ANALYSIS OF PREDOMINANCE OF PHYSICAL

PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOMETRIC
PSYCOLOGICAL AND OVERALL
PLAYING ABILITY AMONG
WOMEN BASKET BALL
PLAYERS

An Abstract of the Thesis submitted to the Bharathiar University, Coimbatore
in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the award of the Degree of

DOCTOR OFPHILOSOPHY
IN
PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Submitted by
M. SATHYA

Under the guidance of
Dr. A. MAHABOOBJAN, Ph.D.,

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY
COIMBATORE - 641 046
MAY 2017

2

INTRODUCTION

Sport has a very prominent role in modern society. It is

important to an individual or a group or a nation-indeed the whole

world. Sport has ever reflected developments in society. Sport, indeed

has been a mirror of society. Sport is an institutionalized competitive

activity that involves vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively

complex physical skills by individuals whose participation is

motivated by a combination of the intrinsic satisfaction associated

with the activity itself and external reward earned through

participation.

Sports have great importance in human life. In this present

day, not much importance was given to sports in the country. But,

now it was realized that sports are very useful. So, every educational

institution of the country provides sports for all. As a matter of fact,

sports are necessary part of education. Sports teach many qualities

for the students. When they take part in sports, they have to obey

some rules. So, sports teach discipline, which is very useful in practical

life.

Modern world is the outcome of many scientific inventions

through centuries. Scientific instruments and machinery have helped

to lead the daily life with ease and comfort. The modern man depends

mostly upon the scientific equipment for his daily routine, involving

3 mainly his mental powers to have a comfortable life. Over the years this versatile game is played all over the world. Training has been explained as a programme of exercise designed to improve the skills and increase the energy capacities of an athletes for particular event Basketball game is played all over the world. Silence court games often involve of a vigorous rate a high level . Physical education is an integral part of education aims at all round development of man. Over the years this versatile game has established an important is due to its physical and educational values as well as to its tremendous dynamics. mind and spirit. stopping. resulting in fall and deterioration in his physical health and capacity. maneuverability and total body agility in order to gain good court position and compete with one’s opponent on both offensive and defensive maneuvers. It is education through physical activities for the development of the total personality of the child of its fitness and perfection in body. Fast starting. dodging darting and acceleration are the fundamental requirements of a good court play. It requires a high degrees of running. Court games are unique in the same that they are played in the relatively small area and involve the handling of a hall or similar object and often an implement.

. rebounding inducing faking and fainting. Basketball is a game of movements. lay-up shooting. It is identified that present basketball players perform mainly the movements such as quick starting. The physical fitness should be developed and late an combined with the skill which will giver way to achieve a good sport form. 4 anaerobic endurance and also good jumping ability is of great importance. sudden accumulation of speed quick jumping and shutting with an without ball. Some body once said “when the going got tough the tough get going to avoid a breakdown of still like missing on easy shot. All the competitive level basketball demands a high level of technical and tactical skills and attributes of speed. receiving. The decrease or increase in any component of physical fitness can affect the motor co- ordination. dribbling. throwing a bad pass or loosing opponent competition game conditions. strength endurance and mobility. The attraction of the basketball game lies in the fact that it is fast moving and played on small court. The highly skillful in basketball fundamental technique are various passes. change of direction. sudden stopping.

The field consisted of two areas marked by different colors and separated by a groove.000 years ago in the ball game houses of the middle ages. Basketball is a tremendously popular spectator sport. There were stone rings in the walls at the narrow ends through which a rubber ball had to be pushed either with the shoulder. 2. . Some of the reasons for the game’s growth include the following. 1. The nature of the game keeps people involved. particularly on television. Today basketball is the fastest growing sport in the world. The old civilized nations of Central America. or the knee. and later among the inhabitants of Florida a game was played where wicket baskets attached to high pots had to be hit. According to documents by scientist’s writers and historians. Also with the Normans in Brittany and Normandy some 1. although basketball was inverted as an indoor sport. mayas and Incas. used to play a game which can be regarded as the force – runner of present day basketball. 5 The basic of basketball throwing at an elevated target is very old. it is now played indoors and outdoors in all seasons. 3. the hytects. Basketball is for everyone.

it can be easily modified. if not impossible. performance analysis is now acknowledged as an aid to performance enhancement at all levels. especially team games. Basketball competition is unique because. . S 1998). Essentially. 6 4. a confined space and your imagination to provide a competitive game like experience that other sports simply cannot match. Yet analysis based on accurate observation and recall is a key tool for improving future performance. 5. until other sports. it is difficult. Basketball can be played alone all you need is ball a basket. equipped only with their knowledge of the sport in question and their innate powers of observation (Coleman. Basketball is growing rapidly outside the United States and international competition is creating even greater excitement and participation in the sport. In any sporting situation. for coaches to notice and remember all the key events occurring within a training session or match. That’s where the relatively new discipline of performance analysis comes in. Performance Analysis is about creating a valid and reliable record of performance by means of systematic observations that can be analysed with a view to facilitating change. Established over the last decade and facilitated by advances in IT and digital photography. 6.

leading to wrong decisions. even with special training in observation. with coaches able to recall only 30-50% of key performance factors they had witnessed. 7 The process relies on two distinct sports science disciplines:  notational/match analysis. Although many great coaches are able to anticipate events and make appropriate changes to influence performance.  biomechanics. The fact is. that while coaches are expected to be experts at observing and analyzing performance. though. Coaches may want to question the need for performance analysis as a separate activity. given that observation and analysis clearly form a crucial part of the coaching process. hence the . The coaching process itself is not necessarily flawed. even the best are prone to human error. But the main thing they have in common is the use of measured observation during or after an event to quantify performance in an accurate. which uses means to record aspects of team performance. which revolves around the sporting impact of body movements. research has pointed to severe human limitations within these processes. but it is obvious that the observation and analysis phases of this process have severe limitations. The two disciplines use similar methods to collect data and both rely on latest techniques for data analysis. reliable and valid way. Studies have highlighted memory retention problems.

if striker A . making the whole process of performance analysis simpler and less arduous. using valid and reliable performance data to monitor and evaluate performers. (3) physiological indicators (intensity profiles). But it is important to be careful over how the data is presented since. motivation). so providing a better understanding of how success can be achieved at all levels of performance. This process can be used to identify and measure a range of ‘performance indicators’ that have a real bearing on the outcome of any given sport. 8 need for a systematic Performance analysis approach within coaching practice. and (4) psychological indicators (arousal. However. leading to potentially incorrect substitution decisions or training prescriptions. Without such an approach. digital cameras and analysis software. if two football strikers have each scored four goals over four games. coaches are liable to form biased opinions of their athletes’ or players’ performances. in isolation. Indicators provide simple information that can be used to describe and define a particular performance. Technological advances and declining costs have given coaches access to laptop computers. these can give a distorted impression of performance. (2) technical indicators (technique/performance). These include: (1) tactical indicators (patterns of play). For example. it would be easy to assume that both are performing well.

When a team wins. Considerable statistical research has been carried out especially over the last 20 years to discover if the way a team plays will affect its chance of winning that is a direct style of play. Currently most professional . The former requires a high degree of competency in coding a sporting situation. with video footage fed directly into a laptop and coded via the keyboard as events unfold within the training session or game. 9 has had 16 shots on goal to striker B’s eight shots. a game can rightly claim that the objective has been achieved. the result of influential previous research. with the advantage that the footage can be slowed down or reviewed more than once to ensure the observations are accurate. especially in basketball. With post-play coding. converting more shoots. its use by well respected individual within the sport and the development of affordable technology. Notational analysis is now widely used in other games. the video footage is again fed into a laptop and the information coded via the keyboard. There are two main methods of coding the observations made within a sporting situation: ‘live coding’ and post-play coding. the former’s success ratio is 4:1 compared with a much more impressive ratio of 2:1 for the latter. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Winning means scoring more goals than the opposition in ball games. In basketball there is a simple determinant of victory that is.

Little attention has been focused on the total skill and basic movement analysis of basketball players. training and studies. Permanent records by means of video-tape and film-recording facilitate a more detailed total skill analysis in football concerning the individual skill analysis. The right balance of tactics and techniques is the factor of success. Ideally the tactical task arisen in the course of the game must find the solution by the most suitable technical application. The content of basketball game is determined by the diversity of technical elements and the variety of tactical tasks. Video is an important tool for analysis. It has been therefore possible to obtain information about techniques or skill frequencies (dribbling. observe. the locomotion and tactical behaviour of players in matches. agility. reflect and check performance accurately. passing and shooting) in basketball. The researcher for the purpose of this research identified fifteen variables in relation with the game of basketball such as speed. . High quality video equipment and video image are taking fine gain analysis increasingly possible. explosive power. 10 basketball teams all over the world use some form of video feedback Video enable researchers and sports performers to share an understanding of performance. Video gives us a chance to record. leg endurance. In reality such accordance is met in much fewer cases than hoped. cardio respiratory endurance.

. which require further closer scrutiny for feedback. height. weight. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM It is well known fact that basketball is a complicated team game where the tactics has the important role to accomplish the tactical tasks which is tightly connected with the technical elements of the game. calf circumference. relationship and regression equation was found between playing ability and selected independent variables and in part II the difference was found among the teams who have qualified for the All India Inter University Basketball Tournament in South Zone Inter University Basketball Tournament on selected variables were discussed. The objectives of this research are. Thus. coaching and all round improvements in these factors. achievement motivation and playing ability. sports competition anxiety. 11 resting pulse rate. thigh circumference. In part I. arm length. anaerobic capacity. The mode of analysis of data on the selected independent variables and playing ability among the players of qualifying teams for the All India Inter University Basketball Tournament in the South Zone Inter University Basketball Tournament have been explained in this chapter in two parts. vital capacity. there are different factors associated with successful performance of basketball players.

leg endurance. (3) Kannur University. thigh circumference. agility. (2) Mahatma Gandhi University. 2. psychological variables namely speed. 12 The purpose of this study was to analyze the predominance of physical. explosive power. The subjects for this study was restricted to the four university teams. explosive power. resting pulse rate. leg endurance. Chennai. Vijayawada Campus during the academic year 2013- 2014. agility. calf circumference. cardio respiratory . DELIMITATIONS The research is delimited to the following aspects: 1. Kottayam. sports competition anxiety. physiological. Chennai. anthropometric. which qualified for the All India Inter University Basketball Tournament in the South zone Inter University Basketball Tournament held at Dr. achievement motivation and overall playing ability among women basketball players. arm length. Kannur and (4) SRM University. vital capacity. NTR University of Health Sciences. physiological. 3. The following factors namely physical. anaerobic capacity. cardio respiratory endurance. psychological variables namely speed. height. weight. anthropometric. The teams qualified for the All India Inter University Basketball Tournament in the South zone Inter University Basketball Tournament were: (1) University of Madras.

2. calf circumference. Changes in atmospheric temperature. geographical conditions. previous experience. The life style. anaerobic capacity. achievement motivation correlated with playing ability of South Zone Inter University Basketball players were selected as criterion variables. The subjective rating with three experts in the field of basketball were utilized the matches and graded the playing ability of the basketball players. day-to-day activities and mode of selection of team players were considered as limitations. The degree of difficulty varies from match to match. LIMITATIONS The following uncontrollable factors were considered as the limitations of this study: 1. arm length. 4. 3. . height. thigh circumference. and these variations were not taken into consideration. sports competition anxiety. weight. humidity and such other meteorological factors during the period of match could not be controlled and their possible influence on the selected variables was also regarded as limitation. vital capacity. resting pulse rate. 13 endurance.

agility. 14 4. fitness and skill levels of the players were not considered in this study. previous playing experience. motivation of the players. home ground advantages. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The present investigation has the following significant contribution to the field of physical education and competitive sports. It was hypothesized that the regression equation for the prediction of basketball playing ability in the South Zone Inter University Basketball Players includes selected namely speed. players and sports administrators to assess the winning capability of a team. The number of substitution made during the match. cardio respiratory endurance and height. 1. . mode of encouragement made by spectators were not taken into consideration. 2. The results of the study would be helpful for the coaches. It was hypothesized that there would be significant association between playing ability and selected criterion variables of South Zone Inter University Basketball players. HYPOTHESES For the purpose of this study. 5. Practice time. the following hypotheses were made: 1.

Kannur University. Kannur and SRM University. forty eight women basketball players who have represented the qualifying teams for the All India Inter University Women Basketball Tournament namely University of Madras. 5. Chennai in the South Zone Inter University Basketball Tournament held at Dr. Chennai. 3. NTR Health . The results of the study would be helpful for the coaches and players to plan their strategies against their opponents. The results of this study would highlight the status of different teams in performing the selected skills and would be helpful to improve the tactics and technical skills. To achieve this purpose of the study. Mahatma Gandhi University. 4. physiological. The research findings would pave way for further researches in this area which would in turn help the coaches and players to improve their performances. anthropometrical and psychological variables correlated with playing ability of South Zone Inter University women Basketball players. The results of this study would be helpful for the coaches and others to assess the strength and weakness of a particular team. 15 2. Kottaiyam. physical. METHODOLOGY SELECTION OF SUBJECTS The purpose of the present study was to analyze the predominant factors such as.

Kannur and SRM University. The age of the subjects were ranged between 18 to 25 years. Kottaiyam. Dependent Variables The performance of basketball has been regularly influenced to a great extent by skills. speed. SELECTION OF VARIABLES Independent Variables The qualifying teams for the All India Inter University Basketball Tournament namely University of Madras. strength and rudiments of game have been over emphasized to gain ball control in offense and defense at any level of competition. Each player is necessarily required to be continuously on the move over a certain period of time. power. Mahatma Gandhi University. . This puts a great deal of demand in terms of potential physical efforts on the part of each player on the playing court. agility. In the modern basketball game. Kannur University. 16 University. Chennai. Vijayawada Campus during the academic year 2013-2014 were randomly selected as subjects. Chennai in the South Zone Inter University Women Basketball Tournament were selected as an independent variables. physical ability. anthropometric variables and psychological variables.

agility. shooting against opponent and rhythmical display of all possible elements of the game are determining factors to win the game in one’s own favour. anaerobic capacity. The details of the test items were presented in Table I. height. The mastery over handling the ball. physical. anthropometric. leg endurance. agility. arm length. anthropometric. . psychological variables namely speed. Hence. explosive power. the following factors namely physical. physiological. resting pulse rate. thigh circumference. dribbling. physiological. vital capacity. achievement motivation and playing ability were selected as dependent variables for the study. weight. leg endurance. psychological variables namely speed. cardio respiratory endurance. vital capacity. The real achievement needs supreme proficiency level in all ingredients (skills) of the game. anaerobic capacity. calf circumference. arm length. weight. height. thigh circumference. calf circumference. cardio respiratory endurance. explosive power. achievement motivation correlated with playing ability of South Zone Inter University Women Basketball players. 17 In basketball dynamic physical adaptation patterns are of immense importance. SELECTION OF TESTS The purpose of the present study was to analyze the factors such as. resting pulse rate. . sports competition anxiety. sports competition anxiety. passing.

Weight Weighing Machine 12. Height Stadiometer 11. Kamlesh’s Achievement Motivation Test 16.L. 18 TABLE I SELECTION OF TESTS S. Vital Capacity Wet Spirometer 10. Radial Pulse Rate Anaerobic 8. Respiratory Cooper’s 9 min Run/Walk Test Endurance Resting Pulse 7. Speed 50 Mts Run 3. Margaria Kalamen Anaerobic Power Test Capacity 9. Variables Basketball 1. Agility Shuttle Run Cardio 6. Flexible Measuring Tape Circumference Calf 14. Criterion Test Items No. Subjective Rating playing ability 2. Motivation Questionnaire . Leg Endurance Half Squat Jump 5. Competition Questionnaire Anxiety Achievement M. Explosive Power Vertical Jump 4. Arm Length Flexible Measuring Tape Thigh 13. Flexible Measuring Tape Circumference Sports Rainer Marten’s Sports Competition Anxiety Test 15.

19 COLLECTION OF THE DATA The investigator administered the questionnaire and other tests to measure the criterion variables to forty eight women basketball players. Care was taken to see that the subjects answered the entire questions. Kottaiyam. To achieve this purpose of the study. Chennai . Kannur and SRM University. The purpose of the study was clearly explained. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND STATISTICAL PROCEDURES The random group design was used as experimental design in which forty eight women basketball players who have qualified for the All India Inter University Women Basketball Tournament in the South Zone Inter University Women Basketball Tournament held at Dr. NTR Health University. Vijaywada Campus during the academic year 2013- 2014 were selected as subjects. forty eight university women basketball players represented for University of Madras. Kannur University. The investigator explained the subjects about the uses of the question and meaning of each questions and how to fill the questionnaire. Mahatma Gandhi University. The investigator collected the data from the subjects before their matches during their rest time. The filled up questionnaires from respondents were collected after checking whether all the items were responded and using the scoring key the total scores obtained by each subjects were tabulated. Chennai.

Relationship and regression equation was found between playing ability and selected independent variables and in part II the difference was found among the University teams who qualified for the All India Inter University Women Basketball Tournament in the South Zone Inter University Women Basketball Tournament on selected variables were discussed. agility. All the subjects of four universities were tested on selected criterion variables by using the standardized test items. anaerobic capacity. thigh circumference. calf circumference. leg endurance. height. arm length. resting pulse rate. psychological variables namely speed. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis as explained below. 20 India in the year 2013 . vital capacity. cardio respiratory endurance. . explosive power. anthropometric.2014 were selected as subjects. sports competition anxiety. achievement motivation and playing ability were selected. physiological. Data were collected for the fourteen independent variables and playing ability with the qualified team players in the South Zone Inter University Women Basketball Tournament. The following physical. The mode of analysis of data on the selected independent variables and playing ability among the players of different universities who qualified for the All India Inter University Women Basketball Tournament in the South Zone Inter University Women Basketball Tournament have been explained. weight.

The rest variables were entered into the equation depending on the contribution of each predictor. The level of significance was set at . among the qualified teams for the All India Inter University Women Basketball Tournament in the South Zone Inter University Women Basketball Tournament for each criterion variable separately. which was considered as an appropriate for the present investigation. if any. the pearson product moment correlation was used. playing ability and sports .05 level of confidence. The results of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between playing ability and speed. playing ability and agility. And also the one way analysis of variance was used to find out the significant differences. playing ability and cardio respiratory endurance. Forward selection method of multiple regression was used in this study to find out the predictor variable which has the highest correlation with the criterion variables was entered into the equation first. playing ability and explosive power. 1. CONCLUSIONS From the analysis of the data. the following conclusions were drawn. 21 To determine the relationship between dependent variable and independent variables. The computation of multiple regression was also used to predict a criterion variable from a set of predictors.

playing ability and resting pulse rate. playing ability and weight. playing ability and height. An additional 5% of the variance in the playing ability is contributed by speed. playing ability and anaerobic capacity. 5. 2. 22 competition anxiety and playing ability and achievement motivation of the qualifying teams for the All India Inter University Basketball Tournament in South Zone Inter University Basketball tournament. About 90% of the variation in the playing ability was explained by the regression model with two predictors. speed and agility are the predominant variables in order of priority influencing the playing ability of All India Inter University Basketball players. 3. playing ability and thigh circumference and playing ability and calf circumference of the qualifying teams for the All India Inter University Basketball Tournament in South Zone Inter University Basketball tournament. About 85% of the variation in the playing ability was explained by the regression model with one predictor cardio respiratory endurance. playing ability and arm length. Among all the predictor variables Cardio Respiratory endurance. And also there was no significant relationship between playing ability and leg endurance. 4. cardio respiratory endurance and speed. .

M. calf circumference. arm length and thigh circumference. resting pulse rate. leg endurance. explosive power. The results of the study indicates that all the groups namely University of Madras. kannur University and SRM University basketball players had significant difference on the selected variables namely playing ability. . An additional 3% of the variance in the playing ability is contributed by agility. Kottayam. agility. 23 6. 7. cardio respiratory endurance. University. anaerobic capacity.G. vital capacity. It is also found from the results of the study that there was no significant difference among University of Madras. M. About 93% of the variation in the playing ability was explained by the regression model with three predictors. cardio respiratory endurance. height. 8. speed and agility. weight. Kottayam. University.G. kannur University and SRM University basketball players on speed. sports competition anxiety and achievement motivation.

speed and agility were the predictor variables. 2) Further studies may be conducted by extending anthropometrical and psychological variables. 1) It was found that among the qualifying teams for the All India Inter University Basketball Tournament in the South Zone Inter University Basketball Tournament cardio respiratory endurance. . it is recommended that the coaches may concentrate the above mentioned variables for the better playing ability in their teams. 4) Similar studies may be conducted to test the impact of training on hematological and bio chemical variables. 24 RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations were drawn from the results of the study. Hence. 3) Similar studies may be undertaken and its influences on some other psychological and physiological parameters may be assessed.