Chemosphere 91 (2013) 838–843

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Chemosphere
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Dioxins and furans releases in Iranian mineral industries
E. Rezaei a, A. Farahani a, A. Buekens b, T. Chen b, S.Y. Lu b,⇑, M. Habibinejad a, F. Damercheli a,
S.H. Andalib Moghadam a, M. Gandomkar a, A. Bahmani a
a
Department of Environment, Iran Mineral Processing Research Center, Karaj, Iran
b
State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

h i g h l i g h t s

" Emissions of PCDD/Fs of Iranian mineral industries were investigated and estimated.
" PCDD/Fs emissions from eight major metallurgical and cement plants were estimated.
" Samples from steel plant and cement plant were analysed for PCDD/Fs.
" The dioxins loads of the tested samples are unusually low.
" The result can confirm the necessity and feasibility of sampling gaseous effluents.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this project, emissions of Poly-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzo-Furans (PCDD/Fs) were
Received 6 June 2012 investigated and estimated for selected Iranian mining and ore processing industries, such as integrated
Received in revised form 20 December 2012 iron & steel plant, primary production of aluminium and copper metal, and the production of cement. As
Accepted 16 January 2013
a first step of this study the annual emission of PCDD/Fs was estimated at 120 g TEQ annum1 on the base
Available online 13 March 2013
of the UNEP standardised Toolkit for identification and quantification of dioxin and furan releases. Steel
and cement were identified as major emission sources and earmarked for further scrutiny. For that rea-
Keywords:
son, filter dust arising in these plants was sampled and analysed, as well as all raw materials employed.
Cement
Dioxins
After extraction and clean-up according to standard methods, the resulting liquid samples were analysed
Direct reduction and quantified by HRGC–HRMS. Complementary analyses using methods such as XRF, TGA/DTA were
Integrated iron & steel production performed and the emission results statistically evaluated, in order to put PCDD/F emissions in perspec-
Primary aluminium and copper production tive. It is concluded that the dioxins load of cement dust is unusually low, following the low carbon in raw
UNEP Toolkit materials, the use of natural gas as a fuel and the absence of waste incineration. Also the production of
iron by direct reduction of ore is a low dioxins process; dioxin loads in dust are as usual – correlated with
the presence of catalytic metals. Loss on ignition and chlorine are anti-correlated with the main earth ele-
ments and with sulphur oxides.
Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Dioxins show low vapour pressure, very low water solubility,
high octanol/water partition coefficients; they adsorb strongly to
Poly-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzo-Furans particles and surfaces and are resistant to degradation under envi-
(PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins, form a generic group of 75 PCDD cong- ronmental conditions. Their inherent stability, persistence in the
eners and 135 PCDF congeners (chlorination level P = 1–8). Cong- environment and high fat solubility results in lipophilic bio-con-
eners containing up to three chlorine atoms are considered of centration and accumulation in the food chain. Almost all individ-
little toxicological significance. Congeners with chlorine atoms ual PCDD and PCDF congeners have been identified in emissions
substituted in the lateral 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions of the aromatic from thermal and industrial processes and as a consequence are
rings, however, create substantial health and environmental haz- found in environmental matrices such as soil, sediment, plants,
ards. Increasing the substitution level from four to eight chlorine air and water, although their low aqueous solubility also means
atoms markedly decreases dioxins potency, as expressed in Toxico- that they are largely immobile in soils and can hardly be detected
logical Equivalence or TEQ units (WHO, 1998). in water. Dioxins are trace contaminants in a number of chemical
products, e.g. those derived from chlorophenols. They are uninten-
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 571 87952628; fax: +86 571 87952438. tionally formed in most thermal, metallurgical and combustion
E-mail address: lushy@zju.edu.cn (S.Y. Lu).
processes, mainly between 250 and 450 °C.

0045-6535/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.01.064

8-HxCDF 7.3.8.5 pg g1).7.2. clean-up and analysis tions have been identified: primary iron & steel production.3.8-HpCDF 1. Samples were nization.2 0.8 0. N. air. the level of dioxins concentration is used as cri. eluding 2.2. identified after analysis of flow-sheets related (ESP) or fabric filter (FF) operating at a temperature above to the relevant production and off-gas cleaning plant. others are distributed over several sites. flue gas treatment with Electrostatic Precipitator sampling locations.6 N. 200 °C.D.1 7. 0.8 7.9-HxCDF 3.2. Thus.0 1. Therefore.000 tonnes of clinker) was estimated at low gas load.3 the annual emissions of PCDD/Fs from Iranian mining 1. equations proposed in the Toolkit.7 and quantification of dioxin and furan releases to estimate 1.7. i.1 2.e.4.1.3. Materials and methods 1. class 3.D.4.7. 2008). of the National Inventory (UNEP.5 8.8.1 Sum I-TEQ. sub- The extraction procedure follows Method 1613 (US EPA.8-HxCDF 9. Sample pre-treatment. The plants were categorised in two major groups of the UNEP Toolkit. 2.4 2. 2007) to avoid category 2-c. N.2.2 9.1 7.6. sub- 2.54 1.7 4. sub- sub-ambient temperature (<4 °C)(Kudlak et al. chosen for different compartments (i.8-HxCDD N.3.2. Dust analysis alone is insuf- ficient to characterise these outputs (the finest dust.7.3 1. Results and discussions naires were prepared and dispatched to the plant operators.3.8-PeCDD N.6.3 industries. Paper study 1.4.7. 0. Nether- Table 1 already allow appreciating the gravity of emissions land) and TGA/DTA (STA 409 PC.4. and continuous steel coil galva- prepared according to standard method EN-1948. Japan).6 N. The parti.3.8. but the values given in Different methods such as XRF (PhilipsAnalytical V.1 9.3. (no air mass spectrometer (JEOL.8-PeCDF 5.D.1 1.7.9-HpCDF 0. water. 3.2.7. pollution control systems).3 5.2 This study was accomplished in two parts: 1. it is plausible that low dust load corresponds with 1. USA) and coupled to a JMS-800D subcategory 2-c (Galvanization part). lime production.4.3.7.7.B. land. Class 2.. 4.2. Some of these activities are unique.. 6.000 tons of lime per year.D. Still. PCB) into the solvent and removing the bulk of sample matrices.5 5. the charge of scrap.D.D.9 1.1 1. (B) In an integrated iron & steel company the following opera- 2. (due to the additionas coolant to losses or prevent contamination.2.1 9.8-HpCDD 1. and analysis of tetra-to octa-chlorinated dioxins and furans N.3.8 10. 2.3.1 9. Class 1. products. N.5 15.5 7. 1.6 0.4 2.6.6 0. production of information gathered from aforementioned questionnaires. scribed. Other characterisation methods collection.2. thus.  (B2) lime production. information from selected industrial Iranian Table 1 plants is presented and analysed to investigate both the necessity PCDD/Fs distribution (% of total TEQ) and total concentration (pg I-TEQ g1 dust) in direct reduction steel plant samples. 1997). The analysis was conducted by HRGC/HRMS on a 6890 Ser. possibly contaminated with Sample extraction allows transferring the analytes (PCDD/F or chlorides).3.9 4. then closed using PTFE-lined were identified: screw-caps seals and transferred to the laboratory and stored at  (B1) Steel production. and feasibility of further sampling the actual gaseous effluents.4.5 N. E. Sampling category a of the UNEP Toolkit. 200. characterise the crude samples and investigate the influence of further treated anonymously.e. Rotary Kiln clinker pro- In this study dust samples were seized after selecting suitable duction. Germany) were used to and the location of the most important sources of dioxins.e.6 3. and (b) of cement (natural gas-fired. the results from this study can be evaluated against those 1. the following plant classes and subcategories put in cleaned amber glass bottles. All sample bottles were cleaned thoroughly before using and foundries. .8-TCDD N..7.000 t/a.1 48. from this type of plant (annual production capacity of known. / Chemosphere 91 (2013) 838–843 839 In this study.4 OCDD 0. composition and thermal treatment on the selected samples.2 4.D.8 62. Then.8 10.2.3.7.8-TCDF 6. and 1994b). The scope of activities of the Iran Mineral Processing Research according to the criteria presented in the Toolkit and detailed Center comprehends: integrated iron & steel plant.4.8 were taken at appropriate locations of selected plants.0 2.1.6.8-HxCDD N.D.7 0.050.2.D. as primary production (a) of ferrous and nonferrous metals. was performed on the most relevant samples from cement and steel plant by HRGC/HRMS.3 1. ies gas chromatograph (Agilent. (production capacities supplied from the answers to our detailed questionnaires): 2.6. Class 1. Netzsch. First evaluation by using the UNEP Toolkit i.3.8 M tons of steel per year.8-HxCDF 9.63 g TEQ annum1 (for the air compartment) based on terion for identifying the locations that need further scrutiny.9 1. Further analysis leads to and residues) (EN 1948-2. Rezaei et al. the annual release of dioxins and furans tioning of dioxins between gas phase and particulates is still un. no waste co-firing). dust samples Total I-TEQ. 5.  (B3) Continuous coil galvanization plant. 0.0 43.7 N.D. % TEQ 100 100 100 100 (2) Next.2.7.9 3.7. sub- cement.2. (application of fabric filter). category 4-b.2.0 2.3 5.4 1.3.9 2. primary aluminium and primary cop- categories as well as applicable PCDD/Fs emission factors were per metal (no scrap feeding).3.23 53.9 2.8-PeCDF 50.9-HxCDD 4.2.4 (1) Applying the UNEP standardised Toolkit for identification 2. The project is conducted within the frame of the Stockholm Convention Congeners A B C D on Principal Organic Pollutants (POPs) to which Iran has sub.0 1.2.7.1 0. = below the detection limit (estimated at 0.8 6.1.7. pg g1 1. might carry a higher load). Experimental work (A) Cement industry is classified here as category 4.3. 1994a. First eight major industrial plants were selected within our scope of mining related industries and then the Toolkit question- 3. OCDF 0. 11.D. The results will be interpreted in a dedicated paper.D. the flow sheet of all plants was studied. 270.4 0. metallurgical cokes.

As a result the data presented in the Toolkit are approxi- ferred to refining and cleaning. Class 1 (due ium probably remain negligible as sources of direct dioxins emis- to absence of any kind of air pollution control system). a significant potential source. According to the Toolkit equations the analytical approach in estimating emissions. except for its lime production unit. for that reason this plant or less in technical and environmental samples. seems determining. as well plant: as establishing priorities for further work. whereas other was selected for further analysis.7 kt of cokes. Rezaei et al. and intensity of maintenance activities. effects of feed impurities. sions at the stage of primary production. ium production. The highest releases of PCDD/Fs to the air caution regarding some data. due to their scarcity.2.. respectively. incomplete and at times lacking an appropriately detailed subcategory 2-b. This novel technology remains entirely absent in the Toolkit in par. loosely related to the basic process.  (C2) Lime production plant with a capacity of and cokes production third. classified as Class 2 in mate.840 E. were 0. According to the results  (C1) Alumina from primary bauxite ores with a produc. with annual production of 265. The two and the residues (wastes) for the selected plants were estimated integrated iron & steel plants use distinct production processes: at ca.08 In metallurgical coking plant the level of diffuse emissions and 0. 2003). major. e. Nevertheless and despite these deficiencies the UNEP Toolkit al- lowing classes and subcategories were selected for this lows preparing convincing order-of-magnitude estimates. the latter is directly related to the frequency (C) The UNEP Toolkit yields no figures for primary alumin. Dioxins concentrations are expressed in parts per trillion (ppt) ticular or in dioxins literature at large. / Chemosphere 91 (2013) 838–843 Fig. sions remain low.2 kt annum1 of lime. whereas primary copper and alumin- 115. The latter are rele- In fact. Chemical analysis and de novo testing reduction of iron ore by steam reformer synthesis gas to pellets. suppression. vant. the UNEP Toolkit does not cover mining operations (e.g. the elder employs ore reduction in conventional blast furnace plant as foreseen in the Toolkit.g. under O2 atmosphere in a de novo test. as well as somewhat unpredictable sources of dioxins the use of explosives for blasting) and it even expresses explicit (Stieglitz et al. Fol. local recycling of scrap or alloying considered. 77 and 112 g TEQ per year. relevant. subcategory 4-b. According to the UNEP Toolkit annual releases of dioxins and A similar situation arises for primary aluminium and copper furans are estimated at 48 g TEQ annum1 and 72 g TEQ annum1 production: no detailed data is available and presumably emis- for the compartments air and residues. TGA/DTA graph of sample C. yet the newer plant practices direct 3. 1. and abatement techniques. and barely  (B4) Coking chamber plant with the resulting gas trans.16 g TEQ annum1 for air and water. cement production ranking second. subcategory 2-e Class 7.15 g TEQ annum1. organics are determined in parts per million (ppm) or parts per bil- . Note that there is no Emissions of PCDD/F to air amount to 1. respectively. obtained by this Toolkit exercise the iron & steel sector emerged as tion of 280 kt annum1. in describing the annual releases of dioxins and furans from this plant. respectively.

63 1.7. these findings.0 OCDF 0.0 0.8-HxCDF 6.1 1.7.4.77).9 0.98).5 3.7.0 0.6. Figs.6 1.97).46 1.49 10. TGA/DTA of sample C is showed in Fig. rials (50 g samples each) and of filter dust (each filter in the plant)  Weak negative correlation: SiO2 (0.8. Rezaei et al.55 0.0 0.6 8. The two others carry an almost negligible TEQ and the results are presented in the following Tables 1 and 4.64).95 2.7.62).36 0.8-PeCDD 0.4.8-TCDF 14.9-HpCDF 0. e.6.0 0. high resolution gas chromatogra. E. Al2O3 were secured. 3 and 5.8 0.0 0.3.9 3.27 1.1 3.2. other analyses.0 0.0 0.8-HpCDF 1. iron & steel plant and in cement plant. and Mn (0.3.81).6 5. sion results were statistically evaluated and respectively shown in The graphs showing TEQ as a function of copper (Fig. tween these variables.6 0.6 3.6.7 0.54 7.6 52.4.0 0.2.5 4. been statistically correlated with the various composition parame- phy–HRGC) with detection level in the ppt range is used to ters.2. (0.84 0.8. Ca (0.3 2.06). cises in metallurgical systems: nal standards (EN 1948-1. The concentrations of dioxins and Polycyclic Aromatic and Ti (0.6 1.0 2. following results are quite in line with other prior and similar exer- resolution mass detector (HRMS) requires the use of labelled inter.9 1.57 38.15 1.I.3 1.0 0.84 14.8-HpCDD 0.9-HxCDF 3.8.8-TCDD 0. ICP-OES and TGA/DTA were point of dioxins generation.0 0.5 2.3.7.7.7. Quantification by a high.0 1.21 4.5 1.44 1.  Strong correlation (r2): Cu. suitable sampling locations were identified in  Weak correlation: K (0.1 2.18 1.3.8 3.23 C 9.7.4 1. / Chemosphere 91 (2013) 838–843 841 Table 2 XRF results for direct reduction steel plant samples.2 1.3 2.7 1.  No correlation: Cr (0.0 0.7 2. Conversely.54 16.9 8.69 0. it seems worthwhile briefly describing performed.37 0.92 9. and P2O5 (0.O. load.38 5.2. Zn (0.0 0.1 1.1 8.14 29.37 L.1 50.0 3.55).0 0.49 0.6.4. In or.28 3. Capacity and temperature bolic relationship between TEQ and MgO or SO3.4 0.9 5.4. tested.59 46.4 1.2 2. = loss on ignition.0 0. 2a) or the below Tables 2.7.9 10.0 0.6 4.28 0.32 0.7 2.0 Total I-TEQ.6 3.7.0 1. % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total I-TEQ.1 0.4.2 6.9 6.87 0.2 0.2 1. Buekens et al. respectively.48 1.7. highly sensi. rather than the D 315 450 51 154 conventional blast furnace process: natural gas is first converted by steam reforming into reducing gas that in turn directly reduces lion (ppb).44 D 9.25 0.98 . Since direct reduction has never been described from a view- yses using methods such as XRF.0 0.0 0.3. 1997).2.83). the various plants.66 0.3. and Na (0.0 0.0 0.65 6.1 1.O.3 B 2. The propensity of these dust samples to form dioxins (0. pg TEQ g1 1. Table 3 of this bin were 150 m3 and 110 °C. The bin is emp- ICP–OES results for direct reduction steel plant samples. Table 4 PCDD/Fs distribution (% of total TEQ) and total concentration (pg I-TEQ g1 dust) in the samples of cement factory.8 8.g.57 1.0 0.0 0.31 1.9-HxCDD 6.15 0.9 1.47 5. tied once every 8 h. der to put PCDD/F emissions in perspective.3. Congeners Sample from various cement plants A B C D E F G 2.7 8. enrichment using efficient extraction methods and highly selective Concentration and fingerprints have been confronted with purification/fractionation techniques.6 49.8-PeCDF 3.1 1.0 8.7 7. After joint study of the relevant flow sheets and inspection of  Some correlation (r2): Cl. L.2.9 0.1 8.6 7. Ni (>0.0 0. 2b and 2c suggest a hyper- nated dust sample (Dust collection Bin). Results show that the largest contribution in Sample (ppm) Cr Cu Ni V all samples (43–62%) is due to 2. Furthermore.71).6 4.3.37 30.6 0.2.3 38.5 4. In absolute value A 559 265 51 156 the load is relatively low.7 20.59 6.1 6.6 0.6 5. and V (0.8-HxCDF 9.6.2.16 2.64 0.7. 1 and the emis.93).8).2 0.8-PeCDF 46.1 2.0 1.2.3. complementary anal.0 0.2.3. Fe2O3. (2001) The TEQ-values have also tive separation equipment (e.7.3.0 5.1 9.93 4.4 0.0 0.67 0.69).0 3.1 45.6 2.0 0.0 1.g.7. by the de novo route (low temperature carbon oxidation) was  Negative correlation: SO3 (0.0 0.O.3.0 0.3.21 2. chlorine (not shown) suggest an at least linear relationship be- HRGS/HRMS analysis shows sample C to be the most contami. Samples of their raw mate.78).2.0 OCDD 0.4 1.4. Sample (%) L.5 9.0 6.0 0.7.I. Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed at Zhejiang University accord.7. Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P2O5 SO3 K2O CaO TiO2 MnO Fe2O3 ZnO Cl A 1. compared to the sinter route.I.8-PeCDF.4 42.2 5.31 2.68).95 0.3.0 0. Mg (0.4 3.0 7.4 54.29 2.8-HxCDD 0.5 1.3 6. C 379 640 58 169 This iron & steel plant applies direct reduction.4.53 44.4 9. Even though the direct reduction data set is rather small the isolate and separate dioxin congeners.0 1.6 5.3. The two more heavily loaded samples are internally strongly ing to the EPA-8290 method to quantify PCDD/Fs concentrations correlated (0.3.0 8. Further B 169 271 50 150 study work is on-going.86).0 0.94 12.8-HxCDD 0. The ultra-trace analysis of dioxins requires sample iron ore into iron pellets.8-HxCDF 7.

3 4.35 4.1 3.36 4.2 2.3.4 4. ranging production.98 ng g1 PCDF.96). the cement sector and even the integrated iron & 60 steel plant (direct reduction) are rather small sources of dioxins. TEQ plotted as a function of the amount of sulphur (in ppm. TD the total dust exposure concentra- tion (mg m3).7 64.47 2.98 18.6 pg TEQ g1.38 2.06 2.6 4.28 19.9503 50 50 40 40 I-TEQ (pg TEQ/g) I-TEQ (pg TEQ/g) 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 The amount of Cu.1 0.87 0. Estimates were generated for integrated iron & steel (r2 = 0.5 0. 2b. 50 Also.26 2.1349x . TiO2 (0. / Chemosphere 91 (2013) 838–843 Table 5 XRF results for cement samples.5 0.5 0. analysed as MgO) in the dust samples.8-TCDD.3 0. TEQ plotted as a function of the amount of copper (in ppm) in the dust Fig.97 19. 2.09 F0 1.1 0. The UNEP Toolkit does the main factors affecting the formation of dioxins.24 4.3 0.2 0.33 4. 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 for periodic maintenance). or for direct reduction as an innovative method for steel In cement samples the dioxins load is unusually low.3 0.0 1.07 1.83 0. between 1 and 2. Apparently.09 60 y=0.6 0.2 3. industries. Fig. 4. This is even lower than typical The dioxins emissions from eight major metallurgical and ce- house dust values. lurgical processes potentially represent a serious source of PCDD Lime and sulphur both suppress the formation of PCDD/Fs. the cement sector. only exceptions being Sr Industries.4 ng g1 ment plants were estimated.7. The and PCDF emissions.24 2.62 67.36.95 0.28 4.9 0.25 16.36 5.22 3.21 19. as well as tion is ascribed to the conjunction of very low TEQ-values and primary aluminium and copper production.13 0. BW the body weight (kg).07 2.73 63.57).9 0. 2a. SO3) in the dust samples. not present emission values either for the latter two primary metal lysts (volatile metals).36 0.1 D0 0. 2c. and PF is The amount of MgO . % the protection factor.9 0. Sample/% Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P2O5 SO3 K2O CaO TiO2 MnO Fe2O3 ZnO Cl SrO 0 A 1. TEQ plotted as a function of the amount of magnesium (in wt. for sampling dust at all accessible process locations and for .32 68. yet no de novo formation activity.72). N the number of times annum1 (200 for daily operation.08 E0 6.22 2.09 B0 0. (2003) cite values of 0.92 0. always remains below D. ppm The amount of SO3 . analysed as samples.09 1.4 0. Both ferrous and non-ferrous metal- PCDD and 0.26 0. D the dioxin concentration in dust (ng TEQ g1).0 1. Steel plant and cement plant were selected most toxic congener. W the working duration (h/ once).09 0. such as cata.83 0.841 60 R2=0.78 0. and halogens.4 0. R 0 the respiratory ventilation (m3 h1).3 0.09 C0 0.842 E.36 0.22 0. especially in these samples from Iranian industry.7 0. plant (cokes production included). Stieglitz et al.2 3. the emissions of PCDD/Fs by these plants in Iran are lower than permitted levels and TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) for people in 40 the most polluted point in steel plant is: I-TEQ (pg TEQ/g) DI ¼ TD  D  R  W  N=365=BW=PF 30 1 ¼ 100 mg m3  53 pg g1  1 m3 h  4  250  103 =356=60 20 1 1 ¼ 0:28 pg kg d 10 where DI is the dioxin intake.43 2.5 0.75 65. Rezaei et al.08 2.%. Fe2O3 (0. Conclusions This study refers to the application of the UNEP Toolkit to the In the case of cement there are only very few variables showing relevant factories operating for the Iranian Mines and Mining any correlation at all with TEQ.37 66.94 17.6 0.4 2.09 G0 0. ppm Fig.63 60.48 19.12 1. organics. This absence of correla.08 1.34 3.L.

Y. Authors thank the Iranian Mines and Mining Industries Devel- opment and Renovation (IMIDRO) for financially supporting this work. determination of the mass thesis) and analysed for dioxins and furans. / Chemosphere 91 (2013) 838–843 843 analysis of the related PCDD and PCDF emissions. Chin. All samples were physically and chem. Part1: Sampling. Polzer. 245–262. Soc.D. Sampling in the steel plant was conducted while Review of the sampling and pretreatment methods for dioxins determination in solids.. Chem. ically characterised (test results will be published elsewhere).. 1997. Wilhelm. Hell. A. the dust surface. 2008. K. 1–48. concentration of PCDD/Fs. 54. 729–735.. Method 1613. tested by TGA/DTA for establishing the extent of catalytic carbon EN1948-1. US EPA Press.O. Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and Acknowledgements Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by High-Resolution Gas Chromatograph/High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS).. Rezaei et al. Dioxins from thermal and metallurgical processes: recent studies for the iron and steel industry. E. Jay. X. the formation of polychlorodibenzodioxins/-furans and of other organochlorine er.M. X.28 pg kg1 d1. determination of the mass oxidation activity at low temperature (responsible for de novo syn. UNEP. concentration of PCDD/Fs. K. intentionally polluted scrap was charged (worst case conditions). L. National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on luted point in steel plant is 0.. Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA lower than permitted levels and TDI for people in the most pol. 2001.. 1994b.. E. Huang. 2003. Iran. Tehran.. Stieglitz. Donga. Shibata. Buekens. EN1948-2. Nakamura. Bueekens. on-going. As a consequence the emissions of PCDD/F from these plants are compounds in thermal industrial process... Part 2: Extraction and clean up. Lia. US EPA. Revision B: Tetra – through Octa-Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope Dilution HRGC/HRMS. Method 8290. . US EPA. L. A. liquids and gases. P. Segers. Chemosphere 42. Washington. J. K. Dust samples were analysed because PCDD/Fs mainly attach to Kudlak. DC.. References ken from cement plant and also in an integrated iron & steel plant practising direct reduction.. T.. Yua. Hell.. Samples were ta.. 1997.W. These studies are still Persistent Organic Pollutants. Stationary source emission. Stationary source emission. Investigation of so that in normal condition this emission is presumably much low. H. Stieglitz. S. 1994a.. J. J. 2007.. 6867.