sf/n] ;dfg Go"gtd /sd s6fP/ pknAw u/fpg] /ut kl;gfnfO{
sf] l/ofnL ;dfh j} 1flgsx?sf] kf6L{sf] dfu{bz{g l;4fGt dfGb5 . ?kdf zx/, ufpF, x/ 7fp dF f pknAw / To;}af6 s]xL JolQmut rfxgf / cfˆgf] cfwf/ agfP/
;Fu7gn] @)&$ j}zfv ! ut] -@)!& pQ/ sf]l/of ;/sf/n] canDag ub}{ u/fpg] Joj:yf /x]5 . hgtfnfO{ ;}Go cfsf+Iff kl/k"lt{ ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf
clk|n !$_ b]lv @)&$ j}zfv ^ ut] cfPsf] ljrf/ k|0ffnL, ToxfFsf] zf;g tflnd k|bfg ul/Psf] sf/0fn] dlxnf ldnfOPsf] /x]5 . /fhwfgL / 7"nf s';L{ r9]sf af]sfx¿
-@)!& clk|n !(_;Dd Kof]ËofËdf k| 0 ffnL, hgtfsf df} l ns xs of k'?if b'js } f] z/L/ …l:ndÚ b]lvG5 . zx/df ljb]zLx?sf nflu yf]/} dfqfdf
cfof]hgf ul/Psf] ;d|fHojfb lj/f]wL clwsf/x? h:t} lzIff, :jf:Yo, lzIff k"0f{ ?kdf lgMz'Ns / clgjfo{ k;nx? ;/sf/n] ;+rfng u/]sf]
8'ª8'ª ugfpFg] ePsf 5g\
tyf ;dfhjfb ;dy{ s oftfoft, uf;, af;, skf;sf af/]df agfOPsf] /x]5 . Kn; 6';Dd lzIff kfOof] . cfdhgtfn] cfjZostf / ef]ht n'ËL| x¿n]
n] v s÷kqsf/x?sf] cGt/f{ l i6« o k'/} leq};Dd k;]/ a'‰g] sf]l;; u/]+ . clgjfo{ , j}1flgs, Jojxfl/s / dfucg';f/ ;a} ;/sf/n] ;/n /
;]ldgf/df !% hgf g]kfnLx? u/L ToxfFsf hgtfsf] hLjg:t/, njfO– ;Lkd"ns agfOPsf] 5 . pRr lzIff ;'ne 9+un] pknAw u/fpg] Joj:yf vfg' kg]{ xf]
rLg, hfkfg, d+uf]lnog, g]kfn, ef/t, v'jfO{, a;f]af;, /xg–;xg, hLjgz}nL, ljBfyL{sf] Ifdtfcg';f/ ;/sf/n] /x]5 . ef]h, l;+xb/af/ vfG5
a+unfb]z, kfls:tfg, lkmlnlkG;, ?;, ;f+:s[lts tyf pgLx?sf] r]tgf:t/ lgMz'Ns ?kdf cWoog ug{ kfpg] lsdOn ;'ª / lsd hf]ª Onn]
lkmgNof08, :jLh/Nof08, 6sL{, k|mfG;, cflbsf af/]df ulx/f] u/L a'‰g] a9L Joj:yf /x]5 . xhf/f}+ ljBfyL{x? /fd|} vfPsf], /fd|} nufPsf] h:tf xfd|f] ;d|f6 k|r08
a]nfot, a|flhn, lugL, 3fgf, s+uf], k|oTg ul/of] . ljZjsf ljleGg ljZjljBfnox?df b]lvGy], cfk"mx?n] dfq xf]Og, pgLx?n] hg;]gfaf6 k|km'lNnt 5}gg\
o'qm] g r]sf]:nfeflsof, :nf]sf]eflsof, zf;g k|0ffnLsf b[li6sf]0fn] pQ/ rfx]sf] ljifodf cWoog u/]/ :jb]z hgtfnfO{ klg /fd|f] nufpg, /fd|f]
a]lNhod, kf]Nof08, yfONof08 nufot sf]l/ofdf ;dfhjfbL Joj:yf 5 . kms{g] u/L ;/sf/n] 5fqj[lQ lbnfP/ vfg klg l;sfPsf /x] 5 g\ \ / e6\s]/ pgL
sl/a $% b]zsf s/La !%) hgf sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] ;§f js{;{ kf6L{ k9\g k7fpg] Joj:yf /x]5 . hgtfnfO{ /fd|f] 7fpFdf 9'Ss;Fu a:g] 6fpsfsf d"No tf]Sg]
hlt ljZje/sf n]vs÷kqsf/x? sf]l/of 5 . ljrf/wf/fTds ?kdf :jf:Yo cfd hgtfsf nflu Joj:yf;d]t ldnfO{ lbPsf /x]5g\ .
tyf h' 5 ] ljrf/wf/f ;dy{ s dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb–h'5] ljrf/wf/f - lgMz'Ns ?kdf pknAw u/fOPsf] /x]5 lj1fg / k|ljlwsf If]qdf /fhgLlts, d7fwLzx¿;Fu} xn uf]? eP/ bu'l//x]5g\
;+3;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx¿ @)&# r}q cfTdlge{/tfsf] l;4fGt_ kf6L{ sf] / afn lzIf0f c:ktfn ;+rfngdf cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts x/ If]qdf hgjfbL pgL cem}
#! ut] -@)!& clk|n !#_ sf lbg kyk|bz{s l;4fGt 5 . ;j{xf/fju{sf] NofP/ %–^ pd] / sf u0ftGq sf]l/ofn] pRr:t/sf] ljsf;
Kof]ËofË k'u]sf lyof}+ . cfof]hs clwgfsTjcGtu{t ;dfhjfbL zf;g afnaflnsfx?nfO{ lgMz'Ns ?kdf u/]sf] kfOof] . ljsf; lgdf{0fs ef}lts cGwsf/ ofqf lxFl8/x]5g\ .
;+: yfåf/f 3f]lift ?kdf ul/Psf k|0 ffnL ckgfOPsf] 5 . kf6L{ sf] cf}iflw lj1fg -8fS6/ aGg]_ lzIff j:t'x? 3/, ejg, oftfoft, :s'n,
sfo{qmdx?df ;xefuL ag]/ ToxfF dftxtdf hgd'lQm;]gf 5 . hgd'lQm lbnfObf] / x] 5  . hgtfsf sn]h x/ If]qdf TolQs} dflyNnf]
efiff ga'‰g] cgfy
k|:t't ul/Psf ljifoj:t'x?sf af/]df ;]gfsf] ;}Go l;4fGt adf]lhd Jojxfl/s 5f]/f5f]/Lx?nfO{ x/ljifodf lj1 aGg :t/df ljsf; u/]sf /x]5g\ . dflg;x¿nfO{ pEofP/
hfgsf/L lnO;s]kl5 ToxfFsf x/If]qdf ?kdf cfdhgtfnfO{ ;}lgsLs/0f ;Sg] z}lIfs jftfj/0f ;/sf/n] hgtfsf x/;d:ofx? ;/sf/n]
leq};Dd k;]/ a'‰g] sfddf a9L ul/Psf] /x]5 . cfdhgtfnfO{ hgd'lQm ldnfPsf] 5 . pQ/ sf] l /ofdf k" /f ul/lbPsf] /x] 5  . hgtfx? cfk"mnfO{
tlNng /x] . ;]gfn] clgjfo{?kdf ;}lgs tflnd k|bfg oftfoft k"0f{ ?kdf lgMz'Ns agfOPsf] 9'Ss;Fu ;dfhjfbsf] k'glg{df{0fdf dxfg\ sDo'g eGg]x¿;Fu
klxn] b ] l v g} klZrdf ug]{ Joj:yf /x]5 . /x]5 . oftfoftsf] ;Dk"0f{ lhDdf tlNng 5g\ . hgtfdf s'g} JolQm
;fd|fHojfbLx?, k'h F LjfbLx?n] s] k|rf/ pQ/ sf]l/ofdf cg'zf;gdf s8fO{ /fHon] lng] Joj:yf /x]5 ToxfF . lrGtf / cefj 5}g . uf;, af;, olt a]nf lgs} 3[0ff hfu]sf] 5 .
ub}{ cfPsf lyP eg] ToxfF k|hftGq u/]sf] kfOG5 . P]g, sfg'g klg s8f zx/df ;8s a9L km/flsnf 5g\ . skf;, lzIff, :jf:Yo / oftfoft
5}g, /fhtGqfTds zf;g k|0ffnL h:tf]
5 . lsd On ;'ªsf] kl/jf/ dfq}
?kdf lgdf{0f ul/Psf] / nfu" klg b]z
/ hgtfsf] lxtdf s8fOsf ;fy
/fhwfgLdf hgtfsf nflu d]6«f]–
6«nLa; ;+rfngdf 5g\ \ . 6«flkms hfd
lgMz'Ns agfP/ ;Dk"0 f{ hgtfsf]
lhDdf ;/sf/n] lnP kl5 hgtfsf] o:tf] x'G5 k};f sdfPkl5 dfG5]sf] :jefj
/fi6«k|d'v aGg] Joj:yf 5 . dfgj ul/Psf] kfOof] . kf6L{, ;dfhjfbL Go"g 5 . !)) ld6/ tn e"ldut v'l;ofnLsf] ;Ldf /xFbf]/x]G5, Tof] b]Vg sf7df8f} F . cd]l/sfdf o'jfx?aLr eg]– ;/sf/, ;+rf/ dfWod, wfld{s
clwsf/sf] xgg\ ul/Psf] 5, hgtfnfO{ Joj:yf / ;/sf/sf lj?4 rnv]n d]6«f] /]nj] ;]jf ;~rfngdf 5 . nfvf}+ kfOG5 pQ/ sf]l/ofdf . ;a} xfF;L ul/Psf] Pp6f ;e]d{ f cfDbfgL a9];uF } ;+:yf, ljBfno / 7"nf lgudx?n] /fd|f]
af]Ng lbOb}g, ToxfF ;}lgs zf;g 5 ug{ rfxg] cj;/jfbLx?sf nflu ToxfF hgtf To;}af6 ofqf ub{5g\ . v';L 5g\ \ . xfdLn] klg ;'?df sDo'lgi6 csf{k|ltsf] ljZjf; / ;fdflhs sfd ul//x]sf]df pgLx? sd} e/f];f
eGg] h:tf k|rf/ ul/b} cfPsf] lyof] . sfg'g s8f 5 / ltgLx?sf nflu hgtfsf] hLjg:t/ w]/} pRr 5 . kf6L{df nfUbf 3/ kl/jf/ / 5f]/f5f]/L, ;+:yfx?k|ltsf] e/f];f sd x'g] u/]sf] ub{5g\ . pgn] eg]– lsgeg] wgLx?
;/sf/n] hgtfnfO{ nfpg vfg glbP/ sfof{Gjog klg TolQs} lge{tfk"js { ug]{ k' ? if–dlxnf b' j } sfnf] 6fO;' 6 nfnfafn 5f]8]/ lxF8\bf klg ef]ln v'n;f ePsf] 5 . clxn]sf o'jfx? cfˆgf] emg} wgL aGb} uPsf 5g\ . ul/a
ef]sef]s} dfl//x]sf] 5, ToxfFsf hgtf u/]sf] kfOof] . o;}nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ nufpF5g\ \ . dlxnfx? /fli6«o kf]ifs - qmflGt kl5 lzIff, :jf:Yo, oftfoft kIfnfO{ lnP/ lgs} cfzfjfbL x'g] yk ul/a alg/x]sf 5g\ . To;}n]
s'kf]if0fsf sf/0f zf/Ll/s ?kdf ;fd|fHojfbLx?n] sf]l/ofdf dfgj xofF u f_ afx] s ldgL :s6 klg lgMz'Ns x'G5 . ;/sf/n] g} uf;, jf; ub{ 5 g\ \   . t/, To;ljk/Lt cGo dflg; Pscsf{ k | lt sd e/f] ; f
czQm / Vofp6] 5g\ eGg] k|rf/ klg clwsf/ xgg ul/Psf] 5eGbf /x]5g\ \ . nufpFbf/x]5g\ \ . /]nj] :6]zgdf k'u/] / skf;sf] Joj:yf u5{ s]xL lrGtf dflg;k| l tsf] e/f] ; f / 7" n f ub{5g\ . dflg;df cGo JolQm jf
Jofks lyof]   . pQ/ sf] l /ofdf /fhtGq h:tf] Joj:yf 5, lsdOn;'ª x]bf{ klg ;Dk"0f{ ofq'x? sfnf] 6fO;'6df gug' { eg] / 3/ kl/jf/nfO{ ;+:yfx?k|ltsf] pgLx?sf] /fo gsf/fTds ;+:yf wf]sf jf cGo unt tl/sfaf6
hgtfnfO{ ;/sf/n] lzIff, :jf:Yo / kl/jf/nfO{ dfq} /fi6« k|dv' agfOG5 b] l vG5g\ \   . hgtfsf] vfgkfg, ;Demfplyof}+, o:t} lzIff lnGYof}F / x'g] ub{5 . ;]g l8ofuf] :6]6 o'lgel;{6Lsf cl3 al9/x]sf] /fo sfod x'Fb} uPsf]
oftfoftaf6 al~rt ul/Psf] 5 / eGg] cf/f]k klg k"0f{ ?kdf unt af]nLjrg / Jojxf/ klg dflyNnf] hgtfnfO{ ;'gfplyof}+ . xfdL klg zf]wstf{ / dgf]j1} flgs hLg Pd 6\ju+ ] n] 5 . zf]wstf{x?sf cg';f/ –;fdflhs
;"rgfsf] xsdf klg k'/} al~rt u/]/ kfOG5 . js{;{ kf6L{ sf]l/ofn] /fi6« :t/sf] /x]5 . sDo'lgi6 hLjgz}nL, k"0f{sflng sfo{stf{ eP/ 9'Ss;Fu eg]– ;e]I{ f0fsf] ?emfgaf6 :ki6 x'G5 ljZjf;df cfPsf] lu/fj6
;+;f/af6} aGws agfP/ /flvPsf] 5Ú k|d'v 5fGg] Joj:yf ePsf] / lsd sfd/]8n\ L Jojxf/, ;j{xf/fjuL{o r]tgf /ftlbg geg]/ kf6L{ sfddf lxF8Y\ of} + . ls o'jfx?sf] of] :jefj :yfoL lkF9Lut nf]stGqk|ltsf] gsf/fTds ?emfg xf] .
cflb . aflx/L kf6f]af6 a'em\bf oxL g} On;'ª :jod\ / pgsf] kl/jf/n] w]/} dfly p7]sf] kfOG5 . g]kfnsf sDo'lgi6x?n] t ;a} s'/f kl/jt{g xf]Og . h;df ;/sf/ s] x L dflg;sf]
xf] pQ/ sf]l/ofsf] jf:tljstf eGg] sf]l/og qmflGt / ;dfhjfbsf] :yfkgf v]ns'b, lzIff, :jf:Yo, snf, l;WofP t/ pQ/ sf]l/ofdf k'u]/ !) lhgsf cg';f/ ;g\ !(&) b]lv k|ltlglwTjnfO{ cfd dflg;sf] lxtsf/L
nfUg] h:tf] lyof] g} . t/, ef}lts ?kdf / ljsf;df k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfg, jL/tf ;flxTo, ;+:s[lt cflbdf klg sf]l/og lbgsf] a;fOdf log} s'/f kfpbf pQ/ @))) sf] ;dosf] t'ngfdf ut s]xL ;+:yf dfGg] ul/G5 . of] zf]w hg{n
pkl:yt eP/ cfˆg} cfFvfn] x]g{] / / lgM:jfy{kgn] s'zn g]tT[ j k|bfg hgtfn] pRr :t/n] ljsf; u/]sf sf]l/of ;dfhjfbsf] cg'kd gd'gf jif{b]lv cd]l/sL gful/s cGok|lt ;fOsf]nhLsn ;fOG;df k|sflzt
dl;gf] 9+un] a'‰bf d}n] pQ/ sf]l/ofsf] u/]sf sf/0fn] lsdsf] kl/jf/df b]z /x]5g\ \ . pQ/ sf]l/ofdf lghL ;DklQ /x]5 eGg] dnfO{ cg'e"lt ePsf] 5 . sd e/f];f ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . pgn] ePsf] 5 . – Ph]G;L
@)&$ ;fn h]7 @* ut] cfOtaf/ 7

g]kfnL sf“u|]; pTkLl8t ju{ / hflt la/f]wL kf6L{ xf]
;Gbe{ s}nfnL wgu9L sf] xf] . kf6L{sfn] klg w]/n} ] lbFbg} g\ . clg s:n] kz{ g sf] ?kdf lrlgGYo] / t/ To;sf] pkof]u cfk"m cg's"n
9f8 / v'§f b'Vg] ;d:ofaf6 5'6\sf/f kfpg] eP===
sf7df8f}F . v'§f z/L/sf] dxTjk"0f{ efu xf] . ljleGg zf/Ll/s s;/tx?
ubf{ v'§fs} cfwf/ lng''kg]{ x'G5 . To;}n] v'§fsf] x]/ljrf/ ug{ lgs} g}
slyt :yfgLo r'gfjdf wgu9L pk lhT5 teGbf Pdfn] cfpg ;S5 lsg hgcfGbf]ngdf oxfFsf ;a} kf6L{sf u5{g\  . slyt k|hftGqsf] hgs cfjZos 5 . o;n] v'§f / 9f8 b'Vg] ;d:ofaf6 rfF8} 5'6\sf/f lbnfpF5 .
dxfgu/kflnsfsf] d]o/sf] pDd]bjf/ ls k|lt:kwf{ log} b'O{ kf6L{sf] xf] Pdfn]n] ;fyLx¿;F u ;xsfo{ x'g's f] ;fy} 7flgg] cd]l/sfdf /+u e]b / ju{ e]b xfdL tkfO{+nfO{ % k|sf/sf s;/tx?sf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbG5f}+ . o;
5gf}6 ug]{ l;nl;nfdf g]kfnL sfFu; |] hft / If]q ldNg] kfq p7fPsf] 5 / clGtd r/0fdf r}t @$ ut] b]lv ;a}eGbf a9L 5 . ;+;f/sf k'hLjfbL JofofdnfO{ lgoldt ?kdf ug{ ;s]df v'§f;DaGwL ljleGg ;d:ofaf6 5'6s \ f/f
leq g[k cf]8sf] gfd k|:tfljt x'Fbf dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|n] klg /fgf yf? p7fPsf] wgu9L sf/fuf/df h]n klg k/]sf] ;fd|fHojfbL d'n'sx¿df g} ;a}eGbf kfpg ;lsG5 .
slyt pkNnf] hftsf elgg] 5 . of] s'/f x]bf{ ;dfGo h:tf] nfU5 lyP . Tolta]nf d]/f] pgL;Fu nfdf] a9L pTkL8g 5 hgtfdf / lje]b !_ v'§fsf] cf}+nfn] lyRg] M v'§fnfO{ cf/fd lbnfpgsf] nflu tkfO{+n] o;
sfFu;
|] hgn] eg]5g\ ls g[k cf]8 d]o/ t/ s'/f lgs} ulx/f] xf] / of] juL{o ;xsfo{ ePsf] lyof] . pgL slxn} klg 5 . xfd|f] lgs6 l5d]sL ef/tdf x]bf{ s;/tnfO{ ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . ;a}eGbf klxnf l;wf pleg'xf];\ . To;kl5
klg To;sf] ;SsnL tl:a/ cfp5 .
cf]dk|sfz k'g hxfF kFh
' Ljfb 5, ToxfF ljsf; / ;d[l4
3'F8fnfO{ la:tf/} v'DrfO{ v'§fsf] cf}+nfn] e'OdF f 6]Sg'xf]; \ . o;} kf]lhzgdf
Psl5g\ a:g'xf];\ . o; JofofdnfO{ lbgsf] # k6s;Dd ug{'xf];\ .
l;ldt d'¶Le/x?sf] xftdf dfq} 5 . @_ v'§fsf] cf}+nfsf] d2tn] lx+8\g] M v'§fsf] cf}+nfsf] cfwf/ lnO{ lx+8\g]
g]kfndf klg hftLo / juL{o o;sf] ljsNkdf ;SsnL ;dfhjfb s;/tn] v'§fsf] df+;k]zLnfO{ alnof] agfpF5 . of] Jofofd lgs} g} ;/n
geP klg hxfF hxfF sDo' lg:6 5 . o;sf] nflu s's{'Rrf prfn]/ v'§fsf] cf}+nfn] 6]s]/ @) ;]s]08;Dd
pTkL8gsf] ;dfwfg hgo'4 sfndf w]/} qmflGtdfkm{t\ ;dfhjfb cfPsf] 5 / lx+8\g'xf];\ . To;kl5 !) – !% ldg]6 cf/fd lng'eO{ km]/L % k6s;Dd
Ps :t/sf] k|ltqmflGt eP klg ToxfF lx+8g\ x' f]; \ . /fd|f] kl/0ffdsf] nflu lbgsf] b'Ok{ 6s o; s;/tnfO{ ug{x' f]; \ .
xb;Dd ePsf] lyof] . t/, cfh pxLF hftLo, juL{o, lnËLo, wfld{s / If]qLo #_ uf]nLufF7f]sf] s;/t M uf]nLufF7f]sf] ultzLntf / nrstf lgs} g}
pTkL8g 5}g . rLg, pQ/sf]l/of, So'jf,
k'/fg} bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] leotgfd nufPtsf b]zx¿df clxn]
dxTjk"0f{ 5 . slxn]sfxL+ z/L/ ef/L dx;''; x'g'sf] sf/0f uf]nLufF7f]
sl:;P/ klg x'g ;S5 . o;sf] kl/0ffd:j?k df+;k]zL / hf]gL{ b'Vg]
klg hgtf cfTdlg/e/ / :jfwLg 5g\ \ .
k'g:yf{kgf ePsf]n] b]zdf hftLo, g] k fndf klg hftLo / juL{ o
x'G5 . df+;k]zL sl;P/ 9f8 b'Vg], 3'F8f b'Vg] cflb ;d:of x'g] u5{ .
o;sf] nflu ;a}eGbf klxnf z/L/nfO{ ;Lwf kf/L ;'Tg'xf];\ . To;kl5
juL{o, lnËLo, wfld{s / If]qLo pTkL8gsf] ;dfwfg hgo'4 sfndf w]/}
xb;Dd ePsf] lyof] . t/, cfh pxLF
cfˆgf] Pp6f v'§fnfO{ lj:tf/} 6fpsf] dfly nuL uf]nLufF7f]nfO{ 3l8sf]
lbzfdf 3'dfO{ !) ;Dd u0fgf ug{'xf];\ / v'§fnfO{ tn /fVg'xf];\ . csf]{
pTkL8gx? a9]/ uPsf] 5 . slyt k'/fg} bnfn ;+ ; bLo Joj:yfsf] v'§fdf klg o;} ljlwnfO{ bf]xf]¥ofpg'xf];\ .
k'g:yf{kgf ePsf]n] b]zdf hftLo, $_ /]lh:6]8 ˆn]S;g M o; Jofofdsf] nIo ;fgf] v'§fsf] df+;k]zL xf] .
:yfgLo r'gfjdf blnt / dlxnf bf]>f] bhf{df kg{s ' f] sf/0f klg juL{ o, lnËLo, wfld{s / If] qLo h:n] v'§fnfO{ ;Gt'ng /fVg] pQ/bfloTj lgjf{x u5{ . o; Jofofdn]
pTkL8gx? a9]/ uPsf] 5 . slyt tkfO{+sf] v'§fsf] df+;k]zLnfO{ tGsfpg'sf] ;fy} rf]6k6saf6 arfpF5 .
oxL xf] . blntx? / pTkLl8tx? o;/L kl5 kg{s ' f] sf/0f klxnf] :yfgLo r'gfjdf blnt / dlxnf bf]>f] o;sf] nflu e'FO{df a:g'xf];\ . cfˆgf] b'a} v'§fnfO{ ;Lwf cufl8
bhf{df kg{s ' f] sf/0f klg oxL xf] .
;a} kf6L{ / ;dfhdf lae]bsf/L ;+:sf/ x'g,' bf]>f] cfly{s?kdf blntx? / pTkLl8tx? o;/L kl5
tGsfpg'xf];\ . kl§nfO{ k}tfnfdf afFlw k5fl8 9Nsg'xf];\ / ;Lwf
tGsfpg'xf];\ . o; kf]lhzgdf % ;]s]G8;Dd a:g'xf];\ . Psl5g\ cf/fd
kg{'sf] sf/0f klxnf] ;a} kf6L{ /
sdhf]/ x'g' / t];f| ] dflyNnf] gLlt lgdf{0f txdf kx'rF gx'g' xf] . ;dfhdf lae]bsf/L ;+:sf/ x'g,' bf]>f]
lng'eO{ !) k6s;Dd o; k|lqmofnfO{ bf]of{pg'xf];\ .
%_ 6f]O{ k]lG;n lkscK; M of] s;/t lgs} g} ;fdfGo / ;/n 5 .
o;nfO{ cGTo ug{ j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL r]tgf / ;f]xL r]tgfåf/f cfly{s?kdf sdhf]/ x'g' / t];|f]
dflyNnf] gLlt lgdf{0f txdf kx'r F gx'g'
k]lG;nnfO{ e'O{+df /fVg'eO{ v'§fsf] cf}+nfn] l6Kg'xf];\ . !) ;]s]G8;Dd
o;} kf]lhzgdf a:g'xf];\ . o; s;/tnfO{ b'a} v'§fdf %–% k6s;Dd
;+rfng x'g] j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL Joj:yf rflxG5 . cfh e|djz xf] . o;nfO{ cGTo ug{ j}1flgs
;dfhjfbL r]tgf / ;f]xL r]tgfåf/f
ug{'xf];\ .
pTkLl8t hflt / ju{x? of] k'h F LjfbL bnfn Joj:yf / To;sf ;+rfng x'g] j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL
Joj:yf rflxG5 . cfh e| d jz
tftf] kfgLn] g'xfp“bfsf] kmfO{bf
;+rfnsx?sf] hfndf k/]sf 5g\ \ . h'g lbg pgLx?n] of] s'/f pTkLl8t hflt / ju{x? of] k'h F LjfbL sf7df8f}+ . Jofofod xfd|f] :jf:Yosf nflu lgs} kmfObfhgs ljifo xf] .
t/ Jofofd gul/sg klg z/L/nfO{{ k"0f{ ?kdf :j:Yo /xg ;S5f} . s] of]
bnfn Joj:yf / To;sf ;+rfnsx?sf]
a'‰g] 5g\,\ To;sf] ef]lnkN6 g} of] Wj:t x'g] 5 / To;sf] 7fpFdf hfndf k/]sf 5g\ \ . h'g lbg pgLx?n] ;Dej 5 t < xf] Jofofodsf af/]df rf}tkmL{;'emfj al9/x]sf a]nf lagf
of] s'/f a'‰g] 5g\,\ To;sf] ef]lnkN6 g} Jofofd klg :j:y /xg'sf] cltl/Qm zl//sf] lglZrt /f]unfO{{ lgoGq0f ug{
zflGt, ;d[l4 / :jflwgtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f x'g] 5 . of] Wj:t x'g] 5 / To;sf] 7fpFdf zflGt, ;lsG5 . o; laifodf aLaL;Ln] k|of]ufTds l/kf]{6 ;fa{hlgs u/]sf] 5 .
eof] eg] sfdLnfO{ s;/L gd:sf/ /fhgLlts larf/wf/f;Fu hf]l8Psf] ;jfn blntsf] ?kdf k|:t't ePgg\ / hxfF ;d[l4 / :jflwgtfd"ns ;dfhsf] h'g o;k|sf/ /x]sf] 5 M …Jofofodkl5 tftf] kfgLn] g'xfpbf zl//sf]
ug]{ < To;sf] hjfkmdf g[k cf]8n] xf] . oxfF slyt :yfgLo r'gfj vf/]hLsf] klg sfFu|];sf] ?kdf k|:t't eP t/ lgdf{0f x'g] 5 . To;sf/0f of] bnfn hf]gL{df ck"j{ cfgGb ldN5 . t/ Jofofd gu/L tftf] kfgLdf dfq 8'a'NsL
eg]5g\ tkfO{+x?n] d]o/nfO{ gd:sf/ 3f]if0ff u/]sf] kf6L{sf] dfG5]n] lsg o;df cfh l6s6 kfpbf cfh pgL blnt /fHo Aoj:yf leq slyt nf]stGqsf] dfbf{ o;n] Jofofodsf] sfd unf{ sL gunf{ < nuaf]/f]u o'lgel;{6L 8f=
ug{' kb}{g , d]o/n] g} tkfO+{x?nfO{ lrGtf lnPsf] xf]nf eGg] k|Zg klg p7\g eP . d}n] of] lsg eg]sf] eg] g[k gSsnL cfj/0f b]vfpg g[k cf]8 h:tf :6]e kmNsg/n] tftf] kfgLdf g'xfpbf An8 ;'u/ n]en 36\g] / Jofodn]
gd:sf/ / ho g]kfn ug]{ 5 . of] ;Snf t/ ljifo j:t' juL{o /fhgLlt / cf]8 g]kfnL sfFu| ]; sf] tkm{af6 blnt pTkLl8t ju{ sf JolQmx? eGbf a9L sfd ug]{ ljifo ;'Gbf dnfO{{ lgs} pT;'s nfu]sf] lyof]] . cWoog/t
s'/f cgnfOg ldl8ofdfx?df v'j cfof] /fHo Joj:yf;Fu hf]l8Psf]n] of] ;Gbe{ wgu9L gu/kflnsf sf] d]o/sf] l6s6 hlt;'s} dfg;Ddfgsf] kbdf k'u] klg :j+od;]asx?sf] Pp6f ;d"xdf klg cfa4 eP . cWoodf cfkm} ;xefuL
/ d}n] s]xL ldqx?sf] d'vaf6 klg p7fg ul/Psf] xf] . kfpg of]Uo JolQm x'g t/ cfh ahf/ jf:tljs cfTd;Ddfg / :jfledfg x'b} d}n] efUodfgL dxz'; u/] . ;xefuL ;a}df df]lg6/ lkm6 ul/Psf] lyof]],
;'g], 36gf ;fFrf] xf] eg]/ . Toltdfq} k| ; F u km] l/ ljifo j:t' lt/} xNnf 5 ls sfFu;] | n] blntnfO{ d]o/sf] k|fKt x'g] 5}g . To;}n] h'g;'s} ;+u7g, h;n] lg/Gt/ An8 ;'u/sf] txnfO{{ /]s8{ ub{Yof] .
sxfF xf]/ d}n] cGo /fhgLlts bndf kmsf{p . g[k cf]8nfO{ d !$/!% jif{ l6s6 lbP/;Ddfg u¥of] . xf] bnfn kf6L{ / ;d"xdf 5l/P/ /x] tfklg d]6faf]lns lkm6g];sf nflu An8 ;'u/sf] txnfO{{ ;fdfGo /]Ghdf /fVg'
ldqx¿;Fu klg s'/f ubf{ pgLx?sf] b]lv lrG5' . pgL g]kfnL sfFu|]; sf k'hLjfbL /fHo Joj:yf / To;sf pTkLl8t hflt / au{sf] ;d:of Pp6} dxTjk"0f{ ljifo xf] . xfdLn] slt w]/} Sofnf]/L ag{ ug{ ;S5f} eGg] dfkg ug{
ts{ lyof] ls g[kn] l6s6 kfof] eg] akmfbf/ sfo{stf{ x'g / @)^@/)^# ;~rfnsx?sf] rl/q o:t} x'G5 ls ePsf]n] o;af6 k"0f{ d'lQmsf] nflu xfdLdf cf}hf/ h8fg ul/Psf] Èlyof]] . ha g'xfpg d a;] -$) l8u|L
sfFu;]| xf5{ lsgls p;n] kfpg] dt sf] hgcfGbf]ngdf /fd|f] e'ldsf v]ns ] f pTkLl8t ju{ / hfltsf] of]Uotf / PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzfdfkm{t\ ;]G6Lu|]8_, :6]en] d]/f] leqL tfkqmdnfO{{ glhsaf6 cg'ug u/] .
eg]sf] blnt sf] / Tof] klg afFl8G5, JolQm x'g . hlta]nf d ;'b/' klZrddf If]dtfsf] pkxf; ug]{ . k'FhLjfbLx? a}1flgs ;dfhjfb :yfkgf ug]{ dxfg g'xfPsf] s]xL 3G6fkl5 d}n] xNsf vfg]s/' f vfP . tftf] kfgLdf g'xfpg'nfO{{
pkNnf] hftsfn] p;nfO{ p;s} lg/+sz ' zf;gsf] gh/df df]:6 jfG6]8 k|hftfGqsf s'/f v'j u5{g\ / n]V5g\ cleofgdf nfda4 xf]cf} F . Jofofod;Fu t'ngf ug]{ ePsf]n] xfdLn] af/Daf/ k|of]u u¥of} .
clg glthf s] eof] t < xfdLn] x]g{ rfx]sf] klxnf] s'/f g'xfpbf slt

eujfg sf] O /fnf
lgdf]lgofaf6 aRg] eP====
lgdf]lgof eGgfn] kmf]S;f]sf] tGt'df
of] /f]u nfUg] ;Defjgf !) u'gf a9L
/xG5 . k|To]s aif{ kfFr aif{ eGbf
nIf0fx¿
efO/; jf AofS6] l/ofn] x' g ]
;+qmd0f km}nbf Hofg ;Dd hfg]
hf]lvd /xG5 .
phf{ kmfNg ;lsG5 eGg] xf] . Ps 3G6f g'xfpFbf phf{ vkt -pkof]u_ df
*) k|ltztn] a[l4 x'G5 .Ú :6]en] eg] .
of] Ps 3G6f ;fOslnª u/] h:tf] t gxf]nf -Ps 3G6f ;fOslnªdf
^#) Sofnf]/L jg{ x'G5_ . t/ tftf] kfgLdf g'xfpb xfdLn] !$) Sofnf]/L ag{
u5f}{+ . of] #) ldg]6 km6fkm6 lx8]h:t} xf] .
x'g] ;'hg jf ;+qmd0f eGg] a'lemG5 . d'lgsf !@ nfv afn alnsfx¿ lgdf] l gof x' g ' e Gbf s] x L ;do pkrf/
t/ xfd|f] Jn8 ;'u/sf] tx s] t < ev{/} vfgf vfPsf] a]nf Un'sf]hsf]
:jf;k|Zjf; k|0ffnLsf] ljefhg cg';f/ lgdf]lgofsf] sf/0f d[To'sf] d'vdf k'Ug] cufl8b]lv dflyNnf] k|0ffnLsf] ;+qmd0f aRrfsf] pd]/ jf cGo cj:yf /
dfqf a9L x'G5 . vfg]s'/f of] 6fO{k @ 8folal6h / cGo d]6faf]lns /f]usf
xfd|f] :j/oGq cyjf Nofl/+S; eGbf u/]sf 5g\ . b]lvG5 . d'Vot ?3f vf]sL Hjf]/f] cfpg] nIf0f cg' ; f/ ljleGg
nflu vt/gfs 5 . xfdLn] s] kQf nufof} eg] g'xfPkl5 Un'sf]hsf] tx
dflysf] efunfO{ dflyNnf] :jf; gnL s;/L nfU5 lgdf] lgof < ;f; km]g{ uf/f] x'g] l56f] l56f] ;f; PG6Lafof]l6S;x¿ d'vaf6 vfP/ jf
jf:tjd} Go"g b]lvof] . …Jofofdsf] t'ngfdf tftf] kfgLdf g'xfpbf sNkgf
/ Tof] eGbf tnsf] efunfO{ tNnf] :jf; lgdf]lgof w]/} h;f] ;'Id ls6f0f"x¿ km]g] { sf]vf xfGg] lgnf] x'g] h:tf nIf0fx¿ ;'O{sf] dWodåf/f lbP/ lgdf]lgofsf]
u/] eGbf klg Go"g txdf em/]sf] lyof]] Un'sf]h . Ú :6]en] eg] . jf:tjdf
gnL elgG5 . h:t} ljleGg AofS6]l/ofx¿ efO/;x¿ /f]usf] ca:yf lau|b} hfFbf a9\b} pkrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 .
xfdL :j+o;]asx?sf] vfgfkl5sf] Un'sf]hsf] tx cf}iftdf g'xfPkl5 !)
dflyNnf] :jf; gnLsf] jf km+u;x¿n] u/fpFb5g\ . pd]/ tyf hfG5g\ . ;fdfGotof AofS6]l/ofn] ubf{ /f] s yfd
k|ltzt Go"g lyof]] .Ú
;+qmd0fx¿df ?3f jf /fOlgl6;;, cGo :jf:Yo cj:yfx¿n] ubf{ oL x'g] lgdf]lgof df efO/;n] u/fpg] afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ cfdfsf] b"w
lkgf; jf ;fOgf];fOl6;, 3f6L b'Vg]
km\ofl/GhfO{l6; kb{5g . tNnf] gnLsf]
ljleGg ls6f0f'x¿sf] ;+qmd0fn] k|efj
kfb{5 . h:tf] ls ;d'bfodf x'g]
lgdf]lgofdf eGbf a9L Hjf]/f] cfpg]
jf sfd Hjf]/f] cfpg] tyf vf]sL /
/fd|/L v'jfP/ pgLx¿sf] /f]u;+u n8g]
Ifdtfsf] /fd|/L ljsf; x'G5 eg]
sfg b'v]/ x}/fg x'g'x'G5 <
;+ q md0fdf OlkUnf] 6 fOl6;, lgdf]lgofdf # xKtf sf] pd]/ b]lv $ ;f; km]g{ ufx|f] x'g] jf 5flt b'Vg] ;d'lrt kf]if0f clg ;/;kmfO{n] klg sf7df8f} F . tkfO{+ sfg b'v/] x}/fg
Nofl/GhfO{ l6;, 6« f sfO{ l6; clg aif{sf] pd]/;Ddsf afnaflnsfx¿df a9L x'G5 . slxn]sfxLF k]6 dfq b'v]/ /f]u nfUgaf6 arfp5 . afo' k|b"if0f x'g' ePsf] 5 < ls tkfO{+sf] aRrfn]
a| f ] + G sfOl6; kb{ 5 g\   . oL ;a} :6« ] K 6f] s f] s ; lgdf] l gof gfds klg aRrfx¿ c:ktfn laz]if ul/ 3/ leqsf] afo' k|b'if0f ;wF} sfg b'Vof] eg]/ ;tfO/x]sf] 5 .
:jf;k|:jf; k|0ffnL cGt/utsf] gnL AofS6]/Lofsf] ;+qmd0f a9L x'G5 . k'U5g .lgdf]lgof ePsf la/fdLx¿nfO{ w''d|kfg gu/]/ klg lgdf]lgofaf6 c:ktfn hfFbf / cfw'lgs cf}ifwL
jf 6« ofs6sf ;+q md0f x'G . eg] To:t} kfF r aif{ e Gbf kl5sf] 8fS6/n] hfFR bf 5ftLdf ljleGg arfpg ;lsG5 . vf] kx¿ h:t} vfFbf vfFb} klg ;~rf] geP/ kLl8t
kmf]S;f]df jf kmf]S;f]sf] tGt'df x'g] afnaflnsfx¿df dfOsf] K nf:df k|sf/sf cfjfhx¿ ;'Gg ;S5g h;n] lgoldt jf ;/sf/n] lgz'Ns pknAw x'g' x'G5 eg] of] hfgsf/L tkfO{+sf]
;+ q md0fnfO{ lgdf] lgof elgG5 . lgdf]lgof / SnfdfOl8of eGg] ls6f0f'sf] ubf{ lgdf]lgof kQf nufpg ;lhnf] u/fPsf vf]kx¿ k"0f{ ¿kn] nufpg] nflu xf] . tkfO+{nfO{{ yfxf gx'g ;S5
afnaflnsfnfO{ d[To'sf] d'vdf k'¥ofpg] ;+qmd0f a9L x'G5 . oLafx]s c? :j:Yo x'G5 . cfjZos 7fg]df PS;/] jf cGo ugf{ n ] klg ljleGg ;+ qmd0faf6 tkfO+{ xfd|f] efG;fdf ;w}F kfOg]
kfFr k|dv ' sf/s /f]ux¿df lgdf]lgof aRrfx¿df x]df]lkmn; OGkm\nP' Ghf, u|k' 6]:6x¿ ug{ kg{ ;S5 . arfpg ;lsG5 . utaif{ b]lv g]kfn t/sf/L KofFh sfg b'vfOsf] cr's
cu| :yfgdf kb{5 . of] /f]u nfUg] b/ P :6«K] 6f]sf]s; / O:6fkmfOnf]sf]s;n] hl6ntfx¿ ;/sf/n] klg /fli6«o vf]k sfo{qmddf cf}ifwL xf] . sfg ;'lGgg], lrnfpg] /
tyf o;af6 d[To' x'g] b/ g]kfn h:tf lgdf]lgof u/fpb5g\ . PrcfO{eL P8\; a]nd} f /fd|f] pkrf/ kfpg ;lsPg lgdf]lgof la?4sf] vf]k lkl;le !) ;+qmd0f ePsf] cj:ydf tkfO+n { ] %
ljsf;zLn b]zx¿df clxn] klg pRr ePsf aRrfx¿df l6lj jf jf /f] u kQf nfu] g eg] o:tf ;'? ul/;s]sf] 5 . cGo vf]kx¿ ldg]6dfg} cf/fd kfpg Kofh k|of]u
5 . ljZjdf k|To]s aif{ !% s/f]8 lgdf]l;;l6; h]/f]j; ] L, ;fNdf]gn
] f, O{ la/fdLsf] kmf]S;f]df lkk kg{ jf cA;]; h:t} km\n' la?4sf vf]kx¿ h;nfO{ u/]/ pkrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 . o;sf] s'g}
*) nfv k6s lgdf]lgof x'G5 h;df sf] n fO{ tyf Pl6lksn dfOsf] x'g;S5 . 5ftLdf lkk hDdf eP/ lsGg'k5{ nufpg ;lsG5 . ca:Yof ;fO8 O{km]S6 klg 5}g . o;sf nfuL ;a} eGbf klxn] KofFhsf] /; lgsfNg],
!% s/f]8 $) nfv t s]z ljsf;zLn AofS6]l/ofn] lgdf]lgof u/fpb5g\ . ODkO{df eGg] cj:yf x'g ;S5 eg] cg';f/ arfa6sf nflu PG6Laof]l6S; /;nfO{{ ?O{df rf]k/] sfgdf yf]kf yf]kf u/] r'xfpg], Kofhsf] /; sfg leq l5/]
b]zx¿df x'g] u/]sf]] tYof+s 5 . x]df]lkmn;sf] vf]k lgoldt vf]kdf s}n]sfxLF xfjf r'x]/ lgdf]yf]/S; x'g h:t} PrcfOeL ePsf] cj:yfdf lbO{g] gl5/]sf] eg] ljrf/ k'¥ofpg' k5{ . Kofhsf] /;n] sfg leq l5/]/ ljleGg
ljsl;t d' n ' s x¿df eGbf ;dfa] z eP kl5 o;af6 x' g ] ;S5 . d'6' km]n x'g] jf ;+qmd0f c? PG6Ljfof]l6S; lbP/ klg lgdf]lgofaf6 lsl;dsf ;+qmd0f klg l7s kf5{ . o; afx]sdf klg Kofh An8 ;'u/, O+km]S;g,
cNkljsl;t jf ljsf;zLn d'ns ' df ;+qmd0fdf Hofb} sld cfPsf] 5 . c+ux¿df km}lng ;S5 . ;fy} /utdf arfpg ;lsG5 . d'6s' f nflu pkof]lu dflgG5 eg] zl//sf] /f]u k|lt/f]w Ifdtf a9fpF5 .
8 @)&$ ;fnk|= h]sf=
sf= lh= 7 @*b= ut] cfOtaf/
g+= !^#÷@)^#÷^$

g]skfsf]===== clGtd jif{df cWoog/t\ ljwfyL{ Pj+
;" r gf ;+ r f/ k| l jlwsf] If] q df
To;}u/L eQmk'/ k|x/L lx/f;tdf
/flvPsf o'j/fh cfrfo{, w'j| ls/fFtL,
sfof{non] ;d]t OkL;LPkm df]8n] df ljgf
k|lt:kwf{ s'g} cd's sDkgLnfO{ lbg'nfO{
sfd ug{ ;xh jftfj/0f agfOlbg'sf]
;§f slxn] cfGtl/s x]/km]/ ug],{ ;ldlt
ug]{ gful/sx?sf nflu rflxg] ef}lts
tyf ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/x?sf] ljsf; ug] { .
;b/d'sfd dfGdf k'¥ofOof] . ToxfF pkrf/ sfo{/tx?sf nflu ljz]if nfebfos hLjg tfdfªnfO{ cem} l/xf gul/Psf] u}/sfg'gL eGb} cfˆgf] /fo lbPsf] 5 . vf/]h u/L sDkgL agfpg nfUg] / x'bF fx'bF } -3_ a'9Lu08sL sf]l/8f]/ cfly{s
;Dej gePkl5 g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf x'g5]  . uf]li7df ;xefuL x'g rfxg] g]skf pkTosf ljz]if Ao"/f]n] hgfPsf] o;y{ ofjt oL sf/0fn] of] ;dembf/L ;a} lhDdf ljb]zL sDkgLnfO{ oxL ljsf; lgb]z { gfno
g] t f Pj+ :yfgLo e/t ad ljBfyL{x?sf nflu nfUg] z'Nsdf krf; 5 . l/xfnuQ} k'gM kqmfp ug]{ k|x/L u}/sfg'gL 5 . cfof]hgf g} lbg] u/L ul/Psf] lg0f{oaf6 – o;n] a'9Lu08sL sf]l/8f]/df x'g
…/0fjL/Ú;lxtsf] 6f]nLn] la/fdLnfO{ k|ltzt 5'6sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . k|zf;gsf] sbdsf] Ao"/f] 3f]/ eT;gf{ u/]sf] v_ ldlt @)&# .)@ .!) df ;DalGwt kf6L{ s f JolQmx¿ of] ;Sg] / ug{ ;lsg] cfly{s ljsf;sf
sf7df8f}F NofOk'¥ofOPsf] xf] . o;}u/L sfo{qmddf ;xefuLtfsf] 5 . em'7f d'2fdf aGbL agfOPsf g]tf dlGqkl/ifbaf6 /fhLgfdf lbg] lbgsf] cfof]hgfk|lt jkmfbf/ b]lvPsf] kfOFbg}  . sfo{x? ug] { .
dg;/fsf] pkrf/k|lt /fHo pbfl;g nflu 5fqj[QL ;d]t lbOg] 5 h;df sfo{stf{nfO{ tTsfn l/xf ug{ ;d]t Ao"/f]n] 7Ls cl3Nnf] lbg xtf/df u}/sfg'gL ko{6g ljsf;, cfly{s ljsf;sf] s]Gb| -ª_ hn;|ft] Pj+ hnfwf/ ljsf;
x'g gldNg] atfpFb} pkrf/sf nflu $) k|ltzt dxLnf ;xefuL z'lglZrt dfu u/]sf] 5 . zflGtk"0f{ /fhgLlts k|lqmofaf6 u]hj' fnfO{ cfof]hgf lbg] lg0f{o agfpg ;lsg] cfof]hgfnfO{ sDkgL lgb]z{ gfno
;xof]u ug{ b]zleq / aflx/ /x]sf ul/Psf] 5 . sfo{qmdsf] clGtd lbgdf sfo{qmdnfO{ lgjf{w ?kdf ;+rfng ug{ ug{,' OkL;LPkm df]8n] df o; cfof]hgfnfO{ agfP/ o;sf] ax'pkof]udf guO{, s]jn – o; cGtu{t l;FrfO, df5fkfng,
;Dk"0f{ g]kfnLx?;Fu g]tf /0fjL/n] clkn cfof]hgf x'g; ] Dd]ngdf g]kfn tyf lbg klg ;/sf/;Fu dfu u/] . lbg x'g] jf gx'g] eGg] af/]df phf{ ljB't pTkfbgdf dfq ;Lldt ug{ PsLs[t hnfwf/ If]q ljsf;sf sfdx?
u/] . g]kfnLx?s} ;xof]uaf6 dg;/fsf] ljZjsf] ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/k|ljlwsf] dGqfnon] g} u7g u/]sf] ;ldlt s'g} vf]lhPaf6 klg ;DalGwt JolQmx?df
pkrf/ ;kmn agfpg'kg]d{ f pgn] hf]8 If]qsf] jt{dfg cj:yf, r'gf}tLx? Pj+
a'9 Lu08sL===== lg0f{odf gk'Ub}, ;/f]sf/jfnf s;};uF b"/b[li6sf] ;Vt cefj b]lvG5 .
ug] { .
!#= b]zdf s]xL ;do otf ;+;bdf
lbP . …xfdL g]kfnLsf] ;xof]unfO{ aGg hfg] ePsf]n] of] 7fpFnfO{ Pp6f
;kmntfsf syfx?sf] af/]df g]kfn tyf ko{6sLo uGtJosf] ?kdf ljsf; ug{ 5nkmn gu/L phf{ dGqfnoaf6 3_ u]hj' f;Fu ul/Psf] of] ;dembf/Ln] /x]sf s]xL k|dv ' bn / g]tfx?sf]
k|fyldstf lbG5f} + . n'xf/h:tf r/d cGo d'ns ' sf ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/ k|ljlw ljbfaf/L eO;s]kl5 PsfPs k|wfgdGqL …g]kfnsf] kfgL hgtfsf] nufgLÚ eGg] gf/f ldn]dtf]df uDeL/ k|sl[ tsf clgoldttf,
ul/aLsf] r+un ' df kfl/Psfx?sf] p4f/ ;lsg] ;DefjgfnfO{ klg a9fPsf] 5 .
If]q, b'/;+rf/ If]q, OG6/g]6 ;]jf k|bfos ;fy} g]kfnsf] @$ lhNnf eP/ hfg] lgjf;df pmhf{dGqL cfkm}n+ ] ;dembf/L a'9Lu08sL cfof]hgfsf] ;Gbe{df 7Ls e|i6frf/, ljlwsf] zf;gsf] pNn+3g,
ug{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ ;b}j ;fydf sDkgL, a}s + Pj+ ;/sf/L k|ltlglwx?n] kqdf x:tfIf/ ug{n ' ] bfndf s]xL sfnf] ljkl/t x'g] b]lvof] . o;af6 ljz]if u/L /fi6«lxt ljk/Ltsf ultljlwx? eO/x]sf]
5Ú pgn] eg] . To;lglDt dg;/f ;+/If0f k'iknfn dWokxf8L nf]sdfu{n] k"jb{ l] v
ljz]if k|:t'lt lbg]5g\ \ .;Dd]ngsf] d'Vo klZrd;Dd tyf pQ/–blIf0f sf]l/8f]/n] 5 eGg] k|i6 b]vfpFb5 . kf/blz{tfsf] uf]/vf / wflbªsf hgtfx¿ ;]o/ /fVg ;Gbe{df gofF zlQm kf6L{, g]kfn ;a}
sf]if :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5 . ;+slnt /sd jQmfsf ?kdf km];a'ssf k|ltlgwL Dof6 lx;fan] klg of] ;dembf/L a]7Ls ePsf] kfpg] clwsf/af6 al~rt x'gk' g]{ cfzÍf ;/f]sf/jfnf kIfx? / gful/sx?;Fu of]
sf]ifdfkm{t\ la/fdLsf] pkrf/df vr{ ug]{ pQ/df rLg / blIf0fdf ef/t;Fu of]
hfG;]g /x]g5g\ \ . If]qnfO{ hf]8g\ ] ePsfn] a'9Lu08sL k'i6L x'G5 . klg pAhfPsf] 5 . eGg] Psyl/ ug]{ a'9Lu08sL kl/of]hgf k|s/0fnfO{ uDeL/
/ dg;/f h:t} ju{sf] pkrf/df lg/Gt/ PglkPgcf]hLsf cWoIf ;ldt u_ ;/sf/ 5f]8g\ ] lg0f{o ul/;s]kl5 csf]y{ l/ b]lvPaf6 of] ;dembf/L c;n 9+un] u|x0f ug{ / o;sf q'6Lx?nfO{
nufpg] kqsf/;Dd]ngdf hfgsf/L sf]l/8f]/nfO{ d'ns ' sf] Ps ultzLn
hgsf cg';f/ of] sfo{qmdn] ;"rgf tyf cfly{s s]Gb|sf ?kdf ljsf; ug{ ;lsg] o;/L 7"nf7"nf / b"/ufdL dxTjsf lgotn] ul/Psf] b]lvFbg}  . ;RofP/ g]kfnLx?s} jna'tfdf oyfzL3|
lbOof] . ;+rf/ k|ljlwsf] ljZj:t/Lo 1fg cfof]hgfx? hgtfsf] hfgsf/L a]u/ ljsf;sf] dfu{lrqM lgdf{0f ug]{ kl/l:ylt l;h{gf ug{ xflb{s
kqsf/;Dd]ngdf afa' /g]n] efjs' k|jn j:t'ut ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 .
cfbfgk|bfg ub}{ g]kfndf o; If]qsf] ;dembf/Lsf ;DaGwdf s'g} cd's sDkgLnfO{ lbg'n] unt ghL/ (= u]hj' f;Fu ul/Psf] ;dembf/L /fi6« cfu|x ub{5 .Æ
x'bF } eg] …d]/f] 5f]/LnfO{ arfpg' 5,
tkfO{x?n] ;xof]u ug{;'  \ .Ú :yfgLo cu'jf
ljsf;df dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] 5 . %= /fli6«o efjgfdf 7]; M s'g} klg :yflkt x'g k'Ug]5 . …a'9L d/LeGbf klg lxt ljkl/t ePsfn] pQm ;dembf/L g]t f=====
sfo{qmdsf] ;xcfof]hssf] ?kdf cfof]hgf To;a]nf dfq g]kfnLsf nflu sfn k:of]Ú eGg] lrGtf xf] . gf} gf} tTsfn vf/]h u/L, g]kfnL k'h F L, >d / lu/Ktf/Lsf] kf6L{ 3f]/ lgGbf / eT;{gf
dxt/fn] dg;/fsf] kl/jf/ r/d OG6/g]6 PS;r]~h g]kfn /x]sf] 5 eg] dlxgfdf kl/jt{g x'g] ;/sf/n] o;/L ;Lkdf o;sf] lgdf{0f / k'gjf{; tyf
ul/aLsf] rk]6fdf u'lh|Psf] / 5f]/LnfO{ /fli6«o uf}/jsf] cfof]hgf x'g;S5 ha ub{5 . xfd|f] kf6L{ lu/Ktf/ sd/]8x?sf]
sfo{qmdnfO{ b'/;+rf/ k|flws/0f, sDKo'6/ To; cfof]hgfdf g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]kfnL g} lg0f{o ub}{ hfg] xf] eg] b]z sxfF k'g:yf{kgfsf sfo{x?nfO{ tbf?stfsf ;–;Ddfg t'?Gt l/xfOsf] hf]8bf/ dfu
arfpg ;a}sf] ;xof]u vfFrf] /x]sf] dxf;+3, OG6/g]6 ;]jf k|bfos ;+3, k'U5 < ;'zf;g s;/L sfod x'G5 < ;fy ;dfgfGt/ ?kdf cufl8 a9fpg]
atfP . ;'vt]{ af6 sf7df8f}F cfpg hgtfsf] k'h F L, ;Lk / Ifdtfsf] e/k"/ ub{5 . oyfzSo l/xf gul/P xfd|f] kf6L{n]
Pgcf/OPg / cfO{P;cf];Ln] ;fy lbPsf of]ubfg ug]{ cj;/ ldN5, cfof]hgfk|lt d'Vo k|Zg oxfF xf] . ljlw g} of] cfof]hgf ljsf;sf] cfufdL ;+3if{sf] df]rf{af6 o;sf] k|ltjfb ug]]{ /
jL/]Gb|gu/df kqsf/;Dd]ng u/L vr{ 5g\ \ . &= u] h' j fsf] sfo{ Ifdtf / dfu{lrq x'gk' b{5 .
h'6fP/ sf7df8f}F NofOk'¥ofpg ;lsPsf] ckgTjsf] dxz'; x'G5 . o;y{ of] To;af6 lg:sg] u+le/ kl/0ffdsf]
dxt/fn] atfP . k|r 08===== a'9Lu08sL hnljB't cfof]hgfsf] ljZjf;lgotfdf k| ZgM s' g} klg
sDkgLsf] sfo{Ifdtf tyf p;dfly ul/g]
!)= lgdf{ 0 fsf ;DaGwdf M
cGt/f{li6«o k|ltikwf{ u/fP/ oyfzL3|
lhDd]jf/ b]pjf ;/sf/sf] u[x k|zf;g
;xof]u hDdf ug{ dg;/fsL afa' nufP . ljsf; g]kfn ;/sf/sf] dftxtsf] x'g] r]tfjgL ;d]t lbg rfxG5 .Æ
kf6L{ g]tT[ j l/df]6d{ f rNg], e|i6frf/ ;ldlt dfkm{t\ g]kfn / g]kfnLx?sf] ljZjf; p;n] ljutdf u/] s f ;'k/ljhg sG;N6\ofG6 / cfof]hgf lgdf{0f o;}aLr, clvn g]kfn dlxnf ;+3
/ dxt/fsf] gfddf ;flgdf a}s + sf ;+oQ' m sfdx¿af6 x'g] xf] . o;n] ljutdf sG6«ofS6/ 5gf}6 u/L lgdf{0f sfo{ t'?Gt
vftf vf]ns ] f] 5 . ;xof]u ug{ OR5's / To; j/k/sf xg'dfg k|jl[ Q;fd' nufgLaf6 lgdf{0f ug]{ p2]Zosf;fy ;'? -qmflGtsf/L_ sL dxf;lrj wLl/Gb|f
lgi7fjfg ag]/ a:g g;Sg] eP/} cfk"mn] ul/Psf] lyof] . o;nfO{ clxn] h'g g]kfndf u/]sf hnljB't ljsf;;Fu ;'? ug{k' b{5 . pkfWofon] cfˆgf] ;Fu7gsf] cWoIf aGb'
dxfg'efjnfO{ pQm a}s + vftfdf l;w} ;DalGwt tnsf s]xL sfo{x¿nfO{ x]bf{ !!= k' g jf{ ; / k' g M:yfkgfsf
/sd hDdf ug{ ;lsg] hfgsf/L klg cGofolj?4 kf6L{sf] s]Gb|Lo ;b:oaf6 k| s f/n] EPCF (Engineering, rGbsf] tTsfn l/xfO{sf] dfu u/]sL
/fhLgfdf lbPsf] ljtl/t lj1lKtdf Procurement, Construction and
of] sDkgLnfO{ ljZjf; ug{ ;lsg] cfwf/ ;DaGwdf M 5g\ \ . dxf;lrj pkfWofon] Ps lj1lKt
dxt/fn] lbP . vftf gDa/ b]lvFbg} M s_ cfjZos sd{rf/L / /sdsf]
)$$))))))!) /x]sf] 5 . cfjZos pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . …kf6L{leq Jofks Financing) df]8ndf lgdf{0f ug]{ u/L hf/L u/]/ ;Fu7gsf] sfdsf] l;nl;ndf
?kdf gftfjfb, s[kfjfb, u'6aGbL, s'g} Ps sDkgL / To;dfly klg ljb]zL s_ ^) d]=jf= sf] lqz'nL #A sf] ljz] i f Joj:yf u/L k' g jf{ ; / Ko'7fgdf ;fdfGo 5nkmn ul//x]sf] a]nf
;Dks{sf] nflu dxt/fsf] df]jfOn gDa/ sfo{ ;dodf ug{ g;s]sf] . k'gM:yfkgfsf] sfo{nfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy
(*$*#)&!&# lbOPsf] 5 . e|i6frf/nufotsf ljs[ltx? df}nfO/x]sf] sDkgLnfO{ AnfÍ r]s lbP h;/L lbg' k| x/Ln] lu/ˆtf/ u/] sf] 36gk| lt
oyfy{ cl3Nnf] :yfgLo lgjf{rg;Dd /fli6«o uf}/jsf] cfof]hgfsf] dd{ / efjgf v_ lrlnd] hnljB't cfof]hgfsf] cl3 a9fpg'kb{5 . ;Fu7gsf] Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] atfPsL
la/fdLsf] pkrf/ lrlsT;s lgdf{0f sfo{ ug{ g;s]/ 7]Ssf tf]8L, v_ cfof]hgfsf nflu clwu|x0f ug{k' g]{
k|sfzlgwL ltjf/Lsf] 6f]nLn] ul//x]sf] cfOk'Ubf 5tf5'Nnf ePsf] 5 . :yfgLo ljk/Lt 5 . o;n] km]l/ Psk6s g]kfnL 5g\ \ . pkfWofon] nf]stflGqs u0ftGqn]
txdf ;Ifd / of]Uo JolQm xf]Og, cfkmgf cfkm}n+ ] 7"nf ljsf;sf cfof]hgfx? cfkm}+ w/f}6L /sd hkmt ug{k' /]sf] . hUufx¿ -vx/], cf¿3f6 / cfv]t{ If]qsf lbPsf] gful/s df}lns clwsf/sf]
lrlsT;s k|sfz Gof}kfg]n] hfgsf/L u_ dflyNnf] ;f~h]g hnljB't 8'jfgdf kg]{ hUufx¿; k'gjf{; u/fOg]
lbP . cfFvfsf] leqL efu;lxt 7"nf] gftfuf] tf/ u' 6sf l/df] 6{ d frNg] ljsf; ug{ ;S5f}+ eGg] efjgfdf uDeL/ pNn+3g u/]sf] atfPsL 5g\ \ .
dfG5]x?nfO{ kb:yfkg u/L xfnLd'xfnL t'iff/fkft ePsf] 5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu cfof]hgfdf sfnf];r " Ldf k/]sf] . hUuf / l/Ë/f]8sf] nflu rflxg] hUuf_ …slyt nf]stflGqs u0ftGqn] lbPsf]
;fOhdf 6\od' / aflx/ lglSnPsf] 5 . - 3_ #) d]=jf=sf] rd]lnof hnljB't zL3| clwu|x0f ug{k' b{5 .
x]g; '{ \ tl:a/_ . dg;/fsf] s]z ljZjd} rnfP/ ef]lnsf] k|bz ] / s]Gb|sf] lgjf{rg @@ d]=jf=sf] lrlnd] hnljB't cfof]hgf gful/ssf] df}lns clwsf/nfO{ ;d]t
lhTg s/f]8klt aGg] xf]8afhLdf kf6L{sf ljsf;sf] cg'ejn] $%^ d]=jf=sf] cfof]hgf lgdf{0f ug{ !) jif{eGbf a9L u_ d'cfAhf ;ldltaf6 ul/Psf] uDeL/ pNn+3g u/L b}z}el/ xfd|f]
b'ne{ ePsf] lrlsT;ssf] egfO{ 5 . nufPsf] . ;fy} o;df Ps ca{ !^ d'cfAhfdf k'g/fjnf]sg u/L, d'cfAhf
d]l8sn efiffdf dg;/fdf b]lvPsf] s]z g]tfx? nfu] . o:tf] kl/l:yltdf cfk"mnfO{ dflyNnf] tfdfsf]zL xfdL cfkm}n+ ] agfpg] ;Fu7gsf g]tf, sfo{stf{, ;dy{s,
kf6L{sf s]xL g]tfx?sf] xg'dfg dfq ;fljt lxDdt ug{ ;Sof} + . of] !@)) d]=jf=sf] s/f]8 s/ 5nL u/]sf] . Gofof]lrt gePsf 7fpFx?sf hgtfnfO{ ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;d]t k~rfotL z}nLdf
Anf:6 cyf{t lj:kmf]6 ePsf] clvn o;/L #) d]=jf=sf] rd]lnof h:tf] plrt d' c fAhf lbg] Aoj:yf
g]kfn hg:jf:YosdL{ dxf;+3sf cWoIf u/]/ cfkm}d+ fly k/]sf] cGofo ;x]/ a:g' cfof]hgfn] xfdL g]kfnLdf cfufdL lbgdf bdg, w/ks8 / lu/ˆtf/ ul/Psf]
plrt gb]vL cfhs} ldltdf g]skf - !@ xhf/ d]=jf=sf cfof]hgfx¿ lgdf{0f ;fgf] cfof]hgf ;dodf lgdf{0f ug{ g;Sg] ldnfpg'kb{5 . 5 . of] 36gfn] xfd|f] ;Fu7gsf] uDeL/
8Da/ /fjnn] atfP . …SofG;/ eO;s]sf] sDkgLn] !@)) d]=jf=sf] cfof]hgf 3_ uf]/vf / wflbªsf d'cfAhf
cj:yfdf Anf:6 x'G5Ú cWoIf /fjnn] dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|_sf] s]Gb|Lo ;ldltaf6 ug]{ /fli6«o ljZjf; hfu[t ug]{ lyof] . Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] 5Ú lj1lKtdf elgPsf]
/fhLgfdf u/]sf] 5'Ú lu/Låf/f hf/L k|;] a'9Lu08sL cfof]hgf klg tfdfsf]zL agfpg]5 eg]/ ljZjf; s;/L ug] { < ;ldltn] d'cfAhf tyf k'gjf{;-k'gM:yfkgf 5 . dxf;lrj pkfWofon] cWoIf aGw'
eg] . o;y{ olb of] cfof]hgf u]h'jfnfO{ ;DaGwL l;kmfl/; u/]sf ljifox?sf]
kqsf/;Dd]ngdf wflbª :jf:Yodf lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5 . lj/f]wLx?sf] h:t} /fli6«o ;|ft] / Joj:yfkgdf lgdf{0f rGbnufot lu/ˆtf/Ldf ul/Psf g]tf,
wfswDsLaLr klg cfk"mn] c;f/ !$ ug]{ eg]/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] k]6f« l] nod lbOPdf nfdf] ;do xf]N8 x'g] vt/f oyfzL3| ;Daf]wg ug{k' b{5 . sfo{stf{nfO{ t'?Gt l/xf ug{ hf]8bf/
;dfhsf 8f= /fd yfkf If]qLn] aflnsfsf] 5n{Ë b]lvG5 . !@= ;+: yfut ;+/ rgf / ;du|
pkrf/sf nflu cfk"mx?n] ;Sbf] ;xof]u sf] r'gfjdf lqj]0fL ufpFkflnsf cWoIf kbfy{df ljz]if s/ nufPsf] 5, h;af6 dfu u/]sL 5g\ \ . pgn] ljgf ;t{ tTsfn
kbdf :jtGq pDd] b jf/L lbg] o; jif{;Dd ?= bz ca{ hlt p7\g] *= unt gLlt / s'lgot M ljsf; l/xfO{ gu/] /fHolj?4 k|lt/f]w ug]{
ug]{ atfP . clvn g]kfn hg:jf:YosdL{ OkL;LPkm df]8n] eg]sf] km]l/ O{lGhlgol/Ë a'9Lu08sL sf]l/8f]/nfO{ cfly{s
dxf;+3sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o nf]sz ] hf]zLn] kqsf/;Dd]ngdf 3f]if0ff u/] . lhTg] bfaL cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . r]tfjgL ;d]t lbPsL 5g\ \ .
;d]t u/] . lu/L kf6L{sf a'l4hLlj of] cfof]hgf g]kfnsf 7"nf k'h F L klg ug]{ eGg] xf] . o; ;DaGwL lgDg s]Gb|sf ?kdf ljsf; ug{ k|yd r/0fdf lgjf{rg=====
dg;/fsf] hLjg arfpg ;a}sf] ;xof]u s'/fx? gLltut ?kdf unt 5g\M a'9Lu08sL hnljB't cfof]hgf ljsf;
cfjZos /x]sf] atfP . ;Fu7gsf k"jc{ WoIf ;d]t x'g \ . r'gfjsf] ePsf sd{rf/L ;~ro sf]if, gful/s kf6L{sf] uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f ePsf]
d'vdf lu/Lsf] kl/Tofun] /f]Nkfdf nufgL sf]if, g]kfnL ;]gfsf] sNof0fsf/L s_ OkL;LPkm df]8]n ;DaGwL ;ldltnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg'kb{5 / bf];f| ]
%) jifL{o n'xf/sf tLg 5f]/L / ;/sf/;Fu g t gLlt g} ag]sf] 5, g t r/0fdf o;nfO{ :t/f] G glt u/L atfPsf 5g\ . ;fy} pgn] alxisf/
tLg 5f]/f 5g\ \ . dg;/f sfG5L ;Gtfg dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|nfO{ 7"nf] em6\sf nfu]sf] sf]if / ;j{;fwf/0f;Fu z]o/ ;+sng cfGbf]ngdf ;+nUg g]skfsf g]tf
5 . u/]/ / ljleGg b]zsf PlShd a}s + x?;Fu sfo{ljlw . ljgf gLlt of] df]8n] n] s;/L a'9Lu08sL sf]l/8f]/ ljsf; k|flws/0f
x'g \ . >LdtL wg~hgf n'xf/ ufpFd} sfd u5{ < agfpg'kb{5 . a'9Lu08sL sf]l/8f]/ ljsf; sfo{stf{x?nfO{ w/ks8 gug{ / kqmfp
dhb' /L ul5{ g \   . cefjs} sf/0f PsLs[t ===== Go"g Aofhb/df kfpg] C0f ;d]t ;+sng
u/]/ lgdf{0f ug{ ;lsG5 . tfdfsf]zL v_ a' 9 Lu08sL hnljB' t k|flws/0f cGtu{t /xg] u/L Pp6f ul/Psf tyf y'gfdf /flvPsf ;Dk"0f{
dg;/fnfO{ ljBfno k7fpg ;s]sf vf/]hLk|lt nlIft zflGtk"0f{ /fhgLlts cfof]hgfsf] lj:t[t cWoog tyf l86]n sDkgL / $ j6f lgb]z { gfnox? agfP/ g]tf sfo{stf{ sd/]8x?sf] clanDa
5}gg\ . la/fdLsf] pkrf/ lgs} hf]lvd sfo{qmd …PsLs[t hghfu/0f tyf lgdf{0fn] vfl/Psf] Joj:yfksLo Ifdtf l/xfO{ ug{sf nflu ;/sf/l;t hf]8bf/
klg b]zleq} pknAw 5 . o:tf]df l8hfOg, g]kfn ;/sf/n] cGt/f{li6«o lgDgfg';f/sf sfo{x? ug{k' b{5–
/ nfvf}+ ?k}ofF vr{ nfUg] lsl;dsf] /x]sf] k|lt/f]w cleofgÚ qmddf k| x/Ln] k|ltikwf{af6 ljlw tyf k|lqmof k'¥ofP/ -s_ a'9Lu08sL hnljB't cfof]hgf dfu ;d]t u/]sf 5g\ .
lrlsT;ssf] egfO{ 5 . /fhwfgLdf ljleGg :yfgaf6 lu/ˆtf/ k|lt:kwf{ gu/fO{ l;w} s'g} ljb]zL o; ljifodf g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{
sDkgLnfO{ lhDdf nufpg' sbfkL plrt 5fg]sf] sDkgL k|mfG;sf] 6«ofS6j]n ljsf; sDkgL
– dfgWjh nfdf u/L em'7f d'2f nufP/ w/f}6Ldf l/xf u/]sf] O{lGhlgol/ªaf6 u/fO;s]sf] 5 . 6]G8/ – a'9Lu08sL gbLdf !@)) d]=jf=sf] -qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL _ sf cWoIf df]xg
lrlgof“===== lyof] . nfdf] ;do lx/f;tdf kg]d{ f dfGg ;lsGg . Psflt/ /fli6«o uf}/jsf]
cfof]hgf eGg] / csf]{lt/ ljb]zL 8s'd0] 6 klg tof/ 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf hnfzoo'Qm hnljB't cfof]hgf lgdf{0f j}Bn] hf/L u/]sf] k|; ] jQmJosf] k"0f{
cfbfgk|bfg x'g5 ]  . sfo{qmdaf6 o; g]skfsf o'jf ;Fu7gsf g]tf ;'/z ] /x]sf] g]kfnsf] Ps dfq cfof]hgfnfO{ Pj+ ;~rfng ug] { . laa/0f o; k/sf /x]sf] 5– æs]xL
nfdfnfO{ b'Ok{ 6s u/L #( lbg lx/f;tdf sDkgLnfO{ ;'Dkg] k|jl[ Qn] s;/L /fli6«o ;dootf jt{dfg ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf]
If]qdf nfu]sfx?n] OG6/g]6 k|ljlwsf] :jfledfgsf] /Iff x'g;S5 < o;df xfd|f] oyfzL3| cGt/f{li6«o k|ltikwf{ u/fP/ – lqz'nL / a'9Lu08sL gbLdf lgdf{0f
af/]df hfgsf/L kfpg'sf ;fy} To:tf /fv]/ &% xhf/ w/f}6Ldf 5fl8Psf] lyof] . lgdf{0fdf Psfw jif{ klxn] g} hfg' kg]d{ f ug{ ;lsg] hnljB't cfof]hgfx?sf] lgjf{rg alxisf/ cfGbf]ngdf ;+nUg
nfdfnfO{ r/d zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s d"n cfklQ xf] . ;/sf/sf] of] lg0f{on] g] k fn sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ s f g] t f
k|ljlwdf b]vfkg]{ ;d:of Pj+ r'gf}tLx?sf] g]kfnLx?sf] uj{ ug{ kfpg] efjgfdf ;f] gu/L OkL;LPkmdf hfg' eg]sf] ;do klxrfg, ljsf; / Joj:yfkgsf] sfd
af/]df ;d]t hfgsf/L xfl;n ug]5 { g\ \ . oftgf ;d]t lbOPsf] lyof] . To:t} sl/a / k};fsf] gf; ug{' afx]s s]xL xf]Og . ug] { . sfo{stf{x?nfO{ 7"nf] ;+Vofdf w/ks8
* 306fsf] lx/f;t /vfO{kl5 ds/ 7]; k'us ] f] 7x/ xfd|f] kf6L{sf] /x]sf] 5 . ug],{ oftgf lbg], h]n rnfg ug]{ / d'2f
sf7df8f}Fdf cfof]hgf x'g] ;f] ^= unt k|lqmof tyf unt a? ca of] cfof]hgfsf] nfut c? -v_ a'9Lu08sL sf]l/8f]/ ko{6g
sfo{qmd cGtu{t klxnf] tLg lbg u'?ªnfO{ 5fl8Psf] lyof] . cGonfO{ Ps a9fpg] k|k~r x'g;S5 . o;k|lt xfd|f] ljsf; lgb]z { gfno nufpg] h:tf u} / nf] s tflGqs
xhf/, b'O{ xhf/, !) xhf/ ?k}ofF lnO{ ghL/ M of] ;dembf/L lgDg sf/0fx¿n] lqmofsnfk eO/x]sf ;dfrf/x? k|fKt
k|fljlws ljifo j:t'x? ;dfj]z ul/Psf] unt 5 / o;n] b"/ufdL k|sl[ tsf] uDeL/ ljdlt 5 . – pQ/–blIf0f Pj+ dWo kxf8L
sfo{zfnf uf]i7L x'g5] eg] rf}yf] tyf 5fl8Psf] lyof] . 5'6g\ x] ?df sfo{stf{bl] v u_ hnljB't cfof]hgf ljsf;sf nf]sdfu{x?sf sf/0fn] kf]v/f, lrtjg, eO/x]sf 5g\ \ . o;af/] xfd|f] kf6L{sf]
s]Gb|Lo ;b:o gf/fo0f dxh{g /x]sf 5g\ \ . unt ghL/ a;fNg]5 M uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] 5 . ;+;bLo
clGtd lbg;Dd]ng cfof]hgf ul/g] 5 . s_ klxnf], olt 7"nf] nfutsf] ljleGg df]8n ] x¿ 5g\ \ . k|fO{e6] sDkgL, sf7df8f},F dgfË, d':tfË, d'lQmgfy, 8f]Nkf,
sfo{zfnf uf]li7 xf]6n oNnf] Kofuf]8fdf cGo cleglGbt x'gx] ?df ds/gf/fo0f ;fj{hlgs sDkgL, kLkLkL -;fj{hlgs- h'Dnf, vKt8 h:tf d'n'ssf cGo lgjf{rgx?df efu lng' tyf pkof]u
>]i7, ds/ u'?ª, ;'/z ] nfdf, gljg cfof]hgf ljgf k|ltikwf{ lbg' unt ug{' h:t} alxisf/ ug{' klg nf]stflGqs
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