TE LE PATH Y

D

TH E S U BLI M I N A L S E LF

A N A C C O U N T O F R E C E N T I N VEST I G AT I ON S RE GA R D I N G

H Y P N OT I S M , A U TO M A T I S M , D R E A M S , P HA N TAS M S ,

A N D RE LAT ED PH EN O M EN A

BY

R . O S G OO D MASO N , A M . .
, M D . .

F el l ow f
o ti e N ew Y or k Ac a d e my f M
o ed i c i n e

.

N EW YO R K

H E N RY H OLT AN D COM PA N Y
1 897
P R E F A CE .

To whateve r it m ay lead u s there
c o n c lu s i o n s ,

is no m i s t a k i ng the fact that n ow more than ever
before i s the p u b li c i nterest ed i n m att ers relat i ng

t o the N ew P s y ch ol o gy .S carcely a day p asses
that not i ce o f som e u n u su al p s y c hi c a l experi ence
o r startlin g ph en o m enon d oes not appear i n
p opu lar literat u re The n ewspaper the magaz i ne
.
, ,

and the n ovel vie with each other i n thei r e fforts
t o excite i nt erest an d attract att ent io n by the d i s
play o f these st range in cidents p resented som e
,

t i mes with i nt elligen ce an d tast e b u t o ftener with
,

a culpabl e disregard o f both taste and t ruth .

The general reader is not yet c ritical regarding
these m att ers b u t he i s at l east i nterested an d
, ,

d esires t o know what can b e re l i ed u p on as estab
l i s h e d truth amongst these various reports . There
is inqu i ry con cerning Telep athy o r Tho u ght
Transference— is i t a fact or is it a del usi on ? H as
H yp notism any actu a l st anding either i n sci enc e
iii
iv P R EF A C E .

o r c omm o n sense P What o f Clai rvoyance ,

P lanchett e Tranc e and Trance u tt erances Crystal
, ,

G azing and A pparitions ?
I n the followi ng pap ers i ntellige nt readers both ,

i n and out o f the m edi cal professi on will fi nd ,

th ese su bj ect s fai rly stat ed an d disc ussed an d t o ,

some o f the qu est ions asked fai r and reasonabl e
,

answers given I t i s with the h ope of aidi ng
.

somewhat i n the e ffort s now bei ng mad e t o rescu e
from an u n certai n and u n reasoning supernat u ral
i s m som e of th e m ost val u able facts i n nat u re and ,

s ome o f the most i nteresting an d beau ti fu l
psychical ph enom ena i n hu m an exp eri ence that ,

this bo ok i s o ffered t o t he p ublic .

T o su ch st udi es however it i s obj ect ed by som e
, ,

that th e principles i nvolved i n these u nu su a l
m ental acti ons are t oo vagu e an d the facts t o o n ew
and u nsubstant iat ed t o b e d eserving o f seri ou s
co nsiderati on ; b ut it sho uld b e rem embered that
all ou r know l edge even that which i s n ow
,

reckon ed as science was on ce vagu e and t entat ive
,

i t i s absu rd therefore t o ignore n ewly fou nd facts
, ,
-

simply b ecause they are new and their laws u n
k nown ; neverthel ess i n psychica l matters espe
,

c i a lly this is t he t endency o f th e age
,
.

B u t even i f u pon th e pract ical side these st u di es
should b e deem ed u nsatisfactory it woul d not ,
P R E F A CE .
v

follow that they are without u s e o r i nt erest I t .

is a tru ism that ou r western c ivili zatio n i s ove r
i nt ense an d p racti cal ; i t is m ate rialist ic hard , ,

mechanical ; it valu es nothing i t b el ieves i n ,

nothin g that cann ot b e weighed m easured a n , ,

a l z e d labelled and app raised — feeling i ntu ition
y , , ,

aspirati on m onitions glimpses of knowledge that
, ,

are from within — not ext ern al n or d isti nctly
cogni z able — these are al l slight ed d esp ised
, , ,

t rampled up o n by a sup ercilio us dilettant eism on
the on e han d an d an u nin stru cted phi listi nism
on th e other and th e result has been a develop
,

m ent that i s abnormal u nsym metrical deformed
, , ,

and t ending t o disint egrat ion .

To a few orient a l mysti cism t o others th e
, ,

h asty d edu cti on s o f spiritu alis m an d t o m any,

m ore the sup ern at u ralism o f th e variou s religiou s
syst ems o ffer at least a p art ial thou gh ofte n ex
, ,

a gg e ra t e d ant idot e t o thi s i nherent vi ce b ecau se
, ,

t hey all cont emplat e a sp irit u al o r at l east a

t ranscend ent al aspect o f man s nat u re i n contrast
t o that which i s p u rely mat erial B ut even these
.

p art ial remedi es are n ot available t o all an d they ,

are u nsat isfactory t o m any .

A s a basis t o a m o re sym m etrical and p er
manent d evelopment som e generally recognized
,

f acts relative t o th e constit uti on an d action o f
vi P R EF A C E .

these m ore s ubtl e forces i n o ur being mu st b e
cert ifi ed ; and as an i nt rod u c tion to that work ,

it i s hoped that these st ud ies i n the ou tlying
fi e l ds o f psycho l ogy will n ot b e fou nd val uel ess .

A po rti on of t he pap ers here present ed are
rep u blished m u ch revised by co u rt esy o f The
, ,

N ew Yor k Tzmes
'

.

N E W Y OR K, Oc t ob er , 1 896 .
C O NTE NTS .

CH A PTE R I .

PAG E
Ps y chi ca l R es ea r c h— T e l e pa t h y or T b o u g ht -T r a n s

CH A PTE R II .

M e sm e ri sm and H yp n ot i sm — H i sto ry and T h e r a pe u t i c

CH A PTE R

H yp n oti sm — Ps y c h i ca l A spe c t

CH A P TE R

L u c i d it y or Cla ir vo ya n ce .

CH A PTE R V .

D ou b l e or M ul t ipl e x P e r son a l i t y

C H A P T E R VI .

N t r
a u a l S om n am bu l i s m — H yp n ot i c S om n a m bu l i sm

C H A P T E R VI I .

A u t o m at i sm — Pl a n ch e tt e
C H A P T E R VI I I .

A u t om a t i c W ri t i ng , D r awi n g a nd Pa i nt i n g
C ONTENTS .

CH A PTE R I X .

CH A PT E R X .

C H A P TE R XI .

P ha n ta sm s ,

C H A P T E R XI I .
C H AP T E R I .

P S Y C H I CA L R E S E A R C H — T E L E PA T H Y OR

T H O U G H T -T RA N S F E R E N C E .

TH E stat u s of th e old fash io n ed gh ost sto ry has
-
,

within th e p ast ten years p erc eptibly changed
, .

F ormerly by th e credu lou s generality of p eopl e
, ,

i t was a l most u niversally accepted wit hou t reason
and witho u t c riti cal exami nat i on I t was looked .

u po n as sup ernat u ral an d s upern at u ral thi ngs
,

were neithe r t o b e doubted nor reasoned abo u t ,

and there th e m atter en ded .

O n the other han d th e m ore l earned an d s ci e n
,

t i fi c equally witho ut reaso n o r criti cal exami na
,

t ion u tt erly rep u diat ed an d scorn ed all all eged
,

facts an d o ccurrences relat ing t o the s ubj ect .

“ ”
We know what th e laws of nat u re are they ,


said and al l ege d occu rrences which go b eyon d
,

o r contraven e these laws are up on their fac e
illusio ns and frau ds . A n d so with t hem a l so
, ,

there th e matter ended .

I n th e m eanti m e wh ile the irrec l aim ably su per
,
2 TELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L S EL F .

stitious and cred u lous on the o ne hand and th e ,

u nco s ci e n t i fi c an d conservat ive o n the other
-
,

equally with ou t knowledge and equ ally withou t
reason have gon e o n b eli eving an d d isbelieving
, ,

a large n u mb er o f p eople — i nt elligent i nqu i ring , ,

q uick witt ed an d reasonable s om e scienti fi c and
-
, ,

some u n s ci e n t i fi c — have com e t o think seri o u sly
regardi ng u n usual occurrences an d phen omena ,

either wit nessed o r exp erien ced by themselves o r
relat ed by oth ers and whose reality they could ,

n ot doubt although thei r relat i ons t o ordinary
,

conditi o n s o f li fe we re mysteri ou s and o ccu l t .

I n the i nvestigat io n o f thes e subj ects som e n ew
and u n familiar t erm s hav e co me int o m ore or less
com m on use We h ear of mind reading telep
.
-
,

athy hyp n otism clairvoyance and psychical r e
, , ,

search som e o f which t erms st ill stan d for som e
,

thing myst e rious u ncanny p erh ap s even super
, ,

nat ural b u t th ey have at l east excited i nt erest
,

and in qu i ry Th e s ubj ect s which they rep resent
.

have even perm eat ed general literat u re ; the
n ovel ist h as m ad e u se o f this wi despread i nt erest
i n occ ult subj ect s and has int rodu ced many o f
th e st range and weird featu res whi ch they p re
sent i nt o hi s dep artm ent of literatu re S ome have .

m ade u se o f thi s n ew mat erial withou t kn owledge
o r taste m erely t o excite wonde r an d att ract th e
,
PRE LI M I N AA Y

WOR K 3

v ulgar whil e others use i t philosophically wi th
, ,

knowledge and discriminati on for the p u rp ose o f ,

ed ucati ng thei r readers i n a new and i mp ortan t
d epartmen t of kn owledge an d tho ugh t .

A m ongst th e more scie nt ifi c societi es h ave b een
,

formed reports have bee n read an d p ublished so
, ,

that i n scient i fi c and lit era ry circles as well as
among the u nlearned th e s ubj ect has b ecom e on e
o f interest .

Th e obj ect o f th ese pap ers will b e bri efly t o
t ell i n conn ection with my own observat ions what ,

i s known and what is th ought by others wh o
have st u died the subj ect carefu lly and especially ,

what has been don e by th e E nglish S oci ety f or
P sychical Research an d ki ndred soci eti es .

Whe n an exp editio n is sent o u t fo r th e pu rp os e
o f expl oring n ew and u nknown regions it is often ,

necessary t o send fo rward sco uts to obtai n som e
general ideas concerning the natu re o f the cou n
t ry i ts confo rmat i on wat er co u rses inhabitants
, ,
-
, ,

and food supplies Th e sco u ts retu rn and rep ort
.

what they hav e d iscovered their reports are
l ist ened to with i nte rest and up o n t hese repo rt s
,

o ften dep end th e m ovem ents an d s u ccess o f the
whol e expedition I t will easily b e seen h o w
.

important it i s that th e scouts sho uld b e i n t e lli
gent sharp witt ed cou rageo u s and t ru th ful ; an d
,
-
,
4 T ELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L SEL F .

i t will also be evident that the rep ort o f these
scouts concerni ng th e n ew an d u nkn own co u nt ry
i s mu ch more val uable than th e p reconceived
opinio ns o f geographers and philosophers n o mat ,

t er h ow emi nent they may b e who have simply ,

staye d at hom e enj oyed their easy chair an d d e
,
-
,

cla re d o ff hand t hat th e n ew c ou nt ry was u seless
-

an d u ni nhabitable .

The o utlyi ng fi el ds o f psychol ogy whi ch are ,

n ow the subj ect o f psychical research are c om ,

a r a t i v e ly a n ew an d u nexplored regi on and u ntil
p ,

withi n a few years i t has been co nsidered a barren
an d u np rod u ctive one i nto which i t was silly dis
, ,

rep ut able an d even dangerou s t o enter ; t he r e
,

gion was i nfeste d with dream m ongers spiritual -
,

i s t s clai rvoyants m esmeri sts an d cranks and the
, , , ,

more vigorou sly i t was shu n ned the s afer would
h e b e who had a repu tatio n o f any kind t o l ose .

S u ch su bstantially was t he c onditi on o f p ublic
sent ime nt and especially o f sent im ent i n st rictly
,

sci entifi c circles fourteen years ago when the
, ,

E nglish S ociety for P sychical Research c a m e i n t o
b eing The fi rst m ovement i n th e directi on o f
.

syst emati c study and exp l oration i n this n ew fi eld
was a prelimi nary meeti ng called by P rof W F . . .

B arrett F ellow of the R oyal S oci ety of E di n
,

b u rgh an d a f ew other gent l em en o n J an 6 1 8 8 2
,
.
, ,
S O CIE T Y F OR P S YC H IC A L R ES E A R CH
5
wh en th e formation of su ch a society was pro
p osed ; and i n the following m ont h the soci ety
was de fi nitely organi ze d an d o ffi cers were chosen .

The fi rst general m eeting for b u si ness an d l isten
ing t o rep orts t ook place J uly 1 7 th o f the same
year .

The p ersons associat ed i n this society were o f
th e m ost stai d an d respectable charact er n ot ed ,

for solid sense and a suffi cient n u mb er o f them
,

f or p racti cal work were also trai ned i n scienti fi c
m ethods an d were al ready em inen t i n specia l
,

depart ments o f sci ence .

P ro f H enry S idgwick Tri nity College C am
. , ,

bridge was P resident
,
P ro f W F B arrett . . .
,

F R S E Royal College o f S ci ence D ubli n and
. . .
, ,

P ro f B al fou r S t ewart F R S Owen s College
.
, . .
,

M anchest er were Vi ce P residents and among th e
,
-
,

me mb ers were a large n u mber o f well known -

names of F ellows o f vari ou s learned and royal
soci et ies p ro fessional m en and m emb ers o f P ar
, ,

l i a m e n t altogeth er giving charact er t o th e society
, ,

as well as assu ring sensibl e methods i n its work .

A mong the s ubj ects fi rst t aken u p fo r exami na
t io n and so far as po ssib l e for experi mental stu dy
, , ,

were th e followi ng
( I ) Thought t ransferen ce o r a n exam inatio n
-
,

i nto the nat ure and ext en t o f any i nflu ence whi ch
6 T ELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S U BL I M I ZVA L SE LF .

m ay be exerted by o n e m in d u po n anothe r apart ,

fro m any gen erally recogni zed m ode o f p erceptio n
or comm u ni cation .

( )
2 The study of hyp notism an d the form s o f
s o called m esme ri c t rance
- .

( )
3 A n i nvestigat i o n o f well a uthenticat
-
ed re

p orts regardi ng appariti ons and dist u rb ances i n
h ou ses rep uted t o b e hau nt ed .

( )
4 A n i nqui ry i nt o vari ou s p s ychi cal phenom

e na commonly called S pi ritu alistic .

The fi rst rep ort mad e t o the society was co n
cerning thou ght reading o r th ou gh t t ransference
-
,
-
,

and was a descripti o n o f vari ous exp eriments u n
d e r t ak e n with a view t o d et erm ine th e qu esti on
whether o n e perso n or o n e m i nd can receive i m
p ressi ons or i ntelligence from anoth er p erson o r
mind withou t comm u ni catio n by word t ou ch o r , ,

sign o r by any m ean s whatsoever ap art fro m t h e
,

ordinary and recogni z ed m ethods o f p ercept ion or ,

t h e ordinary chan nels o f com m u n i cati on .

What is m eant by thought transference is p er
-

haps m ost simply illu st rat e d by th e com mon

amu sem ent known a s th e will in g game it is
playe d as follows
The p erson t o b e i nfl u en ced o r willed is sent
out of th e ro o m ; those rem ai ni ng the n agree
upon som e act wh ich that p erson i s t o b e willed
TH E “
WIL LING G A M E .

7

to accomplish ; as for i nstance t o take some par
, ,

t i cu la r piece o f bric a brac from a table or cabi net
- -

and place i t u pon the p iano or t o fi n d som e arti cl e ,

which has b ee n p u rposely hidden Th e person t o .

b e willed is then brought back i nt o the room ; the
leade r o f t he game places o n e hand lightly up on
her shoulder or arm and th e whol e comp any ,

thi nk intently up on th e act agreed up on i n h er
absence I f th e game is su ccessful the p erson so
.
,

willed goes with m ore o r less p romptness takes the
, ,

piece of b ric a brac thou ght o f an d plac es i t up on
- -
,

the piano as before agreed upon by th e company
, ,

or she goes with m ore o r less di rectness and dis
covers the hidden article Nervo u s agitati on ex .
,

c i tem e n t, even faintn ess o r act u al syn cop e are ,

not u nusu al accompanim ents o f t he e ffort o n t he
part o f the perso n so wi lled ci rcu mstanc es which ,

at l east sh ow t h e u n u sual character o f th e p er
fo r m a n ce an d also the necessity fo r cau ti o n i n
cond u cting it .

I f th e gam e i s played h onestly as it generally ,

i s the p erson t o be willed when s h e ret u rn s t o
, ,

t he room i s absol ute l y ignorant o f what act s h e
,

is expected to perform an d the person with wh o m ,

s h e is placed i n contact does n ot i nt ent ionally

give her any cl u e o r i n formati o n d u ring th e p rog
ress o f the game .
8 T ELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IM IN A L SE LR

I n the m ore formal exp eri ments the p erson
who i s w illed is known as th e sensit ive subj ect , ,

or percipi ent ; the p erson who c ond u cts the ex
p e r i m e n t i s known as the age n t or operat or The .

sensitive i s presu m ed t o receive i n som e u nu su al ,

m anner fro m the m inds o f the agent and th e
,

company an i mp ression regarding th e acti on t o
,

b e p erformed wi thou t commu ni cati on betwee n
,

them i n any ordi nary mann er .

This i s one o f the simplest form s of thou ght
t ransferen ce ; it is of c ou rse liable t o many erro rs
, , ,

and is u seless as a sci entifi c t est .

B ishop Cu mberland and other m i n d readers
, ,

who h ave exhibited thei r remarkabl e p owers a l l
over th e world were dou bt l ess sensit ives who
,

p ossessed this p ower o f p ercepti o n o r receiving
i mp ressions i n a high degree so that m i nu t e o b ,

j e ct s su ch as an ordi nary watch key h idden i n a
,
-
,

barre l o f rubbish i n a cellar and i n a distant part
o f an u n familiar city i s qu ickly fo u nd th e s e n
, ,

s i t i ve being con nect ed with t he ag ent by th e
slightest contact o r p erh aps only by a string o r
,

wire .

Th e qu est i on at issu e i n all t h ese cases i s th e
sam e n amely do th e sensitives receive their i m
, ,

p ressi ons regardi ng what they have t o do from
th e mi nd o f th e agent by som e process other
I o T ELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IM INA L SE LF .

c i a lly was this V iew ent ertai n ed by the m ore con .

s e r v at i ve p orti on o f the vario us scient ifi c b odies

i nterest ed in th e su bj ect an d a l so by tha t large
,

c l ass o f people scient i fi c an d othe rwise wh o save
, ,

t hemselves m u ch t roub le by taki ng thei r opinions

ready made .

I t was a very easy way o f disp osing o f the
m atter so thoroughly scientifi c and it di d n ot
, ,

i nvolve the necessity o f st udying any new force
or gett ing into t rouble with any new l aws o f
menta l action ; i t was si mp l y d elight ful an d t he ,

physio l ogist s rubbed thei r hands gleefu lly ove r
th e apparent d i s c o m fi t u re o f the shal l o w c ran k s
wh o i magined t hey had d iscovered som ethi ng
new There was only o ne troublesome c irc u m
.

stance ab ou t th e wh ol e a ffai r I t was this : that
.

cases were every now and t he n making thei r a p
p e a ra n ce whi ch absol utely refused t o b e explain ed
by the n ew th eo ry o f D r C arpenter and th e o nly
.
,

way o f disposing o f these t roub l esom e cases was
t o dec l are that th e p eople wh o observe d t hem
di d not kno w h ow t o ob serve an d did n ot see ,

what they th ou ght t hey saw .

Thi s was th e stat e of th e qu est ion and t his t he ,

way i n which i t was generally regarded whe n it ,

was ta k en u p f or i nvestigatio n by th e S ociety fo r
P s ychical Research .
TH O U G H T T R A NSFER ENC E C LA SSIFIED .

E xperim ents on the subj ect o f th ought trans -

f erence fall nat u rally i nt o fou r classes
( )
1 Those where som e prearranged acti o n is
accomplished p ersonal c ontact being maintai ned
,

between the op erator and the sensitive .

( 2) S i milar performances where the re i s n o c on
t act whatever .

( )3 Where a n am,e n u mber ,obj ect or card i
,
s
guessed o r p erceived and exp ressed by sp eech or
writing w itho u t any p ercept ible m eans o f o b
taining i nt elligence by t he sen ses or t hro ugh
any o f the o rdinary channels o f c o mm u n i ca
t i on
.

( 4) Where th e sam e i deas have occu rred o r th e
sam e i mp ressi ons hav e been conveyed at the sam e
m om ent to th e m in ds o f two or m ore p erson s
widely separated from each other .

The fi rst an d seco n d o f thes e classes are simply

examples of the wi lling gam e carri ed o n u nder
m ore st rict condit ions b u t they are n ot co u nt ed
,

as o f special valu e o n acco u nt o f th e possibil ity o f
i n form ation b eing conveyed when c ont act is p er
m i tt e d and by means o f s light signal s m e re move
, ,

ments o f th e eye fi nger o r l ip wh ich might
, , ,

qu ickly be sei z ed u pon and i nt erpreted by th e sen
s i t i v e eve n wh en there was n o actual cont act
,
Th e .

thi rd and fo u rth cl ass however seem t o exc l ude
, ,
12 TELE P A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L SEL F :

these and all other ordina ry or recogni z abl e m ean s
o f commu n icat ion .

Th e following are examples of th e thi rd cl ass ,

n amely where som e obj ect n u mber name or card
, , , ,

has b een guessed or p erceived withou t the ai d o f
th e senses and withou t any o f the ordi nary m ean s
,

o f com m u n i cat i on between the op erato r and th e
su bj ect .

Th e fi rst exp eri m ents he re rep orted were m ad e
i n the family o f a clergym an by himse l f t ogethe r, ,

wi th h i s fi ve daughters ranging from t en t o seven
,

t ee n years o f age all thorou ghly h ealthy persons
, ,

an d witho u t any pec uli ar nervo us developm ent .

The daught ers and s ometimes also a you n g maid , ,

servant were the sensit ives an d the clergy man
, , ,

when alon e with his fam ily act ed as agent The , .

t est experi ments mad e i n this fam ily were con
ducted by two competent an d well q u ali fi e d o b -

servers m emb ers o f the soci ety and n o member
, ,

o f th e family was permitted t o kno w th e word ,

name or obj ect select ed exc ep t that the chil d
, ,

c hosen t o act as sensit ive was tol d t o what class
the obj ect belonged ; fo r i nstance whethe r i t was ,

a n umber card or name o f som e p erson o r place
, ,
.

The child was then sent o u t o f the room and
k ept u nd er observation whi l e th e t est obj ect was
agreed u p on an d was then recalled by one o f th e
,
M A N N E R OF E XP E R I M E N T ING . r3

exp erimenters an d while givi ng h er answers sh e
“ ”
st ood near the door wit h d owncast eyes an d ,

o f t en wit h h er back t o the company Th e e x p e ri .

m ents were cond u cted in p erfect silence except

ing th e ch ild s answer an d the right or wrong
o f th e agent .

I t has been charged that these children lat er , ,

were cau ght sign alling du ring the exp eriments .

This i s t ru e by their own con fession bu t it is also ,

t ru e that th ere was n o sign alling d u ri ng t he earlier
exp eri ments also th at the signalling when u sed
,

did not i mp rove th e resu lts and furthermo re t hat
,

after they b egan signalling th e e ffort t o keep the
m in d consci ou sly act ive an d acut e d u ring their
trials inj u red the passive co nditi on n ecessary for
s u ccess an d event ually d estroyed th ei r sensit ive
,

n ess and tho ught readin g power altogether
- .

B esi des m ost o f the tests were mad e wh en o nly
,

th e o n e child was i n th e room and as will b e n o , ,

ti ced m any o f th e t ests were o f su ch a nat u re that
,

signalling would b e out of the qu e s t ion especially ,

wit h their littl e experience and cl u msy code .

The following resu lts were obtai ned th e n am e ,

o f t he obj ect agreed u pon be ing given i n
italics
' ’

A w k zze k a na leo p en kmf e Was named and
‘ ’
-
.

c olor given on the fi rst t rial A box of a l monds
. .
I 4 TE L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM IN A L SE LF .

Named correctly . A th r e e p e n ny
-

p i ece . F ail ed .

A box f
o ch ocola t e. A b u tto n b ox . A p en kn ife,
h i d de n . F ailed t o stat e where i t was .

Trial with card s t o be n am ed ,

Tw o of cl u bs Right S eve n of d i a m on d s R ight
. . . .

F ou r of sp a des F ailed F ou r of hea r t s
. R ight . . .

Ki ng of hea r ts Right Tw o of d i a monds Right
. . . .

A ce of hea r ts Right N i ne of sp a d es Right
. . . .

F i ve of di a m ond s F o u r o f diam onds (wrong ) ;
.

then fou r o f h earts (wrong ) ; t hen fi ve of d ia ,

m onds whi ch was right o n th e th ird t rial
, Tw o of .

sp a d es
. Right E i ght of di a m onds Wro ng A ce
. . .

of d i a m ond s Wrong Th r ee of hea r ts Right
. . . .

F ou r of cl n bs Wrong A ce of sp a d es Wrong
. . . .

The following resu lts were obtai ned with fi ct i
t i ous names
Wi ll i a m S t u bbs R ight E l i z a H olm es E li za
. . .

H I sa a c H a r di ng Right S oph i a S h a w Right
. . . . .

H es ter Wi ll i s Cassandra — then H ester Wilson
. .

j oh n /ones Right Ti m othy Tay lor Torn then
. . .
,

Ti mothy Taylo r E s ther Og le Right A r th u r. . .

H igg i ns Right A lfr ed H end er s on Right A my
. . . .

F r og m or e A my F re e m o r e t hen A my F rogm ore
.
, .

A l ber t S nelg r ov e A lbert S i n g ro r e then A lbert
.
,

Grover .

O n an oth er o ccasi on th e following resul t was
obtained with cards Mary t he eldest daughter , , ,
R ES UL TS OF EXP E R IM EN TS . 1
5
being the percip ient I n thi rty o ne s u ccessive -

trials th e fi rst only was an enti re f a ilu re si x of ,

spades b eing give n i n answer for the eight o f
spades Of the remaining thirty consecutive t rials
.
,

i n sevente en t he card was correctly n amed on the
fi rst att empt ni ne on th e second and fou r on t he
, ,

third .

I t sho uld here b e observed t hat accordi ng t o
,

the calculu s of probabilit i es t he chances that an
,

ordinary gu esser would b e correct i n his guess o n
th e first trial is i n cards o f cou rse o ne i n fi fty
, , ,

o ne bu t i n these t rials n u mb eri ng 38 2 i n all an d
, , ,

ext endi ng over six days t h e average was on e i n
,

three an d secon d an d thi rd gu esses b ei ng all owed
,

the s uccesses were m ore than o ne i n two almost ,

two i n three .

The chances against gu essing t he card cor
r e ct ly five ti mes i n su ccessio n are m ore than
t o I an d agai nst this happen ing eight
,

t imes i n su ccessi on are m ore than to
I,
yet the former happ ened several tim es and the
latter twice — on ce with cards and on ce with fi c t i
t iou s names t he chances against su ccess in th e
,

latter case being al most i ncal cu labl e .

The following exp eriment s we re also mad e
am ong many others M iss Maud C re e ry bei ng t he
,

perc ipient
16 TE L E P A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L S E LF
.


( )
I What t own have we thought o f ? A B ux .

t on which was correct .

( )
2 What t own h ave we thought o f ? A D e r .

by What part di d yo u think o f fi rst ?
. A .

Railway station (S o did I ) What n ext ? A
. . .

The m arke t pl ace ( S o di d I )
-
. .

(3) What town have we tho ught o f ? A .

S om ething com m encing with L ( P au se o f a .

m i n u t e ) L incol n (C orrect )
. .

What t own have we thought o f ? A .

F a i r fi e ld What part did yo u think o f fi rst ? A
. .

The road t o it ( S o did I ) What n ext ? A
. . .


The triangular green behi nd the B ull s H ead I nn .

( S o did I ) .

I n seekin g an explanatio n for these remarkabl e
results coincidence and chan ce m ay i t woul d ,

seem b e u tt erly excl uded To u ch and h earing
,
.

m ust also b e excl u ded si nce th e gu esser d id ,

n ot c om e i n c ontact wi th any p erson d u ring th e
exp eri ment s and they were c o nd ucted i n perfect
,

silen ce except ing th e answers o f the percipi ent o r
th e yes o r n o of the agent .

We have left t hen only th e u nconsci ous i ndi
, ,

cat ions whi ch m ight possibly be given by loo k ,

movem ent o f a fi nger l ip o r m u scl e by p erson s
, ,

wh o we re p resent esp ecially o n accou nt o f t heir
desire and ability t o det ect any s uch c o m m u n i ca
18 T E L EP A TH Y AN D TH E S UB L IM INA L S EL F .

t ransference whi ch shou ld be m enti on ed here i s ,

by m eans o f diagrams The exp eri ment may be .

made as follows — Th e percipient being bli nd ,

folded i s seated a t a t able wi th his back t o the
,

operat or witho u t co ntact and i n p erfect silence
, .

A diagram — for i nst an ce a circle with a cross i n th e
,

cent re— is disti nctly drawn by a third p er son an d
so h e l d as t o be i n full vie w o f th e operat or wh o ,

l ooks at i t i n silence stead ily and with c o n ce n
,

t r a t e d atte nti on .

Th e impression made by the diagram up on the
m ind o f th e op erator is gradually p erceived by
th e p ercipi ent wh o after a ti m e varyi ng from a
, ,

few seconds t o several mi n ut es declares hi msel f ,

ready Th e ban dages are then rem oved from his
.

eyes and to th e best o f h i s ability he d raws the i m
,

p ression w hich cam e t o h im while blindfol ded .

Th e resu l ts h ave vari ed i n accu racy very m u ch as ,

d id th e resu lts in the exp erim ent s with obj ects
and cards al ready described .

The followi ng diagram s are from d rawi ngs an d
rep ro du ct ions mad e i n the man ner j u st d escribed .

They are fro m th e proceedings o f t h e S oci ety for
P sychical Research and were the result o f e xp e ri
,

ment s mad e by M r Malcol m Gu th ri e and M r
. .

J am es B irchall two prom inent and cultivat ed
,

cit i z e ns of L iverp ool t ogether with three or fou r
,
MR . G U T H R IE
'
S EXP ER IMEN T S I 9

I . Rep r d ti
o uc o n.

D ra w m g .

II . O ri gi n al R ep r od u c ti on.

D ra w m g

IV R ep r o
d u c tio n
.

.

I II Ori g i nal III . R ep r d ti
o uc o n.

r wi
.

D a ng .
20 TELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UB L IMINA L S EL F .

l adies personal friends o f theirs all o f who m
, ,

u ndertook the experime nts with the d efi n ite
pu rpo se o f testing the truth o r falsity o f thought
t ransference .

I will also qu ot e another experim ent which is ,

only a fai r example o f a very l arge n umber care ,

fully carri ed o u t from A pril t o N ovember 1 8 8 3 ,
.

I n many o f the experim ents m embers o f t he
Com mitt ee o n Thought transference from the -

S P R were p resent
. . . .

A P R I L 2 0t h 1 8 8 3 —P resent , M r G uthri e M r
, . .
, .

B irchall M r S t eel an d fou r l adies
,
.
,

AG E NT . P E R CI P I E N T. O BJ E C T . R ESULT .

M rs E M is s R A s q ua e o f r p i k i lk
n s on P nki S quare ” A n ~
t i t ty
.

bl ack ns a n l
. . .

s we re d al m os .

A ri ng o f w hit e s i lk on

C t an it ”

see .

bla c k sa tin .

M is s R M iss E Word R E S, l etter by Ea ch l e tte r was nam e d
l e tter by M iss E as
. .

co rre c t l
i t wa s p ac e d b e fore M i s s
.

R

Le tt r !
e .
! .

F ir t s an s we r .

Le tt r F
e . F ”
. F ir t s an s w r e

A gil t r c oss h e ld by M r “
I t i s a c os s r s e , Akd
G b eh i d
n th e p e c p ri hi h
w c way i s

h e l d , pe r it
i e nt . ci p i e n t re h e d , T he n g h t
wa y ” . o rr e c t .

A y ll e o w p ape k n r if e.

Y e ll ow is i t a fea
th r
e ? It l oo ks l i k e
a k n i f”e Wi th a thin
han dl e
A p ir a i r t d
of sc s s o s s a n I t i s s i l ve r N o, it is
i ng O p e n an d p righ t
u . t l
s ee I t is a pa i r of
i ”r
s c ss o s t d
s an i ng up
right .
MR . G U TH R IE S EXP E R IM ENT S

.
2 1

S uccess was di fferent on di fferent occasi ons b u t ,

this rep resents an ordinary seri es of experi ments
at o n e sitti ng I n these exp eri m ents with obj ects
.
,

the p ercipi ent was blind folde d an d th e obj ect
m oreover was kept ou t o f range o f visi on I n .

som e experi ments slight c ont act was p erm itt ed ,

and i n so me i t was not b ut i t was fou n d th at con ,

t act had litt l e i f any e ffect up o n the resu lt .

Re markabl e su ccess was also obtai ned i n th e
t ransferen ce o f sensat i on su ch as tast e smell o r , , ,

pain while the p ercip ient was i n a n ormal co n
,

dit ion that is n ot hypn ot i zed
, ,
.

Th e foll owing i s an average examp l e o f the
t ransferen ce of tast e
The taste rs M r G u thri e ( M ,
M r Gu rn ey
. . .

(E . an d M r Myers ( M ) The p ercip ients were
. .


two yo u ng ladies i n M r G uthrie s emp loy . .

S E PT 3 .
,
1 88 3 .

T A ST E RS. P BR G P I E N T . S U BS T A N C E . A N SW E R GI V N E .

Worce s t ers h ire Sa uce . W orc e s t ers hire Sa uce .

i
V n ega ” r .

Po rt wi n e. Be twee n e au de Col ogn e
an d b eer
R a s p be rry Vi
r n ega .

H rri bl
o d b itt r ”
e an e .

A t t f i k — f ir — f
as e o n o on o
i g r I f l i t my
V ne a ee on
li p — t
s i th g”h I h d
'

18 as ou a
be e n ea ting l m a u .
22 T ELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L S E L FI

S om e very st riki ng expe ri me nts were m ade by
M r J W S mi th of B ru nswick P lace L eeds as
. . .
, ,

agent and his sister Kat e as percipi ent Thei r
, .

su ccess wi th diagrams fu lly equalled th ose already
given an d with obj ec ts th e results have seldo m
,

bee n equ al led The followi ng t rials were m ad e
.

M arch 1 1 t h 1 8 84 The i nt elligen ce and good
,
.

faith o f the parti ci p ants i s u ndo ubt ed .

A gent : J W S mith P ercipient : Kat e S mith
. . . .

O BJ E CT S E L E CT E D . N A M E D.

F ig ure 8 . C o rr ec t fi rs t ti m e .

F i gure 5 .

Bl ack rc o ss o nwhit e gro un d .

C o l o r bl u e .

C iph e r
Pa ir o f S cis s o rs — P e rci p i e n t was n o t t old wh a t ( i e wh at
. . .

fo rm o f exp e ri m en t fi g ure c olo r o r o bj ec t ) was t o b e n ex t — b u t
, ,

c a r e f ully an d wi th o u t n o is e a
p a ir o f s ci s s o rs was pl a ce d o n wh it e
gr o un d a n d i n ab o ut o n e m i n u t e a n d a half s h e excl a i m e d
, .

S ci s s o rs I

The n u mber o f fact s and experi ment s bearin g
upo n this d ivisi on of o u r su bj ect i s well nigh i n e x -

h a u s t i b le ; those already present ed will se rve as
illustrati ons an d will also sh ow u po n what s ort o f
evidenc e i s fo unded th e probability that p ercep
t ion s an d impressions are really conveyed fro m
o n e m i nd t o another i n som e othe r man ner than
by th e ordinary and recogniz ed m ethods o f com
m u n i cat i o n .
IM P R E SSION R E C E IVED B Y T WO P ER S ONS 2
.
3

I t remains t o give on e or two ill ustrati ons o f
the fou rth division o f th e subj ect nam ely where , ,

similar thoughts have sim ultaneously o cc u rred or ,

si milar i mpressions have been made upon the
m inds o f p ersons at a d ist ance fro m each other
withou t any known m etho d of comm u nicati on
between them .

The fi rst case was rece ived and exam ined by
the soci ety i n t h e su mm er o f 1 8 8 5 On e of t he .

p ercipient s writes as follows :
My sist er i n law S arah E u s t a n ce o f S t rett on
- -
, , ,

was lying sick u nt o death and my wife had gon e ,

over there fro m L awto n Chapel (twelve o r thi r
t een m iles o ff) to s e e an d t en d her in h er last
m oments O n th e n ight before her death I was
.

sleeping at hom e alon e and awaki ng I heard a , , ,

voice distinctly call m e .

Thinking it was my n iec e Rosanna the only ,

oth er occupant of the hou se I went t o her room ,

and foun d her awake an d nervou s I asked her .

whethe r s h e had called m e S he answered : N o ; .

bu t someth ing awoke me when I h eard some o ne ,


calling . On my wi fe retu rning h ome afte r her

sister s death s h e told m e h ow anxiou s he r sist er
had b een t o see me craving fo r m e t o b e sent for
, ,

and saying Oh how I want to se e D on e onc e
,

,

more ! and s oo n after becam e speechless B u t .
24 T E L E P A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L SE LF .

the c u rio us part was that abo ut the sam e t ime ,


that s h e wa s craving I and my n iec e heard th e
,


call .

I n answer t o a lett er of in qu i ry he fu rther
writes
My wi fe who went from L awton that p arti e
,

u lar S u nday t o see her sister wil l t esti fy th at as , ,

sh e attended u p on her (after the depart u re of t h e
m inister) d u rin g the night s h e wa s asking an d ,

craving for m e repeatedly saying Oh I wish I
, , ,

co uld s e e U ncl e D on e an d Rosi e on ce m ore b efore
I go ! and s oon after s h e b ecame u n c onsc i ou s

,

o r at least ceased sp eaking and di ed the n ext day , ,

o f which fact I was n ot aware u ntil my wi fe

ret u rned o n the evening of the F o u rth o f J uly .

M rs S e w i ll t he Rosi e referred t o writes as
. . ,

follows
I was awaken ed su ddenly withou t apparent ,

c ause an d h eard a voice calling m e di stinctly
, ,

th u s : Rosie Ro s ie Rosi e, ,
We (my u ncle .

an d mysel f) were the o nly occ upant s o f th e hou se
that n ight au nt being away at tending up on her
,


sister I never w a s called be f o re o r since
. .

The seco nd case is report ed by a m edical man
o f excellen t repu tatio n t o wh o m th e in cident was
related by b oth L ady G an d her sister th e p erci p
.
,

i e nt s i n th e ca s e I t i s as fol lows
.
:
26 T EL EP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L SE L F .

chiefly i n vi e w and other fact s still f u rther ill u s
,

t ra t i n g thi s divisi o n of the subj ect will appear i n

other relati ons .

Th e foregoing facts and exp eri ment s are s u ffi
cient t o i ndicat e what i s u nderstood by t hou ght
t ransferenc e or t elepathy and also t o indi cat e
, ,

what might b e called the ski rm ish ing g rou n d be
twee n t h e class o f p sycho l ogists rep resented by
the active workers i n the S oci ety for P sychical
Research and kindred soci et ies o n th e o ne hand ,

an d th e conse rvative sci entists m ostly p hy s i o lo
,

gists who are in credulo u s o f any act ion o f the
,

the m in d for which they cannot fi n d an appro
i t e organ and a proper m ethod o n th e other
p r a , .

I t is n o t claim ed th at thought t ransferen ce as -

h ere set forth i s establish ed beyon d al l possibility
o f doubt o r cavil esp ecially from t hose wh o ch oose
,

t o remain i gnorant o f th e facts b u t only that i t s
,

facts are sol id an d thei r i nterpretati on reasonab l e ,

an d that thought t ransferen ce has n ow th e sam e
-

claim t o acceptanc e by well i n forme d p eopl e that
-

many o f th e now accepted fact s i n physical sci
en ce had i n its early days o f growth and devel op
m ent .

Th e real ity of thou ght t rans feren ce bei ng on ce
-

established a vast fi eld for i nvest igat io n is open ed
,

u p a n ew l aw as it were i s discovered an d h ow
, ,
N E W FIE L D OF S T UD Y
. 27

far reach ing an d i mp ortant i t s i nfl u ence and
-

b eari ng m ay b e u pon alleged facts and phenomena
which hereto fore have been disbelieved or set ,

down as chan ce o ccu rrences o r expl ai ned away as
,

hallu cinations i s at present the i nt erest ing st udy
,

o f the exp eri menta l psychologist .
C H AP T E R II .

M E SM E R I SM AND H Y P N OT I S M — H I ST O RY AN D

T H E RA P E U T I C E F F E CTS .

NO d epart ment o f psychical research i s at
p resent excit ing s o wi desp read an interest as that
which is known u n der the nam e o f H yp notism ;
an d i nqu i ries are con stantly made by those t o
wh om th e subj ect i s new regardi ng i t s natu re an d
,

e ffects an d als o how i f at all i t di ffers from th e
, , ,

m esmerism an d an imal m agnetism o f many years
ago .

U n fort u nately these questi ons are m ore easily
,

aske d than answered an d well i n form ed p ersons
,
-
,

an d even those consi dered exp erts i n the subj ect ,

woul d do ubtl ess give di fferent and p erhaps oppos
i ng answers t o them A short histori cal sketch
.

may help i n formi ng an opini on .

F rom the rem otest peri ods o f hu man hist ory t o
the p resent t i m e certain p ecu liar an d u n usual
,

c onditi ons o f mind sometim es associat ed with
,

abnormal con diti ons o f b ody have b een obse rved ,
,

28
M ESM ER ’
S EXP ER IM ENTS .

9

d u ring which u n usual conditions words have u m ,

conscio usly bee n spoken sometim e s seem i ngly ,

m ean ingless b u t sometimes c onveying knowledge
,

o f events at that m om ent taking place at a d istance ,

someti mes foretelling fu tu re events and som e ,

times wo rds o f warn i ng instru cti on o r comman d
, , .

The E gyptians an d A ssyri ans had thei r magi ,

the G reeks and Romans thei r oracles the H ebrews ,

their seers an d prophets every great religion its ,

i nspi red teachers an d every savage nation had
, ,

u nder som e name i ts seer o r m ed icine m an
,
-
.

S o crates had his d aem on J oan o f A rc her voices ,

and visions the H ighlan ders thei r second sight
, ,

S p irit ualists their medi ums an d con trols E ven .
!

S itti ng B ull had his visio n i n whi ch he foresaw th e
app roach and destru cti on o f Cu ster s army ’
.

U n til a l ittle m ore than a h u ndre d years ago
all persons a ffect ed i n any of these u n usu al ways
were su pposed t o be endowed with som e sort o f
supernatu ral powe r or t o be u nde r external an d
,

sup ernat u ral infl u enc e either divin e or satani c
, .

A b o ut 1 7 7 3 M esmer an ed u cated G erman phy
,

s i ci a n
,
philosopher an d myst i c comm enced the
, ,

practice o f c u ri ng disease by m eans of magnet s
passed over the a ffect ed parts an d over th e body
o f th e patien t fro m head t o foot A fterward s e e .

i ng G assner a S wabian p ri est c u ring his pati ent s
, ,
3 0 T ELE P A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SEL F .

by com mand an d applying his han ds t o the a i
,

fe c t e d part s he discarded his magn ets concl udi ng
, ,

that the h ealing p owe r o r i n fl u enc e was not in
them bu t i n hi msel f ; and h e call ed that i n fl uenc e
,

an imal magnetism .

M esm er also fou n d that a cert ain p roportion o f
hi s pati ent s went i nt o a sleep m ore or le s s pro
fou nd u nder his m anipulations d u ring which ,

som namb ulism o r sleep walking appeared B ut
,
-
, .


M esmer s chi ef perso nal interest lay i n certai n
theori es regardi ng th e natu re o f the newly dis -

covered p ower o r agent an d i n its therapeutic ,

e ffe cts ; hi s theories h owever were n ot u nd er
, ,

st ood n or app reciate d by th e physi cians o f hi s
t i me an d his c u res were l ooked u p on by them as
,

being si mply qu ackery .

N eve rthel ess it was h e who fi rst t ook th e wh o l e
,

subj ect o f these abn o rmal o r sup ranorm al condi
t i on s ou t of t h e d omai n o f the supernat u ral and ,

i n att empt i ng t o sho w thei r relat io n t o n at u ra l
fo rces h e placed them i n the d omai n o f nat u re as
p rop er su bj ects of rati onal st u dy and investiga
t ion ; and for t his at l east M esmer sh ould be
, ,

honored .


U nder M esm er s pu pil th e M arquis d e P uyse ,

gu r the facts and m ethods rel ating t o th e mag
,
.

n etic sleep and magn eti c cu res were more care fully
TH E E A R L Y M E S M E R I S TS .
31

observed and m ore fully p ublished Then fol .

l owed P etetin H usson and D u p ot e t E lli o t s o n
, , ,

in E nglan d and E sdaile i n I ndia S o fro m M e s .

mer i n 1 7 7 3 t o D u p o t e t and E lli o t s o n i n 1 8 38 we

have the perio d of t he early m esmerist s .

D u ring this period the hypnotic sleep was i n
d uce d by m ean s o f passes th e operators n ever fo r
,

a moment dou bting that the i n flu ence which p ro
d u c e d sleep was a p ower o f so me so rt p ro ceeding
from t hemselves an d p rodu cing its e ffect u pon the
patient .

I n additi on t o the co n diti on o f sleep or lethargy ,

th e following conditi on s were well kn own t o th e
early m esm erists somnambulism or sl eep ,

walking catalepsy a nms t h e s i a an d am n esia o r
, , , ,

absence o f all knowledge o f what transp ired d u r
i ng th e sleep S uggesti on d u ring sleep was als o
.

m ad e u s e of an d was even t he n p roposed as an
,

agent i n edu cat ion and i n th e c u re o f vice .

Th is was the co nditi on of the subj ect i n 1 842 ,

when B raid an E nglish su rgeon made som e n ew
, ,

an d i nteresting exp eri ment s H e showed that.

the s o called mesmeri c sleep co ul d be p rod u ced
-

i n som e p atient s by other p rocesses than t hose
u sed by the ear l y m esm erists ; especi ally c oul d
this b e accomplished by h aving th e p atien t ga z e
steadily at a fixed brillian t obj ect o r poi nt wi th ,
32 T ELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IMINA L S EL F
.

o u t resortin g t o p asses o r m anip ulati ons o f any
kind .

H e i nt rod u ced the wo rd hyp n otism which has ,

si nce b ee n gen erally ad opt ed ; he also proposed
s om e new theori es relating t o the n at u re o f the
hyp n oti c sl eep regarding i t as a pro fou nd ne rv
,


o u s change an d h e still fu rt her devel op ed th e
,

i d ea an d u s e o f su ggest ion Otherwise n o i mp or
.

t ant ch anges were mad e by hi m i n th e statu s o f
the subj ect I t was n ot l oo k ed u p o n with favo r
.

by t h e p rofessi on gen erally and i ts advocat es
,

were for th e m ost part still co nsidered as cranks
an d p ersons whose sci enti fi c an d p ro fessiona l
stan ding an d character were not abov e su sp icion .

The peri od o f twenty fi v e years fro m 1 8 50 t o
-

1 8 7 5 was a sort o f o ccu l tati on o f hyp notism
,
.

B raidism su ffered n early th e sam e fat e as m es
m erism — i t was n eglect ed and t ab ooed A few .

capable an d h onest m en like L i é b e a u lt o f N an cy
,

an d A z am o f B ordeaux worked on and from tim e
, ,

t o ti me p ublished thei r observat ions ; b u t for th e
m ost part t hese workers were n egl ected and eve n
scorned .

To acknow l edge on e s beli ef i n anim al magnet

i s m o r hyp not ism was b ad f orm an d h e who di d
,

i t must b e cont ent t o su ffer a certai n d egree o f
b oth social and p ro fessi onal ostracism The fi el d .
34 T ELE P A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SEL F .

becam e a legitimat e subj ect o f st udy and hyp ,

n o t i s m at on ce becam e respectabl e F rom t hat
.

t im e to the present it has fo rm ed o ne o f the m ost
conspicu ou s an d interesting s ubj ects o f psychica l
st udy ; it has becom e t o p sychology what det er
mi ning the valu e o f a singl e characte r i s t o read
ing an anci ent inscripti on i n a l ost o r u nknown
language — i t is a bit o f th e u nkn own expressed
in t erms o f the known and helps t o furni s h cl u es
t o still great er d iscoveri es .

With t he sci entifi c i nterest i n hypnotism which
was brought abo ut throu gh th e great n ame and
i nfl u ence o f Charcot all do u bt con cerning the
,

reality o f the ph eno mena whi ch it p resent s d is
app eared Hypnotism was a fact an d had com e
.

t o stay.

Charcot wh o con d u cted h is exp eri ments chiefly
,

am ong n ervo u s o r hyst erical p ati ents looked ,

u po n the hyp not i c conditi o n as a di sease and con ,

s id e re d the phen om ena p rese nted by hyp not i c
su bj ects as aki n t o hysteria I n addit io n t o the
.

meth od o f prod uci ng th e hypnoti c con ditio n use d
by B rai d he u sed am on g others what he c alled
, , ,


massive stim ulation which consist ed i n fi rst
,

fully absorbing th e subj ect s att ention and then

produ ci n g a sh ock by th e l ou d sou n ding of a c on
ce ale d gong o r the su dden d isp l ay or su dde n
,
CH A R C O T S A P P R O VA L IM P

OR TA NT .
35

withdrawal o f an el ectric light B y t his mean s.

hyst eri cal subj ect s were often th rown into a c on
d itio n o f catalepsy from which somnamb ulism
,

an d other hypnoti c ph enomena were sometimes
d edu ced .

I have mysel f seen n e rvous patients t hrown
i nto th e catalept ic stat e by the massive s t i m u

lation o f a hu ge t ru ck p assing by loaded with ,

clanging rails or bu ilding i ron o r by othe r su dde n
,

shock b ut I di d n o t conside r th e p rocess th era
,

peut ie no r i n any way usefu l t o th e pati en t I n .

deed I have considered th e p resent m ethod o f
,

t ransporting those beam s an d rails of i ron through
o u r streets an d past o u r dwellings withou t the ,

slightest att emp t t o m odify their sho cking di n
and clangor a p iece o f savagery which shoul d at
,

once b e m ade t he subj ect o f special l egislat ion
looking t o th e prompt p u nishm ent o f th e p e rp e
t r a t o rs o f the o u trage .

A s a m atter of fact n either t h e m ethods em
,

ployed the psychical condit ions in d u ced n or the
, ,

therap eut ic e ffects att aine d at L a S alp é t ri ere ,

wh ere m ost o f these exp erim ents were at that
time carri ed o n were su ch as t o p arti cu larly co m
,

m end themselves t o stu dents o f psych ol ogy .

Neverthel ess t he great n am e and app roval of
C harcot serv ed t o c om mand for hypnot ism t h e
36 T ELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SELF .

attent i on and the favorabl e c o nsideratio n o f the
scienti fic w o rld .

S oon aft er th e experiments o f Charcot and h is
as sociat es i n P aris were p ublish ed P rof B ern ,
.

heim com m enced a m ost thorou gh an d i mportant
study of the subj ect i n the wards o f the hospital
at N an cy These st u dies were m ade n ot u p o n
.
,

perso ns wh o were al ready subj ect s o f n ervou s

disease as was the case wit h Charcot s p ati ents
, ,

b ut o n th e contrary u pon those whose ne rvou s
, ,

c onditi o n was p erfectly n o rmal an d even u p on ,

t hose whos e general heal th was p erfect .


Th e result o f B ernhei m s exp eriment s p roved
that a very large p ercentage o f al l p ersons si ck ,

or well c ould b e pu t i nto the hyp noti c condition
,
.

H e cl ai med that suggest io n was th e great fact or
and in fl u ence bot h i n b ringing abo ut the c ondi
,

t i on and al s o i n th e m ental phe nom ena obse rved
, ,

an d th e c u res which were accom pl ished .

H e claimed m oreover that the hypnot ic sl eep
, ,

d id n ot di ffer from ordi nary sl eep and that n o ,

magnet i sm n or other p erso nal elem ent i n fl u ence , ,

or force entered i n any way int o th e p rocess
i t was al l th e p ower and i n fl u ence o f s u ggesti on .

F o u r distin ct an d i mp o rtant p eriods then are
f o u nd i n th e h ist o ry o f hyp not i s m
F i rst th e period o f t h e early m esm erists ex
, ,
FO UR IM P OR TA NT P ER IOD S .
37

tending from the t im e o f M esm er 1 7 7 3 u ntil , ,

that o f B raid 1 842 — n early seve nty y ears— du ring
,

whi ch the theo ry of ani mal m agnetism o r o f ,

s om e act ual forc e or subtle in fl uence p roc eed ing
from th e operat or t o the su bj ect prevail ed , .

S econd th e peri od o f t hirty fi v e years d u ri ng
,
-


which th e i n fl u en ce o f B raid s exp eri ments p re
d om i nated sh owi ng that other m et ho ds an d
, ,

esp ecially that by the fi xe d ga z e were e ffi ci ent ,

i n pro du ci ng the hyp not i c sleep .

Third th e sho rt p erio d d u ri n g which th e i n
,

fl u e n ce o f Charcot and the P aris school pre
vailed.

F ourth the p eriod sinc e B ernheim began t o
,

p ublish his experiments an d which may be ca l led
,

the p eriod o f suggestio n .

With this brief s k etch i n m ind we are prepared ,

t o examin e som e o f the m ore impo rtant phen o m
en a o f hypn otism b oth i n its early and it s later
,

d evelop m ents A simple case wou ld b e as f ol
.

l ows

A p atient com es t o th e physician s o ffi ce com
p lai ning o f contin ual headaches general deb il ity, ,

nervousness an d u nsatisfactory sleep S he is
, .

willing t o b e hypnoti z ed and i s acco mpani ed by
,

a friend T he physician seat s her co m fo rtably in
.

a chai r and
, seat ing hi msel f opposite h er h e
, ,
38 TE L EP A T H Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SEL F .

ta k es her th u mbs lightly between his own thumbs
and fingers asks her t o l ook steadily at som e con
,

v e n i e n t obj ect — p erhap s a shirt st u d o r a s p e c ifi e d
-

b u tt on u po n hi s coat P resently her eyelid s
.

qu iver and then droop slowly over her eyes ; h e
gently closes them with the tip s o f hi s fi ngers ,

ho l ds them lightly for a m om ent and she i s ,

as l eep .

H e then makes several slow p asses over h er
face an d down th e fro nt o f h er body from h ead
t o foot also som e over her head and away from
,

it all with ou t c ontact and witho u t sp eaking t o
,

h er H e let s her sleep t en o r fi fteen m in utes
.

l onger i f conven i ent — and then making two or
, ,

three u pward p asses over h er face h e says ,


promptly A l l ri ght ; wake u p .

S he s l owly O pens h er eyes probably smiles an d
, ,

l ooks a l ittle foolish at having slept H e i nqui res .

how s h e feels S he repl ies
.

I feel rem arkably well— s o rested— as t hough
I had slept a wh ole n ight .

H ow is yo u r head ?
ooking su rprised I t i s qu ite well — the pai n
( L ) .

i s all gon e .

“ “
Ve ry well he says ,
. Yo u wi ll continu e t o
fee l better and stronger and y ou will have goo d
,

sleep at night .
B ER NH EIM S ’
M E TH OD .

39

A nd so it proves . B ernheim or a p upi l of his
would sit or p erhaps stand near h is pat ient and
, , ,

i n a qu iet b ut fi rm voice t alk o f sleep .

S leep i s what yo u n eed S l eep is h elp ful and .

wil l d o you go od A lready , whil e I am talking
.

t o you yo u are beginning to feel d rowsy You r
, .

eyes are t i red ; you r lids are d roop ing ; yo u are
growing m ore an d m ore sl eepy ; yo u r l ids droop

more and m ore .

Then if t he eyelids seem h eavy h e presses
, ,

them down over the eyes al l the t i m e a ffirm ing ,

sleep I f sleep comes h e has su cceeded ; i f n ot
.
, ,

h e resort s t o gest u res passes t he st eady gaz e o r
, , ,

what eve r he thi nks likely t o aid his suggestion .

When th e p atient i s asleep he suggest s that
whe n s h e awakes he r pain s an d n ervou sness wil l
b e gon e an d that she will have qu ie t and refresh
,

ing sl eep at n ight What i s the condition o f th e
.

pat ient while u nder t he i nfl u en ce o f this i ndu ced
sleep ? P u lse an d resp irati o n are l ittl e i f at all , ,

changed ; they may be slightly accelerat ed at fi rst ,

an d l ater i f very deep sleep occ u rs th ey may be
, ,

slightly ret arded Temp eratu re is seldom changed
.

at all th ough i f abn ormal l y high be fo re th e sl eep
, ,

i s i nd uced i t f requ ently fa l ls du ri ng the sl eep
, .

I f th e han d be raised o r the arm b e drawn u p,

high ab ove th e head genera ll y i t wil l remai n
,
40 TE L E P A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L S EL F .

elevated u ntil i t is t ou ched and rep l aced or th e ,

pa t i ent i s t ol d that he can l et i t fall when h e ,

slow l y lowers it .

I n many cases the l imb s o f the p at ient may b e
fl exed o r th e b ody placed i n any p osition and ,

that p ositi on will b e retained for a l onger or
shorter peri od som etimes for ho urs witho u t
, ,

change S om eti mes th e con dit io n i s on e of rigid
.

i ty s o fi rm that th e head may b e placed u po n
o n e chai r an d th e h eels up on another and th e ,

b ody will remain sti ff like a bridge fro m on e
chair t o th e other , even when a heavy wei ght i s

p l aced up o n th e m i ddl e of t he p at ient s b ody o r
another p erso n i s s eat ed u pon it This i s the
.

full cataleptic condit i on .

S om eti m es th e wh ole b ody will be i n a con dit io n
of an ae sthesi a s o that n eedles may be thrust deep
,

i nt o the fl esh witho ut evoki ng any sign of pai n
o r any sensati on what eve r S ometi mes when
.
,

thi s co nditi on of an ae sthesia does n ot app ear with
th e sl eep i t may b e i nd u ced by passes or by sug
, ,

g e s t i n g that a ce rt ai n l imb o r t he whol e body
i s witho u t feeling I n this conditi on the most
.

seriou s su rgical op erations have been p e rformed
withou t th e slightest su ffering o n t he part of th e
patient .

F ro m the d eep sleep the pati en t o ften passes
42 TELE P A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L SEL F .

kn owledge or rem embrance o f anyth ing which
has t ranspired d u ri ng his hyp notic condi ti on .

This i s known as am n esia S om etim es howeve r .
, ,

a hazy recollect i on o f wh at has happ ened rem ains ,

e s p e ci a lly i f the hypnoti c c ondit io n has been only

slight .

U p t o t he p resent tim e hyp n otism has b een
st udied from two separat e and impo rtant stand
p oi nt s an d for two well d e fi n e d p u rp oses : ( 1 ) F o r
-

its therap eut i c e ff ects or its u se i n th e t reatm en t
,

o f d isease and reli ef o f pai n ; (2 ) for th e mental
o r psychical ph enom en a which i t presents .

Th e foll owin g cases will ill u st rat e i ts st udy an d
u se fro m the therapeu tic standpoint — and fi rst , ,

two cases t reated by the old m esmeri s ts 1 84 3 ,

53 . They are from rep orts pu blishe d i n Th e
Z oist
( ) !
1 .I .P a well
. kn
, own art ist fi-
fty years ago , ,

had been greatly troubled and d i s tressed by weak
an d in flamed eyes accompani ed by ulc eration o f
,

th e c orn ea a condit io n which had lasted m ore
,

than f ou r years H e was n ever free fro m th e dis
.

ease and o ften i t was s o severe as t o p revent
,

work i n h is st u di o an d especially reading fo r
, ,

m onth s at a t im e H e h ad b een u nder th e care
.

o f th e b est oc ulists b oth i n N ew York an d L o n
,

don for l on g p eri o d s and at di ff ere n t times b u t
, ,
C ASES TR E A T ED B Y EA R L Y M ESM ER IS T S .
43

with very l ittl e t emporary and n o p erm anent re
lie f .

H e was u rged as a last resort t o t ry anima l
, ,

m agnetism as i t was then called A ccord ingly
, .
,

h e consulted a mesmeri c practitioner i n L ond on ,

and was t reated by passes made over th e back o f
the head and d o wn th e sp i ne and fro m the centre
o f the forehead backward and o utward over the
t emples an d d own the sides of t he h ead .

A ll other treatm ent was disconti n u ed N o mes .

m eri c phen omena o f any kin d were produ ced not ,

even sleep b u t from the fi rst day a d egree o f
,

c om fo rt an d als o improve ment was experi enced .

The t reat men t was give n on e hou r daily for
o n e m ont h The i mp rovement was decided and
.

un interru pted su ch as had nev e r before been ex
,

e r i e n ce d u nder any form o f m edi cal or su rgical
p
t re at ment n o m atter how thoroughly carried o ut
, .

Th e general health was greatly imp roved and the ,

eyes were s o m u ch ben efited t hat they c oul d b e
relied u pon co nstantly b oth for paint in g and
,

readi ng and th e c u re was permanent
, .

(2) A case o f rheu mat ism t reat ed by D r E lli ot .

so n of L ondon Th e pat ient G F age thirty
.
,
. .
,

fi v e y ears was a laborer an d had su ffered fro m
, ,

rh eu mat ism seven weeks When h e appli ed t o.

D r E lli ot s o n th e doct or was sitti ng i n hi s o ffi ce
.
, ,
44 T E L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S U BL I M I I VA L S EL F.

i n company with three fri ends — on e a m edica l
gentleman and all skept ics regardi ng m esm erism
, .

They all however expressed a d esi re t o s e e
, ,

the t reatm ent and acc ordingly the patient was
, , ,

brou ght i n H e cam e wi th di ffi culty u po n
.
,

c rut ches h is face b et okeni ng ext rem e pain H e
, .

had never been m esmeri z ed .

The d oct or sat down opp osit e his patient to ok ,

hi s thu mbs i n h is hands and gaz ed st eadily in his
,

eyes I n twenty m in u t es h e fel l i nt o t h e m es
.

m eri c sleep S everal o f the m esm eri c phenomen a
.

were then p rodu ced in the presenc e o f his s ke p t i
cal friends after which h e was allowed t o sleep
,

u ndist u rbed for two hours N o su ggestions re .

garding his d iseas e are reported as having been
made t o th e p at ient d uring his sleep .

H e was awakened by reverse p asses B eing .

f airly arou sed he arose from his chair walked up
, ,

and down the ro om witho ut di ffi c ulty and was ,

p erfectly u nconsci ous o f al l that had transpi red
d uring his sleep h e only knew he cam e i nt o th e
room su ffering and o n c rut ches and that he was
, ,

n ow free fro m pai n an d coul d walk with ease
withou t them H e left o n e crutch with th e d oc
.

t or and wen t o ut twirl ing th e other i n h is hand .

H e remai ned perfectly wel l .

D r E lli o t s o n afterward t rie d o n th ree di fferen t
.
C A SE TR E A T E D B Y H YP N O T/S M .
45

occasi ons t o hypn ot iz e hi m but withou t su ccess .

Others also t ried bu t all attempts i n this d i rect i on
,

failed.

I will here i ntrod u c e on e o r two cases fro m my
own notebook :

( )
I A C . a yo
. u ng
,
girl o f I rish parentage ,

fi fteen years old light skin dark hai r an d eyes
, , ,

an d heavy eyeb rows H er father had fi ts for .

several years p revio u s t o h is d eath I fi rst saw .

the patient D e c 4 1 8 7 2 ; t hi s wa s fi ve years b e
.
,


fore Charcot s experiments an d n early t en years ,

b efore th ose of B ernheim .

S he was t hen having frequ ent epilept ic attacks ,

charact eri zed by su dden loss o f co nsci ousn ess ,

c onvu lsions foam ing at t h e mo uth biting th e
, ,

t ongu e and dark col or S he had her fi rst attack
,
.

six m o nths before I s aw her and they had i n ,

creased i n frequ en cy and i n severity u ntil n ow
they o ccurred twe nty o r m ore ti mes a day som e ,

t imes lasti ng m any min ut es and someti mes only ,

a few seco nds ; som et imes they were o f ve ry great
severity .

S h e had received many falls b u rns and bru ises , ,

i n conseque nce o f t hei r su dden accessi on They .

o ccu rred b ot h day and n i ght O n my second visit .

I determined to t ry hyp notism P atient went t o .

sleep i n ei g ht m i n ute s slept a sh o rt t im e a nd,
46 TELE P A TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IM INA L SEL F .

awoke wi tho ut i nterferen ce S he was i mm e .

d i a t e ly p u t t o sleep again ; she slep t only a fe w
mi nu tes an d agai n awoke
, .

D E C 7 —H er friends rep ort that the attacks
. .

have n ot been s o frequ ent and n ot n early so vi o
l ent since my last visit Hyp noti z ed ; p atien t .

went i nt o a p ro fou nd sl eep and remained o n e
h ou r ; s h e was then a wakened by reverse passes .

D E C 8 — The attacks have been still less fre
. .

qu ent an d severe ; sh e has slep t qu ietly ; app etit e
goo d H ypn otiz ed and all owed her t o sleep two
.

hou rs an d then awoke her by the u pward p asses
, .

D E C 9 — There has bee n still m ore m arked i m
. .

p rovem ent ; the attacks have been very f ew n one ,

lasting m ore than hal f a mi n u te Hypn otiz ed .

and allowed he r t o rem ai n asleep thre e h ou rs .

A woke h er with som e di fficulty an d sh e was still ,

som ewhat d rowsy when I l eft S h e went t o sleep .

i n th e afterno on and slept sou ndly fou r h ou rs ;
awoke an d at e her supper ; went t o sleep agai n
an d sl ept sou ndly a ll n ight .

D E C 1 0 — There has b een n o retu rn of the a t
. .

t acks A m onth lat e r sh e had had n o ret u rn of
.

t h e att acks S he soon aft er l eft t own an d I have
.
,

n ot heard o f h er sin ce I n this case no s u gg e s
.

t i on s what ever were m ade .

2 ) B X twenty fo u r years o f age a sp ort i ng
( . .
,
-
,
A L C H H O L I S M — I I Y P N O TI C S UG G ES T IO N 47

man obsti nate i ndepen dent sel f willed a leader
, ,
-
,

i n his circle H e had been a hard d ri nker from
.

boyhood H e had bee n inj u red by a fa ll three
.

years before and had been subj ect t o severe
,

attacks o f h ae mat em esis I had known h im for
.

three or fo u r m onths p revi ou s t o J u ne 1 8 9 1 A t , .

that t i m e h e came i nt o my o ffi ce on e even ing
somewhat u nde r th e i nflu ence o f alcoholic s t i m u
lan ts A ft er talking a few m om ents I advised
.
,

him t o li e down on the l ou nge I m ade n o t e .

marks abou t hi s drinki ng nor abo u t sleep I , .

si mply took hi s two th u mbs i n my hands an d sat
qu i etly beside h i m P resently I made a few l ong
.

passes from head t o f eet and i n five m i nu tes h e
,

was fast aslee p .

H is h an ds an d arm s o utst ret ch ed an d raised
,

high u p remained exactly as they were p l aced
, .

S evere pin chi ng eli cit ed no sign o f sensatio n .

H e was i n the d eep hyp not i c sleep .

I t hen sp oke t o him i n a d isti nct and deci ded
man ner I t old hi m he was ru i ning his li fe an d
.

makin g his family very u nhappy by hi s habi t o f
i ntemperance I then t old him very decidedly
.

that whe n h e awoke h e would h ave no m ore d e
si re for alcoholi c stim ulants o f any ki nd that he
would look up on them all as his enem ies an d h e ,

wo ul d refu se them u nder all circu mst ances ; that
48 T EL EP A TH Y A N D TH E S UB L IMINA L S EL F
.

even the sm ell o f them w oul d b e di sagreeabl e t o
him I rep eated th e s uggesti ons an d then awoke
.

hi m by making a few p asses u pward over hi s face ,

I d id not i n form hi m that I had hypnotiz ed hi m ,

n or speak t o hi m at all abo u t h is habit of dri nk
i ng I p rescribed for som e ailmen t for which h e
.

had visited m e and he went away .

I n either saw n or heard fro m hi m agai n for
three m onths wh en I received a letter fro m him
,

fro m a distan t c ity in form ing m e that he had not
,

d rank a d rop of spirit u ou s liqu o r si n ce he w a s i n
my o ffic e that n ight H is h ealth was perfect .
,

and he had n o m ore vom iti ng o f blo od .

J une 1 8 9 2 o n e year from the t im e I had
, ,

hyp not ized hi m h e came i nt o my o ffice i n
,

splendid c ondition H e h ad d rank nothing du r .

i ng the whole year I have not heard from him .

si nce .


The following case illu st rat es B ernh ei m s
m eth od
Mlle J t eacher th i rty tw o y ears ol d cam e t o
. .
, ,
-
,

t he cli niqu e F eb 1 7 1 8 8 7 fo r ch orea o r S t
, .
, , , .


Vit u s s dance N early two weeks previous sh e
.

had b een roughly repriman ded by her su p eri or
which had greatly a ffect ed h er S he c ou ld scarcely .

sleep or eat ; she had n ausea p ricking sensati ons ,

i n both arms d eliri u m at times and n ow i n ce s
, ,
TELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L SE LF
5 0 .

m ostly n eu ralgic an d rheumat ic most o f which
,

are d escrib ed as cu red either qu ickly or by re
,

p e a t e d hypn oti z atio n an d suggesti on .

Th e Zoist a j ou rnal d evoted t o psychology and
,

m esmerism n early fi fty years ago gives severa l ,

h u nd red cases of t reat ment and c u re by the early
m esmerists som e o f them very remarkable an d
, ,

also m any cases of su rgical op erati ons of the m ost
severe o r dangero u s charact er pai nlessly don e
u nder the an ae sthet ic i nfl u ence o f m esmerism b e
fore the benign e ffects o f ether or chloroform were
kn own These cases are n o t o ften referred t o by
.

the m odern stu d ent o f hypnotism N evertheles s .
,

they c onstit u t e a st oreh ou se o f well obse rved -

fa cts which h ave an i m mense i nterest an d val ue .

I t will thu s b e seen that th ro ugh out t he whol e
hist o ry o f hypnot ism u nder whatever n am e it
,

has been stu died on e o f its chi ef feat ures h as
,

been its p ower t o relieve su ff ering an d cu re
d isease and at th e p resent day wh ile many phy
,

s i c i a n s wh o are qu it e ign orant o f its u ses in gen
,

eral term s deny it s pract i cability f ew who have,

any real k nowledge o f i t are so u nj u st o r regard
l ess o i fact s as t o d eny its th erap euti c e ffects .
C H AP T E R III .

H YP N O T I S M — P SY C H I CA L A SP E CT .

A before remarked th e p henom en a o f h y p n o t
S

i sm m ay b e viewe d from two disti n ct standp oint s
— one that fro m which t he p hysi cal an d esp e
,

c i a lly th e therapeutic feat u res are m ost p rominent ,

the standp oi nt fro m which we h ave already vi ewe d
the subj ect th e o ther is th e p sychi cal o r m ental
aspect which p resent s p henom en a n o l ess strik
,

i ng and is th e o ne which is esp ecially att ract iv e
,

t o th e m ost e arnest st u dents o f p sychology .

The hypn ot i c c onditi o n h as b een variou sly
divided and subdivided by di fferent st u dent s and
d i ffe rent writ ers u p on th e su bj ect ; C h a r i co t for ,

i nstance makes three di sti n ct states which h e
, ,

designates ( 1 ) catalepsy ( 2 ) lethargy and ( 3) som
, ,

n a m b u li s m while B ernhei m p rop oses five st at es
, ,

or as he d esignat es them d egree s o f hypnotism
, , ,

namely ( 1) sleepi ness, (2 ) light s l eep ( 3) deep
, ,

sleep (4) very deep sleep ( 5) somnamb ulism
, , .

A ll t hese d ivi sion s are arbit rary an d u nnat u ral ;
5 1
5 2 TELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S U B L IM INA L S EL F .


B ernhei m s five degrees have n o defi nit e l imit or
l ine of s eparat io n on e from the other and Char ,

cot s con dition o f cat alepsy i s only lethargy or

sleep i n which the su bj ect m ay t o a greater o r ,

l ess degree mai ntai n the p osit ion i n whi ch h e i s
,

placed by h is hyp not izer .

There are h owever as al ready stat ed two di s
, , ,

ti nct an d d e fin it e conditions namely ( 1) lethargy , , ,

or th e i n active st age and (2) som namb ul ism o r , ,

the alert stage and i f i n exam ini ng the s ubj ect
, , ,

we make this simple division we shal l fre e i t from ,

m u ch c on fusion an d u n necessary verbiage .

Whe n a subj ect i s hypnotiz ed by any sooth ing
p rocess h e fi rst exp eri en ces a sensat io n o f d ro ws i
,

n ess and then i n a spac e o f tim e u sually varying
, ,

from two t o twen ty m i nut es h e falls i nt o a m ore ,

or l ess p rofou n d slu mber H i s breathing i s full .

an d qu iet his p ulse n ormal he i s u nconsci o us o f
,

his su rrou nd ings ; o r p ossibly h e m ay b e qu iet ,

rest ful indisp osed t o m ove b u t having a c o n
, ,

s c i o u s n e s s probably di m and imperfect o f what is
, ,

goi ng o n abou t hi m .

This is the conditi on o f l ethargy and i n it m ost ,

subj ect s but n ot all retai n t o a greater or less
, ,

degree what ever positio n the hyp noti zer i mp oses
u po n them they sleep on often maintaining ,

what u nder ordi nary circu mstan ces would b e a
, ,
TH E A L E R T S TA GE OF H YP NO T ISM 53

most u n com fo rt ab l e position for h ou rs m oti on
, ,

less as a statu e o f bronze o r st one .

I f n ow he speak s o f his own accord or his
, , ,

m agnetiz er sp eaks t o him an d he repl ies h e is i n ,

the somnambu lic or alert stage H e may open .

h is eyes talk i n a cl ear an d animate d manner ; h e
,

may walk ab out an d s how even m ore i ntellect ual
,

acu teness and physical act ivity than when i n his
n ormal state o r h e m ay m erely n od assent o r
,

answer sl owly t o h is hyp noti zer s qu esti ons ; ’

still he i s i n th e somn amb uli c or alert stage o f
,

hypnotism .

Th e following are som e o f th e ph enomen a
which have been observe d i n t his stage I t is n ot .

n ece ssa ry t o rehearse t he st ock performan ces of
lect ure room hyp notists While under th e i n fl u
-
.

ence o f hypnoti c suggestio n a lad for i nst an ce i s , ,

m ade t o go through th e pant omim e o f fi shing i n
an imaginary brook a dignifi ed man t o canter
,

arou nd the stage o n al l fou rs u nder the i mpres ,

si on that h e i s a p ony or watch an i maginary
,

m o use hole i n the most alert and int erested m an
-

n er while believi ng hi mself a cat or th e subj ect
i s mad e t o take c astor oil with every exp ressio n
o f delight or rej e ct t he ch oicest win es with d is
,

gust b eli eving them t o b e nau seous d rugs or
, ,

stagger with d run k enn ess u nder t he i nfluence
54 T EL EP A TH Y AN D TH E S U BL I I II I N A L SELF .

o f a glass o f p u re water supp osed t o be ,

whisky .

A ll the s e t hings have been d on e over and ove r
for t he last forty years and p eople have n ot
,

known whethe r t o consi der t he m a sp ecies o f
n ecromancy or well practiced t ricks i n which the
-
,

p erforme rs were acc o mpli ces or p erh aps a few
, , ,

more tho ught ful an d better inst ruct ed people -

have l ooked u pon t hem as i nvolvi ng p sych ol o gical
p roblems of the great est interest which might ,

som e day strongly i nfl u ence all ou r systems of
m ental philosophy .

B ut whether d one by th e m esm erist of forty
y ears ago or t he hyp notist o f th e past de cad e ,

they were identi cal i n charact er and were simply ,

genu ine examples of th e great p ower of s u gge s
t i on when ap pli e d t o persons u n der th e m esm eric
or hypnot i c i nfl u ence S u ch exhibiti ons however
.
, ,

are u nn ecessary and u n d i g ni fi e d i f n ot p ositively ,

degrad ing t o both su bj ect an d op erat o r whether
, ,

given by the self styled p ro fessor o f th e t own hall
- -

plat form o r th e aspiri ng cl in ical p ro fessor o f n erv
o u s d iseases before h is packed am ph ith eat re o f
adm iring st u dents .

On e o f th e m ost singu lar as well as i mport ant
p oints i n c on nect ion with hypnotism is the rap
p ort o r relatio nship whi ch exists between the hyp
R A P P OR T .
55

no t i z e r and the hypnoti z ed subj ect The m anner .

i n which t he hypn oti c sleep is i nd uced is of l ittle
i mport ance The i mport an t thing if resul ts o f
.
,

any kind are to be obtai ned i s that rapport shou l d ,

be established .

This relati onshi p i s exhibited i n vari ou s ways .

Generally whil e i n the hyp notic st at e t he subj ect
, ,

hears n o voice but that of his hyp notiz er ; h e do es
n o bidding b ut his h e receives n o suggest io ns bu t
,

from him an d n o o ne else can awaken hi m from
,

his sleep .

I f an othe r person i nterferes t rying t o i mpos e ,

his infl uence u pon the sl eep in g subj ect or att em pt s ,

t o waken him dist ressing and even alarming r e
,

s u lt s may appear Th e degree t o which this rap
.

po rt exists varies great ly i n di ff erent cases b u t ,

almost al ways p erhaps we shou l d say always th e
, ,

con dition exist s i n som e degree I n som e rare .

cases this rapp ort i s o f a st ill higher and m ore
startlin g characte r exhibiting phen om en a s o con
,

t ra ry t o o r rather so far exceedin g o u r u su al ex
, , ,

p e r i e n c e as t o b e a su rp rise t o all and a p u z zle to
the wisest .

O ne o f t hese c u ri o u s phe nom ena i s wel l ex
h i b i t e d i n what is known as com mu nity o f sensa
tion or the perception by th e subj ect o f sensa
,

t io n s experienced by t h e operator The f ol l ow .
56 T ELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L SEL F .

i ng experi ment observed by M r Gu rn ey and D r
,
. .

Myers o f the S oci ety for P sy chi cal Research wil l ,

i llu st rat e this phase o f the su bj ect .

The sensit ive i n thi s experi m en t i s d esignated
as M r C and the op erat or as M r S There was
. .
, . .

n o contact o r any com m un icati o n whatsoever o f
th e ordinary kind between them C was hy p n o . .

t i z e d b ut was not in formed o f the nat u re o f th e
,

experi men t which was t o b e tri ed Th e op erato r .

stood behi nd the hyp noti zed subj ect an d Mr , .

Gu rn ey standing behin d the op erat or hand ed
, ,

hi m the di fferent s ubstances t o be u sed i n th e ex
p e ri m e n t an d h e i n t u rn place d t hem i n his own
, , ,

m o uth .

S al t was fi rst so tasted by th e operator where ,

u po n the subj ect C inst antly and lou dly cried
,
.
,

ou t : What s t hat salt st u ff ?’
S ugar was given .


C replied
. S weet er ; n ot s o bad as before
, .

P owdered ginger ; reply H ot dries up you r , ,

m ou th ; remin ds m e o f m ustard S ugar given .


agai n reply A little bett er— a sweet ish t aste
, .

Other substances were tried with si milar result s , ,

the last o ne t aste d bei ng vi negar when it was ,

fou nd th at C had fallen i nto th e d eeper lethargi c
.

c onditi o n and m ad e n o reply .

A n othe r experim ent i s rep orted by D r William .

A H a mmond o f Washin gt on Th e d octor said
. .
58 T EL EP A TI I Y AN D TH E S UB L IM INA L SE L F .

an d while ill ustrati ng sti ll fu rther the rappo rt or ,

cu rio u s relat ionship exi st ing between hypnot izer
,

an d subj ect are a l so il l ust rat ions o f th e rarer
,

psychic phen om ena of hyp notism .

The fi rst serie so f experi ments is give n by P rof .

P ierre J anet of H avre and D r Gibert a p romi nent .
,

physician of th e sam e ci ty The subj ect was .

M me B a h eavy rather st olid m iddle aged peas
. .
, , ,
-

an t woman withou t any ambi tion for n oto ri ety
, ,

o r t o b e kn own as a s ensit ive ; on the co nt rary ,

sh e d isliked it an d th e experi ments were disagree
,

able t o her S he was h owever an excel lent ex
.
,

ampl e o i close rapp ort with her hypnoti zer .

While i n the d eep sl eep and perfect l y i nsen ,

sibl e t o o rdi nary stimuli however vi olent contact
, , ,


o r even the p roxi m ity of her hyp not i zer s hand ,

c au sed contractu res which a l ight tou ch from hi m
,

would also rem ove N o one else co uld produ c e
.

t he slightest e ffect A ft er abou t te n m i nut e s i n
.

this deep t ranc e sh e u sually passed i nt o th e alert ,

o r somnambulic st age from which also no on e b ut
,

t he operato r co ul d aro u se her H ypn ot i zation .

was di ffi cult o r im p ossible u nless th e o p erato r con
c e n t r a t e d his thou ghts u po n t he de s ired result ,

b u t by si mply willing withou t passes o r any phys
,

ical means whatsoever t he hyp n oti c c onditi o n ,

coul d b e qu ickly i nd u ced .
H YP N O TI Z A TI ON A T A D IS TA NC E .
59

Vari ou s experiments i n simply willing post hyp -

n o t i c acts without su ggesti o n t hrough any of th e
,

ordin ary channels o f com m u ni cation we re also ,

perfectly successful D r G ibert then mad e three
. .

experiments i n p utt ing this subj ect t o sl eep when
s h e was i n anoth er part o f the t own a third o f a ,

mil e away from th e op erato r an d at a t im e fi xed
,

by a t hi rd p erson the experi men t also being
,

who ll y u nexpect ed by the subj ect .

On two o f these occasi ons P ro f J anet foun d t h e
.

subj ect i n a deep t rance t en m in utes after th e
willing t o sl eep and no one b u t D r G i bert who
,
.
,

h ad pu t her t o sleep could rou se her I n th e
,
.

third exp eriment the subj ect experien ced the
hypn otic i nfl u en ce and desire t o sleep b ut resisted ,

i t an d kept hersel f awake by washi ng her hands i n
cold water .

D u ring a seco nd seri es of exp eriments m ade
with the sam e subj ect several m e mbers o f the S o
,

c i e t y fo r P sychi cal Research were p resent an d took

an active part i n them A part fro m t rials mad e
.

i n th e sam e or an adj oining roo m twenty on e ,
-

experiments were mad e when t h e s ubj ect was at
dist an ces varyi ng from on e hal f t o three fou rths
- -

o f a m ile away from her hyp noti zer O f t hese .
,

six were reckone d as failu res o r only part ial su c
,

c esses ; th ere remai ned then fi fteen p erfect su c
, ,
60 T E L E P A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L S EL F.

cesses in which the subj ect M m e B was fou n d , . .
,

ent ranced fi fteen m i nutes aft er the willing or
mental suggesti on D uring o ne o f these e xp e ri .

m ents t he su bj ect was willed by D r G ibert t o
,
.

c o me th rough several i nte rveni ng streets t o him
at h is own hou se which sh e accom plished i n th e
,

somnamb ul ic condit io n and u n der th e observa ,

t i on of P ro f J anet an d s everal other physician s
. .

A noth er seri es o f experi ments was m ade wi th
an othe r subj ect by D r H e ricou rt on e o f P rof .
, .


Richet s coadj u t ors The experi m ents i nclu ded .

th e grad u al ext ensi on of th e distance th rou gh
which the willing p ower was su ccessful fi rst t o ,

an oth er room the n t o another street an d a distant
, ,

part of the city .

O n e day whil e att empting t o hypn otiz e h er i n
,

an othe r street three h u ndred yards distant at 3
, ,

o clock P M h e was s ud denly called away t o atten d

. .
,

a pati ent an d forgot all abo u t hi s hypn otic subj ect
,
.

A ft erward h e remembered that he was t o m eet
he r at 4 : 30 and went t o keep his appointm ent
,
.

B u t n ot fi ndi ng h er h e thought possibly the ex ,

p e ri m e n t which ,
had b een i nt erru pte d m ight ,

after a ll have p roved su ccess ful U po n th is s u p
,
.


p osition a t 5 o clock he willed h er t o awake
,
.

That eveni ng witho u t bei n g qu estion ed at all
, ,

s h e gave the following accou nt o f he rself : A t
P O S T-H Y P NO TIC S UG GES TIO NS .
61

3P . M . she
was overcome by an irresistibl e desire
t o sleep a m ost un usual thing for her at that hou r
, .

S he wen t into an adj oining roo m fell i nsensible ,

u pon a so fa where s h e was aft erward fou nd by
,

h er servant cold and motionless as i f d ead
, , .

A tt empts on th e part o f the servant t o ro u se
her proved ine ffect u al b ut gave her great di stress , .

S h e woke spo ntaneously and free from pai n at 5

o clock .

B y n o m eans the least i nteresting of the higher
phenom ena o f hyp notism are p ost hyp n oti c s u g -

gestions o r th e fulfil ment after waking of s u g
,

gestion s i m pressed u p o n the su bj ect when asleep .

A few su mmers ago at a little gatheri ng o f i n
t e lli g e n t people m u ch interest was m ani fest ed
,

and a g e n e r al d esi re t o see som e hyp not i c e xp e ri
ments A ccordingly on e o f th e ladi es whose good
.
,

sense and good faith could not b e d o ubted was ,

hyp not i z ed and p u t int o th e conditi on o f pro
fo u n d lethargy A ft er a few slight exp eriments
.
,

exhibiti ng a n ms t h e s i a hallu cinatio ns o f tast e , ,

plast ic p ose an d th e like I sai d t o her i n a d e
, ,

cided manner
N ow I am ab o ut t o waken yo u I will co unt .


five an d when I say the word fi ve y o u will
,

p romptly b u t qu ietly and witho ut any excit e
,

m e n t awake Y o u r m ind will b e perfect ly clear
, .
,
62 T ELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L SE LF .

and y ou will feel rested an d re fresh ed by yo u r
sleep P resently yo u will approach M rs C an d
. . .
,

will be att racte d by the b eaut iful shell comb
which she wears i n he r hair and yo u will a s k h er
,


t o perm it yo u t o exami ne it .

I the n com m enced c ount ing sl owly and at th e ,


word five sh e awoke open ed h er eyes ,

promptly looked bright and happy an d exp ressed
, ,

hersel f as feeling com fortable an d greatly rest ed ,

as th o u gh she had slept th rough a whole n ight .

S he rose fro m h er chai r m ingled with th e c om
,

p any an d p resentl y app roachi n g M rs O ex
,
. .
,

clai med
What a beauti ful c omb ! P l ease all ow m e to

examin e it .

A n d su it i ng th e acti o n t o th e wo rd s h e placed ,

h er han d lightly o n the lady s head exam i ned th e ’

,

co mb an d exp ressed great adm i rat ion for it ; in
,

short s h e ful filled wit h great exact ness the whol e
,

su ggesti on .

S h e was p erfect ly u nconsciou s t hat any s u g g e s
t i o n had b een m ad e t o her ; she was greatly s u r
prised t o see that sh e was th e centre of observa
t i on an d esp ecially at t h e ripple o f l aught er
,

which greeted h er adm iration o f th e com b .

To an other yo u ng lady hypn ot i zed i n like m an
,

n e r I suggested that on awaking s h e sho u ld
,
FU LFILLED A FT ER S IX T Y- TH R EE D A YS .
63

approach t h e yo ung dau ghter o f o u r hostess wh o ,

was p resent hold ing a favorit e kit t en i n he r arms
, ,


and should say t o her What a pretty ki tten ,

you have ! What is her name ?
The sugge s tio n was ful filled t o the l etter I t .

was only afterward that I learned that this yo ung
lady had a ve ry decided aversion t o cats an d ,

always avoide d them i f p ossible .

S uggestion s for p ost hyp not ic ful film ent are -

som etim es carried o u t a ft e r a c onsiderable t im e
has el apsed and up on th e p recise day su ggested
, .

B ernh ei m i n A ugu st 1 8 8 3 s uggested t o S an
, , , .
,

ol d s oldie r while i n the hypn otic sleep that upo n
, ,

the 3d o f October foll owing sixty three days after ,
-

th e su ggestion h e sh ould go t o D r L i é b ea ult s
,
.

house ; that he wo u ld there se e th e P resident o f
the Republi c who would give to hi m a m edal
, .

P rom ptly on th e d ay d esignat ed he went D r . .


L i é b e a u lt states that S cam e at o clock ; .

h e greet ed M F wh o met hi m at the do or as h e
. .
,

cam e in and then went t o the left sid e o f t he
,

o ffi ce with out payi ng any att enti o n to any on e .

D r L i e b e a u lt cont in u es

.


I s aw hi m b ow resp ect fully and h eard him

sp eak the word E xcellen ce J u s t then he held .

ou t his right hand and said Thank you r E xcel , ,

l en ce Then I asked hi m t o who m he was

.
64 TE L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S U BL IMINA L S EL F .

sp eak ing Why t o the P resid ent of th e R epu b
.

,

9
li e . H e then b owed an d a few m i nu tes l at er
,


t o ok his depart u re .

A patient o f my o wn a y ou ng m an wi th whom I
,

o ccasionally experi ment exhibits some o f the di f ,

fe ren t phases an d ph en om ena o f hyp notism i n a
rem arkabl e m anner H e goes qu ickly int o th e
.

st age o f p rofo u nd lethargy ; after all owing hi m
t o sleep a few mom ents I say t o him : N ow yo u
,

can open yo u r eyes an d yo u can s e e and talk wit h
m e b u t yo u are st ill asleep and yo u wi l l rem em
, ,


ber n othi n g .

H e op en s his eyes at o nce smiles get s up an d , ,

walks an d chats i n a l ively mann er I f I say :
,
.

Now y ou are i n the deep sl eep again an d p ass ,

my h an d downward before h is eyes im mediately ,

his eyes close an d h e i s i n a p rofo u nd sl umber .

I f five seconds later I again s ay N ow you can ,

open you r eyes h e is agai n imm ediately i n th e
,

alert stage .

F o r experi ment I th en t ake h al f a d o z en plai n
bl ank card s exactly ali ke an d i n on e c orn er o f
, ,

o n e o f the c ards I p ut a m in u t e d ot so that up on ,

close i nsp ecti on it can be recogni z ed H oldi ng .

th ese i n my han d I s a y t o h im
,

H ere are s i x cards ; fi ve o f them are bl ank ,

b u t thi s on e ( th e o n e I have m ar k ed he only s e e ,
66 T E L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S U B L IMINA L SE LF .

delight ful sleep I sit at my des k ; h e walks u p
.

t o it exami n es the si x cards which are lying
,

there selects on e and showing i t t o m e remarks
, , , ,

“ ’
Th ere i s y ou r pi ct u re I t was th e sam e .

m arked card .

O n an other o ccasi on wh ile h e was asleep and ,

i n th e alert stage M rs M was present I in tro ,
. . .

d u c e d h er an d he spoke t o he r wit h perfect p ro
,


p ri e t y . A fterward I said : N ow I will awake ,

yo u b u t yo u will only see m e M rs M yo u will
, . . .


n ot see at all .

I then awo k e him as u su al H e comm enced ,
.

talking t o me i n a per f ectly nat u ral and u n re
strained mann er M rs M stood by my sid e b e . . .

twee n hi m an d myself bu t h e pai d n ot th e ,

slightest att ent io n t o her ; s h e then withdrew an d ,

I remarked i ndi ff erently
Wasn t it a l ittle peculiar o f yo u n ot t o speak


t o Mrs M b efore sh e went out ?
. .


S p eak t o M rs M l he exclaim ed with evident
.
,


s u rpri se I did not know she had been i n th e
.


room .

On e day when D rs L i é b e a u lt a n d B ernhei m .

were t ogeth er at thei r clinic at the h ospital D r , .

L i é b e a u lt suggest ed t o a hypn oti zed pati ent that
wh en sh e awoke s h e wo ul d n o longer see D r .

B ernh eim b u t that she wou ld recogniz e h i s hat
, ,
N E GA TI VE S U G GES TION 67

wo uld p ut it o n he r h ead an d o ffe r t o t ake it t o
,

hi m .

Whe n s h e awoke D r B ernheim was standing,
.

i n front o f h er S he was asked . Where i s D r .


B ernhei m ? S he replied : H e is gone bu t ,

here is his hat .


D r B ernheim then said t o h er
. H ere I am , ,

madam ; I am not gon e yo u recogni z e m e p er , ,


fe ct ly .

S he was silent taking not th e slight est notic e
,

o f him S om e on e else addressed her ; she re
.

plied with p erfect prop riety F inally whe n .
,

abo ut t o go o ut s h e t o ok u p D r B e rnh ei m s .

h at p u t it o n her head saying sh e woul d take
, ,

it t o h i m ; bu t t o her D r B ernheim was n ot .

present .

To the n u mber of c uriou s phenomena both ,

physical and m en tal con nected with hyp not ism
, ,

i t i s di ffi cult t o fi nd a limit ; a few others seem
t o o i mpo rtant i n their bearing u p on th e su bj ect
t o be omitted even i n thi s hasty su rvey
,
.

S om e c u ri ou s exp eri m ents i n the p rodu cti on o f
local anaesthesia were observed by the com m itt ee
o n m esm erism from the S o ciety for P sychical
Research .

Th e subj ect was i n hi s n ormal conditio n an d
b l indfolded ; h i s arms were t hen passed thro ugh
68 TELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM IN A L SEL F .

h oles i n a t hi ck paper screen extending i n front
,

o f hi m an d far above his he ad and h i s t en fi n ,

gers were sp read ou t up o n a table Two of th e .

fi ngers we re t he n silently pointed ou t by a thi rd
p erson t o M r S th e operat or who proceeded to
. .
, ,

m ake passes over the designat ed fingers .

Care was taken that su ch a distan ce was main
t a i n e d between th e fi nge rs o f the subj ect and

operato r that n o c ontact was p ossible and n o ,

c u rrent s o f ai r or sensation of h eat were p ro
d u c e d by which th e su bj ect might p ossibly d ivin e
which o f h is fi ngers were th e su bj ect of e x p e ri
m ent I n short t h e st rict est t est c on diti on s i n
.
,

ev e ry parti cu lar were observed
, A fter the
.

p asses had been conti n u ed for a m i nut e o r even ,

l ess tim e th e operator sim ply hold ing hi s own
,

fi ngers p oint ed downward t oward the d esignat e d
fi ngers o f the subj ect th e two fi ngers so t reat ed
,

were fou n d t o b e p erfect l y sti ff an d i nsensibl e .

A strong cu rrent o f electricity wo u nding wit h ,

a poi nted instru m ent b urning with a m atch all —
,

failed t o eli cit the slight est sign o f pai n o r dis
com fort whi le the slightest i nj u ry t o th e u n m a g
,

n e t i z e d fi ngers qu ickly elici ted cri es an d p rot ests .

When t ol d t o d ou bl e u p his fi s t the tw o magnet
i z e d fin gers remained rigi d and i mm ovabl e an d ,

u tt erl y refu sed t o be fold ed up with th e others .
INA NIM A TE OB/E C TS M A GN E TI Z E D .
69

A series o f on e hu ndred an d sixty exp erim ent s
of this charact er was m ad e with five d i fferent s u b
O f these o n ly seven were failu res I n
j e c.t s , .

another series o f fo rty one expe ri ments this cu riou s
-

fact was observed I n all these exp eriment s th e
.

op erator whil e making the p asses i n the same
,

man n er and u nder th e sam e co nditions as i n the
former seri es silently willed th at the e ff ect should
,

n ot follow ; t hat is that insensibility an d rigidity
,

shou ld not occu r I n thi rty s i x o f these e x p e ri
.
-

m ents insensibility did n ot occu r ; i n fi ve cases
the insensibility an d rigidity o ccurred — i n two
cases p er f ectly i n three imperfectly
, .

That som e q uality i s i mpart ed even t o inanim at e
obj ects by som e mesmeri zers by passes o r h a n d li ng
, ,

through which a sensit ive o r subj ect i s abl e t o
recogni z e and select that obj ect fro m a m ong m any
others seems t o b e a well est ablished fact The
,
-
.

following exp eri ment s are i n p oi nt
A gentlem an well kn own t o th e c omm itte e
o f i nvestigation ,
and who was equ al l y i nt e r
e s t e d with it i n sec u ring reliab l e results was se ,

le ct e d as a subj ect H e was accustom ed t o b e
.

hypn oti z ed by the operator bu t i n t he p resent
,

case he remained p erfectly i n hi s n ormal c on
d iti on .

On e m ember o f th e comm ittee t ook th e subj ect
7 0 T E L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SEL F .

i nt o a s e p ara t e room o n another fl o or and engaged
him cl o sely i n conversati on The O p erato r r e .

m ain ed with other m emb ers o f t he com m it tee .

Ten sm all mi scellan eo u s articl es su ch as a piec e ,

o f sealing wax a p enkn ife pap e rweight card case
, , ,
-
,

p ocketbook an d simi lar articles we re scatt ered
,

u pon a t abl e On e was d esignated by th e com
.

m i t t e e over which th e m esmerist made p asses
, ,

sometim es with light con tact .

This w a s c ont in u ed for o ne or two mi nu t es an d ,

when the p rocess was comp let ed the m esm eri st
was co nd u cted o u t and t o a t hird room Th e .

art icles were the n rearranged i n a m anner qu it e
d i ff eren t from that i n whi ch they had been le ft by
th e operato r and th e s ubj ect from th e floor above
,

was b rought int o the room The several obj ect s
.

were then exam ined by th e s ensit ive who up o n ,

taking th e m esm eri zed obj ect i n hi s han d ,

i mmediat ely recogni zed i t as th e on e t reate d by
hi s m esm eri zer .

The exp eriment was then vari ed by u sing te n
small vol u m es exactly alike O n e vol u m e was .

sel ected by the com mittee over which the op er ,

ator simply made passes with o u t any c ontact
whatsoeve r Three o r fo u r other volu m es o f th e
.

s e t were a ls o handled an d p asses m ade over them

b y a m emb er of th e c omm i tte e .
MA GNE TIZ ED WA T ER DE TE C TED .
71

The op erato r the n being excl u ded the sensitive
,

was bro ught i n and immediat ely sel ected th e
magneti zed vol u m e This he di d fou r t i mes i n
.

su ccessio n I n reply t o the qu est i on as to h ow
.

h e was abl e t o disti ngu ish the m agnet i z ed o b j ect
fro m others h e said th at when he t ook th e right
,

obj ect i n hi s hand h e experi enced a m ild t ingling
sensatio n .

My own experi ments wit h magn eti z ed wate r
have p resent ed sim ilar resu lts The wat er was
.

t reat ed by si mply holding th e fi ngers o f both
hands brought together i n a clump for abo ut a ,

mi n ute j u st over th e c up of wat er b ut withou t any
,

contact whatsoever Thi s wat er was then given
.

t o t he subj ect with ou t her kn owing that s h e was
taking part i n an exp eri ment ; b ut altern ating
i t or givi ng it i rregularly with wate r which had
n ot been s o t reated and given by a th i rd p erson
, ,

i n eve ry case th e magneti zed water was at once
d etecte d wi th great certai nty I n describing
.

the sensati o n p rod u ced by the magnet i z ed water
on e pati ent sai d th e sensati on was an agreeabl e
warmth and stim ulatio n up on the t ongu e ,


another that it was a sparkl e l i k e aerated
water ; i t sparkled i n her mo uth an d all the way
d own i nt o her stomach S u ch are a few am ong
.

the m u l tit u de of fact s and phen omena relatin g
7 2 TELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SELF :

t o hyp not ism They s u ffi ce t o sett l e an d m ake
.

su re som e matt ers which u nt il lately have been
l ooked upon as qu esti onable and on th e oth er
, ,

h and they b ring i nt o promi n ence others o f
,

th e great est i nterest which d em and fu rther
st udy .

A m ong th e su bj ect s wh ich may b e c onsi d ered
establish ed m ay be placed ,

( ) The reality o f th e hyp n otic conditi on
1 .

(2 ) The i n creased and u n us ual p owe r o f s ugge s
t ion over t he hypnoti z ed su bj ect .

(3) Th e u se f ulness of hypnot ism as a t hera
p e u t i c agent.

(4) The p erfect reality and natu ral as co nt rast ed ,

with sup ernat u ral charact er o f many wo nderful
,

phen om ena b oth physi cal an d psychical exhibited
, ,

i n the hypnoti c stat e .

O n the other h and m u ch rem ains fo r fu t u re
,

st udy ;
( )
1 The exact n at u re o f th e i nfl u ence wh ich
produ ces the hyp notic conditi on is n ot known .

( )
2 N either is th e nat u re of the rapp ort or
pecu liar rel ationship whi ch exists be tween th e
hypnot iz er and th e hypnot i z ed su bj ect — a relati on
ship which is som et i mes so cl ose th at the subj ect
hears n o voi ce bu t that o f h i s hypn oti zer p erceives ,

and experien ces th e sam e sensation s o f tast e ,
C H AP T E R IV .

L U CI D I TY O R C L A I R VOY A N C E .

W H I L E there is a recogni z ed standard
d o ub t e s s
o f n ormal p erception yet th e ac ut eness with which
,

sensat ion s are perc eive d by di fferent i ndivid uals ,

even i n ordinary health p asses thro ugh a wide ,

scal e o f variati on b oth ab ove an d bel ow thi s
,

standard The d i fferen ce i n th e abi lity t o s e e an d
.

recogni ze n at u ral O bj ect s signs an d i nd icati ons
, , ,

between th e o rdi nary c ity d eni zen and fo r ,

i nstance the A m erican I n dian o r th e whit e
,

front iersm an h u nt er o r scout is som ethi ng mar
, , ,

v e llo u s .

S o also
,
regarding th e p ower t o distingu ish
,

colors O n e p erson m ay n ot b e able t o dist in
.

gu ish even th e simple or p ri m ary col ors as fo r , ,

examp l e red f rom bl u e o r green while the we a v
, ,

ers o f Cent ral o r E astern A si a d istingu ish with
cert ai nty two h u nd red or three h u nd red sh ades
whi ch are entirely u ndistingu ishabl e t o ordinary
West ern eyes .

74
E X TR E M ES OF P I T CH N OT H EA R D .

75

S o of s ou n d On e ear can hardly b e sai d t o m ake
.

any distinct i o n whatever regarding pit ch while ,

t o an other the slight est variati on is p erfectly p er
c e p t i b le
. S ome even d o n ot h ear at a ll so un ds
above or below a certai n p itch ; som e p erson s o f
o rdinary hearin g withi n a certai n range o f pitch ,

nevertheless have n ever heard t he song o f th e
,

canary bird an d p erhap s h ave lived t hrough a
,

l arge porti on o f their lives w ithout even kn owing
that it was a song bi rd at all I ts song wa s above
-
.

the range o f their hearing S om e never h ear the .

soun d o f th e piccolo o r octave fl u t e while others
, ,

m iss ent i rely the l owest n otes o f the organ .

There is the sam e great di fferen ce i n percept i on
by tou ch taste and sm ell I n certai n c on ditions
, , .

of d isease accompanied by great d epressi on o f
,

th e vital forces this deviation from n orm al per
,

c e p t i o n is greatly increased I have had a p atien t
.

who presen ted the following b ri e fly o utl ined phe -

momen a
A fte r a l ong ill ness d u rin g which other i nt er
,

est ing psychi cal ph en omena were ma n i fest ed as ,

co nvalescence progressed I had occasio n t o n ot ice
,

i nstan ces o f s up ernormal percepti on and t o t est ,

it I m ade u s e o f th e following expedient : Taking
an old fash ioned copper cent I carefully envel
-
,

oped i t i n a piec e of ord in ary tissu e paper Thi s .
7 6 T E L EP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L SE LF.

was then covered by another an d then another ,

u ntil t he coi n had acqu ired six complet e e n v e
l op es o f t he pape r an d form ed a little fl at parcel
, ,

easily held i n the pal m o f my hand .

Taking th is wi th m e I visited my pat ient S he
, .

was lying upo n a so fa an d as I en tered th e room
,

I t ook a chai r and sat leis u rely down beside h er ,

havi ng the l ittl e package cl ose i n th e palm o f my
right hand I t ook her right hand i n mi ne i n
.

s u ch a man ner t hat the little package was betwee n
ou r hands in close contact with her palm as well
as my own I rem arked u pon t he weather an d
.

commence d the rou t in e duty o f fee l ing her p u l se
with my left hand A m in u te o r two was t hen
.

passed i n banter and conversati on designed to ,

tho roughly engage her att ent ion when all at on ce
,

sh e c ommenced t o wipe her m outh with her
han dkerchief and t o sp it an d sp utter with her
t ongue and lip s as i f t o ri d h ersel f o f som e o ffen
,

sive t ast e o r sub stan ce S he then looked u p s u s
.

p i c i o u s ly at m e and said
I wonder what y o u are d oi ng with m e n ow .

Then su dd enly pulli ng he r han d away from
m in e s h e exclaimed :

I know w hat i t is ; yo u have p u t a nasty p iece

o f copp er in my hand .

T hrou gh a ll th e se coverin gs th e co ppery eman a
EXA L T A T I OI V O F P ER CE P TIVE P OW RS E .

77

t ion from th e coi n had p enetrat ed her system ,

reached h er t ongu e and was perceptible t o h er
,

supernormal t ast e .

This pati en t co u ld dist ingu ish with absolut e

cert ai nty m esm eri zed water from that which
had not b een so t reated my fi nger also pointed , ,

at he r eve n at a dist ance an d when her back was
t urned t o m e caused convulsive action and th e ,

sam e result followed whe n th e exp eri ment was
m ade th rough a closed d oor and when s h e di d
,

n ot suspect that I was in the n eighbo rho od .

I t will b e seen then h o w marvellously t h e acti on
, ,

of cert ai n senses m ay b e exalted by long and care
ful t raining o n the one hand and suddenly by ,

d isease on th e other We have seen m oreover
.
, ,

h ow som e p ersons kn o w n as sensitives are able
t o receive impressions by thought t ransferen ce so -

as t o name cards repeat words an d fi ctit iou s
,

names b oth o f person s an d places m erely thou ght
, ,

o f bu t not spoken by another p erson known as

as the agent o r operator an d t o d raw di agrams
,

u nmistakably l ike those formed in the mind o r
i nt ently looked up on by th e agent .

We have also see n h ow the hypnotiz ed o r m es
m e r i z e d s ubj ect is abl e t o detect obj ects whi ch
have only been t ouched or handled by the m es
m eri z e r and even t o feel pai n i nflicted upo n him
, ,
78 TELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IM INAL SE LF .

an d recognize by taste substances p ut i n the m e s
m e ri z e r s mouth

.

I t will be seen then that n ot only increased
, ,

bu t entirely supernormal p ercept ion on the part o f
som e i ndividu als is a well est ablished fact B u t
-
.

a ll the s e conditions of i ncreased p ower o f percep

t i on an d especially th ou ght t ransferen c e m ust
,
-
,

b e care fully distingu ished fro m ind ep enden t clai r
voyance I t is n ot the pu rp ose o f this paper t o
.

d iscuss th e method o r philosophy o f clairvoyan ce ,

b u t simply t o call att enti on t o well au then ticat ed -

facts ill ust rating the exerc i se o f this powe r and ,

t o briefly point t o th e cu rrent theori es regard
i ng it .

A belie f i n su pernormal percepti on and e s ,

p e c i a lly i n th e clai rvoyan t vi sion is apparent i n
,

th e hist ory however meagre it may b e o f every
, ,

anci ent nation .

H ebrew h ist ory is full of i nst an ces o f i t A .

st riking exampl e i s recorded as o ccu rring d urin g
th e l ong w a r between S yria and I srael The King .

o f S yria had good reasons for su specting that i n
some man ner the King o f I srael was made a c
q u a i n t e d w ith all hi s i ntended m ilit ary operat ions ,

since h e was always p repared t o t hwart them at
every p oint A ccordingly he called t ogether his
.

chiefs and d emanded t o kn ow wh o it was among
A N C IE N T O R A C LES .
79

them who th us favored th e King o f Israel t o ,


which on e of the chiefs repli ed : I t is n on e o f
thy servan ts 0 Ki ng : bu t E lisha a p rophet that
, ,

i s i n I srael t elleth th e King of I srael th e words
,


that tho u sp eakest i n thy chamber .

P ythagoras a cent u ry before the t im e o f S oc
,

rates fou n d this faculty beli eved i n and m ad e
, ,

use of i n E gypt B abylon an d I ndia and he him
, , ,

self as the fou nder o f the early G reek philosophy
,

and c ultu re practised and taught the esot eric as
,

well as the exot eric m et hods o f acqu i ring kn owl
edge an d he is credit ed with having acqu ired by
,

esot eri c methods— i nt ernal or m ent al perception
and clai rvoyant vision — a knowledge of the t ru e
theory o f the solar system as expo u nd ed an d dem
o n s t ra t e d i n a l ater d ay by C operni cu s .

A s an example o f resp onses by th e Greek ora
cles take th e experience o f C rce s u s the rich King
, ,

o f L ydia H e sent m essengers t o ascertain i f th e
.

P ythoness co ul d t el l what h e th e King o f L yd i a
, ,

was do ing o n a cert ai n speci fi ed day The answer .

cam e :

I n u m b e r t h e s a n d s — I fa t h o m t h e s e a
.

I h e a r t h e d u mb —I kn ow th e th o ugh t s o f th e s il ent .

T h e re c o m e t h t o m e t h e o d o r o f l a m b s fl e s h

.

I t i s s e e th i n g m ixe d wi th th e fl esh o f a t ort o is e
, .

Bras s i s b e n e a th i t an d bras s s als o a b ov e it
, i ”
.

The m essenger ret u rned and d elivered th e reply ,
80 T E L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SE L F .

when he fo u nd that Cr oesu s i n o rde r t o do some ,

thing m ost u nlikely to be eithe r gu essed o r di s
covered had cu t i n pieces a lamb and a tort oise
, ,

and seethed them t ogether i n a brazen vessel
h aving a brazen cover .

A polloniu s T y a n e u s a P y t h a go ri a n p h i lo s o
,

pher and chief o f a scho ol o f phil osophy w hich
was the p redecessor o f the A lexandri an N eo
P lat onists i s credited with m ost remarkabl e clair
,

voyant p owers M any i nstances of this faculty
.

are recorded and believed upon the best o f ancient
autho rity .

One i nstance relates t o th e assassina ti on o f
D omitian A polloniu s was in the midst o f a d i s
.

cou rse at E phesus when suddenly he stopped a s
,

thou gh havi ng l o s t his trai n of thought A ft er a .


mo ment s h esitation t o th e astonishment o f h is
,


auditors he cried ou t
,
S t rike I strike th e tyrant .

S eeing the su rprise of the peopl e h e expl ained
that at the very m om en t at which he had st opped
i n hi s discourse th e tyrant was slain S u b s e .

qu ent i n formati on p roved that D omiti an the ,

reigning tyrant was assassi nated at that very
,

m om en t .

A n cient h ist orians phil osophers and poet s all
,

u nit e i n defending the t ru th o f t h e oracles and
their power o f perceiving event s t ranspi ring at a .
82 TELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L SE LF:

o ft told i ncident sho u l d be c ou nted as established
-

for a verity .

On a S at u rday afternoon i n S eptember 1 7 5 6 , ,

S wedenborg arrived i n G ottenb u rg from E ngland .

G ottenburg is three h u ndred m iles from S tock
holm which was the hom e o f S wedenborg O n
,
.

th e same evening h e was the gu est of M r Wil liam .

Caste ] with fi ft een other p ersons who were i n
, ,

v i t e d to meet him and w h o o n that acc ou n t may
, , ,

b e supp osed t o have been of m ore than o rdi nary
consequ ence an d i ntelligen ce .


A bou t six o clock S wedenborg seem ed p r e o c '

c u p i e d and restless H e w en t o ut int o the st re et
.
,

b u t soon ret u rn ed anxi ou s an d dist urbed H e
, .

sai d that at that m omen t a great fi re was raging
at S tockho l m . H e d ecl ared that the house of
one o f hi s fri ends was already destroyed and that ,


hi s own was in danger A t eight o clock he a n
.

n o u n ce d that the fi re was arrested only three
d oors from his own ho u se .

Th e in form ati on and the p ec uli ar man n er i n
,

which i t was i mparted c reat ed a great sensati on
, ,


not on ly i n t he c ompany assembled at M r Cast el s .
,

bu t througho ut the city O n S u nday m orning
.

the govern or sent fo r S wed enborg who gave him ,

a d etailed acco un t o f the c o n fl a g ra t i o n an d th e
c ou rse i t had pu rsu ed O n M onday th e third
.
,
TH E S EE R ES S OF P R O VE R S T . 83

day a cou rier arrived from S tockholm who also
, ,

gave th e governo r a d etailed acco u nt o f the fi re ,

which agreed in eve ry respect with that already
given by S wedenb org .

N early a ce nt u ry after S wedenb org lived Mm e , .

H au ff e known as the seeress o f P ro v e rs t S he
, .

died i n 1 8 2 9 at th e age o f twenty eight years -
.

A s a child s h e exhibited pecu liar psychi cal t en
d e n ci e s b ut it was only d u ri ng the last s i x years
,

o f her li fe and after exhau st ing ill nesses t hat h er
, ,

p eculi ar clairvoyant p owers were c onspicu o usly
d eveloped .

J usti nu s Kerne r an emin ent physician and man
,

o f lett ers was h er attending physi cian d u ri ng the
,

l ast three years o f her li fe and afte rward becam e
,

her biographer S he fi rst cam e u nder h is care at
.

Weinsberg i n 1 8 2 6 A t that ti me her deb ility
.

was excessive an d n early every d ay she fell spo n
,

t a n e o u s ly i nt o the somnambu lic condit io n b e ,

cam e clairv o yant and related her visi ons
, On .

th e day of her arrival at Wei nsberg having gon e ,

int o this t ranc e co nditi on she sent for Kern er ,

b u t he refused to see her u ntil s h e awoke H e .

then t old her that he wo u ld never se e her no r
list en t o her while she was i n thi s abno rmal state .

I m enti o n this si mply t o show t hat her physi cian
was n ot then at all i n sym pathy with her regard
84 TE L E P A TH Y A N D TH E S U BL I NI I N A L SE LF .

i ng h er peculiar psychol o gical condit i on though ,

afterward h e became thor o u ghly convi nced o f i ts
genu ineness and o f h er h one s ty H e relates th e .

foll owing in ci dent which with m any others cam e
, , ,

u nder his own observati on
S oo n after her arrival at Wein sberg and while ,

st ill a p erfect s tranger t o her surro u ndi ngs whi le ,

i n h er somnambuli c cond iti on sh e said that a ,

man w a s near h er and desired t o speak with he r ,

but that s h e could n ot u nder s tan d what h e wanted
t o s a y S he sai d h e squ int ed terribly an d that
.
,

his p resence d ist u rbed h er and s h e d esi red him t o
,

go away O n h is se c ond appearance s o m e w eeks
.
,

l at er s h e sai d h e brought with him a sheet of
,

paper with fi gu re s u pon i t an d that h e cam e u p
,

from a vault d i rectly u nderneath h er room .

A s a m att er o f fact the wi ne vau lts of M r F
, . .
,

a wi ne m erchan t d oi ng bu sin ess the n ext doo r ,


ext ended u nder M m e H a u ffé s apart m ent an d
.
,

Kerner who was an ol d residen t o f the plac e
, ,


recogni z ed from th e seeress s d escription o f h er
visito r a man wh o formerly was i n M r F s em . .

ploy as manager an d bookkeeper This m an had .

died s i x years be fo re an d had left som ething
,

wrong with his acco u nt s— i n fact there was a ,


defi cit o f fl o ri n s an d th e manager s p rivate
,

book was m issing The widow had been su ed
.
MME . H A UF F ES

C LAIR VO Y A NC E . 85

fo r the amou nt and the m att er wa s still u nsettled
, .

A gai n an d again di d this apparitio n com e t o M m e .

H au ff e bri nging his paper an d entreat ing h er t o
,

i nterest hersel f i n this a ff air H e d eclared that .

the nece s sary pape r t o clear up th e whol e matt er
was i n a b u ilding sixty paces from h er bed .

M me H au ff e sai d that i n that b uilding s h e s aw
.

a t all gentl eman engaged i n writi ng in a small
ro om which op ened into a large on e where there
,

was a desk and chests ; that on e o f th e chests was
O p en and that o n th e desk was a pile o f pap ers
, ,

among which s h e recogni zed the missin g d ocu
m ent .

The wi ne m ercha n t being present recogn i zed
, ,

the o ffice of the chi ef baili ff who had the bu s i ness
,

i n charge Kern er went at once t o the o ffi ce and
.

fo u nd everything as d escribed b u t n o t fi nding , ,

the missi ng pap er c on c l u ded t hat her cla i rv o y
,

ance was at fault .

M m e H au ff e i n her d escripti on of the p aper
.
,

said it had colu mns o f figu res upon it an d at th e ,

bott o m was th e n u mber 8 0 Kern er p repared .

a paper corresp ondin g to thi s d escription and ,

at the next séance presented i t t o her as th e
m issi ng doc ument B u t s h e at once rej ect ed it
.
,

saying the paper was still wh ere she had be for e
seen i t .
86 T E L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S U B L I /II I N A L SE LF .

On rene w ing the search th e paper was fou nd as
d escribed and th e baili ff was t o bring i t o n th e
,

follo w ing day H e cam e accordingly I n he r
. .

sleep the s eeress exclaim ed
,

The paper i s n o longer i n its place bu t this is ,

wond erful The pap er which the m an always has
.

i n his hand lies open N ow I can read m ore
.


To be carried t o my p rivat e book an d that i s ,


what he al ways p oint s t o .

The baili ff was aston ished for instead o f bri ng
,

i ng the paper with him as Kern er had di rect ed h e ,

had l eft it lying open o n his desk A ll these .

things are attested by th e baili ff the wi ne m er ,

chant Kerner and others wh o witnes s ed them
, , .

Ke rner h imsel f vi sit ed th e seeress m ore than a
t ho u san d t imes and although du ring the fi r s t part
,

of his observation s he was s keptical he was n ever ,

able t o detect her i n the slight est at tempt at
decept i on S he was i n n o way elat ed over h er
.

p ec ul iar p ower o n the con trary s h e disl iked t o
, ,

speak o f it and would gladly have be en free fro m
,

i t altogether H er clai rvoyan t powers were t est ed
.

by hundreds o f excell ent observe r s d u ring t h e la s t
fou r years o f her li fe .

Th e case o f A lexis the noted F rench s o m n a m
,

b u li s t an d clairvoyant i s worthy o f n oti ce here
,
.

I remembe r very well th e accou nt o f a séance at
A L EXIS TH E FR ENCH C L AIR VO Y A N T . 87

a gatheri ng of p rominent A mericans i n P aris i n
1 8 5 3 of whi ch the foll owi n g i s an abst ract :
,

Thick masses o f c otton were bou nd fi rmly over
his eyes i n s u ch a m a nn e r as t o rend er it i mpossible
for h i m t o s e e i n the ordinary way an d in this ,

c ondition h e described pi ct u res read signat ure s
,

o f letters folded i n several e nvel opes played ,

games o f cards wit h alm ost u n i form s u ccess and , ,

b ei ng asked t o sel ect the best pianist i n the ro o m
from a numbe r p resent who simply p resent ed
,

thei r hands for his insp ection he qu ickly selected
,

a you ng man n ot yet eightee n years old who had ,

won fou r fi rst p rizes at the Conservatoire and was ,

really th e b est pi an ist o f hi s age i n E u rop e .

I n playing cards he pi cked u p t he t rick with a
rapidity and certainty which showed h ow clearly
h e knew th e p ositi on o f th e cards u p on t he t able .

Keepi ng th ose d ealt t o him i n hi s l eft hand h e
h eld the card h e i ntended t o play i n his right an d ,

n ever once changed the card u pon the play o f h is
part ner H e knew h i s adversary s hand as well
.

as his o w n Th e writer add 5
.

The cards u sed
!

were bo ught by mysel f h al f an ho u r b efo re s o
, ,

that any su s pici o n o f prepared cards w ould b e

idle an d absu rd .

I t remai ns t o n ote som e m ore recent i n
st ances re ported b y persons wel l k n ow n an d
88 TE L EP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L SELF .

sp ecially quali fied t o j udge of their t ru thfulnes s
an d val u e .

The fi rst case which I will p resent is embod ied
i n a report On t he E vi den ce of Clairvoyance ,

by Mrs H en ry S idgwick wi fe o f P ro f S idgwick
.
, .
,

fo rme rly p resid ent of th e S ociety fo r P sychical
R esearch I t was fu rnished by D r E lli ott C o u e s
. .

o f Washington D C wh ere t he i nciden t o c,
. .
,

cu rred and was aft erward i nvestigat ed by M r F
,
. .

W H Myers secretary o f th e soci ety B oth th e
. .
,
.

p ersons participating i n th e in cid ent were well
known to P ro f Co n es and were both p ersons o f
.
,

p romi nence on e M rs C b eing well known as a
, ,
. .
,

writer and l ect u rer and the other d esignated as , ,

M rs B was well known fo r her rare psychi c
. .
,

faculti es an d h er absol u t e i ntegrity .

The incident s o f t he case are simpl e and u ni m
p ortant bu t th ey have a sp ecial val u e o n acc ou n t
,

o f their clearness freedom from th e possibility of
,

external su ggest io n an d th e well known ability ,

and int egrity o f th e report er The foll owing are .

the points i n the case
I n Washi ngton D C J an uary 1 4 1 8 8 9 b e ,
. .
, , ,

twee n 2 and 3 o clock P M M rs C having bee n’
. .
, . .
,

engaged i n writing i n the Congressio nal L ibrary ,


left the b u ildin g at o cl ock an d on e or two ,

mi n ut es later wa s a t her re sidence i n D el aw are ,
0 T ELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L S EL F
9
.

what m ort ifi ed I t was a l l so plai n t o m e that I
.

had t en n otions t o one to dress mysel f an d com e
over and see if i t were t ru e bu t fi nally concl u de d ,

that a sober i nd ust riou s woman l ike yourself
,

woul d not be st u mbling arou nd at that rat e ,


and thought I d best not go on a wil d goose -

chase .

N ow what d o yo u th in k of su ch a vision as
,

that ? I s the re any possible t ruth i n it ? I feel
almost ready t o scream with laughte r whenever I
thi nk o f i t ; yo u di d loo k t oo fu n ny sp reading you r .

sel f ou t i n th e front yard Great was the fall .

t hereof I can d istinctly call t o m in d the h o u se
.

i n whi ch yo u live b u t for th e li fe of m e I c an not
,

tell wh eth er th ere are any steps from th e side
walk i nt o the yard as I s a w th em o r not
, , .


I n an swer t o M r Myers lette r of in qu i ry to
.

M rs C sh e says that th e i ncident was described
. .
,

exactly — th e d ress as c orrectly as s h e coul d have
d escribed it h ersel f There were two steps from
.

the sidewalk t o the yard an d it was on th e t op ,

on e of these two step s that M rs C st u mbl ed . . .

The mann er o f th e fall the behavi or o f th e b on ,

net an d papers an d her own sensati ons were al l
,

c orrectly d escribed .

Th e n ext case — al so embodi ed i n the sam e r e
port an d exam i n e d i n the sam e carefu l ma n n e r
C L A IR VO YA NC E I N TH E H YP NO TIC S T A TE .
91

by M r Myers— was th e exhibitio n of clairvoyant
.

p owers by a woman called J an e th e wi fe o f a ,

p itman i n the Co u nty o f D urham i n E ngl and S he ,
.

received no fees an d was averse t o being e xp er i
m e n t e d with for fear o f b ei ng ridic ul ed o r called
a witch by her as s oci ates .

S he was a parti c ularly refi n e d woman for on e
of he r class sweet gentl e wit h delicately cu t
, , ,

feat u res religious and con s cienti o u s t o a remark
,

abl e d egree S he was a m arked exampl e o f th ose
.

who i n the t ranc e condit ion coul d n ot b e i n
, ,

d u c e d by su ggestio n t o d o a wrong o r a m ean
act o r on e which s h e wou ld consider wrong i n
,

h er n ormal stat e I n her sl eep sh e was an aas
.

thetic felt hersel f quite o n an e qu ality with the
,

“ ”
operato r always spoke o f hersel f as we an d o f
, ,


her n orm al sel f as that girl The followi ng .

i nstance of h er clai rvoyance was furni s hed by
D r F wh o kn ew h er well for m any years an d is
. .
, ,

from notes taken at t he t im e
O n the m o rning o f the day fixed for th e e xp e r
i m e n t the doctor arranged with a pat ient in a
neighboring village that h e sh ould be i n a partie
ular roo m between the h ou rs o f 8 and 1 0 i n the
evening The p atient was j u st recovering from
.

a severe ill ness an d was weak and very thi n an d
emaci ated This gentleman an d th e d oct or wer e
.
2 TE L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IM INA L SEL F
9 .

the on l y p ersons who knew anythi ng o f the
arrangement o r th e prop osed experi ment .

A fter h aving secu red t he prop er som n ambu li c
condition i n the s u bj ect D r F direct ed her a t
, . .

t ention t o the house where h is p atien t was sup
posed t o b e awaiting the experim ent as arran g ed , .

S he ent ered th e h o use d escri b ed correctly th e
,

rooms passed through i n on e o f which s h e m en
,

t i o n e d a lady with black hair l ying o n a sofa bu t ,


n o gentlem an The d oct or s rep ort then goes
.

o n as follows

A fter a l ittle s h e desc ribed the d oo r op ening
and asked with a t on e o f great su rp rise
I s th at a m an ? ’


I replied Y es ; is he th i n or fat ?
,


Ve ry fat sh e an swered ; b u t has th e gen
,

t le m a n a cork l eg ?

I assured he r that h e had not and t ried t o ,

p u z zl e her st ill m ore abo u t him S he however .
, ,

p ersisted i n her stat ement th at h e was ve ry fat ,


an d said t hat he h ad a great corporati on and ‘
,

asked m e wheth er I di d not think su ch a fat m an
m ust eat and d rin k a great deal t o get su ch a
corporat io n as that S h e also d escribed him as
.

sitting by th e tab l e with pap ers beside him a n d ,

a glass o f b randy and wat er .

Is i t n ot win e ? I as k ed

.
TELE P A TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IMINA L S EL F
94
.

i nto t he form o f a h u man figu re and t o make , ,

the cont rast m ore striking h e h ad an extra pillow
,

p ushed int o the cl othes so as t o form a corpo ra
,

t i on
.

This fi gure had been placed by the table
i n a sitting p ositi on an d a gl ass o f brandy and
water an d the n ewspapers pl aced besi de it The .

n ame he said was spelled correctly t hough u p
, , ,

t o that t im e I had been i n the habit o f writ ing i t


E glington i nstead o f E gl i nt o n .

D r A l fred B ackman o f Kolmar S weden a cor
.
, ,

respon ding membe r o f th e S oci ety for P sychical
R esearch an d a good p ractical hypn otist has had
u n usually good fort u n e i n fi n din g clai rvoyants
among his own p atient s i n that n o rt hern c ou nt ry .

Two i n particular A nna S am u elson and A lm a
,

R e d b e rg gave m ost excellent examples o f clair
,

voyant visi on describing rooms su rrou n dings
, , ,

persons and al s o events which were at th e
,

m oment t ransp i ri ng tho u gh qu it e u nkn own and
,

u nsu sp ected by any on e present at th e e xp e ri
m ent S evera l o f t hese c as es are i ncl u ded i n
.


M rs S idgwick s repo rt
. I nstead of these cases
.
,

h owever I prefer t o ad du ce an i nst ance o r two
,

report ed by D r D u fay a rep utabl e physician o f
.
,

B lois an d su bse qu ently a sen ator of F ran ce The .

cases were fi rst reported t o the F ren ch S oc i et e d e ’

P sy ch olog i e P hy s i olog i que which was p resi de d
,
HAD j US T D IED I N TH E C R IM EA .
95

over by Charcot and p ublished i n the R ev u e,

P h i los oph i que for S ep tembe r 1 8 8 8 ,
.

D r G e ra u lt a friend o f D r D u fay h ad a m ai d
.
, .
,

servant named Mari e wh o was a natu ral s om n a m ,

b u le but who was also frequ ently hyp not i zed by
,

D r G e ra u lt
. D r D u fay wit nessed th e foll owing
. .

exp eriments
B eing hyp notiz ed M ari e was descri bi ng t o a ,

yo ung lady soon t o b e m arried som e character ,

i s t i c s of h er l over m u ch t o t he am usem ent o f th e
,

lady w h o was clappin g he r han ds an d lau ghing
,

m errily S u ddenly alm ost with th e rapidity o f
.
,

lightni ng th e scene changed from gay t o grave
, .

The somnambulist pant ed fo r breath tears fl owe d ,

d own h er face an d p erspi rat io n bathed h er b row
,
.

S he seem ed ready t o fall and called on D r G e , .

rault for assistance .

What i s the matt er Mari e said t he d o cto r ,

from what are y ou su ff eri ng ?

A h s i r ! said sh e ; ah s i r ! how t e rribl e !
, ,

he is dead
Who is dead ? I s it on e o f my p ati ents ?
L im oges the ropemaker— yo u know i n th e
, ,

Cri mea— h e has j ust died P o or folks— poo r .

folks
Come com e my child sai d th e docto r yo u
, , , ,

are dreami ng— i t is only a bad dream .
96 TELEP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBL IMINA L SE LF .


A d ream replied t he som namb ul ist
, But .

I am n ot asleep I s e e hi m —h e has j u s t draw n
.

his last breath P oo r boy ! L ook at him
. .

A nd she p ointed with h e r hand as i f t o di rec t ,

att enti on t o the scen e which was s o vivi d before
her A t t he sam e t ime sh e wou l d h ave ru n away
.
,

b u t hardly had she rise n t o go wh en she fell ba ck ,

u nable t o m ove I t was a l ong t i m e before sh e
.

b ecam e calm b ut o n c om i ng t o h ersel f she h a d
, , ,

n o recoll ecti on of anything whi ch had occu rred .

S om e tim e aft er L im oges seni o r received news o f
,

the d eath o f his son I t occ u rred n ear Constan.

t i n o pl e o n t h e sam e day that Mari e h ad wit n essed

i t i n her c l ai rvoyant visi o n .

O n an oth er o ccasi on t here was a séance at whi ch
ten o r twelve p ersons we re p resen t M ari e was .

p u t t o sleep and had tol d th e c ont ent s of severa l
p ocket s an d sealed packages p repared for the p u r
p ose D r D u fay cam e i n lat e p u rposely so as t o
. .
,

b e as m uch ou t of rapport with her as p ossibl e .

H e had j u st received a l et t er fro m an o ffi cer i n
A lgi ers stat i ng that h e had been ve ry ill wit h
,

dys ente ry f rom sl eeping u nder canvas d u ring th e
rainy season This l etter h e had placed in a thick
.

envelope with ou t address o r post mark an d care
, ,

fully st u ck d own the edges Thi s again w a s .

placed i n an oth er dark envel op e and closed i n l ike
9 8 TELE P A TH Y A N D TH E S U BL IMINA L SE LF
.


A nd you do n ot see any b ridge ?
O f co u rse there is n o b ridge .

P e rhaps there is a boat t o cross i n as there is ,


t o cross the L oi re at Chau mont .

B oats— y e s— bu t th is L oi re i s a regular fl ood ;
i t fright ens me .

Co me come ; take cou rage — embark
,
.

( A long silen ce agi tation ,
pallor nau sea
, ,

H ave yo u arrived
N early ; bu t I am m u ch fatigued and I d o ,

not see any p eopl e o n shore .

L an d and go on ; yo u will soon fi nd som e

There n ow I s e e som e people — they are al l
,

women d ressed i n white B u t that i s queer
,
.


they all have beards .

G o t o th em an d ask wh ere y o u will fi nd the

m ilitary gentl eman .

(After a p ause ) They d o not speak as we d o
.

— and I have been obl iged t o wait whil e they

called a l ittl e boy with a red cap wh o u nderstands ,

m e H e l eads m e on slowly be cause w e are
.
, ,

walking i n sand A h ! there i s th e m ilitary
.

gentleman H e has red trousers and an o ffi cer s
.

cap B ut h e is so very th in an d ill What a pi ty
. .

h e has not some o f y ou r m e d i c i n e I

What do es h e say cau sed hi s i llness ?
DR . BR I T T A N ’S C A S ES .

99

H e shows me his bed — three planks on picket s

-
over wet sand .


Thanks A dvise hi m t o go t o th e h ospi tal
.
,


and n ow retu rn t o B lois .

The l etter was then opened an d read t o the
comp any an d caused n o littl e ast onishm ent .

Remarkable instan ces o f clai rvoyan ce have n o t
been frequ ently rep o rt ed in A m eri ca N e v e rt h e .

l ess well authenti cated cases are by n o m eans
,
-

wanti ng D r S B B ritt an i n hi s bo ok entitled
. . . .
,

“ ”
Man and H i s Relat ion s relates several su ch ,

c ases The followi ng came un der his own o b s e r
.

vati on
I n th e aut u mn o f 1 8 5 5 h e saw M r Charles .

B aker o f M ichi gan who whil e o u t o n a hu nti ng
, ,

exc ursion had been accidentally shot by hi s com
,

panion The charge passed through his p ocket
.
,

d em olish ing several art icl es an d carry ing port i ons
o f the content s of th e p ocket deep i nt o t he fleshy
part of his thigh The accident was o f a serio u s
.

character cau si ng extrem e su fferi ng great d e
, ,

b i li t y and emaciati o n l ast ing several m onths
, , ,

as well as m uch anxi ety regardi ng his ulti mat e
recovery .

H e was i n this l ow conditi on when seen by D r .

B ritt an The doct or soon aft er retu rne d E ast
.
,

and called o n M rs M etler o f H art ford with whose
.
,
f oo TEL E P A TH Y A N D TH E S U BL IMINA L S EL F .

clai rvoyant p ower h e was f amiliar and requ est ed ,

h er t o exami ne i nt o the con ditio n o f a y o u n g man
who had been shot N o i n fo rm at io n was gi ven
.

as t o h is residen ce c ondit ion or the circ u m , ,

stances att en din g t h e accident .

S he directly fou nd t he pat ient described th e ,

wo u nd and declared that there was a p iece o f
,

c oppe r still i n the wou nd an d that he wou l d n ot ,

recover u nt il i t was removed .

Y o ung B aker however was su re h e had n o
, ,

copper i n h is p ocket at th e t i m e o f the acci dent
the medical atten dant fou nd n o indications o f i t ,

s o it was concluded that the clairvoyant had m ad e

a m istake .

L ater h owever a foreign substance m ad e i t s
, ,

appe arance i n the wo u nd and was rem ove d by the ,

m other o f the p at ient with a pair of e mb roid e ry
scissors ; i t p roved t o b e a c opp er cent The .

rem oval o f th e foreign subst ance was foll owed by
rapi d recovery The di scovery o f th e cop p er coi n
.

was mad e by th e c l ai rvoyant while at a distanc e
o f nearly on e thou sand m iles from the patient .

M rs H P o rte r whil e at h er h om e i n B ridge
. .
,

p ort Con n i n the presence o f th e sam e wri ter
, .
, ,

declare d that a large st eam er was o n fi re o n th e
H udson River ; t hat am ong other O bj ects i n th e
vici nity sh e could clearly disti ngu ish th e village
1 02 T E L EP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L SE LF .


wo uld com e n ext as he had seen i t a ll The .

accou n t corresp onded alm o st exactly with th e
d escription given by M r F itzgerald whi le th e fi re
.

was i n progress .

I have mysel f recently fo u nd a ve ry excellent
, ,

s ubj ect whom I wi ll call A B whom I fi rst . .
,

hypnotiz ed on accou n t of illness bu t wh o after ,

ward p roved t o have psychi c p ercepti o n and clair
voyant po w ers o f a remarkable character Once .
,

while i n the hyp n o tic cond it i on I a s ked her i f ,

she co u ld go away and s e e what was t ranspi ring
i n other places as f or instanc e at h er own hom e
, , .

S he repli ed th at s h e would t ry I then t ol d h er t o
.

go t o her h om e i n a sm all t own three hu nd red miles
,

away and qui te u nkn own t o m e an d see who was ,

in the h o us e an d what they were d oing A fter a .


min ute o f p erfect silence sh e said I am there .

“ ”
Go in I said
,
and t e ll m e what yo u fi nd
, .


S he said : There i s n o on e at h om e b ut my
m other S he i s s itti ng i n th e di ning r o om by a
.
-

wind o w ; th ere i s a screen i n th e wi ndow which
was n ot there when I le ft h ome My m other is .

sewing . What sort o f sewi ng i s it ? I as k ed .

“ ”
I t is a waist for D ( her li ttle brother) I wrot e
. .

do w n every detail o f h er d esc ripti on an d then ,

awoke h er S h e had n o recoll ect ion o f anything
.

which h ad t ranspi red b ut said s h e h ad had
,
D ES CR IB ED RAC ES TE N M IL ES D IS T A N T . 1 03

a rest f u l sleep I th en d esired her t o writ e at
.

on ce t o her m othe r and ask wh o was i n th e

house at fou r o clock this sam e aft ern oon where ,

s h e was an d what s h e was d oin g
,
.

The answer came d escribing eve rything exactly
,

as s e t d own i n my not es .

On anoth er occasion when I m ad e my visit it ,

happen ed t o be th e day o f th e races occ urring at
a well kn own t rac k som e ten miles away an d ,

m embers o f the h ousehold wh ere she was resi ding
had gon e t o witness them N either she n or I had .

ever att ended th ese races— w e kn ew n othing o f
th e appearance o f the place o f th e events that ,

were expected nor even o f the ordinary rout in e
,

o f the sp o rt S h e was p ut i nt o t he de ep hyp
.

n o t i c sl eep an d thinki ng it a good opp ort u nity t o
,

t est her clai rvoyance I requ este d her t o go t o the
,

grou nds and I carefully directed h er o n h er
j o u rney On ce w ithin t he inclosu re s h e described
.

the bright and cheerfu l appearan ce— th e p avilio n ,

the j udge s s tand an d the positi on o f person s

,

whom s h e knew S he said there was n o race
.

at the t ime ; bu t that b oys were going arou n d
among th e spectat ors and get ting m oney that th e
p eopl e seem ed excited ; that th ey st ood u p and
hel d o u t m on ey an d beckone d t o th e boys t o
,

c ome — b u t she d id n ot know what i t m eant I .
1 04 TELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S U BL I I Y
II N AL SEL F .

suggested that p erhaps they were bett ing S he .


seemed t o l ook carefully and the n said : That

i s j ust what they are d oing S h e then described.

the race wh ich fol l owed was m u ch excited an d , ,

t old wh o o f the p erso n s sh e kn e w w ere wi nners .

I then sai d : Y o u wil l rem emb er al l this and b e
able t o t ell M whe n s h e c om es h ome
. .

I t was fo u n d that everyth ing had transpired as
she had described O n e of the races had been a
.

fail ure the horses com ing i n n eck and n ec k ; al l
,

bets were cancelled and new b ets were mad e ,

which cau sed the exciteme nt which sh e had wit
n ess ed . S he su rprised those wh o were present
by th e accu racy of h er d escription b oth o f the ,

place and the events esp ecially o f th e exciteme nt
,

c au sed b y m aki ng th e n ew bets .

O n th e sam e occasi on be fore awakeni ng her I , ,


said t o her '
N ow I have som ething very par
,

t i c u la r t o say t o yo u and I wa n t y o u t o pay clos e

att ention .

This even i ng when yo u r d i nn er is b rou ght up
t o y ou — you A B s sec on d sel f will make
,
. .

,

A B see m e come i n and stand here at th e
. .

foot o f th e bed I shall say t o y ou : H ello ! you
.

’ ’
are at di nn er Well I won t d ist u rb yo u an d
.
, ,

i m mediately I shall go A nd yo u will writ e m e .

ab ou t my visit I then awoke h er i n the u sua l
1 06 T E L E P A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SELF .

t roublesom e so mnambulist walking alm ost eve ry ,

night u nt il two years ago when I fi rst hypnotiz ed
,

her and s uggeste d that s h e sh ould n ot agai n leave
her be d whil e asleep and sh e has not d one so
,
.

This person s d reams are m arvello u sly vivid

,

b u t her m ost vivid o nes sh e does n ot call dream s .

S h e says When I dream I dream b u t wh en I s e e
, ,


I s ee .

N i ne years ago M L had a frien d i n N ew
, . .
,

M exi co wh om I will call G from whom she had .
,

n ot heard for m onths an d o f wh ose su rro u ndings
,

s h e k new absol ut ely n othing .

O n e n ight she d ream ed or as sh e expresses it , , ,

s a w this fri en d i n A lbu qu erqu e S he was as i t .
,

seemed t o her p resent i n t he roo m where he was
, ,

an d saw everything i n i t with th e sam e degree of
disti nct n ess as th ough she were actually p resent .

S he not iced th e matt ing o n th e fl oor the willow ,

ware furnit u re b ed rocking ch a i r fo o t s t o o l and
, ,
-
, ,

other arti cles H e was talking wit h a compan i on
.
,

a p erson o f very stri king app earance whom s h e ,

also m in ut ely observed as regarded p ersonal
appearance dress an d p ositi on i n t he room
, , .

H e w a s saying t o this com p an ion that h e was
abou t t o start for New York for th e p u rp ose o f
i nt eresting cap it al ist s i n a syst em o f i rrigati on
whi ch he had p rop osed H i s comp anion was .
C L A IR VO YA NT DR E A M PRO VE S TR UE .
10
7

laughing sarcastically and ridicu li ng the w hol e
schem e H e persi st ed an d the conversat ion was
.
,

animat ed — alm ost bitter .

Thre e w eeks late r early on e m orning s h e
, ,

dream ed that thi s m an was i n New York S he .

saw him coming up the street leading t o her
house and saw her fath er g o forward t o m eet hi m
,
.

A t b reakfast sh e told her father he r dream an d ,

they also talked freely ab o ut h er form er dream o r
vision o f thre e weeks before .

A fte r breakfast her father sat u p on th e front
stoop reading the m orn ing paper and M L ,
. .

went about som e work S uddenly s h e heard her
.

f ather call out i n a startled sort o f way : M ary ,

su re eno ugh here com es G
,
S he st epped t o
.

the window an d there was G comi ng u p th e .

street and he r father goi ng forward t o meet hi m
exactly as s h e h ad seen h im i n her dream H e .

had j u st arrived from the West an d had com e for
,

the very p u rpose indi cat ed by h is conversatio n i n
M L s vision A fter some general c onversati o n
. .

.


M L said t o G ; B y th e way who was th at
. .
,

rem arkabl e p erson yo u were talking with ab ou t
thi s j ou rney three weeks ago ? m ent ioni ng th e
,

night o f h er dream With evi dent surprise h e sai d
.

“ ”
What d o you m ean ?
S h e t he n related th e whole d ream j u st as s he
1 08 T E L E P A TH Y AN D TII E S UBL IM INA L SEL F .

had experi enced it even t o th e minu test det ails
, .

H i s aston ishm en t was p ro found H e d eclared
.

that the details which she gave c ould n ever have
been so exactly described except by som e o n e
actually present ; and with som e ann oyance h e
accu sed her o f playing the spy .

There are many oth er instanc es o f remarkabl e
clairvoyant visio n o n her part and esp ecially two
,

which have occ urre d within t he year— the vision s
having been fully d escribed befo re t he event s were
known .

S uch are a fe w am ong hu ndreds of cases which
might b e add u ced as exampl es o f th e cl ai rvoyan t
power They are from every p eri o d o f hist o ry
.
,

fro m th e earliest d own t o o u r own t im es .

L ooked at broadly t hey at least show that a
,

belief i n the clairvoyan t p ower o f som e sp ecially
endowed p erso ns has exi sted througho ut the his
t oric peri od ; they also exhibit a great si mil ari ty
i n thei r ch aracter an d th e circumstances u nder
whi ch they are observed .

A pollon iu s st ops short i n h is disco u rse a p ,

p a re n t l
y i n his nat u ral stat e sees th
, e assassination
O f D omitian and shou ts
,
S trike the tyrant !
,

F itzgerald at B ru nswick su dd enly b eh olds th e
b u rnin g factori es at F all River and shou ts his ,

ord ers t o the fi r e m e n Others s pontaneo usly go
.
1 10 TE L E P A TH Y A N D TIIE S U BL I M INA L SE LF .

cus si on on this vit al poi nt th e obj ect ors main ,

taining that sight was p ossibl e and practicable by
experts n otwithstandi n g the precau ti on s u sed i n
,

blindfolding ; i n short that the whol e thing m igh t
,

safely b e s e t d own as decepti on an d frau d .

I n the face of fact s su ch a s are here ci t ed an d ,

the th ou sand others that might be addu ced ,

i t i s hardly p ossibl e t o t reat this charge seri
o u s ly .

To su ch obj ecto rs c u m u lative evidence regard
,

i n g facts o u t o f thei r own m ental horiz on i s
usel ess Thei r m ott o i s : N o am o u nt o f evi den c e
.

can establ ish a m iracle ; an d thei r d efi n iti on of a
m iracle i s something done o r allege d to have b een
,

d on e contrary t o th e laws o f n at u re B ut the
, .

obj ector wh o refu ses credence t o well attested -

facts on that gro u n d alon e simply assum es that ,

h e i s acquaint ed with all the laws o f n at u re .

A m iracle really is only somethin g all eged t o
, ,

have b een don e an d we are n ot abl e t o explai n
,

how ; n everthele s s i t may b e p erfectly i n accord
,

ance with nat u ral l aws which we did n o t u n der
stan d o r even know existed To the West I n di an .
,

whom Col umb u s fou nd i n th e N ew Worl d an ,

eclipse of th e s u n was a m iracl e o f th e m ost
terribl e character ; t o th e ast ronom er i t wa s a
simple fact i n natu re To th e igno rant b oor
.
,
F A BR IC O F TH O UGH T MA Y NEED CH A NGING . 1 1 I

talking w ith Chicago o r cabling bet w een N ew
Y o rk an d L o ndo n is a m i racl e ; t o t he electri cian
it is an eve ryday well u nderstoo d a ffai r
,
-
Fo r a .

l ong t ime scient ifi c m e n did n ot bel ieve i n th e
existen ce o f glob ul ar sl owly m ovi ng elect ricity
,
-

i f such a thing had exist ed i t certainly sho uld
,

have p ut i n an appearance b efore members O f the

A cademy o r ,
Royal S oci ety som e t im e i n
the co u rse of all these years ; b ut it n ever had
done s o o nly a few c ooks blacksmiths o r back
, ,

woodsme n had ever see n it and they c ert ainly ,

were not the so rt o f p eopl e t o rep ort scienti fi c
matter ; they di d n o t kn ow h ow t o obse rve and ,

u ndoubtedly they di d not see what they thought
they s a w . B u t fo r all that gl ob ular slowly , ,

m oving electri city i s now a well kn own fact i n
n atu re.

N either the West I ndian the ign orant b oor nor
, ,

th e man of science had at th e t im e these several
,

facts w ere presented t o him any place i n the ,

existing fabri c o f his thought i nt o w hi ch su ch

facts could b e fitt ed The fab ric o f tho ught i n
.

each case m ust b e changed enlarged m odi fied , , ,

before t he alleged facts co uld b e received or
assimilated .

The obj ector t o th e fact o f clai rvoyan ce an d
oth er facts in the n ew psych ology i s O ften simply
1 12 TE L EP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IM INA L S EL F .

d efi cien t i n the kn owledge whi ch wo uld enable
hi m prop erly t o j udge o f these fact s h e m ay be
a n excell ent mathemati cian physi cist editor o r
, , ,

even physi cian b u t h e has been edu cat ed t o deal
,

with a c ertai n class o f facts and o nly by c ertai n
,

methods an d he i s wholly u n fi t t e d to d eal wi th
,

another class o f facts p erhaps requ iring qu it e di f
,

fe r e n t t reat m ent .

A n excellent chemist m ight not b e j ust th e
m an t o analyz e qu estions o f fi nan ce o r t o t est i fy
as an exp ert on th e tari ff or a su spension bridge ;
,

th e t ext u re o f his thought wo ul d need som e
m odi fying t o fi t hi m for thes e d u ti es ; i ndeed h e ,

is fort u nate i f he can eve n b e quit e s u re of m o r
phia when he sees i t i t m ight b e a pt omain e .

I f then the obj ect o r t o well authent icated fact s
, ,

i n any depart m en t o f research expects hi s o b j e c
ti ons t o b e seri ou sly co n s i d e re d h e m u st at l east
, , ,

exhibit som e i ntelligence i n that d epartment o f
research to which his O bj ection relates .

I shall th en simply reit erat e the stat em ent that
there i s ab u nd ant evidence of visu al p ercept i on
by som e specially constit u ted p ersons i n d e p e n d ,

ent o f any u s e o f t he physical o rgan o f sight .

What th e exact natu re or m etho d o f this su pra
n ormal visio n is may n ot yet be absol ut ely s e t
,

t l e d any m ore than the exact nat u re o f light o r
,
conditi on whether sel f in d uced o r p rod u ced by
,
-

th e infl u ence o f a second p erso n and esp ecially ,

i n t he con ditio n kn own a s trance ; it may also
app ear i n sleep o f th e ordin ary ki nd — i n dreams ,

an d especially i n the c onditio n o f reve ri e or the
state between sleeping and waking ; a few p erson s
also p ossess the clairvoyant faculty while i n th eir
nat ural condit ion without l osi ng t heir n o rm al
,

c onsciousn ess I n general i t may b e said that
.

th e faculty is m o st likely t o appear whe n there
exists a condit io n o f abstract i o n and th e m in d is
,

act ing witho u t the rest rai nt and gu idance of th e
usual c onscio usn ess— and i t reach es its m ost per
feet exercise when this u su al gu i dan ce c eases
e nt irely — the body becomi ng i nactive an d an ecs
thet ic an d th e m ind act ing i nd ep endent o f i t s
u su al m ani festi ng o rgans S uch i s th e con dit ion
.

i n t rance .

This view is o f course i n di rect o pp osit i on t o
, ,

th e m aterialisti c philosophy which make s the

m ind simply a gro u p o f phen om ena the result ,

o f organizat ion and absolutely depen dent up on
,

that organization for it s action and even for it s
,

exist en ce To d iscu ss this qu esti on h ere would
.

o ccupy to o mu ch spac e ; besides on e o f the o b ,

j e ct s o f t hese papers is t o sh ow this m ind spi rit , ,


psychos m ental ity group o f phenom ena what
, , ,
INDE P END EN T A C TIO N OF T H E I I I /J VD .
1 1
5

ever i t m ay b e and whatever n am e may be a p
,

plied to it acti ng u nder circu mstances which will
,

enable u s t o conside r with great er i ntelligence
t his very qu estion vi z : Whether th e mind
, .
,

u nder s om e circu mstances i s n ot capabl e of intel
,

l i g e n t action i ndep enden t o f the b rai n and the
whole m aterial organi zatio n th rough which it
o rdinarily mani fests itsel f .
CH APT E R V

D O U BL E OR M U L T I PL E X P E RSON A L I TY .

I F t here b e any one thing i n the empirical p s y
c h o l o gy o f th e past which has been c onsidered

settle d past all cont roversy it i s the u nity and ,

cont in u ity o f h u man personal ity What eve r .

m ight be believed or do ubted concerning the
after l i fe fo r this li fe at least bel ievers and
,

skep tics alike are u nit ed i n th e f ul l assu rance o f
a t ru e p ermanent and u nmistakabl e sel f Th e
, , .

phil osopher Reid a hu ndred years ago i n discu ss
, ,

i ng this subj ect wrot e as follows
,

M y th oughts and act ions an d feelings change
every m om ent They have n o cont in u ed b ut a
.

s uccessive existence b ut that sel f or I t o which
,

they belo ng i s p erman ent and has the same rela
,

tion t o all su cceedi ng tho ughts actions an d feel , ,

ings wh ich I call m i ne The id entity o f a p erson
.

is per f ect— i t adm its o f n o d egrees— and i s not
d ivisibl e i nt o p arts .

N ow whil e this d ogma which still expresse s
, ,

1 1 6
1 18 T E L EP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IM INA L SE L F .

ally th ey increased i n d u rati on u nt i l th ey occu pied
h ou rs and even days
,
.

I n her u sual stat e she h ad no rec o llect i o n an d
n o knowledge whateve r o f h er secon d cond ition ,

and the whole t im e spent i n that condit ion w a s t o
her a blank ; o n the othe r hand al l th e d i fferen t ,

occasio ns when she had been i n thi s secon d co n
d itio n were linked togethe r constit uting a d istinct ,

chai n of mem ori e s and a p ersonality j u s t as co n
s c i o u s ly dist inct and c o nspicu o u s as h er original

sel f I n her s econ d st at e she n ot only had the
.

d ist in ct m emorie s conn ect ed wi th her o w n second
ary pers o nality bu t s h e also knew facts conc ern
,

i ng the fi rst or o riginal s el f b ut o nly a s s h e might
,

h ave knowledge o f any oth er p erson .

The t w o person al itie s were enti rely d i fferent i n
character an d di sposit i on ; the origi nal on e was
sickly i ndolent an d m elancholy while the n e w
, , ,

one was i n goo d health and i n disp osition b right
, ,

ch eerful and i ndu strio u s S h e marri ed early i n
,
.

l i fe and w a s i ntelligent and e ffi cien t i n the care o f
,

h er family rearing child ren an d at tendi ng t o the
,

litt l e bu s in ess o f a shop A t length this s eco nd
.

a ry self came t o occupy nearly the wh ole t ime ,

an d c on s idered h ersel f th e normal per s onal ity as , ,

i ndeed s h e was b eing superior in every way t o
, ,

t h e ori ginal one S he knew ve ry well how un
.
TH E C UR IO US C ASE OF A NSE L B O UR NE . 1 1
9

happy and m iserabl e was th e con dition o f th e
p rimary sel f and while s h e pit ied h er an d di d
, ,

w hat s h e c o ul d t o as s ist her she disliked t o have ,

her ret u rn S he called the conditio n o f th e
.


p rimary s el f that stupi d state
,
.

Th e lap s es o f th e origi nal or N o 1 personality .

became at l ength s o fre qu ent or rather s o con , ,

t i n u o u s that s h e l ost t he p rop er knowl edge and
,

relati o n o f thi ngs ab ou t he r S he was a stranger .

i n her own hom e an d o n that accou nt becam e
,

s till more m oro s e an d melancholy To relieve as .

m u ch as possibl e this d istressing state of a ffairs
the seco nd self o r No 2 when she knew that N O
, .
,
.

1 was abou t t o appear would writ e her a lett er , ,

in form ing her o f the gen eral condition of th e
household whom she might expect t o m eet and
, ,

where she woul d fi n d certai n needful art icle s ; s h e
woul d also o ffer advice regardi ng the condu ct o f
a ffairs which was always appropriat e and u se fu l
,

and far sup eri o r t o the j udgment o f the origi nal
self i n the matters t o which i t referred .

A s a s econd well m arked and a b u ndantly
a u thenticat ed example of this divi ded or second
a ry personality I will refer t o a case i n our own
,

c o u nt ry an d i n ou r o w n vi cinity .

J an 1 7 th 1 8 8 7 A nsel B ou rne an evangelist
.
, , , ,

l eft h is hom e i n Rhode I sland , and after t ran s ,
120 T E L EP A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SE L F .

acting som e b usi ness i n P rovidence on e ite m o f ,

which was t o draw som e m oney t o pay for a farm
for which he had bargained h e w ent t o B osto n , ,

th en to N ew York then t o P hilad elphi a and , , ,

fi nally t o N orrist own P enn fi fteen or twenty
, ,
.
,

m iles from P hi ladelphia where h e op ened a small ,

st ore for the sal e o f stati on e ry con fect ion e ry and , ,

fi v e c en t art icles
- I n this b u siness he was known
.

as A J B rown H e lived i n a room partiti on ed
. . .

off fro m the back o f the sto re eat ing sleeping , , ,

and d oi ng h is own co o king there H e rented the .

store from a M r E arl who also with his family
.
, , ,

lived i n the bu ildi ng M r B rown went back an d. .

forth t o P hiladelph ia for goods t o keep u p hi s
st ock and seems t o have condu cted his b u sin ess
,

as if accustomed t o i t .

S u nday March 1 3th h e went t o ch urch an d at
, , ,

night wen t to bed as u sual On M onday March .
,


i 4t h abou t 5 o clock i n the m orning he a w o k e
, ,

and fou nd hi msel f i n what appeared t o hi m an
altogether new and st range place ; he thought h e
m u st have broken i nt o th e pl ace and was m u ch ,

t roubled fearing arrest F inally after waitin g
,
.
,

two h ou rs i n great u neasiness o f m i nd he got u p ,

an d fou nd th e door locked on th e insid e H e .

went out into th e h all and heari ng som e o n e , ,

movin g about he ra pped at t h e d oor M r E arl ,
, . .
122 T ELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIM INA L SELF .

them all thi s t i m e ; I have n o recollect io n of ever

having see n one o f them u nti l this m orning , .

H is n ephew M r H was telegraphed t o i n
, . .
,

P rovi dence .

D o yo u know A nsel B ou rne ?
Reply : H e i s my u ncle ; wi re m e w here h e

i s and i f well
,
.

M r H went o n t o N orrist o w n t ook charge o f
. .
, ,

h is u ncle and h i s a ffairs s old ou t his store p rop ,

e r t y and M r A J B rown went back an d resumed
,
. . .

h is li fe i n Rhode I sland as A nsel B ou rne but th e ,

t im e from J an 1 7 th t o M arch i 4t h wa s t o him a
.

blank .

P rof J ames o f H arvard and D r H odgso n
. .
,

S ecretary o f the A m erican B ranch o f the S ociety
for P sychical R esearch who rep o rt ed thi s case t o ,

the society n ow b ecam e i nt erest ed i n t h e matter
, .

They went t o s e e A nsel B ourn e and l earned th e
above h istory ; b u t of the j ourney from P rovi
d ence t o N orristown i n J anu ary n o acco u nt o f any
ki n d coul d b e O btain ed F i nally h e was p u t into .
,

t he hypn oti c condition wh en h e was agai n A J , . .

B rown an d gave a con n ect ed acc o u nt o f his
,

j ou rney t o B oston N ew York P hiladelphia and , , ,

o f h i s stay i n each o f th ese ci ties ; of hi s arriva l
at Norristown and o f h i s experi ence t here u p t o
,

th e m o rning o f M arch 1 4th when everythin g ,
A NSE L B O UR NE H YP NO TIZ ED I S B R O WI V . 1 23

was agai n confused A s A J B rown h e knew o f
. . .

A nsel B ou rne an d o f his remarkabl e hist ory b u t ,

c ould not st at e p ositively that he had ever m et
him .

Thi s t ransitio n was rep eatedly m ad e I mm e .

d i a t e ly o n being p ut i n the hypn otic t rance and
arou sed t o som namb ulis m h e was A J B rown a . .
,

distinct perso nality perfectly sane and with a full
, ,

app reciati on o f the relati on o f things as relating
t o that p ersonality and with a disti nct chai n o f
,

m emori es beliefs an d a ffections ; b ut when i n
, , ,

t r o d u c e d t o the wi fe o f A n s el B o u rn e he entirely ,

rep udiated th e idea o f h er ever havi ng b een his
wi fe tho u gh he might so m e ti me have seen h er
, .

I mmediat ely on being a w aken ed from this hyp
n o t i c conditio n h e was A nsel B ou rn e wi th hi s ,

usual conscio usness belie f s a ffections an d chai n
, , ,

o f mem o ries ; b u t th e p ri m ary A nsel B ou rne p er
s o n a l i t y had n o kn owledge w hatever o f t he s e c

o n d a ry or A J
,
. B rown p ersonality an d for any
.
, ,

act either cri minal or righteou s c om m itted by
, ,

the person A J B ro w n the person A nsel B ou rn e
. .
,

had no m ore knowledge and consequ ently n o
more responsibility t han for any goo d or b a d
action comm itt ed by a person i n A ustrali a and of
wh ose existence he was ign orant .

A few othe r cases qu i t e sim ilar and i n every
124 TE L E P A TH Y A N D TH E S UBLIM INA L SE LF

respect o f equ al i nterest h ave bee n o bserved not ,

ably that known as L o u is V whi ch was rep orte d
by D r Vo isi n o f P ari s and by several other well
.

known F rench physicians u nder whose care fro m ,

time to ti me he has been and wh o se severa l ,

rep orts have been su m med u p by M r F rederick .

W H Myers the e ffi cient L ond o n S ecret ary o f
. .
,

th e S oci ety for P sychical R esearch .

H e re the stability o f personal ity was u nsettled
at th e age o f f o u rt een by a t erribl e fright fro m a
vip er F ou r o r fi ve d ist inc t p ersonaliti e s were
.

represented .

( )
1 I n his childhood previ ou s t o h is fright by
,

th e viper he had go od heal th and was a n o rd i
,

n ary qu iet obedient w ell b ehaved boy
, , ,
-
.

( )
2 A n e w perso nality o f which the primary sel f ,

had n o k nowledge was i nd uced by th e fright ,
.

This N O 2 p ersonality had frequ ent epil epti c at
.

t acks bu t was abl e t o work learn ing th e t rade of
, ,

a t ail or .

( 3) A ft er o n e of these att acks o f great violence ,

l asting fi fty ho u rs another p ers o na l ity cam e t o
,

th e su rface— a greedy vi ol ent qu arrelsom e , , ,

d ru nken thievish vagabo nd paralyze d o n on e
, ,

side an d with an i mpedi ment i n h is speech H e
,
.

was a n anarchi s t an atheist and a blackgu ard
, , ,

always ranti ng and thrusting his opi nions up on
126 TELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S U BL I N/I N A L S EL F !

third personality E ach was widely di ff erent from.

t he others all were n ormal s o far as a perfect
,

knowl edge of and adaptati on t o t hei r surroundings
were conce rn ed and all we re of u n u s ual i ntellect
,

u al forc e and brightn ess as well as m oral worth ,

bu t each was dist i n ct p eculiar and even i n , ,

marked contrast to the oth ers i n many imp ortant
characteri s tic s N o 1 had n o kn owledge of N o
. . .

2 nor of N O 3 except from circu mstances and the
.
,

rep ort o f oth ers an d also from letters which ,

passed between them giving i nform ati on t o N o .

1 regarding changes which had occ u rred i n he r

absence as fo r instance o f expect ed company or
, , ,

other engagement which i t wou ld be i m portant
for her t o know .

B oth o f the lat er p erson aliti es were pecu liarly
fond o f N o 1 an d devot ed t o her welfare o n a c
.
,

c ou nt O f her sup eri or kn owl edge and ad mi rable
character The ca s e has been u nd e r my observa
.

tion b oth pro fessi onally an d s ocially for many
, ,

years and i n additio n t o its typical characte r i t
, , ,

p resent ed an exam pl e of th e singular fact of th e
persistence of th e lat er personality with th e abil ,

i ty t o observe retain its chain of m em ories and
, ,

aft erw ard report them whil e the p ri mary sel f was ,

at the s am e ti me th e dom i n an t and active perso n
ality .
C A M E F OR H E R F A VOR I TE C ON C E R T O . 12
7

A n i nst ance o f this occu rred at on e o f the con
certs o f a disti ngu ished p ianist a few years since .

N o 3 was the reigning p ersonality and sh e was
.
,

hersel f a lover o f m usi c and an excellent critic .


B eethoven s c oncert o i n C m aj or was on the p ro
gramm e and was being performed i n a m ost
,

charming man ner by soloist and o rchestra I was .

sitt ing n ear her i n th e box when all at once I ,

not iced a change i n th e expressio n o f h er face ,

wh ich denoted th e presen ce o f N o 1 S h e list . .

e ned with i ntense int erest an d pleasu re t o th e
p erforman ce and at its close I spoke a few words
,

t o h er and sh e repl ied i n h er u su al charming m an
,

n er I t was No 1 witho ut doubt S o on after
. . .
,

she leaned back i n h er chair t ook two or three ,

qu ick short inspi rati ons and N o 3 was present
, ,
.

again S he t u rned t o me sm iling and sai d
.

S o N o 1 cam e fo r he r favorit e c o ncerto ;
.


wasn t it splendi d that she co uld hear it ?

I said Yes ; b ut how d id you kn ow she was

here ?
Oh I sat o n the front o f the box s h e said
, , .

I h eard t he m usi c t oo an d I s aw you speaking
, ,


t o her .

The fo u r cases here briefly o u t l ined represent
both sexes two disti nct n ationalit i es an d widely
, ,

varyi ng condition s i n l i fe I n each case o ne o r .
12 8 TELE P A TH Y A N D TH E S U B L IMIN A L SEL F .

m ore p ersonalit ies crop o ut so t o speak c om e t o
, ,

th e su rface and b ecom e th e co nsci ous act ive
, , ,

ru ling personali ty d isti nct from th e original sel f
, ,

havi ng enti rely di fferent m ental m oral and even , ,

physical characteristics ; di ff erent t astes and di f
, ,

fe re n t sent im ents an d O p ini ons ; p ersonal ities e n
t i r e ly u nkn own t o t he o riginal sel f which n o o n e
,

acqu aint ed with that o rigina l sel f h ad any reason
t o supp ose exist ed i n conn ecti on wi th that o rgani
z at ion .

The cases presen t so many p oi nts of similarity
i n th ei r h istory as t o ren de r i t p robabl e i f n ot ,

c ertai n that som e c om mo n principle l aw o r
, , ,

m ental state u nderl ies th em all — som e law which ,

i f clearly defi ned would b e valu ab l e i n redu cing
,

t o order th e seemingly law l ess m ass of phenom ena
which constantly m eets u s i n this new an d b u t

l ittle expl ored fi eld o f research .

I t may b e also th at oth er m ental stat es m ore
, ,

f requ ently met with and m ore easily observed
p resent p oi nts in comm o n wit h these m ore st rik
in g an d u n u su al ones ; an d that th ey als o may
assist u s i n fi n ding t h e clu e .
r 30 TEL EPA TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IMIN AL SEL F .

his w aking h ou rs is easily accompl ished and h e
, ,

fi nds the soluti on of h is m ath em at ical problem or
t he n eeded p oi nt i n h is argu ment all plainly
wrought o ut an d prepared for hi m when he goes
t o his desk th e following m orn ing ; moreover i f ,

t he work fro m any cause sh oul d b e i nt erru pt ed ,

a n d the same condit ions rec ur up on the foll ow
i ng or som e subsequ ent night i t m ay b e re ,

s u med at the poi nt where it was i nt errupted o r
i f the som nam b uli st t alks as well as acts i n his
, ,

sleep the c o nversati o n shows that each su cceed
i ng o ccasi on i s con nect ed with p revi o u s ones a ll ,

t ogether constituting a chai n o f m emori es si milar
t o t h at o f th e di ffe rent p ersonaliti es which have
b ee n p resent ed i n th e fo u r c ases already d escribed .

S om eti m es all t hese di ff erent act i ons are a c
c omplish ed witho u t light o r with th e eyes fast
closed o r else open an d staring bu t withou t
, ,

v ision S om etim es however the n ew personality
.
, ,

d evelop ed i n th e sl eep of the somn ambulist fails
to com e i nto proper relat i ons with his su rround
ings when h e m ay also fail t o accomplish t h e
,

dangerou s j ou rn ey and m ay walk from an op en
,

wi ndow or an u ngu ard ed balcony with disastro u s
results .

Th e second conditi o n whi ch presents anal ogies
t o th e d upl ex o r m u ltiplex p e so n al i t i e s which ,
M A D A M E B S H Y P N O TI C

PERS ON A £1 7 15 5 . 13t

are u nde r consideration is that o f th e s o m na m ,

b u li s m which o ccu rs i n the hypnoti c sl eep .

Whil e u sually the hyp not ic su bj ect is passive and
u nconsciously receives th e su ggestions whi ch are
imp ressed u p o n hi m n ot u n frequ ently a p erson
,

ality com es t o the front which acts independently ,

an d present s all the characte ristics whi ch we have
fou n d p ertain ing t o a distinct p ersonal ity .

A rare example of this alternating p ersonal ity
b rought ab ou t by hypnotism i s a ff orded by the
F rench subj ect M m e B wh ose acqu ai ntan ce we
,
. .
,

have already mad e as a subj ect u po n whom hyp
n o t i s m at a distanc e was successful l y carried o ut

by P rof J anet an d D r G ibert of H avre A s we
. . .

have already seen i n her ordinary condit ion M m e
,
.

B is a st ol id substanti al h on est F ren ch p easant
.
, , ,

ab ou t forty years o f age of very m od erat e i nt e lli ,

gence and witho u t any educat i on o r any a m
,

b i t i o n for n ot oriety I n this stat e P rof J anet
. .

calls h er L e onie .

Hypnoti zed s h e i s at on ce changed i nt o a
,

bright vivaciou s m ischi ef lovi ng rather noisy
, ,
-
,

personality who considers herself o n excellen t
,

t erm s with the d octor and whom th e pro fesso r ,

n ames L e onti ne L at er by fu rther h yp n o t i z a
.
,

t ion and a d eeper tran ce there appears a sedate , ,

sensible p ersonality i nt ellect u al l y m u ch s up erior
,
1
32 TE L EPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL S EL F .

to L e oni e the p rimary sel f and mu ch m ore dig n i
, ,

fi e d than the vivaci o us L e ont i ne and this thir d ,

personality P rof J anet calls L e on ore. .

L e o nt i n e the hypn otic o r seco nd sel f k n ows
, ,

L e oni e the original M m e B very well an d i s
, . .
, ,

very anxio us not t o be co n founded wi th her S he
“ ”
always calls her t he other on e and laugh s at ,


her st u p id ity S h e says . That good woman is ,


n ot I she i s to o stupid
,
On e d ay P rof J anet
. .

hypn oti z ed L e oni e an d as u su al at once L é on
,

t ine was present P rof J anet then su ggested t o
. .

L e onti ne that whe n s h e awoke and L e onie had
resu med th e command sh e ( L e ontin e) sh ould ,

take o ff th e apro n o f L e oni e thei r c om m on ap ron , ,

on their on e physi cal personality and t hen ti e it o n ,

again S he was then arou sed from h er hyp noti c
.

c onditi on an d at once L e oni e was p resent witho u t
,

the slight est kn owledge of L e ont i n e for she ,

n ever kn ew o f this secon d personality no r of hyp ,

n o t i c suggest i on i n any form L e oni e supp osing .
,


th e p rofessor s experi ment was over was cond u ct ,

i ng hi m t o the door talking i ndi fferently i n h er
,

sl ow dull way an d at th e same t im e u nconsciously
, ,

h er fi ngers w ere working at her ap ron strings -
.

The loosened apro n wa s fal lin g o ff when th e p ro
fe s s o r called her att enti on t o it S h e exclaim ed ,

“ ”
Why my ap ron is falling o ff ! an d then fully
, ,
134 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S U B L l j l/I I N A L S EL F .

t i ne s as L e onti ne was of L eonie
’ ’

fi i pp a n cy s s tu

p i di t y .


You see wel l enough s h e said that I am
, ,

not t hat prat tler that madcap We d o n ot re
, .


sembl e each other i n t he least .

I n f act sh e som et i mes gave L e ontin e good
,

cou nsel i n regard t o h er b ehavi or an d i n a p e c u l ,

i ar manner— b y p rodu cing the hallu ci nati o n o f
hearing a voi ce th us again showing th e co nsciou s
,

act ivi ty o f th e su bme rged sel f while a p rimary
sel f was at t h e same t i m e d omi nant and act ive .

A s D r J anet relates th e in ci dent L e o ntine was
.
,

o n e day i n an excited hysteri cal c ondit ion n oisy
, ,

and t ro ubl esom e with her chatter when su ddenly ,

s h e stop ped her sen sel ess talk and cried ou t with

t error
Oh ! Who is i t there talki ng to m e l i k e that ?
N o one was sp eaking t o yo u .


Yes there o n th e le ft
, A n d she opened a .

closet door i n the directio n indi cated to see that ,

n o on e was hidden t here .


What is it t hat you h ear ? asked the p ro
fes s o r .

I h ear a voice on th e le ft th ere wh ich keeps
saying t o m e : E nou gh en ough ; b e qu iet Yo u
,
.

are a n u isan ce ! which the p ro f essor remark s , ,

was exactly th e truth .
THE Y A RE IN DEPE N DEN T OF EA CH O THER . 1
35

L e onore , i n her t u rn was then brou ght to the
,

su rface .


What was i t that happened asked P ro f , .

J anet when L e ontine was s o fright ened ?
,

“ ”
Oh nothi ng s h e replied
, , I t old h e r s h e
.

was a n u isance and t o keep qu iet I s a w s h e was .


annoying you I d on t know why s h e was s o
.


frightened .

I m ay b e pardon ed for m ent i on i ng o n e oth er
fact regard ing the relati onship o f these si ngular
personalities because it illust rates m ore p oint edly
,

i f p ossible than anything else t heir ent i re d upl ex
and separat e character L e on i e o r M adam e B is
. .

marri ed b ut L e onti ne i s n ot M adam e B how
,
. .

ever was hypnoti zed a t h er ac co u chements and
, ,

became L e on tine S o L e ontin e was th e p residing
.

p erso n ality when th e chil dren were born L éon .

t i ne therefore considers h ersel f the m other of
two children and wou ld b e greatly grieved were
,

any d oubts exp ressed regarding her right o f
m otherhoo d i n th em .

The an alogies b etween the m ental conditions
p resent ed respect ively i n ordinary somn amb ulism
and the somnamb ulism of th e hyp notic t rance ,

an d the m ental co n diti ons p resented i n th e fou r
cases previou sly recit ed are nu m erou s an d o h
vio n s ; i n fact th ey s eem as i n deed th ey are lik e
, ,
1 36 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S U B L I NI I N A L SELF .

t he sam e condit io ns di ff erently p rod u ced an d
varying i n th e length o f t ime they occupy and i t ,

i s evident that i n t hem there is bro ught t o vi ew a
me nt al stat e of su ffi ci ent u ni form ity as well as o f ,

su ffi ci en t i nt erest and im po rtan ce to be wo rthy o f ,

seri o u s considerati o n .

The facts t h u s far brought int o vi ew are these
That i n a considerable n u mber o f persons th ere
m ay b e devel oped either spont an e ou sly or a rt i fi
,

c i a lly a second pers onality di fferent i n character
,

and d isti nct i n it s co nscio usness and m em ories
fro m the prim ary or origi na l sel f t hat thi s seco nd
p ersonality i s n ot a m ere change o f consciou s
n ess bu t in some sense it i s a di fferent entity
, ,

havi ng a p ower o f observation atte nti on and ,

m em o ry not only when th e primary self is s u b
m erged and witho ut consciousness or voli ti on b u t ,

als o at the sam e t im e that th e p rimary sel f is i n
acti on perform in g its u su al o ffi ces and i n its t u rn
, ,

i t i s equ ally capable o f managing th e aff airs and
p erform i ng the o ffi ces prop erly pertaining t o the
com m on body when ever n eeded for that p u rpose .

Reckoning t hese di fferent p ersonalities as N o I .
,

N o 2 N o 3 et c No I has n o kn owl edge o f No
.
, .
,
.
, .
.

2 nor of any su cceeding person ality n or o f thei r
, ,

acts b u t th e tim e occup ied by them is t o No I a
, .

blan k d u ring whi ch i t is withou t voli tion mem
, ,
1 38 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

vi ew i n exam ining these cases i s that the N o 2 .

p ersonality m ay not by any m eans be in feri or t o
, ,

th e N o I or origi n al se l f I n none of the cases
.
,
.

cited has th e i nt ellectual capacity of the l ate r
d eveloped perso nality bee n i n feri o r to th at o f the
origi nal sel f and generally it was n otably sup erior ;
,

only i n th e N o 3 p ersonality o f L o u is V was the
. .

m oral st at e worse than i n N o I and i n general .
, , ,

th e m oral standing of N o 2 or N o 3 was fully . .

equal t o the prim ary se l f .

Th e emergen ce and domi nance of a secondary
p ersonality th ere fore d oes not by any m ean s
, ,

i mply that the gen era l st anding of the individ ual
d om inat ed by this second p ersonal ity as j udged ,

by disint erested observers is i n any way i n feri or ,

t o th e sam e i nd ividual d om in at ed by th e prim ary
sel f b u t o n th e contrary a superi or personality
, , ,

is rather t o b e expected an d especially is this ,

tru e when the secondary pers onality i s i n t e lli
gent l y sought and brought t o vi ew by m eans o f
hypnotism .

' '

I t is however qu ite impossibl e by any d p r zor z
, ,

reasoning o r from the character o f t h e p rimary
,

self t o form any defi n it e esti mat e c oncernin g th e
,

character o r general charact eristi cs o f any n e w
p erson ality which may make its appearan ce either ,

spo n taneo u sly or th rough th e ai d o f hypn otism .
G EN ER AL CON SIDER A TION S .
1
39

H aving b ecom e t o a certain d egree fam ili ari zed
with the idea that i n som e persons at least and , ,

u nde r so me p eculiar circ umstances a secon d p er ,

s o n a li t y may com e t o th e su rface and take t he

place for a longer o r sho rt er ti me o f the p rimary
s el f it m ay b e asked wh ether a fter all these co m
, , ,

p a ra t i v e ly few persons i n which this u nu su a l
ph enom ena h as b een observed are essent ially di f
fe re n t in thei r m ental co nst i t ut ion fro m other
p eopl e .

When those b est acqu ai nted wi th th e sl en der
and m elancholy Fe lida X or th e o rdina ry qu iet
.
, , ,

well behaved L o uis V ; the i ndust riou s and re
- .

s p e c t e d evangelist A nsel B o u rn e o r the large
,

b rain ed i ntellect ual l eader o f wom en A lma Z
, , .
,

saw them i n their o rdi nary state be fore any ,

sublim ina l p ersonality had emerged an d m ade
itsel f k nown no o n e o f thos e m ost i nti m at e a c
,

q u a i n t a nc e s n o expert i n charact er readi ng n o
-
, ,

st u dent o f m ent al sci enc e co ul d have given any
reasonabl e i nti mat i on that any on e o f the m
wo ul d d evelop a second p ersonality m u ch less ,

give any trustwo rt hy opi ni o n as t o the characte r
whi ch t he new p ersonality wo ul d p ossess .

A few m onths ago I was called i n hast e t o see a
pati ent a large st ron g m an o f one h u nd red an d
, ,

eighty p ou nds weight wh o h ad been th rown dow n
,
1 40 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

and t rampl ed upo n by his ni net ee n year o l d son d u r - -

ing an attack o f s om nambu lism and had rec eived
such seri o us inj u ries as t o re q u i re i m m e d i a t e s u r
i c a l a id The n ext day this o n came t o consult m e
g . s

regarding his u nfort u nat e habi t o f sleep walking -
,

whi ch has o ft en got hi m int o t ro ubl e b efore an d ,

has now resu lted i n serio u s i nj u ry t o h is father .

H e i s a sl ight yo u th o f one hu nd re d and twenty
pound s weight light hair gray eyes and a bright
, , , ,

fran k face expressive of good healt h and go od
,


nat u re a perfect gentlem an as h is father ex
,

p ressed it ,when himsel f b u t t en men can n ot
,

m anage hi m when he gets u p i n his sleep ; he

will d o what h e sets out t o do .

Wh o wo u l d ever imagin e that this s l en der ,

good n at u red gentlemanly l ad soon er t han any
-
, ,

other lad woul d i n his sleep develop s o m n a m
,

b u li s m and a second personality or that when i t ,

cam e that second personality shou l d p rove a stu b
born S amso n ?
L ittl e co uld P rof J anet i magi n e that b en eat h
.

the su rfac e consci ou sness o f that seren e and
st upi d L e on i e dwelt t he frisky vivaci ou s f u n , ,

l ovi ng L e onti n e waiting only th e m agic key o f
,

hypnot ism t o u nlock an d b rin g her t o the su rface
t o reign i nst ead o f t he heavy L e o nie .

The p eople wh o i n vario u s ways develop
, ,
1 42 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

which the m ost em ine nt au th oriti es are not
divid ed ; i t is L o cke against D escart es H amilt on ,

agai nst L ocke and H obbes against the fi eld
, .

I f there b e any on e p oint h owever on which , ,

there is t ol erabl e u nani m ity am ong all writers ,

ancient and m odern great and sm all i t is th e , ,

absence i n dreams o f the n ormal acts and pro
cesses o f volit i on an d especially o f the fac ulty
, , ,

o f attenti on N ow t his i s exactly th e condition
.
,

whi ch i s co nd u cive t o the m ore o r less p erfect
emergenc e and act ivity o f th e sublimi nal self ,

u nder whatever ci rc u mstan ces i t o ccu rs .

There i s fi rst loss o f consci o u sness from cata
,

l epsy fright d ep ressin g ill ness hypnotism o r
, , , ,

n atu ral sleep that i s to say th e p ower o f att en
, ,

ti on or volitio n i n the p ri mary sel f i s abolished
then com es a readj ustm ent of p ersonalities va ry ,

i ng i n c ompl eten ess according t o t h e ease with
whi ch i n d i fferent p ersons this readj ustm ent may
, ,

b e e ffected and accord ing t o the compl et eness o f
,

the abolition of the p owe r of attention and voli
t ion .

I n sleep the c o nditi ons are favorabl e for thi s
readj ustme nt and th e subli m inal sel f comes m ore
,

o r l ess p erfectly t o t he su rface ; t hen app ears that
m ost p eculiar an d interest i ng seri es o f pictu re s
a n d vision s which we call d reams ; som eti m es th e
D O UBLE PE RSON AL ITY AN D G EN IUS . 1 43

r earranged or rather u narranged impression s
, ,

and perception s of the waki ng h o u rs b rought to
gether p ossibly j ust before the p ower o f attent ion
,

is ent i rely lost ; somet im es t he P uck like work o f -

the sublimi nal p erson al ity t h e L eonti nes o f th e
,

d ream co u nt ry i nfl u enc in g the u n conscious o r
-

sem i conscio us p ri mary sel f ; someti mes th e v e ri d
-

i cal o r t ruth telli ng d reams wh ich have b ee n t h e
-
,

wonder of all ages an d so met i m es giving com
,

p l e t e and act ive su premacy t o the subl imi nal self
as in nat ural som namb ulism A not her p ortion of
.

the fi eld i n which it m ight b e p rofitabl e to l oo k
for evidence of the existence of a subliminal per
s o n a li t y is i n th e eccent ri c work of geni u s ; an d

still another i n t he u n exp ect ed and ofte n h eroi c
,

act ions o f seemingly ord inary perso ns u nder th e
st ress an d sti m ul us o f a great em oti on as o f j oy , ,

sorrow o r anger or o f i nt ense excitem ent as for
, , ,

i nstance th e soldier i n battle t he fi reman at the
, ,

p ost o f danger or th e phi losoph er o r astro nom er
,

on the eve o f a n ew discove ry i n all these cases
the o rdinary personality wit h its i ntense sel f
consciousness an d sel f consi dering careful ness i s
-

s ubm erged — i t disappears— th e p ower o f v o lu n
tary att entio n t o m ent al states o r physical actio n
is l ost a n e w and superior person ality com es to th e
surface and tak es contro l The s uprem e mom en t
.
1 44 TE L E PA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SE L F .

p asses and th e primary self resu m es sway scarcely
, ,

conscio u s o f what has been d on e or h ow i t was
accomplish ed even se nsat ion h as been abolished ,

and i t is only n ow that h e discovers the bleeding
b ullet wo u nd the charred m ember or the b ro k en
-
, ,

b on e .

I n physi cal science wh enever so me n ew fact o r
,

l aw or pri ncipl e has bee n discovered i t i s at onc e ,

seen that many things which be fore were obscu re ,

o r p erhaps could only b e acco u nted fo r by a
theory o f chance or o f di rect i nterference by an
,

o mni potent D eity are n ow ill um i nat ed by a n ew
,

light and order reigns where b efo re o nly con i n
,

si on an d darkn ess were visibl e S om ething of .

th e sam e sort i s beginnin g t o b e recogni z ed i n th e
i

world o f m e ntal and p sychical phenom ena I f .

the m athe mati cal exact n ess whi ch m easu red th e
force o f gravity or placed the s u n i n one o f the
,

foci o f an ellipse i nstead of th e cent re o f a circl e
cann ot b e appli ed here it is o nly o n accou nt o f
,

the vast compl exity o f the p roblem present
ed an d o f whi ch we know so few o f the ele
,

me nt s .

Wh en matter alon e i s con cern ed we k now
exactly h ow it will act u nder given co nditi ons .

When l ife i s added the problem b eco m es m ore
,

comp l ex Th e general law o f evol u ti on an d the
.
1 46 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBLIMIN AL SELF .

usual skill an d j udgm ent H e looks upon it from
.

the standp oi nt o f evol ut i on comm encing with
,

th e earliest p eri od o f anim al li fe H e c o mpares .

th e w hol e psychical o rganizat ion t ogether with ,

its man i festi ng physical organ i zatio n t o th e ,

thou sand l ooms o f a vast manu fact ory .

The looms are complex an d o f varying pat t ern s ,

for t u rni ng o u t di fferent sorts of work They are .

also u sed i n variou s combinati ons and there are ,

variou s d rivi ng bands an d con necting machi ne ry
by which th ey may severally b e connected or dis ~

connected b u t t he m ot ive power whi ch drives th e
,

whol e i s co nstant fo r all and all works au to mat
,

i ca lly t o t u r n ou t th e styles of goods t hat are
n eeded .


Now h ow d id I com e t o have my l ooms a n d
,

d riving gear arranged in thi s parti cul ar way ?
-

Not certai nly through any d elib erat e ch oice of my
, ,

own My ancestor th e a s ci d i a n i n fact i nherit ed
.
, , ,

th e bu si ness when it co nsisted of littl e m ore than
a single spindl e ; since his day my n eare r a n ce s

t ors have added l oom after l oom .

Changes have been going o n cont i n u ally ; som e
o f th e looms are n ow qu it e o u t o f date have l on g ,

been u n used and are qu ite ou t o f repai r o r fall en
,

t o pieces Others are kept i n ord er b ecau se th e
.

style of goods which they t u rn ou t is still u sefu l
MR F . . IV I I
/
. . M Y E RS EX CELLEN T WOR K

1 47

and n ecessary B ut the class of goods called for
.

has greatly changed o f l ate F or instan ce th e .
,

machi nery at p resen t i n op erat ion is b est adapted
t o t urning o ut goods o f a decidedly egoisti c styl e ,

for sel f preservati on p ersist ence i n th e struggl e
-
,

fo r life and for sel f g ra t i fi ca t i o n ; bu t a styl e i s
,
-

b eginn ing t o b e called for o f the altrui sti c pat
t ern F o r this ki nd o f goods the machi nery i s
.

not well adapted I t i s old fashion ed an d changes
.
-
,

are n ecessary I f there are any loom s i n t he
.

establishm ent u nknown and u nu sed which can be
t urned t o accou n t o r any way o f modi fying su ch
,

as we have t o m eet th e demand i t i s for ou r i n ,

t e re s t t o know i t .

B ut th e m eth ods o f adj ustme nt an d arrange ,

m ent s fo r bringing n ew loom s i nt o operation are
hidden and di ffi cult o f access so we observe ,

fact ori es wh ere spontan eou s readj u stm ents are
goi ng o n and n ew looms not kn own t o have been ,

i n th e est abli shm ent are b ein g brought a utomat ,

i ca lly into action and are fou n d t o work fairly
well S u ch instances are fou nd i n t he establish
.

m ent o f Fe lida X o r L o u is V from which val u . .
,

abl e hint s are obtai n ed regarding ch anges and
readj ustm ents .

F u rtherm ore i n hyp noti sm we fi n d a safe an d
, , ,

at the sam e tim e p owerful l eve r for readj ustm ent
, , ,
1 48 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

by m eans o f wh ich i n so m e establish ments new
l ooms can be b rough t i nto play an d sh u t o ff
agai n almost at will ; an d often while the n ew
looms are at work d oing good servi ce we are abl e
t o get at th e old o nes repai r an d moderni z e them
,

so as t o make them u seful and th e i mm en se val u e ,

o f hypnotism i n this e ducati onal and re form at ory
work has h ardly begu n t o b e known o r a p p re
ci a t e d . A single i nstan ce o ut of m any m ust
su ffic e for illu strati on .

I n th e s um me r of 1 8 84 t here was at t he S al p e
tri e re a you ng woman o f a d eplorable type ,

Jeanne S wh o was a crim i nal l u nati c filthy vi o
.
, , ,

l ent an d with a l i fe history o f imp urity an d cri me

.
,

M A u guste Vois i n one o f th e physician s of
.
,

the st a ff u ndert ook t o hypnoti ze h er M ay 3 I st
,
.

A t that t ime s h e was s o violent that she co uld
only b e kept qu iet by a strait j acket an d th e -

constant cold dou che t o h er head S he woul d .

not look at M Voisi n bu t raved and sp at at hi m
.
, .

H e persisted kept his face n ear and opposit e t o
,

h ers and his eyes following hers constantly I n
, .

t en m i nutes s h e was i n a s ou n d sl eep an d soo n ,

passed i nt o the somn amb u listi c cond it i on The .

p rocess was repeat ed m any d ays an d grad ually ,

she becam e san e while i n the hypn ot i c c ondition ,

b u t sti ll raved when she awoke .
150 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

— th e subj ect p resents important beari ngs ; and ,

fu rthermore i n the sol uti on o f other psychol ogical
,

p roble ms it will b e fou nd t o possess the greatest
p ossible i nterest and v a l u e
.
C H A PT E R VI I .

A U TO MATI SM — PL A N C H E T T E .

OU R ordi nary acti ons both p hysical an d m enta l
, ,

are for th e m ost p art su bj ect t o o u r own v olu n
, ,

tary gu idance and cho ice O f this at l east we .
, ,

feel su re We work walk talk play up o n an
.
, , ,

i nst rument read a book or write a l ett er b e
, , ,

cau se we cho ose t o d o these things ; and o rdi narily
they are done u n der th e full gu i dan ce o f o u r wi ll
and i ntelligence S om eti mes howeve r act i ons
.
, ,

are p erform ed by u s withou t o u r ch oi ce o r gu id
ance and even withou t o u r co nscio usn ess an d
, ,

s uch action s are called automati c The thri fty .

hou sewi fe p erhaps also bei ng o f a li tera ry t u rn o f
,

m i nd may b ecome d eeply absorbed i n an exciting
,

n ovel wh ile at the same t i me h er b usy fi ngers
, ,

withou t though t o r e ffort o n her part skilfully ,

ply the knitting n eedles or her well accu stome d
,

foot with gentle moti on rocks th e c radle
, , .

D u ri n g an exciting co nversati on o r the absorb ,

I
S I
1 52 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

i ng c onside rat io n o f som e i mp ortant subj ect o r
problem t he act o f walkin g i s performed withou t
,

will or conscio usness ; t he pianofort e player ru ns
his scales and roul ades with m arvellous rapidity
and p recisio n whi le reading a book or carrying o n
an ani mate d conversati on S u ch action s are p er
.

f ormed aut omat ically .

When we com e t o exami ne a large nu mber o f
actions performed i n this au t omati c man ner w e ,

ob serve that they exhibit great diversity i n the
k i nd an d degree o f automatism displayed i n t heir
p erforman ce I n the cases above m entioned the
.

m ind is simp l y alt ogether engaged in doi ng one
th ing and at the sam e t i me th e m u scles go o n
,

withou t any co nsci o u s di recti on or sup ervision ,

doi ng alt ogether another thing b u t gen erally ,

something which they had before b een accustomed
t o d o Thi s i s o ften cal l ed absent mi ndedness ;
.
-

it i s a l so on e o f the m ost c omm o n and simple
f orms o f au tomatism We set t he machine t o
.

work and i t go es i tsel f
, .

A noth er kind o f au t om at ism is that which o ften
appears i n con nect i on with pec uliar gi fts or tal ent s ,

and is especially associat ed wi th ge ni u s I t i s .

seen fo r exam pl e i n the poet an d t he orato r
, , ,

and i n t hose cap abl e o f imp rovisati on esp ecial ly ,

i n m usi c or i n verse Th e pian ist o r organist
.
1 54 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

ness and have th ei r origi n i n so m e cent re o f i n
,

t elli g e n c e quit e apart fro m his own ordi nary

con scio usn ess an d they only app ear or fi nd ex
,

p ressio n through his ph ysical o rgani z ation L et .

u s exami n e a l it t l e m ore closely i nto t hese
d i fferent forms o f aut omat ism .

Twenty fi v e years ago a c u rio u s l ittl e p iece o f
-

mechanism — apparently h al f toy an d hal f an
instru m ent for amateu r c onj u ri ng— m ade its ap
p e a r a n c e i n th e wi nd ows of the t oysh op s an d
bookstores of th e U nited S tates I t was a l itt l e .

h eart shap ed pi ec e of mahogany o r oth er h ard
-
,

wood about seven i nches by five i n dim ensi ons
, ,

wit h two cast ers serving f or feet at the base o f
t h e h eart wh i le a close l y fi t t i ng p encil passed
,
-

th rou gh a hole at the p oi nt o r ap ex .

Th u s a tripod was form ed moving with p er fect
,

e ase and freedo m i n any di rect i on whil e th e ,

p encil which form ed th e third foot l eft it s
, ,

p l ai n and co nti nu ou s t racing wherever the i n s t r u
m ent was m oved .

Thi s l ittle toy was ca ll ed Pl anchet t e and won ,

d e r fu l tal es were t ol d o f its strange p erformances
when rightly u sed .E venly adj usted up on a
plain wo od t able i f a p roperly con st it ut ed p erson
,
-

placed hi s o r he r fi ng e r tips l ight l y u pon its su r
-

face i t so on b e ga n t o mov e ab ou t wit hou t a n y
, ,
D OES N OT MO VE F OR E VE R Y ON E . 1
55

m u scu l ar e ff ort or any wish or will on th e part o f
th e O perator ; a broad smooth sheet o f paper
,

being placed beneath it up o n the table figu res , ,

words and senten ces we re plainly t race d by t h e
,

pen cil all i n th e style o f a verit abl e oracle an d
, ,

greatly t o the delight o f th e cu ri ous t he wo nder ,

o f th e supe rst iti o us an d the m y s t ifi ca t i o n o f peo
,

p l e gen erally .

N ot eve ry on e however coul d com man d th e
, ,

s ervices o f th e modern oracl e ; o nly t o the t ou ch
o f a certai n few was it resp onsive t o t he many
it was st ill an d silent as a sphi nx One i n ten .
,

p erhaps could obtai n a scrawl ; on e i n twenty
, ,

i ntelligibl e sent ences an d on e in a hu n dre d co ul d
,

p rodu ce remarkable resu l ts F ew p ersons wit .

n e s s i n g its perfo rmances u nd er favorabl e ci rcu m

stances failed t o be i nterested b u t d i fferent p eo ,

pl e looked at i t from qu it e di fferent stan dpoints .

The habit u al do ubter saw i n it only a well
managed trick which however h e failed t o d e
, , ,

t e ct ; th e spiritualist s aw u ndoubted evid en ce o f

spi ritual mani festati ons while the great m aj ority
,

o f com mon sense people saw writing d o ne evi
-
,

d e n t ly withou t will or e ffort o n th e part o f th e
writer p roducing m essages o f every grade from
, ,

th e m ost com monplace twaddle foolishness an d , ,

e ve n f a l sehoo d t o th e exhibiti o n o f int elligence
,
156 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

of a high order a sparkling wit an d a percept ion
, ,

o f events past present and someti mes even of
, , ,

those still i n the futu re m ost acu te an d u n u sual , .

What was t he cau se o f these i nvol untary move
ments or whence cam e the m essages wri tten
, ,

they did not kn ow and few even cared t o sp ec ,

u la t e .

That was twenty fi v e years ago an d th e two -
,

theories already a l luded t o were abou t the only
on es addu ce d t o accou n t for th e ph enom ena .


D r C arp ent er s theo ry o f
. u nconscio u s cerebra
t i on and u n consci ou s m u scu l ar acti on d id n ot
cover t he gro un d the re was alt ogether to o m uch
cerebrat i o n not t o have a consciou sn ess connect ed
with i t i n som e way Th e theory di d n ot c over .

t h e facts Twenty fi v e y ears have failed t o d e
.
-

t e c t th e long talked o f t rick o f th e skept i c
-
they
-

have also fail ed t o su bstantiat e th e claim o f spirit
u a li s t s an d P lan chett e writing is almost as mu ch
,
-

a mystery a s ever .

F airly st udied then what does P lanch et t e really
, ,

d o ? F rom a physi cal standp oint it s p erfo rmances
are simply automati c writi ng or d rawing To .

d eny the aut omati c character o f th e m ovement s
o f P lanchette at this day is simply absu rd That .

writing can b e p rodu ced wit h i t vo l u ntarily n o ,

one d o ubts b u t that it gen erally is p rodu ced a u
,
158 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

The followi ng i s a sketch o f my own fi rst
experi ence with P lan chette I may remark that .

subsequ e nt trials bro ugh t o ut the fact that for
myself alon e P lan chett e will do nothi ng ; it wil l

n ot even m ove a hai r s breadth ; bu t wh en as i s
-
,

oft en the case two p ersons are need ed for su cc ess
, ,

I am often se l ected by P lanchette t o assist wh en
i t is consult ed i n th e m at t er O n on e oc casion I .
,

was calling at a friend s house i n th e spri ng o f’

,

1 86 8 .P l anchette was then m u ch i n vogu e and ,

o ne stood on a side tabl e i n t h e room A you ng
-
.

daught er o f my fri end — a school girl fi ft een or six -

t een years o f age— remarked that P lanchett e
wo ul d m ove and som etim es eve n write for h er and ,

sh e asked m e to j oin her i n a tri al I c o nsent ed .
,

and t o o u r s urp rise t he m oment ou r fi ngers were
, ,

placed lightly u p on th e i nst ru ment i t m oved o ff
with great en ergy ! u esti ons were then asked
.
,

an d the answers were written with prompt ness
and i ntelligen ce greatly t o th e am usement o f th e
,

co mpany D esiring t o know who ou r mysteri ou s
.

corresp ondent might b e we p olit ely said P lan , ,

ch e t t e will you ki ndly i n form u s who it i s that
,

writes th es e answers to which it rep l ied P eter ,

S t uyvesant .

Ol d Gover n or S tuyvesant ? we as k ed .


Y es was t he reply
, .
TH E S T U Y VE S A N T PE A R TR EE .
15
9
Now it s o happened that a short t im e p revi ous
t o ou r séance the old p ear tree known as th e ,

S tuyvesant pear t ree which had st ood for m ore
,

t han two h u nd red y ears at the co rner o f Thirt eenth
S tre et an d Third A ven u e h avi ng becom e decayed ,

and totteri ng was thrown down by a blow from
,

a p assing truc k and had been ru thlessly chopp ed
t o pi eces by workme n ; an d the event had been
generally noti ced and c omm ented u p o n A ccord .

i n gly we replied ,

We are very glad t o hear fro m yo u G overn or , .

H ow abou t the ol d pear tree ?
To thi s a reply was promptly writt en b u t ,

n either o f u s had the sl ightest i dea what i t might
b e Th e you ng lady t ook up the pap er an d
.

com menced t o read b ut was shocked an d greatly
,

con fused to fi nd clearly writt en i n a hand quit e
, ,

foreign t o u s both I t s a ,
sham e ! th e

blanks here bei ng filled by th e most emph at i c ex
p l e t i,
v e s and withou t th e slight est abb reviation .

A nother excellent P lanch ett e writer was M i ss V - .
,

a friend of the family wh o was spendi ng a few days
,

at my h ouse i n M arch 1 88 9 S he wa s a you ng ,
.

German l ady o f u nu su al intelligen ce vivacity , ,

an d go od so u n d sense S h e knew of spi rit ual ism
.

only by p assing remarks which she might have
heard an d had n eve r either seen or h eard o f P la n
,
1 60 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IMIN AL SELF .

ch e tt e . S he was h ersel f a som nambu list o r rather , , ,

a somn iloquist for sh e never walked i n her sleep
, ,

bu t talked with the greatest ease carrying on ,

long co nversat ion s witho ut the s l ightest mem ory
afte rward s of what had been said S he was also .

an excellent hyp n oti c subj ect an d the suggested
,

e ffects o f medi cines were m uch m ore p rompt an d
c ertai n tha n th e e ffect o f the m edicines them
selves whe n u sed i n th e ordi nary way
,
.

F or exp erim ent on e evening I p rop osed that
we shoul d t ry Pl an chett e A s soo n as ou r fi n
.

gers were placed up on th e i nstru m ent i t m oved ,

o ff across th e table with the great est p romptness ,

an d at on c e i t replied t o quest i on s wit h u n usu a l
approp riat eness an d i ntelligence Th e astonish
.

m en t o f M iss V was al together t oo pro fou nd an d
.

t oo apparent t o ad mit of any su spi cion o f co l lu
sio n o n her part and sh e had seen that th e b oard
,

would n ot m ove for m e alone yet she c ou l d n ot
,

b e persu aded that when we wrot e t ogether there
was not som e t ric k and that I did n ot move t he
,

board volu nt arily t o p rod u ce the wri ting .

A t l ength a m essage cam e co ncerni ng one of
h er own re l atives o f whom s h e was su re that I
,

could h ave n o knowledge what ever and s h e was ,

c onvi nced that at all event s that m essage could n ot
have originat ed with m e A ccordingly sh e became
.
1 62 TELEPA TH Y AND TH E S U E L I M /N A L S EL F .

O n anothe r o ccasion M iss V was a n xi ou s to
, .

k n ow and asked P lanchet te i f a re l ative o f h ers ,

whom s h e named was staying i n t own that
,

night The answer came Y es
. Where is he
,
.

” “
stopping ? A nswer A t th e H
!

H o use . .

“ ”
What i s h e d oing now ? A nswe r : H e has
j ust fi nished h i s din ner settled his bill at the
,


cash ier s desk and i s n ow w alking u p B road
,


way with his cousi n S he aft erward l earne d
.

that this i n form at i on was c orrect i n every p a rt i c
u lar .

O n the last evening o f o u r exp eriments the
force d isp laye d i n t h e writi ng was som ething s u r
p rising M iss V always exp eri en ced a certai n
. .

amo u nt o f pain i n he r arms whi l e writ ing as i f ,

s h e were holding the electrodes o f a bat tery
thro ugh which a m il d cu rrent was passing On .

this occasio n the p ai n was almost unbearable so ,

that she frequ ently cri ed out and was obliged t o ,

rem ove her hands from the b oard for relief .

The writin g was so vi olent that i t co uld be heard
i n the next room an d at t imes it seem ed a s th ou gh
,

t he board woul d s u rely b e b roken S eeing s o .

m u ch force exh ibit ed I allowed my fi ngers m ere l y
,

t o to u ch th e surface o f the b oard b ut s o lightly ,

that my han ds d id n ot mov e with i t at all bu t ,

simply retaine d cont act the board sliding along
,
E XPE RIMEN T R EPEA TE D . 16
3

b en eath them Th e writing conti n ued with j u st
.

t he sam e violen ce I th en called t he att ention o f
.

M iss V t o w h at I was doing and requ ested her
.
,

t o adj u st h er han ds i n a si milar man ner S h e di d .

so an d the i nstru ment conti n u ed t o writ e sev eral
,

words with grad ually dim i nishing force m ovin g
, ,

u nder o u r hands while o u r hands did n ot follow
,

at al l the m oveme nts o f t he i nst rum ent u ntil at ,

l ength it gradu ally st opp ed li k e a machin e wh e n
,

t he power is t u rn ed o ff .

M iss V does n ot resi de i n the city b ut wh ile I
.
,

was writing thi s chapt er sh e was i n town and ,

spent a few h ou rs at my h ouse We w ere b oth .

anxi ou s t o t ry P lanchett e again When we .

placed ou r fi ngers up o n t he b oard the writ ing ,

comm enced at once and i ntelligent answers were
,

given t o ab ou t twenty qu estions some o f th e ,

answers especially those relating t o distant fri en ds
, ,

being qu it e c ontrary t o o u r impressions and o u r
hopes bu t they were afte rward fo u n d t o b e t ru e
, .

We remembered the exp eri men t j ust related ,

which was m ade mo re than fou r years ago The .

force on this occasio n was not at all t o b e com
pared wit h what i t was then b u t we sai d Now , , ,

P lan chett e we wan t to ask a favor o f you ; will
,

yo u repeat t he exp eriment o f fo u r years ago and ,

move u nde r ou r hands whil e ou r hands rem ain
,
1 64 TELEP A TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SEL F .

stati on ary I t replied S in ce you are so polite , ,


I will t ry ; perhaps I can m ove i t a littl e .

We the n plant ed o u r elbows fi rmly u pon the
t able cu rved ou r w rists s o as t o allow th e t ips o f
, ,

ou r fi ngers t o rest i n th e lightest p ossibl e manner
up on th e su r face o f the b oard F o u r of u s were .

wat ching wi th great i n t erest f or the result A fter .


a m o ment s h esitat ion slowly th e board m oved ,

n early an i nch and st opp ed b ut th e m ovement ,

was so obvi ous an d d ecid ed an d withou t any ,

m ovement o f o u r h ands t hat a sim u l tan eo u s sh out
,


went u p from u s al l and Well d on e P lan
, ,

c h e tt e ! The exp eri m ent was su ccessfully r e
p e a t e d several t im es the t racing o f
, th e p encil i n
each cas e showin g a m ovem ent o f from on e t o two
i nches .

A m ost val u abl e seri es o f experiments i n P lan
c h e t t e writing was recently carrie d o n by th e lat e
-

Rev M r N ewnh am vicar of Maker D avenp ort
. .
, , ,

E ngland a m embe r o f th e S ociety for P sychical
,

R esearch together with his wi fe They were
, .

fully report ed t o M r F W H Myers secretary . . . .
,

of th e soci ety .

The exp eriments exte nded over a period o f eight
m onths an d m ore t han th ree hu nd red qu esti ons
,

an d answers were recorded M rs N ewnham alon e . .

was the op erat or an d the i mportan t peculiarity i n
,
1 66 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

p le t e i nt elligence both o f th e qu est io n and the
,

proper answer H e the n wrote : Write down the
.


lowest temp erat u re here this winter A nswer .
!

The ac t u al l owest t emperat u re had been 7 6
degrees so 8 was the n earest whol e d e g re e b u t M rs
, , .

Newnham remarked at o nce that had s h e been
as k ed the qu estion sh e sho uld have writ ten 7 ,

an d not 8 because she did not rem ember the frac
,

t i on b u t di d rem ember that th e fi gure was 7 som e
,

thing .

“ ’
A gai n i t was asked I s it th e op erat or s brai n
, ,

o r an i mmat eri al spiri t that m oves P lan chette ?

A nswer brain o r force ‘
.

Wil l .

Is it th e will of a l iving p erson or o f an i mm a

t e r i a l spi ri t ? A n swer force or spirit .


Wi fe .


Give fi rst the wife s Christian name and
, , ,

then my favorit e nam e for her Thi s w a s .

accu rat ely d one .

What is yo u r own nam e ?

Only wi fe .

We are n o t qu it e su re o f the m eani ng o f yo u r

answer E xplai n
. .


Wi fe .

Wh o are yo u that writes ?
Wi fe .
AN A UTOMA TIC PR A YER .
1 67

D oes n o o ne tell wi fe what t o writ e ? If s o,

who

S pi rit .

Whose spi rit ?

Wi fe s brain .

B ut how does wi fe s brain kn ow certain

secrets ?

Wi fe s spi ri t u n conscio usly gu ides .

Can yo u fo resee the fut u re ?

No .

O n an other oc casion i t was as k ed : Write out
the p rayer u sed at the advancem ent o f a M ark
M ast er Mason .


A nswe r : A lmighty Ru l er o f the U n iverse
and A rch i tect of all Worl ds we beseech The e t o ,

accept thi s ou r brother wh o m we have thi s day
, ,

received i nt o ou r most h onorabl e company o f
M ark M aster Masons Gran t h i m t o be a wo rt hy
.

m ember o f ou r b rotherh ood and m ay h e be i n ,

his own p erson a perfect m i rror o f all Mason i c
virt ues G rant that al l o u r d oings may b e t o
.

Thy honor and glory an d t o th e wel fare o f all

mankind .

M r N ewnham adds : Th is p rayer was written
.

o ff i nstantaneou sly an d ve ry rapidly I m u st .

s a y that no p rayer i n th e slightes t d egree resem

b ling i t is made u s e o f i n the ritual o f any M asonic
1 68 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

degree and yet i t contain s mo re than on e st rictly
,

accu rate t echni ca l ity conn ected with th e degree o f
Mark M ast er M ason M y wi fe has n ever seen
.

any Mas onic p rayers whether i n C arlil e or any
, ,

other real or sp u ri ou s rit ual o f the M asoni c

Order .

The whole rep ort shows the sam e i nstant an eou s
appreciation o f th e wri tten qu estions by the i n ,

t e lli g e n ce an d approp riateness with which the

answer was fram ed th ough M rs N ewnham n ever
, .

h ad any idea what the qu esti on was u n ti l after
th e answer was writ te n and read and th e answers ,

ve ry o ft e n were e nt i rely c ont rary t o th e p rej u
di ces an d exp ectati ons o f both the p ersons
engaged i n th e experim ent s .

The fo l lowing cas e m ay fairly b e placed i n th e
thi rd c l ass o f m essages namely those co nveying
, ,

intelligence whi ch seems t o b e b eyon d th e p os
sible kn owl edge of the writer or of any p erson
p resent I t i s a wel l authen ticat ed an d int erest
.

ing example o f P lan ch ette writi ng rep orted t o -
,

M r Myers th e repo rt er b eing M r H e n s le i gh
.
,
.

Wedgwood a cou si n an d b rother i n l aw o f Charles
,
- -

D arwin and himsel f a savant o f n o s mall rep ut a
,

t i on Two l adies sisters , wh om h e d esignat es as
.
,

M rs R an d M rs V were for m any years i nti
. . . .
,

m at e and valu ed f ri en ds o f M r Wedgwood an d .
,
1 70 TELEPA TH Y AND TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .


did B elow the d rawi ng i t wrot e
. N ow loo k ! ‘
.

We did and this t i me cl early comp rehended th e
,

arm an d sword M r W asked , What does
. . .


t he drawing rep resent ?

S om ething given t o m e .

M rs R asked A re yo u a man or a w o m a n ?
. .
,


A man— J oh n G .

M r W ask ed H ow was it given t o you ?
. .
,


O n pape r and oth er things .


Mr W . We don t know J G H ave yo u
.

. .

anyth in g t o do with u s

N o con nectio n .

M r W sai d h e knew of a J G i fford an d
. . .
,

wondered i f that was th e nam e .


Not Gi ffo rd ; G u rw o o d .

M r W suggested th at h e had been killed i n
. .

st orming s ome fort .


I wish I had died fighting

.

Were you a sold ier ? ’


I was i n the army .

Can yo u say w hat rank ? ’


N o it was the pen d id for m e not th e sword ,
.

We s uggested that he was an au thor who had
failed o r b een maligned .

I did not fail I was n ot sland ered To o
. .

m u ch for m e aft er— the pen was t o o m u ch for m e
after my wo u nd .

o we W OOD S CR ES T:

j OH N 1
7 1

A sked t o repeat i t wrot e :
I was wo u nded i n
,

the P eninsula I t will be forty fo u r years next
.
-

Christ mas D ay sin ce I killed myse l f— J kil l ed m y
sel f J ohn G u rwo o d
. .


L eaving Mrs R s diary the f ol l owing is th e
. .
,

accou nt M r Wedgwood wrot e o f the séan ce at
.

th e tim e

J U N E 2 6 1 8 8 9 —H ad a sitting at P lanchett e
, .

with M rs R t his m orning
. .P lan ch ett e said there .

was a spirit there who thought i t coul d draw i f
we wished i t We sai d we shoul d b e glad i f h e
.

would try A ccordingly P l anchett e made a ru de
.

at temp t at a hand and arm p roceedi ng from an
embattled wall an d holding a sword A secon d .

attemp t made th e subj ect c l earer Pl anchett e .

said it was m eant f or a test The sp irit signe d .


it J G

N o connect io n o f ou rs he said We
. .
,
.

grad ually el icited that his n ame was J oh n G u r
1 72 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S U BL I I Y
I I N AL SELF .

wood who was wo u nded i n t he P eninsula i n 1 8 1 0
, ,

an d killed himsel f o n Chri st mas D ay 1 845 I t ,
.

was not t he wou nd b u t the p en that di d it .


J U L Y 5 1 8 8 9 — I made th e foregoing m emo ran
,
.

d u m the sam e day having very l ittl e exp ectati on
,

that there wo uld be any veri fi cation .


H W E D GW O O D . .

! u oting agai n from M rs R s j ou rnal : F riday . .
,

S ept 2 7 — M r Wedgwood came and we had two
. . .
,

sittings — i n the afternoo n and evening I thi nk .

th e sam e spiri t wrote t h rou gh o u t b e g i n n i n g with ,

o u t signat u re b u t when asked th e nam e w riti ng
, ,

J oh n G u rw o o d The e ffort at fi rst in coherent
.
, ,

developed aft erward i nto the following sent ences
S word — whe n I broke i n o n the table with plan ,

o f fortress — bel onged t o my prison er— I will t el l
you his nam e to night I t was on the tabl e when
-
.

I broke i n H e did n ot exp ect me I t ook hi m
. .

u nawares H e was in h is r o o m lo o k i ng at a pla n
.
, ,

an d th e sword was o n t he tabl e Will t ry an d let .


you know how I t ook t he sword t o night - .


I n the evening afte r di nn er : I fought my ,

way i n H is n am e was Ba n i e r— Ba n i e r Ba n i e r
.
fi -
.

Th e sword was lyi ng o n a t able by a written
s cheme o f defenc e Oh m y head ! Ba n i e r had .
,

a plan writt en o ut fo r de fence o f the fortress I t .

was l yi n g o n th e table , and h i s swo rd was by it .
1 74 TELEPA YYI Y AN D TH E S UBL IMIN AL SELF .


a l so con fi rm s P lanchett e s a ssertion that Col G u r .

wood killed hi mself o n Christm as D ay o f t hat

year and adds : I t is t hought t hat this lab ori ou s
,

u ndertaking ( editi ng th e d isp atches) prod uced a
relaxatio n o f th e n ervou s system and c onsequ ent
d ep ression o f spirits I n a fi t o f desp onden cy th e
.

N
u n fortu nat e gentlem an t erm i nated h is li fe Com .

p are P lan ch ett e P e n was t oo m u ch for m e aft er

the wou nd .

H ere are d escribed f o u r i nstan ces o f aut omat ic
writing by m eans o f P lanchette Two of these .

cases were reported t o M r Myers who has thor .
,

o ughly canvassed them as regards thei r a u t h e n
t i c i t y as wel l as th e ability an d good faith o f the
,

p ersons con cerned b oth i n the writing an d rep ort
,

i ng; and h e has mad e us e o f them i n his own able
argu ment u pon the same s ubj ect .

I n th e othe r cases th e m essages were writt en
u nder my own obse rvation my own hands also ,

b eing u po n th e b oard I n th e c ase o f M r an d
. .

M rs N ewnham the i ntelligence which fu rn ished
.

t h e m essages disclai med alt ogether the aid of any
“ ’ ” “
spiri t except wi f e s spirit which di d u n co n ,

s c i o u s ly guid e I n th e case rep orted by M r .

Wed gwood and M rs R the i ntelligen ce d ist i nctly
. .
,

claim ed t o be from Col J ohn G u r wo o d who had
.
,

d ied nearly fi fty y ears before I n my own cas es .
,
MESSA G ES A N AL YZ E D .
1
75

i n that writt en with the co operation o f my fri end s
-

school girl daught er t he i ntelligence clai med t o b e
-
,

that of P et er S t uyvesant whil e i n those writt en
,

with M iss V variou s names were given n on e o f
.
, ,

whi ch was recognized as bel onging t o a person o f
whom we had ever had any knowledge an d all ,

bore ab un dan t eviden ce o f bei ng fi ctit io u s One .
,


indeed p ro fessed t o b e B eecher an d d ec l in ed
, ,

t o give an op inio n o n th e prosp ective t rotti ng
qu aliti es o f a colt o n th e grou nd that he was n o
,

horseman an d i n o u r l at er exp eri ments when ,

closely questi oned i t disti nct ly stat ed that th e
,

i ntelligence cam e fro m the mi nd o f M iss V .

herself.

L et u s analy z e these m essages a l ittle fu rt her .

T hos e wri tt en by M r an d M rs N ewnham were
. .

rem arkable n ot o nly b ecau se M rs N ewnham w as
,
.

writ ing withou t any consciou s kn owledge o f wh a t
was b eing writt en b u t neither had s h e any
,

consciou s kn owl edge o f th e qu esti on s t o which sh e
was writing the answers E vid ent ly th en h er own
.
, ,

ordinary consciousness was n ot acting at all i n t he
m atter regarding eith er the questi ons o r answers ,

for sh e was fully awake i n h er normal conditi on
, ,

an d perfectly competent t o j u dge o f her ow n
m en tal stat e an d acti ons N evertheless the r e was
.
,

som e i ntelligence acting reasonably and co n
176 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUB L IMIN AL SELF
s c i o u s ly , an d making u s e o f h er hand t o regist er
i ts th oughts .

I n a forme r chapter I h ave d escribed an d illu s
t ra t e d a som ewhat u nu su al m ental phen omenon ,

t o which th e name thought transference o r t elep -
,

athy has been given ; and i n another I have
,

e nd eavored t o dem onstrat e the existen ce o f a
secondary or s ublimi nal sel f o r personality .

I f I mistake n ot it is here i n these two com
, ,

p ar a t i v e ly little kno w n and unt il recently lit,
tl e ,

st udied psychical conditi ons that we sh all fi n d
, ,

th e key t o m essage b earing au t om atism as well
-
,

as othe r manifestat ions of i nt elligence whi ch
have heret ofore been c onsidered mysteri o u s an d
o ccu lt A pplyi ng this key t o the N ewnh am
.

P lanch ette writing th e sec on dary p ersonality o r
-
,

subl imi nal sel f of M rs N ewnham t ook i mm e.

diate cogni zan ce of th e qu esti ons silently an d
secretly wri tt en o u t by h er h usband althou gh ,

they were u tterly u nkn own t o h er ordina ry o r
pri mary se l f and mad e use o f her hands t o com
,

m u n i ca t e th e answer .

The answer also was o f c ou rse u n kno wn t o
, ,

her p ri m ary sel f b ut h er su bli mi nal sel f i n ad di
, ,

ti on t o its own privat e an d constant stock of
knowledge and opi ni ons h ad t he advantage o f ,

m ore subtl e m eans of secu ring othe r knowledge
1 78 TE LEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SEL F .

u sed i t co ntai ne d strictly accu rat e t echnical iti es
, ,

an d would have been perfectly app ropriat e t o s uch
a n occasion .

The messages written by M r Wed gwood and .

M rs R p rofess t o com e di rectly from the spi rit
. .

o f C o l on el G u rw o o d b ut with ou t absol ut e l y di s
cardi ng that theory having the key t o whi ch I
,

have referred let u s s e e i f su ch a s upp osit io n is
,

necessary t o explai n t he f acts .

I t m ay b e concede d at on ce th at neither M r .

Wedgwood nor ei ther o f th e ladies with who m h e
wrot e h ad any consci o u s k nowledge o f Co l G u r .

wood — his m ili tary career o r h is s a d taking o ff ;
,

b ut they were al l int elligent p eopl e J oh n Gur .

wood as it t u rned ou t was a n oted man ; h e was
, ,

an o ffi cer in t h e P eni nsular War u nder th e D uke ,

o f Wellingt on p er f orm ed an act o f special bravery
,

an d daring i n th e p erforman ce o f which h e was
,

severely wou n ded and for whi ch h e was aft er
,

ward grant ed a coat o f arms H e was also afte r .


ward chose n t o edit the duke s dispat ches A ll .

this was reco rded i n the A n n ua l R egi s t er for

1 84 5 soo n aft er G u rw o o d s death t ogether with
, ,

a descriptio n i n the l anguage o f h eraldry of th e
crest o r c oat o f arms which had been gr an ted hi m
m any years b efore .

I t i s scarc ely possible that su ch an even t woul d
O PEN TO SUBL IMIN AL SELF . 1
79

not h ave been noticed i n th e n ewspapers at the

ti me o f G u rwo o d s death an d noth ing i s m ore
,

p robable than that some of these i ntelligent per
sons had read these accou nts o r as children heard ,

t hem read o r referred t o though they m ay n ow
,

have been ent irely absent fro m t hei r o rdinary
consci ou s ness and m em ory A t all event s th e .
,

s ubliminal sel f o r seco ndary c o nsci ousn ess o f

M rs R who m P lanchett e desi gnat es a s th e
.

m edi um or o f M r Wedgwo od may have c om e
,
.
,

i nt o relat ionship with the sou rces o f i n formatio n
n ecessa ry to fu rnish the m essages whi ch i t com
m u n i ca t e d and t hese sou rces m ay have been th e
,

kn owledge o r imp ression s u n consci ou sly received
many years before by som e o f those present th e ,

generally di ffused knowledge o f these fact s which
doubtless p revailed i n the c omm u n ity at the

t ime o f G u rwo o d s d eath and the full p ri nt ed a c
,

co u nts o f these events many cop ies o f which
,

were extant .


F rom th e description o f G u rwo o d s coat o f arm s
the idea cou ld easily have b ee n obtain ed whi ch
P lanchett e ru dely represented i n drawing co n ,

s t i t u t i n g what is c alled a test an d also th e other
,

knowl edge concerning hi s military career an d
death whi ch appeared in th e variou s m essages .

Regarding cases comin g u nder my own o b s e r
1 80 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

vation the i ncid ent rel ati ng t o P eter S tuyvesan t s
,

p ear t ree was well kn own t o us both an d had only ,

recently been a matte r o f gen eral c onve rsati on ,

and all o f those p resent had a m ore o r l ess d i s
t i nct idea of P eter S t uyvesant h imsel f d erived ,

’ ’
f rom I rving s Knickerb ocker s H istory o f N e w
York .

O f th e cases observe d with M iss V as before .
,


stated nearly al l the n ames given of autho riti es
, ,

as we call ed t hem were evidently fi ctiti ou s
, ,

scar cely on e being recogni z ed an d n on e were o f
,

p ersons with whom we had any connectio n an d ,

som e di d n ot clai m any other o rigin than o u r
s ubl imi nal co nsci o usness as was a l so the case wi th
,

m essages written by M rs N ewnham . .

I f then som e o f th e m essages are s u rely th e
, ,

work of th e subli mi nal self of th e writer aided by ,

it s m ore acute an d mo re far re aching p ercepti on s
-
,

an d i f n early all m ay b e accou nt ed for i n the
sam e way t he probability that all such m essages
,

h ave t he same origi n is greatly i ncreased an d i n ,

th e sam e degree the n ecessity fo r th e spirit u a l istic
th eory i s d im i nished since it i s evident that o f
,

two t heories for explaining a n ew fact we shoul d
accept t hat on e which better harm oni z es with
fact s already estab l ished .
18 2 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

be easily read by causing it t o be reflected i n a
m irror Thi s ki nd o f writing is sometim es pro
.

d u c e d on th e fi rst att empt of the exp eri ment er ,

an d eve n by you ng children with o u t any e xp e ri
en ce or knowledge of t he subj ect .

A s previ ously shown di fferent st rata o f c on
,

s c i o u s n e s s may an d i n som e wel l observed cases
, ,

m ost certainly d o exi st i n th e sam e i nd ivid u al
, .

I n these wel l observed cases each separat e con ,

s c i o u s n e s s had its own dist inct chai n of mem ories

and its own characteri stics and pecu liariti es and
t hese disti nct chai ns of m emories and well defi ne d
charact eristics const itu t e so far as we can j udge
, ,

d istinct p ersonalit ies A t al l events they are
.
,

centres o f i nt elligence an d m ental activity which
are alt ogether i ndepen dent o f th e ordi nary every ,

day co nsciou sness o r person ality an d o ften alto ,

gether superi or t o it A ccordingly t hi s oth e r
.

ce nt re of i ntelligen ce an d m ent a l act ivity has
b een nam ed th e s econd p er sona l i ty or s nOl i I n i na l
s elf ; that is a co nsci o u sness o r sel f or pe rsonality
,

b eneath the threshold s o t o speak o f the ordi
, ,

nary o r p rimary sel f .

A n sel B o urn e and A J B rown were separat e
. .

and distinct p erso naliti es havi ng enti rely distinct
, ,

and apparently u nrelated chains o f m emo ry dis , ,

t inct ch aract erist ics opi nions and p eculiariti es
, , ,
PE RS O N AL ITIES A CT IN DEPEN DEN TL Y . 1 83

acting at di fferent t imes thro ugh the sam e
body .

A nse l B o u rn e was the u sual o r primary p erson
ality ; A J B rown was a s econ d p ersona l ity a
. .
,

sep arat e focus of int elligen ce and m ent al activity ,

a subl iminal sel f What the exact relati onship
.

existing between these two personal ities m ay b e
we d o no t att emp t at p resen t t o explai n ; b u t
that they exist and act i ndep endent o f each
other we k now I n othe r instan ces as for ex
.
, ,

ample that o f M adam e B th e hypnotic s ub
,
.
,

j e ct o f P ro f J anet o f H avre an d also that o f
.
,

A lma Z . we have been able t o observ e th ese
,

separat e centres o f intelligen ce t h ese d istinct ,

p ersonalities b oth i n act i o n at th e same t ime
, ,

u pon altoget her separat e an d u nrelat ed subj ect s .

S omet im es th e su blim inal self t akes full cont ro l ,

making itsel f th e active rulin g p ersonality t o th e
e nti re excl usio n of th e p ri mary sel f ; an d some
t im es i t o nly sends m essages t o t he primary or
ordina ry sel f by suggesti on mental p ict u res or
, , ,

vivi d i mp ressions mad e u pon the organs o f sens e
and produ ci ng th e sen sat io n o f seein g h earing o r , ,

t ou ch .

To illust rat e t hes e di fferen t meth o ds o f com
m u n i ca t i o n between th e ordinary and s ubli mina l
s el f supp ose an i ndivi du al who m we wil l d e s i g
, ,
184 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

nat e as X m anifest s this pecu liar condition o f
.
,

dou bl e con sci ou sn ess A s we have seen the sub
.
,

l i mi nal sel f often t akes cognizan ce o f th ings co n
cerning which t he ordinary sel f is ent irely i gn o
rant b u t it may n ot al ways have th e p ower t o
i mpress the p ri mary sel f with th is kn owledge n o r ,

t o t ake full possessi on s o as t o b e abl e to i mp art
,

it t o others by speaking or writ ing This is the .

u su al c onditi on o f m ost perso ns ; with some
peculi arly constit u t ed persons h owever the pos , ,

s ib i li t y o f b ei ng s o i mpressed su rely exists ,

and with them these impressions are di rect and
vivid .

O u r i ndivi d ual X i s on e i n who m this ability
, .
,

t o receive i mp ressions i n this mann er exists .

To ill u st rat e : S u p pose fi rst t hat X is asleep .
,

i s takin g h is aft er di nner nap and that children
-
,

pl aying i n h is gro u nds have s et fi re t o some straw
i n cl os e proxim ity t o b uildings n ear by N o on e .

notices the danger X i s asleep b u t h is s u b li
. .
,

mi nal sel f i s o n th e alert— like th e secon d sel f o f
t he som nambulist or su bj ect i n the hypnoti c
t ran ce— i t sees that unless checked there will b e
a destru ctive c on flagrat ion I t imp resses upon .

X a d ream o f fi re s o vivid that h e wakes i n
.

alarm discovers th e m ischi ef an d averts th e
,

danger Or s upp ose X t o b e a wake and sitting
. .
186 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .


sees a sheet let d own by the fou r corners from ,

whi ch h e learn s an import ant lesson .

Th e m essages received aut omat ically m ay n ot
all b e tru e ; th ey m ay be trivi a l and even false ;
on the oth e r hand they may n ot only b e t ru e an d
,

imp ortant b u t t hey may convey i n form ation qu it e
ou t o f the power o f th e primary sel f t o acqu ire by
any ordinary use o f t he senses N o r need we b e
.

great ly su rprised at this it i s a norma l fu ncti on
o f th e su blimi nal sel f ; with some p ersons that
fu nct ion is active with others it is do rm an t b u t
, ,

i n all at s ome m o ment i n l ife ci rcu mstances
, ,

may arise which shall awaken that fun cti o n i nt o
activity .

A rem arkable exampl e o f messages received by
aut omatic w riti ng i s t hat fu rn ished by M r W T . . .

S tead o ccu rri ng i n h is own exp eri ence
,
Mr . .

S tead is a well kn own autho r j o u rnalist an d
-
, ,

th e edit or o f the L ondon edit io n o f th e R ev i ew Of
R ev i ews i n w hi ch m agaz in e his exp eriences have
, ,

o n vari ou s occasions been p ublished
,
.

A s h e regards th e m at ter there is an i n v i s i ble
,

i n t ell igen ce which cont rols h is han d bu t the p er ,

sons with who m h e i s i n comm u nication are a l ive
and visibl e — fo r instance his own son on vario u s o c
casi ons also persons i n his employ writ ers upo n hi s
, ,

maga z i ne casu al acquai ntan ces an d even strangers
, , .
MR . S TEAD S A UTOMA TIC WRITIN

G . 18
7

None o f th ese persons p art icipat e i n any active
o r consciou s way i n th e comm uni cati ons M r . .

F W H Myers has o ft en conversed with M r
. . . .

S tead and with severa l o f hi s i nvol u ntary co rre
s on d e n t s i n relati on t o th e phenom ena and th e
p ,

facts are so simpl e and ope n and the persons ,

con nected with them so intelligent an d evid ently
sincere and t ruth ful that no doub t can b e enter
,

t a i n e d as t o th e reality o f th e i nci dents however ,

they m ay b e interpret ed .

O n e o f th e most re markabl e o f th es e i nv olu n
tary correspo ndents is known as M iss A a lady .
,

employe d by hi m i n literary wor k of an i mportant
character S he testifi es i n regard t o th e m att er
.


I th e subj ect o f M r S tead s au t om ati c wri ti ng
,
.
,

known as testi fy t o the co rrect ness o f th e
stat emen ts made i n this report I woul d l ike t o .

add what I think m ore wo nderfu l than m any
things M r S t ead h as cit ed n amely th e correct
.
, ,

n ess wit h which on several oc casion s h e has give n
, ,

th e names o f persons wh om h e has never seen n or
h eard o f before I rememb er o n o n e occasion
.

a p erson calling up on me with a very u n comm on
n am e The next day I saw M r S t ead and h e
. .

read to m e what his h an d h ad writt en of the visit
o f that p erson givi ng t h e n am e absol utely co r
,

r e c t ly M r S tead has n ever seen that person
. .
,
1 88 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

and u nti l then had n o k no wl edge o f h is exi st

e n ce f

Th e f ollowing is a descripti on o f a j o u rn ey mad e
by M iss A au tomatically wri tten by M r S tead
.
, .
,

h e at the ti me not having the slight est knowledge
where sh e was wh at sh e was d oing or that she
, ,

i ntended making any su ch j ou rney Th e slight .

i n accu racies are not ed
I went t o th e Wat erl oo st at i on by the twe l ve

o clock t rai n and got t o H ampt on Co u rt ab o u t
,

on e When we got o u t we wen t t o a hot el an d
.

had dinner I t cost n early three shillings A ft er
. .

d i nner I went t o th e pict u re galleri es
. I was -
.

very m u ch pl eased wi th th e painti ngs o f m any o f
t h e ceilings I was i nterested i n m ost of the
.

p ortraits o f L ely A fte r seeing the galleri es I
.

went i nto the gro u n ds H ow beaut i ful they are l .

I saw a great vi ne t hat l ovely E nglish garde n
,

th e avenu e o f elms the canal the great water , ,

sheet t he three views t he fou ntai n t h e gol d
, , ,

fishes and the n l ost mysel f i n t he m a z e I got
, .


h ome abo u t nin e o cl ock I t co st m e alt ogether .


abou t six shillings O n comm u nicating this t o
.

M iss A sh e fo u n d that everythi ng was c orrect
.

wit h t wo exceptio ns S he went down by th e .


two o cl ock t rai n i nstead o f the twelve and got t o ,

H amp t on Cou rt abo ut three The di nn er cost .
1
9 0 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .


My debts are £90 3 I n answer t o a fu rther i n
qui ry whether t he fi gu res were accu rately stated ,



ninety pou nd s was then writt en i n full Is .

that all ? I asked My hand wrote Yes an d

.

,


h ow I am to p ay I d o n ot know Well I said ; .
,

how m u ch do yo u want fo r that p i ec e o f p rop
e rt y yo u wish t o se ll My hand wrot e What ,

I h o p e is s ay £ 1 00 for th at
, , I t seem s a great .

deal b ut I m u st get mo ney som ehow Oh i f I
, .
,

c ou ld get anything to do — I wou ld gl adly d o any
t hing ! What d oes it cost y o u t o l ive ? I
’ ’

asked My hand wrote I d o n ot thin k I co ul d
.
,

possibly live u nder 2 00 a year I f I were alon e .

I could l ive o n £ 50 p er an n u m .

The n ext day I mad e a p oi n t o f see k ing my
frien d H e sai d
. I h op e yo u were n ot o ffended
at my refu si ng t o t el l yo u my ci rcu m stan ces b ut ’
,

really I d o not thi nk i t would be right t o t ro ubl e

yo u wit h them I sai d : I am n ot o ff ended i n
.

t h e least and I h op e yo u will n ot b e o ff ended
,

when I t e l l yo u what I have d one I t h e n ex .

plained this au tomat i c t elepath i c m eth od of com
,

m un i cat i o n I sai d : I d o n ot kn ow whethe r
.

there i s a word o f t rut h i n what my hand has
written I hesitat e at t elling you for I con fess I
.
,

thin k t h e su m whi ch was writt en as th e amo u nt
of yo u r d ebt s can n ot b e correctly stated i t seem s
TH E IN D IC A TI ON S COR R OB OR A TE D . 191

t o m e m u ch too small c o nsid ering the distress i n ,

which y ou seem ed t o b e ; therefore I will read
yo u that fi rst and i f that is right I will read yo u
,

th e rest ; bu t i f it is wrong I will consider it is
rubbish and that you r mi nd i n n o way i nflu en ced

my hand H e was interested b u t i ncred ulous
. .

B ut I said
,
B efore I read you anything will
,

yo u form a d efi nite idea i n you r min d as t o h o w
m u ch you r d ebts am o u nt t o ; sec on dly as t o th e ,

am oun t o f m on ey yo u hope t o get for that prop
e r t y ; thi rdly what it costs yo u t o keep u p you r
,

est ablishm ent wit h yo u r rel atives an d fourthly ,

what you co ul d live u pon i f yo u were by yo u r
self ? ’
Yes h e said I have thou ght of all ,

those things I then read ou t
. Th e amo u nt ‘


of you r debts i s abo u t H e start ed Y es .
,


h e said that is right
,
Then I said : A s that i s.

right I will read the rest Yo u hop e t o get £ 1 00 .

’ ’
for you r prop erty Yes h e said t hat was the
.
, ,

figu re that was i n my m in d thou gh I hesitat ed ,


t o m ent io n i t for it seems t o o m u ch Yo u say .

yo u cann ot live u pon less than £ 2 00 a year with

you r p resen t establishm ent Yes he sai d .

, ,

that i s exactly right B u t i f yo u were by yo u r
.

sel f yo u coul d live on £ 50 a year Well sai d .
’ ‘
,

h e a p o u nd a week was what I had fixed i n my
,


m ind . Therefore there had been a p erfectly
1
9 2 TELEP A TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IMIN A L SELF .

acc urat e t ranscript i o n o f th e thoughts i n th e
m in d o f a comparative strange r writt en ou t with
my own h an d at a ti m e wh en we we re at a d i s
t ance o f som e mil es apart withi n a few h ou rs of
,

th e t i m e when h e had written ap o l ogiz ing fo r n ot
h avi ng given m e t h e i n f ormatio n f or which I had
as k ed .

I n th e f ol l owi ng case th e c orresp on den t is a
fo reign l ady doin g so me work for t h e R ev i ew
, ,

but wh o m M r S t ead had only m et onc e in hi s
.

li fe O n th e oc casi on n ow re ferred t o he was t o
.


m eet h er at Redcar S tat i o n at abo u t th ree o clock
i n th e aft ern oon H e was st opping at a hou s e
.


t en m i n ut es walk fro m th e stat i on an d i t o cc u rred
,

“ ” ’
to hi m that abo u t th ree o cl o ck as m en ti oned ,

i n h er letter m igh t m ean befor e th ree ; an d i t
,

was now o nly twenty mi n u tes of th ree N o tim e .

tabl e was a t hand : he simply asked her to u se
his h an d t o tell him wh at t im e th e t rai n was d u e .

This was d on e without ev er h aving had any com
m u n i ca t i o n with her up on th e su bj ect o f aut omati c
wri ting S he (by M r S t ead s h and ) i m mediat ely
. .

wrote h er name an d said the t rai n was d u e at
,

R ed car S tat ion at t en m i nu t es o f th ree A c cord .

i n gly h e had t o leave at on ce — b u t be fore starti ng
h e said Where are you at t his m om ent ?
,
Th e
answer c am e I am in th e trai n at M iddlesb orou gh
,
194 TEL E PA TH Y AND TH E S UBL IMIN A L SELF .

I n al l these cases it sho uld b e n ot iced t h e s o
called corresp ond en t t o o k n o active p art i n th e
experi ment was n ot consciou s o f comm u nicating
,

anything n o r of t ryi ng t o d o s o ; n or is there any
,

evidence o f a third party or any i nt ervenin g i n
t e lli g e n ce o r p ersonal ity ; bu t the sublimi nal sel f

o f th e writ er went forth an d acqu i red t he n eed ed
in form at io n and t ran sferred i t au to mat ically t o th e
pri mary sel f as was th e case i n the P lan ch ett e
,

writi ng o f M rs N ewnh am and the Wedgwood
.

cases .

D u ring th e years 1 8 7 4 and 1 8 7 5 I had u nd er
my care M rs J u l iett e T B urton the wi fe o f a
. .
,

physi cia n wh o came t o New Y ork from th e S ou th
at th e c l ose o f the war S h e was a woman o f .

refi nem ent ed u cation an d excellent li terary
, ,

ability S he wrot e with u n usual facility and her
.
,

arti c l es were accept ed by newspap ers an d m ag
azin es and brought her a c onsi derable i nco me
,
.

I kn ew her well and her h on esty good faith
, , ,

and strong co mm on sense were c onspicu ous S h e
- .

di ed o f phthisis i n 1 8 7 5 I t is t o her vari ed au t o
.

m ati c p owers as il l ust rati ng ou r su bj ect that I
would call attention .

M any o f h er best arti cles were p rep ared with
out consci ou s e ffort o f h er own either physical or ,

m ental ; s h e simply p repared pencils and pap er ,
A UTOMA TIC D R A WIN G A N D PA IN TIN G . 1
95

b ecam e passive and her han d wrote S ometi mes
, .

s h e had a plan t o writ e u p a certain s ubj ect and ,

someti m es th e subj ect as well as the matt er cam e
au t omat i cally .

S h e knew that sh e was wri ting b ut o f what ,

was wri tte n she had n o kn owledge u ntil sh e read
her own m an u script .

S he had n o t alent for d rawi ng nor for painti ng ;
s h e co uld not i n h er o rdi n ary condition draw a
, ,

face no r even a l eaf wh ich coul d b e recognized
, , .

S oo n after com ing t o N ew York s h e began to see
f aces and oth er pict u res before h er o n the bla nk
pap er and t o sketch them with marvello u s rap idity
an d exactness all i n the sam e autom ati c man ner
,

as t hat i n which s h e di d h er writ ing Thes e .

d rawings were not cru de bu t w ere strongly char ,

a ct er i s t i c and were d eli cat ely don e with o rdinary

l ead p encils several of whi ch were p rep ared before
,

han d with sharp d eli cate p oi nts I rem ember on e .

drawing i n part i cular— a man s head abou t h al f ’

li fe size with full fl owi ng beard A t fi rst glan ce
-
, .

there was nothing peculiar ab out the p i ct u re ,

except that on e would say th at i t was a strong
and charact eristi c face ; b u t on close exami na
t ion i n a st ron g light and esp ecially th rough a
,

readi n g gl ass the b eard was seen to b e m ad e u p
-
,

ent i re l y o f exceedingly m i nut e faces o f sh eep ;
1 96 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IMIN A L SE LF .

every face was p erfectly form ed an d charact eristi c ,

and there were th ousands o f th em I t was don e .

with th e sam e wond erful rapidity which ch arac
t e r i z e d all her au t omati c work .

L at er she was i mpelled t o p roc u re c o l ors ,

brushes and all t h e materials fo r painti ng i n o il ;
,

and altho ugh sh e h ad n ever even seen that kind
o f wo rk d on e and had not th e slightest i dea how
,

t o m ix the colors t o p rod uc e desired tints n or ,

h ow to apply the m t o p rod u ce desi red e ffects yet ,

at a singl e sitti ng i n a d arken ed room s he p ro
d u c e d a h ead o f singu l ar strength an d charact er
and p ossessing at l east som e a rtist ic m erit C er .

t a i nly n o on e co ul d imagin e it t o b e th e fi rst a t

t empt o f a p erson enti re l y with out nat u ral talent
for eith er d rawing o r pai nt in g I t was don e on
.

commo n brown cardb oard and it has b een i n my
,

p ossessi on for the past twenty two years The - .

rep rod u ct i on which app ears as frontispiece t o the
p resent vol u m e gives som e i dea o f its ch aract er .

The i mp ressi on received by th e painter was
that it was th e p ortrai t of an E n glishm an n amed
!
Nathan E arly N o dat e was assign ed
. .

A s a fu rther illust ratio n o f her aut omati c p ower ,

it m ay be m ent ioned that anoth er u n cultivat e d
f ac ulty d eveloped itsel f nam ely t he power o f
, ,

S ee F ro n ti s p i ece .
C H A PT E R I X .

C R Y S T A L - GA Z I N G .

A U TOM ATI C m essages fall nat u rally i nt o two
general classes ( )
1 M ot or m essages or those r e ,

c e i v e d by m eans o f writ ing speaki ng drawing o r
, , ,

som e a ct i v i ty o f th e b ody an d ( 2 ) s ens ory m es
,

sages o r t hose rec eived p a ss i vely by m eans of an
,

i mp ressi on mad e u pon som e o f the se n ses as for , ,

example seei ng h earing o r feeli n g
, , , .

The motor m essages sp elt o u t by rap s an d
tabl e tipping an d th e p erformances o f t rance
-
,

sp ea k ers an d spirit ualist i c m edi um s n eed n o t d e
tain u s at present s o far as th e m essages th em .

se l ves are co n cern ed they o ffer n o n ew el ement s
for consi derati on Th e utteran ces o f t rance
.

sp eak ers as a rul e are no t rich I n verifiable facts ,

though so me o f thei r p er fo rm an ces are t ruly r e
m arkabl e as presenting a phase o f improvisatio n
aut omati cally given ; and th e sam e m ay b e sai d
o f m edi u mi stic utt erances gen eral ly ; they h ave
th e sam e va l u e as au t om ati c writ i ng whethe r p ro
,

1 98
OTH ER ME THODS OF A U TOMA TISM 1
99

d u ce d by Pl anchett e or passive l y h oldi ng the
,

p encil i n th e hand ; and s o far as they are h onest
they p robably have th e sam e origin n amely the , ,

secondary conscious ness o r su blim inal sel f o f t h e
m ediu m A s regards th e force which makes the
.

raps or tips th e table it i s altogether a di fferent
,

su bj ect an d its co nsid erati on here wo ul d b e u n
n ecessary and o u t o f place .

I h asten t o presen t cases o f au t omatism w here
th e m essages brought are given by ot her m eans
t han writ ing speaking o r any m ovement o r
, ,

activity o f the body b u t whi ch bel ong t o th e
,

s ens ory class an d are rece ived by i mp ressions
,

m ade up on t he senses O f th ese the m ost com
.

m on are those m ad e up on the s ense o f sight .

To this class bel ong visions d reams distinct , ,

m ental p ictu res present ed u nder widely varyi ng
circ u mstances an d cond itions i n t rance i n the , ,

hypnotic condition i n sleep o r d irectly conveyed
, ,

t o th e p rimary co nsciou s sel f To simp ly t /i i nk .

h ow a p erson a b u ilding o r a l an dscap e looks is
, ,

one thing bu t t o have a f ull me ntal p i ct u re p os
, ,

sessi ng dim ensions and a st abil ity which adm its
,

o f being closely examin ed i n d et ail i s qu it e another ,

thing .

A littl e gi rl o f my acqu aintan ce on retu rn i ng ,

f rom th e c o unt ry after several weeks o f absen ce
2 00 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

from her fath er sai d t o him
, Why papa I c oul d
, , ,

have y ou with m e wh enever I liked this su mmer , ,

t hough i t was only you r head an d shoul de rs that
I c ould s e e ; bu t I could pl ac e yo u wh ere I like d
and cou l d look at y o u a l on g t ime b efore yo u went

away . Withou t k n owing it t h e child exactly
d escribed a t ru e visi o n — her thought o f her fathe r
was visualized ex ter n a li z ed give n a form which
, ,

had d e fi n i t e n e ss which co ul d b e placed an d
,

exam ined in d etail and was m ore or less p er
,

manent .

Vari ous artifi cial expedi ent s h ave b een resort ed
t o i n o rder t o assist i n this p rocess o f di st inct
visualizati on ; an d of these artifi cial m eans on e o f
th e m ost impo rtant and e ff ective i s known as
c rystal ga z ing
-
.

I t is a fact not o ft en comm ent ed u po n — indeed
n ot o ft en allu ded t o i n genera l l iteratu re— that th e
c ryst al has fro m th e earliest t im es bee n m ade u se
o f for th e p u rp ose o f p rod u cin g visi ons an d fo r,

d ivi nati on an d prophecy N ot only has th e
.

c rystal been u sed for this p u rp ose b u t also th e,

m irror a cup or glass o f wat er o r wine or even
, ,

s om e dark an d glistenin g substan ce like t reacle
or i nk p o u red i nt o the p al m o f the hand have al l ,

been used i n a sim ilar man ner The sam e practice
.

is stil l observed am ongst the peop l e o f I ndia as
2 02 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

recognized by M r S alt and o n bei ng arrested an d
.
,

accu sed o f the cri me he imm edi ately confessed
h i s gu ilt
.

F urth er i nvestigat ion by M r L an e and M r . .

S alt fu rnished other i nterest ing results A boy .

eight or nin e years of age was usually chosen at
random from those who happ ened t o b e passing
by I nvo cat ions were writ ten u p on paper by th e
.

m agician calling u p on hi s fam ili ar spirit and also
, ,


a verse from t he Ko ran t o open th e boy s eyes
i n a su pern at ura l man ner s o as t o m ake his sight

pierce i nto what is t o u s th e i n visib l e worl d .

These were thrown int o a bra z ie r with l ive char
coa l and b u rned with aro mati c seeds and d rugs .

Th e magic squ are that is a squ are withi n a square
, ,

was drawn i n th e boy s pal m and c ertain A rabi c

,

charact ers were written i n the spaces b etween th e
squares i nk was then p ou red i nt o the cent re an d ,

upo n t hat th e boy was t o ga z e i ntently I n t his .

way vision s were p rod u ced an d vario us person s and
scenes were described F inally M r L an e desired
.
,
.

that L ord N elso n sh ou l d b e call ed for The b oy .

describe d a m an i n E u rop ean clothes of dark bl u e ,

wh o had lost h is l eft arm ; b u t looking closer h e

added N o it is placed t o his breast
,
.

L ord N elso n had l ost his right arm and it was
his c u st om t o carry th e e mpty sleeve att ached t o
CR YS TAL GA Z IN G WI D E L
- Y P R A C TI S E D .
2 03


his breast M r L an e adds
. . Witho ut saying ,

that I suspected the boy had m ade a m istake I
asked the magician whether obj ects appeared

i n the i nk as i f actually before th e boy s ey es o r ,

as i f i n a glass which made th e right side appear
,

t he left ? H e replied They appear as in a ,

mi rror ,
This rendered th e boy s d escription ’

faultl ess .

I t is remarkabl e t o n oti ce how p reval ent thi s
m ode o f divi nat io n o r secon d sight has been i n -

all ages Traces of th e sam e p roced u re have bee n
.

fou nd i n E gypt P ersia Chi na I ndia G reece an d
, , , , ,

Ro m e an d notably i n E u rope gen erally f rom th e
, ,

t ent h t o th e sixt eenth ce ntu ries A lady wh o .

withh o l ds h er nam e fro m th e p ublic b u t wh o i s ,

p erfectly wel l known t o M r Myers o f th e S ociety .
,

f or P sychical Research and who chooses t o b e ,

k n own as M iss X has been at great p ains t o col
.
,

l ect cu ri ous i nform ati o n upon thi s subj ect and has
ad ded her own very i nt eresting experi ence i n c rys

tal gazing S he wri tes
-
. I t is i nt eresting t o o b
,

serve the close resembl ance i n the vari o u s m eth ods
o f empl oying the m irror and i n th e mysti c sym ,

b o li s m which su rro u nds it n ot o nly i n di fferen t ,

ages b u t i n di fferent co u ntries F rom th e ti m e
,
.

of t he A ssyrian m onarch represent ed o n th e walls
o f the n o rthwest pal ace o f N imrod down t o t h e
2 04 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

sevent eenth cent u ry when D r D e e placed his
, .

S hew S to ne o n a c ushion ed table in th e goodly
littl e chapel n ext h i s chamber i n the c ollege o f
which h e was warden at Man chester the seer has ,

su rrou n ded hi mself with the cerem on ials of wor
ship wh ether t o p ropitiate P an or Osiri s o r t o
, ,

d isconcert A hri man or the P ri nce o f D arkness .

The early J ewish S cript u res abou nd i n indica
ti ons of th e sam e practi ce When th e patriarch
.

J oseph pu t h is silver cup i n th e m o u th of hi s
you ng brother B enj amin s sack i n orde r that h e

,

m ight have a pret ext for recalling hi s b rethren
aft er h e had sen t t hem away his st eward i n a c , ,

c u s i n g them of th eft u ses t h is langu age I s not :

,

this th e cup i n which my l ord d rin k eth and ,

w/ i e r e by i n d eed li e d i v i n et li 9 . S howing th e sam e
u se o f the c u p for pu rp oses o f d ivinat io n as
that i ndi cat ed on the walls o f the A ssyri an
P alace .

The U ri m and Thu mmim as t hei r names i ndi ,

cat e were dou btl ess st ones o f u n usual spl endor
,

set i n the h igh pri est s
-

breast plat e of j udg-

” “
m ent ,
an d th ey were m ade u se of t o inqu ire o f

th e L ord .

When J osh u a was t o be s e t ap art as a leader o f
the p eopl e h e was b rought t o E lea z ar the priest
, ,

who s ho uld la y hi s han d s o n h i m an d a s k c oun
2 06 TEL E PA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SE LF
o f th e early oracles F rom J ewi sh and P agan
.

p ract ice s as a m eans o f divination clai rvoyance ,

and p rophecy the art o f the c rystal seer seems t o
,

have passed t o e arly Ch ristian t imes withou t
material change except i n cerem onials These .

seers are menti on ed i n the co u nsels of the Chu rch
a s s p ec u la r i i children o ften acting as the seers
, ,

and alth ough i n som e qu arters t hey were looked
u p on with suspi cion as heret ics and were u nder ,

t h e ban of the Chu rch yet t hey had an ext en
,

sive followi ng .

Thomas A qu in as speaki ng o f th e pecu l i ar
,

p ower of seeing visi ons possessed by children ,

says i t is n ot to be ascribed t o any virtu e or i n
no cence o f thei rs no r any p ower o f nat ure b u t
, ,

that i t is the work of the devi l .


I n Wag n er s beauti ful opera o f P arsifal based ,

u pon the l ege n d o f th e H oly Grail reference t o ,

the sam e cu st om is m ore than once evi dent Th e .

second act o p en s with a sc en e representin g th e
enchant ed castl e o f Klingsor ; the m agician him
sel f is seen ga z ing int o a bright m eta ll ic m i rror ,

i n which h e sees P arsifal approaching and recog
n i z e s and fears h i m as th e promised gu iltless on e

—th e t ru e ki ng and gu ardian of t he Grail — a n
o fli c e to whi ch h e himse l f h a d once aspired In

.

f act t he G rail itse l f i n i t s ear l i est m y thical and
,
TH E HOL Y G R A IL A N D P A R S I VA L M Y THS . 20 7
t raditio na l form as wel l as i n i ts l ate r d evel op
,

m en t as a d ist inct l y Christian symbol wa s an i n ,
.

stru men t of d ivinati on an d p roph ecy Th e .

D ru ids had thei r basin somet i mes filled wi th
,

arom ati c herbs someti m es with th e bl ood o f th e
,

sacri fi ced vi ct i m ; bu t in eith er case i t wa s p ot en t
for sec u ring the p rop er psychi c condition i n
th e o ffi ciat ing priest or soothsay er ; an d while
A rabic and I ndian myths p resent t he sam e i dea ,

som etim es as a cup o f divi nat i on and somet imes as,

a bril l iant st one the B ritish I slands were th e
,

m ai n so u rce of the t raditi ons which eventually
c u lminated i n the legends o f the H oly Grail with ,

its fu ll store o f b eau ti fu l and to u ching i ncidents ,

p roph ecies an d forms o f w orship I n each the
,
.

sp ecial gu ardians and knights of the G rail appear ,

with P arsi fal t he simple mi nded p ure and pitifu l
,
-
,

knight as its restorer and king when lost or i n
u nworthy han ds .

I n th e G erm an versi on o f the twel fth cent
u ry as given by W ol fram i n h is P arz iva l th e
, ,

G rail is a beauti ful sacred ston e e nsh ri ned i n
, ,

th e magn ifi cent t em pl e at M o n t s a lv a t guarded ,

by the consecrat ed knight s an d the sick and
erri ng b u t repentant King A m fortas While the
, ,
.

u nhappy king was worshipping with gaz e i nt ent
up on the S acre d E mblem su dden ly l ett ers o f ,
2 08 TE L E PA TI I Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SEL F .

fi re su rro u nde d i t an d h e read t h e cheeri ng
prophecy :
I n th e l ovi ng s o ul of a g ui l tl ess on e
P ut t h y fait h — H i m h a ve I chos e n ”
.


Ku ff erath remarks The religi ou s emblem
,

soon b ecam e a symb oli c obj ect — i t reveal ed t o its
worshipp ers t h e kn owl edge of t h e futu re th e ,

mystery o f the world t he t reasu res of h uma n ,


kn owl e d ge an d imp arted a p oeti c inspiration
,
.

5 0 i t c omes t o p ass that i n the legen d i n its latest
fo rm — th e sp l en did work o f th e M ast er of B ay
reuth th e H oly Grai l as a chalice and Chri stian
, ,

emb l em i s still endowed with the sam e mi racu lo u s
,

p ower and i s rescu ed from th e u nfortu nate
,


gu ard ianship o f A m fortas by the loving soul
o f a guilt l ess o n e —th e si mpl e t ried an d mu ch , ,

e ndu ring P arsi fal m iraculou sly p rom ised long
,

before by the G rail itself .

I t will be see n then that c rystal gazing i n i ts
, ,
-

vari o us forms h as from th e earliest tim es been
, ,

p ractised with great ceremony for the p u rpose o f
acqu iring know l edge concern i ng a ffai rs and event s
u n k n own an d o ften not di scoverabl e by ordi nary
m etho d s .

S t rip ped of its fi cti ti ou s acc essories— its charms ,

i ncantati ons i ncense and p rayers— one single i m
,

p ortant fact remains comm on i n the most anci ent
zro TE L EPA TH Y AN D TH E S UB L IMIN AL SEL F .

observed th e resu l ts an d s h e has som e seventy
,

cases or exp erim ents o f her ow n o f which sh e
has kept care fully p rep ared n ot es al ways made ,

di rectly or withi n an h ou r a f ter each e xp eri .


m ent F o r a c rysta l s h e rec omm ends a good
.

sized magni fying glass placed o n a dark back

gro u nd .

S he classifies h er resu l ts as foll ows
( )
I A fter i mages
-
or rec rudescent m emories com
ing u p from the subco nsciou s strata t o which the
had fallen .

( )
2 Obj ect ivat ion s or,
th e v isualiz i ng of i d eas
o r i mages whi ch already exist conscio u sly or u n
consciou sly i n the mi nd .

(3) Vi si ons p ossibly t elep athi c o r clai rvoya nt
, ,

implying acqu i rement o f kn owledge by supra
normal m eans .

The fol l owing are som e o f M iss X s e xp e ri .

m ents
S he had b een o cc upying h erself wi th accou nts
and opened a d rawer t o t ake o ut her bankin g
book ; accidentally h er h and c ame i n c ontact
with the c ryst al s h e was i n th e habit o f u sing ,

an d sh e wel com es the su ggesti on of a change o f
o ccupat io n F igu res h owever were st ill u pper
.
, ,

m ost and the c rystal showed her nothing bu t th e
,

combinati on 7 69 4 D ismissing this as p robably
.
MISS X EXPE RIMEN TS

.
211

the n u mber o f the cab she had driven in that
m orning o r a chan ce combinat io n o f figu res with
,

which she h ad been occ up ied sh e laid aside the ,

crysta l and took up h er banking b ook which ,

certai nly s h e had n ot seen for several m onths .

G reatly t o h er su rprise she fou nd that 7 69 4 wa s
t he nu mber o f her book plainly i ndicated o n t h e
,

cove n
S he d eclares that s h e wou ld have u tterly failed
t o recall the figu res a nd cou l d no t even have
,

gu essed the n u mber o f digit s n or th e valu e o f the
fi rst figu re .

A gain z— H aving carel essly dest roye d a lette r
wi thout p reserving the address o f her correspond
ent she tried i n vai n t o recall i t S he kn ew the .

cou nty and searching on a m ap s h e recognized
, , ,

t he name o f th e town on e qu ite u n familiar t o
,

her bu t sh e had no cl ue to the house or street
, ,

till at length i t occu rred t o her t o t est th e val u e
o f th e cryst al as a m eans of recallin g forgotte n
kn owledge A short i nspect io n showed her th e
.


wo rds , H H o u se i n gray l etters o n a whit e
.
,

grou nd H avi ng n othi ng b ett er t o rely u pon sh e
.

ris k ed p osting the letter t o the address s o cu ri
o u s ly supplied A day o r two b rought an a n
.


swer o n pap er headed “
H H ouse in gray .

l etters on a whit e grou nd .
2 12 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

O n e m ore il l ust rat ion from M iss X on e of he r .
,

earl iest experim ent s n u mbered 1 1 i n her n ote
, ,

book There cam e i nt o th e c rystal a vi sio n p er
.

p le x i n g and wholly u n exp ected : a qu ai nt ol d
chair an aged h and a worn black co at sleeve
, ,
-

rest ing o n the arm o f th e chair I t was sl owly.

recogni zed as a recollecti on o f a roo m i n a c ou n
t ry V i carage wh ich she had not been i n and h ad
seldo m thought o f sin ce sh e was a ch il d o f t en .

B ut whence cam e the visi on an d why to day ?,
-

Th e clu e was fou nd That sam e day s h e had
.

b een readi ng D ante a b ook which sh e had fi rst
,

learn ed t o read and enj oy by th e help o f the
“ ”
aged vi car with th e wo rn black c oat sleeve -

rest ing on th e same quai nt oa k chai r arm i n t hat
,
-

same c orner of th e st u dy i n th e cou nt ry vicarage .

H ere are two cases from th e sam e writ er b e
l onging t o the thi rd divisi on of her classi fi cation ,

nam ely wh ere an exp l anat i on of th e visi on r e
,

qu ires the i ntrodu ct io n o f a t elep athi c i nfl uence .

O n M onday F ebru ary 1 1 th she took u p th e
, ,

c rystal with th e d eliberate wish and i ntenti on
o f seeing a c ert ai n fi gu re which occu pi ed her
thoughts at t h e t im e bu t i nstead o f th e d esi red
figu re th e fi e l d was preoccu p ied by a plai n litt l e
n osegay of da ffodils such as m ight b e f orme d
,

by two or three fi ne fl owers b u n ch ed t ogether .
2 14 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SEL I! .

she received a n answe r t o her impati en t letter ,

pl eading gu ilty t o th e charge o f n egl ect b u t ,

u rging as an excuse that s h e was att ending the
Royal A cade my of M usic and was engaged there
th e greater part o f every day S u ch an excuse .

was t o th e last degree u n expected as her fri en d ,

was a marri ed wo man and h ad n ever given serio u s
attenti on t o m u si c I t was t ru e h oweve r— and
.
,

she afterward s learned that sh e carried a p ort foli o
which was the co u nterpart of the on e s h e had
sket ched fro m her crystal vi si on .

The followi ng i n cid ent i n wh ich an E ast I ndi a
army offi cer Col Wi ckham hi s wi fe P ri ncess d i
,
.
, ,

Crist o fo ro and R uth thei r ed u cat ed native serv
, ,

ant were th e chi ef actors ill ust rat es another
, ,

phase o f c rystal gazi ng A ll th ree of th e actors
-
.

part icipatin g i n th e i n ci dent were w ell known
p ersonally t o M r My ers wh o reports the case
.
, .

B riefly st at ed : I n 1 8 8 5 Colonel then M aj o r
, , ,

Wickham was st ati o ned with the Royal A rti llery
,

at C o la b ra about two m iles fro m B ombay M rs
,
. .

Wickham was acc u stome d t o experim ent with
s om e of the I ndi an servant s an d esp ecially Ru th ,

by having he r l ook i n a glass o f magnetiz ed
water O n e morning L ord Reay was exp ected to
.

arrive at B o mbay and there wa s t o b e a grand full
,

d ress parad e o f th e E n glish t roop s Wh ile sittin g .
F O UN D TH E M Aj OR S P O U CI I

-
BEL T . 21
5

at the breakfast tabl e the m aj or di rected his
orderly t o s e e that hi s u ni form was i n readi ness .

The man obeyed b u t soon ret u rned with a de
,

j e ct e d air and stamm ered o ut
,
S ahib m e n o can ,


fi nd the d ress p ou ch belt A genera l h u nt for
- .

the lost articl e wa s i nstit u ted bu t t o n o p u rp ose ,

the po u ch belt was absol utely missing The e n
-
.

raged m aj or st orm ed an d accu sed the se rvants of
st ealing it which only produ ced a t um ult and a
,

“ ”
st orm o f denials from th em all N ow cried th e .
,


m aj o r is an excell ent O pport u nity t o test the s e e
,

i ng p owers o f Ruth B ri ng her in at o nce an d
.

l et her t ry if sh e can fi nd my p ou ch be l t A ccord -
.

i n gly a t umbler was filled with water and Mrs , .

W placing i t o n her l eft hand mad e passes over
.

i t with her right Water so t reated co ul d always
.

b e det ected with abso l ut e certainty by R u th si m ,

p ly by tasting i t — a fact not u n comm only o b
served and which was an additional p roo f t hat
,

sh e possessed u n usual percept ive p ower I nt o .

this gl ass o f wat er Ruth gaze d i n tently b ut s h e ,

c ould disc ern n othing S he was com manded t o .

fi nd t he thief bu t no th ief could b e seen Chang
, .

i ng her tactics M rs W then c om manded Ruth
,
. .

t o s e e where t he m aj or was the last t im e he wore
the belt A t once s h e described th e scen e of a
.

grand parade whi ch t ook place m onths be fore ,
2 16 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S U BL IMIN AL SELF ,

and which th ey all rec ogni zed D o n ot t ake .

you r eyes o ff from the m aj or for a m o ment said ,

M rs W and Ru th contin ued to gaz e intently at
. .
,

the pagean t i n th e gl ass A t l ength the p arad e .

ended an d R u th said S ahib has go ne i nto a big,

h o use by th e wate r ; al l hi s regim enta l s are p u t i n
th e t i n case bu t the p ou ch belt i s left o u t ; it i s
,
-

h anging on a p eg i n the dressi ng ro om o f the big -

h ou se by th e water Th e yacht cl ub
. c ried
th e maj or P at i l la sen d som e on e at once t o
.
,


see i f the bel t has b een l eft there Th e search .

was reward ed by fi n ding th e belt as described and ,

the servants ret u rn ed bringing i t with a gran d
t u m ult o f tri umph O n many other occasions.


was R uth s ai d su ccessfully i nvoke d t o fi n d lost
articles .

In stead of a glass o f water som e springs an d ,

wells wh en gaz ed i nto h ave the sam e effect o f
p rodu ci ng visions especially wh en a m i rro r is s o
,

held at t h e sam e tim e as t o refl ect l ight u po n th e
su rface o f the wat er S prings o f this sort have .

b een reported at vario u s periods i n th e past some ,

b eing frequ ented fo r health and som e for p u rposes
o f divinati on Th e lat est i nstance o f a well p os
.

sessing th e qu ality or p ower o f p rod u cing visi on s
is that upon th e farm o f Col J J D ey e r at H and . . .

soms Va I t was i n M ay 1 8 9 2 that the cu ri ou s
,
.
, ,
2 18 TELEPA TH Y AN D TIIE SUBL IMIN AL SE LF
'

the m ental excit emen t an d expectatio n o f so
many spectat ors . This explan at ion however , ,

seems h ardly su ffi cient t o accou nt f o r the hall u
c i n a t i o n s o f s o l arge a nu mber o f p ersons kept u p

for s o long a t im e A t al l events an i nteresting
.
,

psych ic el ement o f som e sort was act ive .

Col D e y e r is an i ntelligen t man c o m mand ing
.
,

the resp ect o f h is n eighbors and has hel d an
,

app ointm ent o f consi derabl e i mportance u nd e r
the governm ent at Washingto n I n a l ett er dated.

D ecember 2 d 1 8 9 3 h e says
, , Tho u sands o f
p eopl e fro m vario u s sect ions of the U ni o n have
visit ed the pl ace— o f cou rse so me lau gh at it I .

d o mysel f someti mes as I am not su p erstitio u s
,

and take l ittle st ock i n sp ooks or anything c on
n e ct e d therewith ; b ut the well is here and st i l l ,

shows u p m any wondrou s things b u t n ot so p le n ,


t iful n or s o plainly as it di d a year ago .

We h ave p resented i n this well th e m ost favor
abl e condit ions p ossible for c rystal ga z ing— a -

body o f u n u su ally clear sparkling wat er lying ,

u p on a whi te san d b ottom an d th e rays o f th e
,

su n reflect ed int o i t by means o f a mirror — n o

b ett er cup o f divinat i on c ou l d b e d esi red n o r ,

any bett er c i rcumstances for secu ring the p s y
ch ical condit i o ns favo ra b l e for the acti o n o f the
s u b l imi na l sel f
.
SEN S OR Y A U TOMA TI S M S .
2 19

The vari ou s methods o f practisi ng c ryst al ga z i ng -

here n oticed m ay be l ooked u po n simply as s o
many di fferent form s o f s ens ory a utoma t i s m re f e r ,

abl e i n th ese i nst an ces t o th e sense o f sight a nd

whether p ro du ced by u si ng th e cup of divi n a
t i on the ink or treacle in th e pal m o f the han d
, ,

the j ewe l s o f the J ewish h igh p ri est th e ordinary
-
,

crystal o r sto n e o f the early Christi an ce nt u ries ,

and even down t o the exp erim ents o f M iss X .
,

and th e S ociety for P sychical Research or last of ,

all th e wells or springs o f clear water either th e
, ,

early ones of G reece an d Ro me or the lat est
,

o ne o n the farm o f Col D e y e r they are all simply
.
,

m ethods o f securin g su ch a co nditio n by gazing
fixedly at a bright obj ect as b est t o facilitat e
, .

c omm u ni catio n b etween th e ordi nary o r p rim
ary sel f and the seconda ry o r s ubli minal sel f
, .

I t i s th e fi rst and p erhap s the m ost impor
,

t ant i n a series o f sensory au tomatisms o r those
, ,

having reference to the senses i n d istin ction fro m
,

m otor automatisms o r those p rodu ced by vari ous
,

auto mat i c acti ons o f th e body .

These sensory au t omatisms are u sually lo oked
upo n as hall u cinat ions— bu t so far as the t erm
h all uci nation conveys the i dea of d ecept io n o r
falsity it is inappropriate si nce th e m essages
,

b rou ght i n th is mann er are j ust as rea l— j ust as
220 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

veridical or tru th t elli ng as automati c writi ng o r
-

speaki ng .

H earing is a n oth e r f orm o f se n sory autom atism ,

whi ch while l ess comm on than that o f seeing has
, ,

also been noticed i n all ages .

The chi l d S am uel minist eri ng t o th e H igh
,

P riest E li three t i mes i n o n e night h eard himsel f
, ,

c alled by nam e an d th ree times cam e t o E li say
,


ing,
H ere am I adding at last
:

fo r surely ,

th o u didst cal l m e The wise high priest rec
.
-

o g n i z e d th e rare psychi c qu alities o f the child

and b rought hi m u p fo r th e p ri estho od i n place o f
his own wayward sons an d h e b ecam e t he great
seer o f I srael .

S ocrates was acc u st omed t o hear a voice which
always adm on ished h i m when t he cou rse h e was
p u rsu ing or cont empl ating was wrong or harm ful ;
bu t it was silent wh en th e cont emp l at ed cou rse
was right This was th e fam o u s D a mo n o f S oc
.


rat es and was desc ribed and discusse d by X en
,

o p h o n and P lat o as wel l as other Gree k writers

and m any m odern ones S ocrates h imsel f called .

“ ”
i t t he D ivi ne S ign A nd on t hat accou nt h e
.

was accu sed o f i nt ro du cin g new gods and t hu s ,

o ff ering i ndignity t o the accredited gods o f G reece .

On this as on e of th e l eadi ng charges S ocrates
, ,

was t ried an d co nd emn ed t o death b u t i n all the
222 TEL E PA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

vict ori o us free d h er cou ntry fro m t he power o f
,

E ngland and placed th e rightful pri nce upo n th e
,

th ron e S he also h eard an d obeyed her gu iding
.

voic es eve n u nt o marty rdom
,
.

N u m erou s i nstan ces m ight b e cited o cc u rri ng i n
an cient an d al so i n m odern t im es where the su b
liminal self has sent i ts m essage o f i nst ru ct i on ,

gui dan ce warnin g or restraint t o th e p rimary sel f
, ,

by m ean s o f imp ressio ns mad e up on the organ o f
h earing S ocrates J oan o f A rc S weden borg an d
.
, , ,

many oth ers co nsi dered t h ese i nst ru ct ion s i n fa l
lib le sup ernatu ral o r divi ne ; b u t i n oth er cases
, ,

th e m essages so give n h ave b een t rivi al p erhap s ,

even fals e th u s rem oving th e el em ent o f i n falli
,

b i li t y an d absolut e t ruth fuln ess fro m m essages o f
this sort an d at th e sam e t im e casti ng a d oubt
,

u pon thei r su p ernatu ral characte r i n any case I t .

seems wisest th ere fo re at least t o exam i ne these
, ,

and al l cases o f au t om ati cally received m essages ,

wheth er by writi ng t rance speaki ng d reams
,
-
, ,

visions o r th e h eari ng of v oices with a d efin it e
, ,

concept io n o f a real and natu ral cau se an d origi n
for these m essages i n a su bli mi nal sel f forming a ,

defi nite part o f each i ndivid u al : b earing in m i nd
also that t his sublimi nal sel f possesses p owers and
characteristics varying i n each indi vi du a l case i n ,

many cases greatly t ranscen di ng the p owers and
MUS T BE j U D GE D B Y I I VTR I N S I C MERIT . 22 3

capabi l ities o f the norm al o r p rim ary sel f B u t .

in fallibility th ough somet im es cl aim ed i s by n o
, ,

m eans t o b e exp ect ed from this sou rce and the ,

m essages coming fro m each s ublimi nal sel f m ust
b e j u dged an d val u ed according t o thei r own i n
t r i n s i c ch aracter an d m erit j u st as a m essage
,

co ming t o u s from any primary self wheth er kn own
,

o r u n known t o us m u st be j u dged an d val u ed
,

according t o its s ou rce character an d m eri t
, ,
.
CH A P T E R X .

P H A N TA S M S .

PE RH A P S n o departm e nt o f P sy chi cal R es earch
i s looked upo n fro m s u ch divers an d even qu it e
opp osite standp oi nt s as that whi ch relates t o
A pparit ions or P hantasms M any i nt e l ligent
.

p eop l e i n a general way accept the m as realiti es
, ,

b u t assign for them a s up ernat u ral origi n ; while
others d iscredi t them al together because t h ey
have apparently n o basis except an assum ed
su p ernat u ral o n e
.

I t has b ee n sai d that p ri m itive u nd evelop ed
, ,

an d ignorant people al most u niversally believe
i n gh ost s while with th e advan ce o f c ivili zat ion ,

cu l tu re an d gen eral i nt elligence the frequ ency
, ,

o f allege d apparit ions an d the belie f i n ghost s
diminish es o r alt ogether d isapp ears I f this .

stat em ent were t o stand u nqu al ified by s o m u ch ,

wo uld the reality an d resp ect ab ility o f p han tasms
b e discredit ed P ossibly h oweve r it m ay b e
.
, ,

f o und th at the l ast wo rd has n ot yet been said ,

2 24
2 26 TE L EPA TH Y A N D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

o g ni z e d as having any obj ective reality b u t ,

whi ch n eve rtheless a ffect th e senses i n a m an ner
o ften id entical with that i n which they are aff ect ed
by recogniz ed external obj ects an d they cause
,

t he s am e p ercept ions to arise i n t he m ind .

H enc e an other broad class o f p ercepti ons i nclu des
those which are t aken cogni zance o f by the m ind
from i mpress i ons mad e upon th e organs o f sense
i n other ways an d by oth er m eans t han by ext er
nal obj ects and o ften where there is n o evidenc e
,

t hat any ext ernal obj ect exist s corresp on ding t o
the im p ression so made . P ercepti ons arisi ng i n
these vari ous ways are called fi a llu ci na t i ons .

O n cl ose exam in at io n however it is fo u n d
, ,

that th e sharp line o f separatio n b etwee n what
has and what has n ot an obj ective reality is not
easily drawn any m ore than i n biology th e sharp
,

lin e between ani mal and vegetable li fe c an b e
easily drawn or at th e l ower en d o f th e scal e
,

b etween th e l iving an d t he n ot l ivi ng .

S o t he origi n o f those percepti ons whi ch are
c l assed as hallu cin ati ons has always been a su bj ect
o f controversy eve n am ong ph i l osoph ers o f the
,

greatest m erit and em in en ce .

Withou t followi ng ou t t he disc ussi ons which
hav e arisen o n thi s p oi nt — discussi ons which are
o ften c on fusing an d generally i nconclusive a ,
S O UR CES OF H ALL UCIN A TION S. 2 27

f ai rly disti nct vi ew o f the subj ect may b e oh

ta ined by c onsidering the origi n o f th ese per
c e p t i o n s u nder three heads — namely

( I ) P ercept ion s whi ch are reckoned as h a llu c i
nat ions m ay b e origi nated cen t r a lly ; that i s th ey ,

m ay arise w holly withi n th e m in d itself with o u t
any direct external sti mul u s F o r i nstance th e
.

characters d rawn by the novelist m ay b ecom e s o
real to him and even t o som e of his readers t hat
, ,

they become ex t er n a li z ed— actu al obj ects o f
visual p ercept io n an d are see n t o act and e ve n
heard t o sp eak . Th e i nstance i s repeate dly
qu oted of the p ai nt er who aft er care fully st u dy
,

i ng a sitte r s app earance co u ld vol u ntarily p roj ect

,

i t visibly int o space and p aint the p ort rait n ot ,

from t he o rigi nal b ut from the phantasm so pro
,

d u c e d ; and o f anothe r who coul d ext e rn ali z e
and p roj ect othe r m ental pict u res i n the sam e
m an n er pictu res whi ch s o interested hi m an d
,

were so subj ect t o th e o rdinary laws o f visio n that
he wo u ld requ est any on e wh o took a p osi tio n
i n front o f th em t o m ove away s o as n ot t o
,

obstru ct h is view .

I t will be not iced i n these cases that although
t he percepti on has it s o rigin centrally i n t he m i nd
,

itself an d i s eve n vol untarily prod uced st ill i t
, , ,

i s seen as an impressio n m ad e upo n the visual
228 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IM IN AL SELF .

organ i n exactly t h e sam e m anner as a p ict u re
thrown up on t h e retin a by a rea l externa l obj ect
i t disapp ears when t he eyes are closed or an
op aqu e obj ect i nt ervenes and follows th e laws o f
,

optics i n gen eral ; hence stri ctly sp eaking t h es e
, ,

p ercepti on s are a l so real .

( ) P ercept io ns m ay have thei r origin per iph er
2

a lly — that is the p oi nt of excitat io n whi ch causes
,

th e act o f percepti on i n th e m i nd may exist i n
t he extern al sense organs themselves even wh en ,

n o ext ernal obj ect corresp onding t o th e p er
c e p t i o n exist s at the t i m e o r it i s not i n a p osit ion
,

o n ac cou nt o f distanc e or i ntervening obj ects t o
a ffect t h e senses .

I n exam in ing th e cases which m ay b e p l aced
u nde r thi s head th ey re s olve themselves i nt o two
c l asses : those which occu r in con nect io n with
som e d isease or defect i n th e s ense organ con
cern ed and t hose wh ich are rec ru d escen ces or
,

after v isi ons arising from over excitat ion o f th ose
-
,
-

organ s f or i nstan ce after looking throu gh a
,

wi ndow i n a ve ry b right light — even a co nsid er
abl e length of t i me afterwards— o n sh utt ing t he
eyes or l ooking i nt o a dark room an im age o f th e
,

window is seen with all i t s d ivisi ons an d p ecu liar
iti es o f con structi o n distin ctly present ed To th e
.

c o u ntry lad retu rning hom e at n ight from hi s
230 TELEPA TH Y AND TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

tions was p ublishe d by the t he n secretaries of the
S ociety for P sychi cal Research the lat e M r , .

E dm u n d Gu rn ey M r F rederi ck W H Myers
,
. . .
,

and M r F rank P odm ore
. .

I t appeared u nder the tit le P na n ta s ni s of t i l e
,

L i vi ng and c ontained m ore than seven h u ndre d
,

i nstances relati ng t o vari o u s forms o f halluci na
t ions and phan tasm s — carefully st u died and a u
t h e n t i ca t e d cases which were select ed from several

tho usan d presente d for exami nat ion I t is t o .

these sou rces chiefly t h at I shall refer for cases
illust rat ing th e su bj ect u n der c onsideration .

I t seem s h ardly n ecessary t o recap it ulat e h ere
th e exp eriments on whi ch th e doct ri n e of t e l epathy
o r thought t ransference is established— e xp e ri
-

m ents whi ch have been carefully m ad e by so
m any well qualifi ed persons an d which have ,

proved convincing t o n early every o n e whether ,

s ci e n ti fi c or u nsci ent ifi c wh o has p atiently fol
,

l owed them thou gh o i cou rse not convi ncing t o
,

those wh o choose t o remai n ignoran t o f the facts .

Th e sam e i s tru e regardi ng the subj ect of a u
t o m a t i s m and the exist enc e and acti on o f th e

sublimi nal sel f I t remain s t o sh ow th e i nterest
.

ing relatio ns wh ich these subj ects bear t o hallu
c i n a t i o n s i n general an d especially to pha n tasm s
,

an d appariti ons .
IN FL UE N CED A T A DIS TA N CE . 23 1

I t is wel l known that ha l luci n at ions can b e vol
u n t a r i ly o r p u rp osely p rod uced by on e person i n

the m ind o f another an d i n variou s ways th ough
, ,

f ew p erhap s consider t o what an extent this i s
possible I n many o f the m ost astonishing feat s
.

o f the conj u rer and especially o f the I n dian faki r
, ,

suggestion an d the imaginatio n are b rought i nt o
servi ce t o ai d i n produ cing the illu sions .

Regarding th e hall u cinati ons whi ch may b e
prod uced i n th e m ind of the hyp notiz ed subj ect
by the hypn otizer t here can b e no d o ubt .

The followi ng case i s i n p oi nt and il lu st rat es
t elepathi c in fl u en ce excited at a distan ce as well .

I t i s from P /t a n t a s ni s of t ke L i v i ng and t h e ,

agent M r E M G li s sold o f 3 Oxford S quare W
, . . .
, , .
,

writes subst antially as follows
I n th e year 1 8 7 8 th ere was a carpenter n amed
Gannaway empl oyed by m e t o m end a gate i n
my gard en ; wh en a fri end o f m ine ( M oens) called
upo n m e and t h e c onversation t urn ed u pon m es
m erism H e asked m e i f I knew anything ab ou t
.

i t mysel f O n my replying i n the a ffi rmative h e
.


sai d Can you m esm erize any o n e at a dist an ce ?
,

I sai d that I had never t ri ed t o do so bu t that ,

there was a man i n the garden wh om I cou l d
e asily m esmeriz e an d that I wou l d t ry the e xp e ri
,

m en t with th is m an i f h e ( M oens) wou l d t e l l m e
232 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

what t o do H e the n said F orm an impressio n
.
,

of the m an who m you wish t o m esmeri z e i n yo u r ,

own mi nd and th en wish him strongly t o come
,


t o you .

I very m u ch doubt ed t he su ccess o f t he ex
p eri m e n t bu t I foll owed the d i rect i ons o f my
,

fri en d and I was extremely ast onished t o hear
,

the steps of the man who m I wish ed t o appear ,

running aft er m e ; h e came up t o m e directly and
asked m e what I want ed with him I will add .

that my fri end and I had been walking in the
garden and had seen an d spoken wit h t he car
p e n t er b
,
ut when I wished hi m t o come t o m e I
was qu it e o ut of his sight behi nd th e garden wall ,

on e hu ndred yards distant and had neither by ,

conversat i on n or otherwise led h im t o be l ieve
that I i nt ended to m esmeri z e him .

O n another occasi on wh en the H on A ubero n
, .

H erb ert was p rese nt the followin g scene occu rred
, .

Gannaway was m esmerized and stood i n on e
corner of th e d i ni ng room H erbert s a t at th e
-
.

t abl e and wrot e the foll owing programme each ,

scene o f whi ch M r G li s s old the magneti z er was
.
, ,

t o s i len t ly ca ll up i n Hi s own mi nd .

( ) I see a house i n flames
I .

( ) I see a woman looking ou t o f a wi nd o w
2 .

(3) S h e has a chi l d i n her arms .
2 34 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

p roj ect his own sembl ance o r phant as m a distance
o f several miles ; and it was then distinctly p er
c e i ve d by a yo ung lady a frien d of the agent
, .

Th e c i rc u mstances were t hese — Two yo ung m en ,

M r A H W Cl eave and M r H P S parks aged
. . . . . . .
,

resp ect ively eight ee n and n in et een y ears were ,

fellow stu dents of engineering at th e N avy Yard
-
,

P ortsm ou th E ngland While there they engaged
, .
,

i n som e mesm eri c exp erim en ts and afte r a ti m e ,

S parks was abl e t o p u t Cleave th oroughly i nto the
hyp noti c conditio n Th e followin g is M r S p arks
. .

accou nt of what occ u rred .

F or th e last y ear or fi ft een m onth s I have been
i n th e habi t o f m esm eriz i ng a fellow st u dent o f -

m in e The way I did it was by sim ply looking
.

i nto h is eyes as h e lay i n an ea s y p osition on a
bed This p roduc ed sleep A ft er a few ti m es I
. .

fou n d that th is sleep was deep en ed by m aking
lon g passes after t he patient was o ff Then com e s .


t he rem arkable p art o f t his so rt o f m esmerism .

( h

M r .S parks th en describes i s subj ect s ability t o

see i n h is t rance place s i n whi ch he was i nterested
i f h e resolved t o see the m before h e was hyp
n oti z ed
) H
. owever it has been
,
du ring th e l ast
week o r so I have been su rp rised an d startl ed by
an extraordinary a ffair L ast F ri day eveni ng ( Jan
. .

1 st h ,
he ( Cleave) ex pres s ed h i s wish t o
PHA N TASM TELEPA THICALL Y TR A N S F E R R D . 2
35

see a you ng lady l iving i n Wandswort h and he ,

also sai d h e wou ld t ry t o m ake hi m sel f seen by
her I accordi ngly m esm eri z ed him and continu ed
.

the long passes fo r ab ou t t w e nty min utes con e en ,

t ra t i n g my will o n his idea When he cam e rou nd
.

( )

afte r one hou r and twenty mi n u tes t rance h e sai d
h e had seen her i n the di ning room and that after
-

a ti m e she grew restless then suddenly she looked
straight at hi m an d th e n covered her eyes wi th
,

her h ands ; j u st then h e cam e ro u nd L ast
.

M onday evening ( J an 1 8 t h) we di d the same
.

th in g an d t his ti me h e sai d h e thought h e had
,

frighten ed her as after sh e had l ooked at hi m a few
,

mi n ut es she fell back i n h er chair i n a s o rt of faint .

H er litt le bro ther was i n t h e room at the time .

O f cou rse aft er this h e expect ed a l ett er i f the
visio n was real ; an d o n Wed n esday m ornin g h e
received a letter fro m th e you ng lady aski ng ,

whether anythi ng had happened to him as on ,

F riday even ing s h e was startled by s eeing h i m
standing at th e doo r o f the room A ft e r a min u t e
.

h e disappeared an d s h e though t it might have
been fancy ; but o n M onday evening sh e was still
m o re st artled by seei ng h i m agai n and th is time
,

m u ch cleare r and i t s o fright en ed her that s h e
,


n early faint ed .

M r Cleave also writes a very i nteresting a c
.
2
36 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

cou nt o f his exp eri ence i n th e m att er an d tw o ,

fellow st u dents wh o were i n the roo m d u ring t h e
-

exp eri ment s also writ e c orrob orati ng t he state
ment s made .

The followi ng i s a copy o f the l etter i n whi ch
the you ng lady M iss A describes her si de o f th e
, .
,


a ffair I t is addressed
. M r A H W Cleave ,
. . . .
,


H M S M a r l bor oug b P o rt sm o uth and is p ost
. . .
, ,

marked Wandsworth J an l gt h 1 8 86 ,
.
, .

WA N D S W O R T H ,

Tu esday m orn ing .

D E A R A R T H U R — H as anything happened t o
,

yo u ? P l ease writ e an d let m e know at once fo r ,

I h ave bee n so f righten ed .


L ast T u esday eveni ng I was sitting i n th e
di ning roo m readi ng when I happen ed t o l o o k
-
,

u p and co ul d h av e d eclared I s aw yo u standing
,

at the d oor l ooki ng at m e I p u t my h a n d k e r .

chief t o my eyes and wh en I lo oked again yo u
,

were gon e .

I th ou ght i t m u st have been o nly my fancy b ut ,

last night ( M onday) while I was at supper I saw
yo u agai n j ust as before and was s o fright ened ,

that I n early faint ed L u ckily only my b roth er
.

wa s there or it wou ld have attract ed attention .

Now do write at onc e an d t ell m e h o w y o u a re .


I re ally ca n n ot writ e a n y m ore n ow ,
One evening early last year I resolved
t o t ry t o appear t o Z ( M r M oses) at some miles
. .

d istant I did not i n form hi m beforehan d o f my
.

i ntended exp eri ment b ut ret ired t o rest sh o rtly
,

before mi dnigh t with tho ughts i ntently fixed on
Z wit h wh ose ro om and s u rrou ndi ngs h owever
.
, , ,

I was qu ite u nacqu aint ed I soon fell asleep and
.

woke u p the n ext m orni ng u n consci o u s o f any
thing having taken place O n seeing Z a few . .

d ays aft er wards I in qu ired D i d anything happen
,

’ ’
at yo u r room s on S at u rday nigh t ? Yes h e ‘
,

repl ied a great deal hap pened I had b een si t
,
.

t ing over the fi re w ith M smoking an d chatting
.
, .

A bou t 1 2 : 30 h e rose t o leave an d I let him o u t ,

mysel f I retu rned t o the fi re t o fi nish my p ip e
.

when I s a w y ou sitt ing i n the chai r j ust vacated
by him I l ooked i ntently at yo u and then t ook
.
,

u p a newspaper to assu re mysel f I was n ot d ream
i ng b u t o n laying it down I saw you still there
, .

While I gazed with ou t sp eaki ng yo u fade d away , .

Though I imagined you m u st b e fast asleep i n
bed at that hou r yet yo u app eared d ressed
,

i n yo u r ordi nary garm ents su ch as yo u usu ,

ally wear every day . Then my experiment
’ ‘


s eem s t o have su cceeded I said Th e n ext
, .

t i me I com e ask m e wh at I want as I had fixed ,

o n my mi nd cert ai n qu esti on s t o ask yo u b ut ,
SEEN B Y T WO PE RCIPIEN TS .
2
39

I was probably waitin g for an invitat i on t o

speak .

A few weeks later th e experi ment was re

peate d with equal su ccess I as b efo re n ot , , ,

inform ing Z when i t was made O n this o c
. .

casion h e not only questi oned me u p on the
s ubj ect whi ch was at th at t i m e u n der very
warm d iscussi o n b etween u s b u t d et ai ned m e ,

by th e exercise of hi s will some tim e after I ,

had i nt i mat ed a d esire t o leave A s on the .

former occasi on n o recollection remain ed o f
th e event o r seem ing event o f th e p receding
, ,


night .

M r M oses writes S ept ember 2 7 t h 1 8 8 5 con
.
, , ,

fi rm in g this accou nt M r M oses also says that
. .

h e has n ever o n any othe r occasio n seen th e
fi gure o f a l ivi ng p erson i n a place where the p er
s o n was not .

The next case whil e p resenti ng feat u res s i m
,

i la r t o the last d i ffers from i t in this respect
,

that there are two percipients I t is copie d .

from the m an u script book o f the agent M r S , . .

M r B writes
. . O n a cert ain S u nday evening
i n N ovember 1 8 8 1 having b een reading of the
, ,

great p o wer which the h u man will i s capabl e o f
exercisi ng I determ ined with th e whol e force o f
,
2 40 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

my bei ng that I wo uld b e p resent i n sp irit i n the
front bedroom o n th e second fl oor o f a house
,

sit uated at 2 2 H ogarth Road Kensingt on i n , ,

which room slept two ladies o f my acquaintance ,

M iss L S V and M iss E C V aged resp ect
. . . . . .
,

i v e ly twenty fi v e an d eleven years
- I l ived at .

this t i me at 2 3 Kil dare G ardens a distan ce o f ,

about th ree miles fro m H ogarth Road and I had ,

not m entioned i n any way my i nt ent io n o f t ryi ng
thi s experi m ent t o either o f th e ab ove nam ed
l adies for t he simple reason that it was only
,

o n retiring t o rest u p on S u nday night t hat I
mad e up my m i nd t o d o s o The t i me at
.

whi ch I d etermi ned I woul d b e th ere w as one
o clock i n the m orn ing and I also had a st ro n g

,

intentio n o f making my p resence p erc ep tibl e .

O n the following Th u rsday I went t o s e e t he
ladies i n questi on and i n t h e co u rse o f co nversa
,

t io n (withou t any allusion t o t he s u bj ect o n my
part) t h e e l der o n e t ol d m e that on the p revi ou s
,

S u nday n ight sh e had b een m uch t erri fi ed by
perceiving m e standing by her b edsid e an d that ,

she screamed when the apparitio n advan ced t o
wards h er an d awoke h er l ittl e sist er wh o also
,

s aw m e I asked her i f she was awake at th e
.

t im e an d s h e repl ied most decidedly i n the
,

a ffi rm at ive ; and u pon my i nqu iring th e t im e o f
2 42 TELEPA TH Y AND TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

adj oi ning room an d upon my goi ng t o he r bed ,

sid e where she sl ept with my you ngest sist er they
, ,

both to l d m e they had seen S H B standing . . .

i n the room Th e t i me was abou t on e o cloc k
.

.


S H B was i n eve n i ng d ress t hey t ol d me
. . .
, .

Th e following case while o f t h e same general ,

character p resents this remarkabl e d i fference th at
,


th e agent s m in d was n ot at all di rect ed t o th e
real p ercipi ent b ut only to t he p la ce where the
,

p ercipient happen ed t o b e I t is from t h e not e .

b ook o f M r S H B wh o was also t he agent
. . . . .

O n F riday D ecember I s t 1 8 8 2 at 9 : 30 P M I
, , , . .
,

wen t into a room alone and sat by th e fi resi de ,

an d endeavored s o strongly t o fi x my min d up on
the int erior o f a ho use at Kew (vi z Claren ce .
,

Road) i n which resided M iss V an d h e r two
,
.

siste rs that I seemed t o be act u a l ly i n th e
,

ho use .

D u ring this experi ment I m u st have fallen i nt o
a mesmeri c sleep for alth ough I was conscious I , , ,

c ould n ot m ove my l i mbs I d id n ot seem t o .

h ave l ost t he p ower o f moving them but I c o uld ,

not m ake the e ffort t o do so A t 10 P M I . . .

regained my n ormal stat e by an e ff ort o f the will
an d wrote d own o n a sh eet o f not e p ap er th e fo re -

going stat ement s .
F H A N TA s M A T A DESIGN A T E D P L A CE . 24
3

When I went to bed o n this sam e night ,

I det erm in ed that I woul d be i n the fro rft bed
room o f the ab ove m entioned ho use at 1 2 P M
-
. .
,

and remai n there u nti l I had m ade my pres
ence percepti ble t o the i nm ates o f that room .

O n the next day S at u rday I wen t t o Kew t o
, ,

spen d the evening an d m et there a marri ed sist er
,

o f M iss V ( viz M rs
. .
, Thi s la dy I had only
.

m et once before and that was at a ball two years ,

previ ous to the above dat e We were both i n .

fan cy d ress at the tim e an d as we di d n ot ex ,

change m ore than half a d ozen words this lady ,

woul d nat urally have lost any vivid recollection
o f my app earan ce even i f she had n oticed it .

I n th e cou rse of conversation (although I di d
n ot fo r a m om ent thin k of asking her any qu es
ti ons on su ch a subj ect ) she told m e that on the
,

previ ou s night s h e had seen me di stinctly on two
occasions S he had spent the night at Clarence
R oad and had slept i n the front bedroom
,
At .

about half past nine she had seen m e i n the pas
-
,

sage going from o ne room t o an other and at 1 2 ,

P M
. wh en sh e was wi de awake she had seen m e
.
,
-
,

enter the bedroom and walk rou nd to where sh e
was lyi ng and take her hai r (which is very long) ,

i nto my hand S he t ol d m e that the appariti o n
.

took hold o f her hand and gazed intent l y i nto i t ,
244 TE L EPA TH Y A N D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

whereup o n sh e spoke sayi ng Yo u n eed n ot , ,

lo ok at th e li nes fo r I have n ever had any

t ro ubl e .

S he then awoke her sist er M i ss V who was , .
,

sleep i ng with her and t old her ab o u t i t A fter
,
.

heari ng this acc ou nt I t ook the statem ent whi ch
I had written down th e p revio u s evening from
my p ocket and showed i t t o some o f the p erson s
p rese nt wh o were m u ch astonished although
, ,

i n cred ulou s .


I asked M rs L i f she was not dream ing at
. .

th e t i m e of the latter experi ence b ut she sto utly ,

denied and st at ed that she had forgotte n what I
,

was like b u t seei ng m e s o distinctly she recogni z ed
,

m e at once A t my requ est she wrote a b rief
.

accou nt of her imp ressi ons and signed it .

The following i s t he lady s stat em ent ’

O n F riday D ece mber I s t 1 88 2 I was on a
, , ,

visit to my sist er at 2 1 Claren ce Road Kew and
, , ,

abo u t 9 : 30 P M I was going fro m my bedroom
. .

t o get som e water fro m the bath room when I -
,

d ist inctly saw M r S B whom I had only seen . . .

once befo re t wo years ago walk b efore m e past
, ,

the bat h room t oward t he b edro om at the end
-
,

of the landing .

A bo u t I I o cloc k we reti red for th e night


ab ou t 1 2 o clock I was still awake an d th e d oor ,
2 46 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

I n dia wi fe of M r H R R u ssell E d ucational
,
. . .
,

I nspecto r i n the B o mbay P residency I t d i ffers .

from those already cit ed i n the fact t hat i t is u n
connected with either sleep o r hypn otism b u t ,

b oth agent and percipi ent were awake and i n a
p erfectly n ormal condi tio n .

M rs R u ssel l
. writ es
J u ne 8 th , 1 8 86 .

A s desired I write down th e following facts as
well as I can recall them I was living i n S cotland
.
,

my m other an d sisters i n G ermany I l ived with .

a very d ear fri en d o f m in e an d we n t t o G erm any
,

every year t o s e e my p eople I t had so happ en ed .

that I c oul d n ot go h om e as u su al for two y ears ,

when on a su dd en I made u p my min d t o go and
see my family They kn ew n othin g o f my i n
.

t enti on I had never gon e i n early sp ring before
and I had no t i m e t o let them know by l ett er that
I was going t o set o ff I di d n ot like t o sen d a
.

t elegram for fear of fright en ing my m oth er Th e .

t hought cam e t o m e t o will with all my m ight to
app ear t o on e o f my sist ers n ever mind which o f,

them i n order t o give them warning o f my
,

c omi ng I only thou ght m ost int ensely fo r a few
.

m i nutes of th em wishin g with all my migh t t o b e
,

seen by on e o f them— hal f p res e n t m ysel f i n ,
PHA N TASM TR A N SFE RRED 300 MILES . 24
7

vision at ho me I did not t ake more than t en
, .

m inut es I thi nk ,I s t a rt e d by t he L eith steamer
.

o n S at u rday n ight en d o f A pril 1 8 59 I wished
, ,
.

t o appear at home abo ut 6 o clock P M that same ’
. .

S atu rday .



I arrive d at hom e at 6 o cloc k o n Tu esday
m orni ng followin g I ent e red the ho u se without
.

any one seei ng m e the hall bei ng cl ean ed an d the
,

fron t do or op en I walked int o the room O n e
. .

o f my s isters sto od with her back t o th e d oor sh e
t u rn ed ro u n d wh e n s h e heard the d oor op eni ng

,

and o n seeing m e stared at m e t u rning deadly
, ,

p al e and lett ing what sh e had i n her han d fall I
, .

had bee n silent Then I sp oke and said It is I
.
,
.

Why do yo u l ook s o frightened ? When sh e ’

answered I tho ught I sa w yo u agai n as S t i n ch e n
,

( another sist er) s aw yo u o n S atu rday

.

When I i nqu ired sh e t old m e that on S atu rday
,

evening ab o ut 6 o clock my s ister saw m e qu it e

,

clearly ent ering th e room i n whi ch s h e was by on e
, ,

door p assing throu gh it opening the d oor of a n
, ,

other room i n wh ich my m other was an d shutting ,

t he d oor b ehin d m e S he ru sh ed aft er what s h e
.

tho ught was I calling ou t my nam e an d was
, ,

qu ite s t u p e fi e d when she did n ot fi n d m e with my
m other My m o ther could not u n derstand my
.

si st e r s excitement They looked eve rywhere fo r
.
2 48 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

m e b u t of cou rse di d n ot fi nd m e My m other
,
.

was very m iserable she thought I might be
dying .

My si st er wh o had see n m e (i e my appari . .

t i on ) was ou t that m o rn ing w hen I a rri v e d I sat .

d own o n the stai rs t o wat ch when she cam e in
, ,

th e e ffect of my real app earance o n her Wh en .

sh e l ooked up an d saw m e sitting m ot i onless sh e
, ,

called ou t my nam e an d n early fai nted .

My sister had n ever seen anything u nearthly
either be fore that o r afte rwards ; and I h ave n ever
made any su ch exp eri men ts since— nor will I as the ,

sister that s a w me fi rst wh en I really cam e hom e ,

had a very severe illness afterwards cau sed by the ,

sh ock t o h er n e rves
.

J M RU SSE L L
. . .

M rs Russell s sist er i n answer t o he r i nqui ry
.

,

whether she re membered the i ncid ent replied : ,


O f cou rse I rem ember th e matte r as wel l as

th ough i t had happ en ed t o day P ray do n t com e
-
.

appearing t o me again

We started o ut wi th thi s prop osition P ercep .

t i ons— those of t he class den om inat ed hallu cina
tions — m ay have thei r origi n t e l epathi cally I n .

p roo f an d ill ustration o f that p rop ositi o n we have
so far resent e d a singl e c l ass o f cases name l y
p , ,
2
5 0 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF
.

I n each o f these cases a defi nit e p urpose was
formed by th e agen t t o p rod u ce a certai n b a llu c i
nat i on o r presen t a cert ai n p ict u re — gen erally a
represent ati on or phantasm o f hi msel f t o the per
ci p i e n t A p ict u re or phantasm is see n by the
.

int en ded p ercipient and o n comparison i n each
, , ,

case i t is fou n d that i t i s tb e s a m e p lza n t a s m that
th e agent had en dea vor ed to p roj ect and m ake
visibl e and that i t was p erceived i n the same place
,

and at the same t im e that the agent had int ended
th at it sh ould be seen .

Can these statements b e rec eived as t ru e and
re l iable ? I n reply we say the evi dence having ,

b een carefully exami ned i s o f su ch a character as
t o entitle it t o belief and th e e rrors o f observation
,

and rep orti ng are t ri fli ng and n ot such as would
,

i nj ure th e credibility o f stat ements made regarding
any event which was a matter o f ordinary o b se r
vati on ; m ore ov er these cases n ow have becom e
,

so nu m erou s an d have been so carefully observed
that th ey sho uld b e j u dged by th e o rdi nary rul es
o f ev id ence ; and by th at ru l e th ey sho ul d b e
received .

H avi ng been received h ow can they be ex
,

plain ed
I t m ay b e answered
( ) Tha t these apparent se qu ences p resenting
I
E XP L A N A TOR Y TH E OR I E S . 2
5 r

th e re l ation o f cause and e ffect are merely chance
coi nci dences B ut on carefully app l ying the doc
.

t ri ne o f chan ces it is fou nd that th e p robability
,

that these coincidences o f ti me an d place an d ,

th e identity o f t he pict u res p resent ed and per
ce i v e d occ u rred by chance wo u ld b e o nly o ne i n
, ,

a nu mber so large a s t o m ake i t di ffi cult to r ep re
sen t it i n figu res and qu i t e i mp ossibl e f o r any
,

m in d t o comp rehend A n d that such a c o i n ci
.

d ence shou ld occu r repeatedly i n o n e p erson s ’

exp erien ce is absol utely i n credibl e .

(2) The circu mstan ces o f distance an d sit uati o n
render it certai n that the phant asms c ou l d n ot
have been comm u nicat ed o r present ed t o t he
perc i pi ent through any o f the u sual channels .

o f com m u ni catio n — b y m ean s o f th e physical
o rgans o f sense even grantin g that they
cou ld b e so t ransferred u nder favorable condi
t ions .

I f then these cases m ust b e received as a u t h e n
, ,

t ic an d t ru e and i f th ey cann ot b e disp osed o f as
,

chance co incidences n or explai ned by any ordi
,

nary method o r law o f product ion o r t ransmi s
sion then th ere m u st b e s om e otb er m eth od of
,

m ent al i nteraction an d m ental i n t e rco m m u n i ca
,

t io n not us ua lly r ecog n i z ed by means o f whi ch
,

t hese p ictu res o r phant as m s are p ro d u ced or
252 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

t rans f erred and this u n usual m ethod o f m ental
,

i nteracti on and i nt ercom m u ni cat i on we designat e
t etep a tby
. What the exact m etho d i s by which
this u n u su a l i nt eracti o n i s accomplished i s n ot
fully dem onstrat ed any m ore than are t h e
,

m ethods o f th e variou s i nteracting forces b e
tween th e s u n and the p l an ets o r am ongst th e
pl anets themse l ves Th e hypoth esi s o f a u n iver
.

sal or i nter st el l ar ether has never been dem on
-

s t ra t e d ; i t i s only a hyp othesis framed because

i t is nece ssary i n ord er t o explai n and s upport
an oth er u ndemonst rated theo ry namely th e , ,

vibrat o ry o r wave theo ry o f l ight We do n ot .

kn ow what th e substan ce o r force which we c al l
a tt r a ct i on really is . L ight has on e metho d o f
m ovem ent an d acti on sou n d anoth er h eat a n
, ,

other an d elect ri city anoth er bu t m ost of th e
, ,

p rop ositi ons concerning these methods of action
are only t heori es o r hypotheses h avin g a greater
o r l ess degree o f probability as th e case may b e .

They were i nvented t o accou nt for ce rt ain actu al
an d u ndeni abl e phenomen a an d th ey are r e
,

s p e c t e d by all m en of sci ence or other persons

having s u fli ci e n t knowledge o f these di fferent
subj ects t o ent it l e th em to an opini on Th e .

sam e thing i s t ru e o f t elepathy ; its facts m u st be
known and i t s theories well considered by those
254 TEL E PA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

o r a perso n h avi ng u n u su a l ability t o receive or
perceive su ch thought s o r m ental p ict u res S u p .
.

p ose these two people t o b e in the cou nt ry and
engaged i n farm ing U p o n a certai n m orn ing A
.

takes his axe and go es t o the woo ds half a m il e ,

di s tant and i s engaged i n cutting b ru sh and t rees
,

for th e p u rpose o f cleari ng t h e land an d B goes ,

i nt o the garden t o care for th e growing vegeta
bles Af t er an hou r spent i n these resp ectiv e
.

occu pat i ons B b ecomes d isqu iet ed even alarm ed
, , ,

O ppressed with th e feeli ng that som e misfort u n e
has happ ene d and that A is n eedi ng his assist
ance H e i s u nab l e t o co nti n u e his wor k and at
.

o nce start s for th e woods t o see k f or A H e .

fi nds t hat A h as received a gl ancing b l ow f ro m
h is axe w h i ch has deeply wo un ded hi s f o ot d i s ,

abled hi m an d put hi s li fe i n i mm ediat e dange r
,

f rom h emorrhage H ere the thought o f A i n hi s
.

ext reme peril goes o ut int ensely t o B d esiring hi s ,

p resence ; an d B by som e u n u su al p ercept ive
,

p ower ta k es cogni z an ce o f this i nt ense thought
,

an d wish This i s t elepathy A gain suppose B
. .
,


hears a voice whi ch h e recogni z es as A s callin g
hi s n am e and with a p eculiar effect which B
recogni z es as distress o r entreaty O r again that
.
, ,

B sees a pi ct u re o r representati o n o f A lyin g
wounded an d bleedi ng sti ll i t i s a t elepathi c
,
VA RIO US H YPO THES ES E XA MIN ED .
2 55
i mp ulse from A an d taken c ogn i zanc e o f by B
which co nstitu tes th e com m u n ication b etween
them whatever th e exact n at u re o r m ethod o f
,

th e c om mu ni cation may be .

Th e theori es or hypotheses which h ave been
p u t forward regardin g the meth od by which thi s
t elepathi c i nfl u ence o r i mpact i s conveyed m ay
be n oted as follows
( )
I That o f a vibrat o ry m edi um always p res ,

en t an d ana l ogou s to the atmosphere for p r opa
gatin g sou nd or the u n iversal ether fo r p ro p a
gating light .

(2) A n e ffi u e n ce o f som e sort eman ating from
th e p ersons concerned a n d acting as a medi u m
f or t h e t im e b ein g .

( 3) A sixth sense .

( )
4 A duplex personality or subl imi nal sel f .

F irst then as regards the vibrato ry hypothesis ;
, ,

i t would deman d a vari ety o f media t o convey
se parat ely something corresponding to th e sens e

o f sigh t th e sense o f hearing and t o each o f th e
, ,

oth er senses— to u ch tast e an d sm ell — as all these
, ,

sensations have b een t elepathically t ransmitted ,

o r else there m ust exist one si ngl e m ediu m capa
bl e o f t ransmi tting these many widely di fferent
m etho d s of sen sat ion separately — either of whi ch ,

s upp ositions are t o s ay th e l east bewi ldering
, , .
2 5 6 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IMIN A L S EL F .

S u ch a m edi u m m u st also possess a p ower o f
penetrating o r acting through i nt ervening obsta
cl es su ch as n o medi u m with which we are a c
,

q u a i n t e d p ossesses ; and lastly
,
i
,
n add itio n t o
n u mero us apparently i nsu rm ou ntabl e di ffi culties
an d i ns u ffi ci e n ci e s there i s n o proo f whatever
,

that any su ch vibrat ory m edi u m exists .

S eco nd R egardi ng a vital e ffl u e nc e or som e
.

physi cal emanat ion o r au ra belongi ng t o each i n .

d ivid ual an d by m eans of which com m un icati on
,

i s p ossibl e b etwee n pe rsons separated by t oo
great a d istance t o perm it com m u ni cation throu gh
th e o rdi nary chann el s ; it is at l east conceivabl e
that su ch an au ra o r persona l at mosph ere exists ,

an d by so m e it i s claime d t o b e d emo nst rated
b u t adm itting its exist ence that i t wo ul d be
,

capab l e o f ful fi ll ing the n u m erou s fun ctions d e
m a n d e d o f it i n the p rem ises is d oubt ful .

Thi rd That t he t e le p a t h i c i n t e rco m m u n i ca t i o n
.

i s accomplished by mean s o f a sixth sense — a
sort o f compend o f all th e other senses with ,

add ed powers as regards dist ance an d intervenin g
obst ac l es i s a hypoth esis which has b een u rged
-

by some and is at l east i nt elligib l e ; b u t whil e i t
, ,

p resents an i ntelligible explanat i on o f such fact s
as cl airvoyance an d th e hearing o f voices there i s ,

a large class o f facts as we shall s e e which u tterly
, ,
2 58 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S UBL IMIN A L SEL F .

which poi nts t o th e fact or at least t o the theo ry
,

o f a su blim inal self o r an other personal ity i n
, ,

som e m anner bo u n d up in that complicated
physi cal and mental m echanism whi ch constitu tes
what we t e rm an i nd ivid u al We have seen that
.

there are weighty proofs that su ch a seco ndary o r
subl imin al or i f yo u ch oose so t o d esignate i t
, , ,

s up r a n or m a l sel f actu ally exists and that it
, ,

exhibits fu n ct ions and p owers far exceeding th e
fu nct i ons and p owers o f th e ordi na ry self We .

have seen i t exp ressing its ow n p ersonal op in ion s ,

its own l i k es an d disl ikes qu ite d i ff erent and ,

opposit e t o th e op inions l ikes an d d islikes o f the
, ,

ord inary sel f ; havin g i ts own separat e series o f
remembered action s or chai n o f m em o ri es it s ,

own ant eced ent hist o ry and its separat e presen t
,

i nterests ; and esp ecially p erforming acti ons alto
geth er beyond th e p owers o f th e ordinary sel f .

We h ave seen it goi ng o u t t o great distances se e ,

i ng an d describ ing scenes an d event s there taking
place — for exampl e S wed enbo rg at G ott enbu rg
,

witnessing the c o n fl a g ra t i o n at S t ockhol m

D r G e ra u lt s cl airvoyan t maid servant Mari e i n
.
-
, ,


F rance seeing th e sad d eath o f her n eighbor s s o n
, ,

L i moges th e ropemaker whil e serving in th e
, ,


Crim e a ; an d also th e seriou s illness o f D r G e ra ul t s .

milit ary frie nd i n A lgi ers F it z gerald at B ru n s
.
,
FA C UL TIE S OF TH E S UBL IMIN AL SELF . 2
59

wick M e seei ng and d escribi ng th e F al l River
,
.
,

fi re three h u ndred m iles away and M rs P orter at ,
.
,

B ridgepo rt Conn , d escribing th e b u rning of th e
, .

st eamer H en ry Clay while i t was occu rri ng o n the
H udson Rive r n ear the village o f Yo nkers W e .

have seen this sam e s ublim in al sel f i n t he case o f
M r S t ead going ou t and acqu iring desired knowl
.
,

edge relati ng t o th e location occ upation an d , ,

needs o f p erso ns from whom he desired su ch i n
format ion and b ringing i t bac k a nd repo rting i t
,

by m ean s o f au t omati c writi ng A gain we have .
,

seen t hi s subli minal self i n t he case of M rs N e wn .

h am perceiving t he silently writt en an d som e
,

t imes even th e u nwritt en qu estio ns o f her h u s
b and an d aut om atically writi ng t he answers by
,

m eans o f P lanchette ; an d we have seen i t pro
d u c i n g hallu ci nati ons o f h earing as i n th e case o f
L e on ore cau sing L e ont in e t o hear a voice r e p r o v
i ng her fo r her fl i pp a n cy .

A remarkabl e series o f facts are h ere p oi nted
o ut facts som e of whi ch are akin to those which
,

have for ages been lying abo u t i n the l u mbe r
room s o f history o r in out o f the way corners o f - - -

m en s m em ories n eglect ed and discredit ed b e

, ,

c au se u n explai ned u naccount ed for forming n o
, ,

part o f any recogniz ed syst em o f m ental act ion ,

and som e only recently observed and eve n now
260 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

l ooked at askance for th e same reason They .

have remain ed a m ass o f u ndigested an d u n
arranged facts with ou t syst em without any
, ,

ascertai ne d relati o n t o each other point i ng t o n o
,

defi nit e principl e defi n ed by n o defi nit e law I t
, .

i s only withi n th e past d ecad e that these f acts
have bee n stu died with referen ce t o th e acti o n o f
a sublimi nal s e l f .

B ut this new an d startl ing ide a being once
adm itt ed and b rought to th e fro nt it i s f ou n d ,

that not o nly i n the wh ol e seri es of observe d
automati c acti ons i n th e somnambu l ism o f the
hyp noti c stat e an d that o f o rdi nary sleep a re
, ,

the o rgan s of th e u ncon sci ou s body mad e u se o f
by this subc onsci ou s o r s ubli minal sel f b u t also ,

i n dreams i n reveri e i n m o ments of abstracti on
, , ,

o f st r o ng em oti on or m ental excit ement and even ,

i n the case o f some p ecu liarly su sceptibl e person s
i n the o rd i nary wakin g condit ion thi s subli mi na l
,

sel f can greatly i nfl ue nc e and som eti mes t ake
entire control of the acti on o f the body .

I t wil l b e seen then h ow wi de and imp ortant is
,

t h e range o f ph en om en a i n wh ich the s ubli minal
self app ears as an active agen t i mpressing its own,

S pecial k now l edge however acqu i red its ideas
, , ,

p ictu res and i mages u pon t he pri ma ry se l f an d
, ,

cau sing them t o be p erceived rem embered and , ,
C H A PT E R XI .

P H A N TA S M S C ON T I N U E D .

SO far a single class o f cases h as been b rought for .

ward i n pro of an d i llust rati on o f o u r propositi on ,

that s ensa t i on m ay be p r od uced t elep a tlzi ca lly ,

n am ely the vol untary class ; as f or in stan ce
, ,

when it has b een reso l ved beforehand an d
st rongly desired and willed that a representat i on

o r appariti on o f o n e s self sho ul d b e seen an d
recognized by another p erson at a sp ecifi ed ti me
and pl ace and it has been s o recogni zed This
, .

class contai ns fewer recorde d cases b ut on the , ,

other hand they are specially valu able because
, ,

th e element o f error arising from chan ce c o i n c i .

d ence i s al most ent i rely exclu ded I n additio n .

t o thes e vol u ntary or p rearranged cases there is ,

however another an d m u ch larger class o f cases
,

which occu r sp ontaneo u sly u nthought o f and u n
, ,

expected by th e p ercip ient as well as by th e
agent .

P assing over cases o f a n i nd efi nit e or u n de fi ned
262
VE RID ICAL D R EAMS .
2 63

sense o f dange r o r p eril — o r o f a p resence —we
will p roceed t o notice som e wel l au thent icate d
cases o f sp ontaneous impression s o f a defi nit e
character m ad e upon th e senses an d esp eci ally ,

up on the sense o f sight This d efinite i mpression
.

may be m ade u p on the senses o f the p ercipien t
i n dreams — especial ly those o f a veridical char
acter where there i s a defi nit e reali ty correspond
,

ing i n ti me and ci rcu mstan ces .

I t m ay also b e made when the p ercip ien t i s i n
a condit i on o f reveri e between sleeping and
,

waki ng and even when wi de awake and i n a
,

per f ectly n ormal conditio n .

This definite i mpressio n o f seeing or hearing
may b e made up on a single percipient o r it may ,

be p erceived by severa l persons at once .

The f o ll owi ng may serv e as exampl es o f ver i d i
ca l d r ea ms . They were carefully exam i n ed by
the edit o rs of P /t a n t a s m s of the L i vi ng an d ,

especially by M r G urn ey . O nly i nitials i n the
.

fi rst c ase were given for p u blicati on .

I n the year 1 8 5 7 I had a brother i n th e very
,

centre o f th e I ndian M u t iny I had been i ll i n .

th e spri ng an d ta k e n f rom my lessons i n th e
sch ool room consequ ently I heard more of
-
, ,

wh at was going o n f ro m the newspapers tha n a
gir l o f thi rt e e n ordin aril y woul d i n t hose days .
2 64 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

We were i n the habit o f heari ng regularly f rom
my brother b u t i n J u ne and J uly o f that year n o
,

l etters came and what arrived i n A ugu st p roved
,

t o have been writ ten qu it e earl y i n the spring ,

and w ere full o f di stu rban ces arou n d his s t a
ti on .

H e was i n th e se rvi ce o f th e E ast I ndia C om
p any— a n o ffi cer i n th e 8 th Native I n fantry I .

was a l ways d evot ed t o h im and I grieved a n d ,

fretted far m ore than any o f my elders knew at
his danger I can not say t hat I dreamt con
.

s t a n t ly o f hi m b u t whe n I di d the i mpression s
,

were v ery vivi d and abi ding .


O n on e occ asio n h is p ersonal appearanc e was
b eing d iscu ssed an d I remark ed H e i s n ot l ike ,


th at n ow he h as n o b eard n or whiske rs ; and
,

when aske d why I sai d su ch a thi ng I replied , ,


I know it fo r I h ave seen h im i n my dream s
,

and thi s b ro ugh t a severe reprimand fro m m y
govern ess wh o n ever al l owed su ch n onsense t o
,

b e t a l ked o f .

O n th e m orning o f th e 2 5t h o f S eptemb er ,

qu it e earl y I awoke from a dream t o fi nd my
, ,

sist er h olding m e an d m u ch a l armed I had .

scream ed an d st rugg l ed c ryi ng ou t I s he really
, ,

d ead ? ’
When I f ully awo k e I felt a bu rni ng ,

sensat i on i n my head I co ul d n ot speak f or a
.
2 66 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S U B L I I l/I I N A L SELF .

missing l ett ers t elling h ow hi s own regim ent had
,

muti ni ed and t hat h e had bee n t rans ferred t o a
,

c om mand i n th e 1 2 t h I rregu lar Cavalry b ou nd ,


to j oi n H avel ock s fo rce i n the reli e f o f L u c k
now .


S ome eight years after the o fli ce r wh o w as ,

riding by h i m when h e fell Capt ai n o r M aj o r ,

G ran t visite d u s and when i n compliance wit h
, ,


m y au nt s requ est h e detailed the i ncidents o f
,

that sad ho u r his narration tallied (even t o t he
,

descript io n o f b u ildings on their l eft) with the
n otes she had taken th e m orning o f my d ream .

I shou ld also add t hat w e h eard my brother had
mad e the alt erati on i n his beard and whis k ers j u st ,

ab ou t th e tim e t hat I h ad spoken o f him as wear
ing them di fferently .

L A W . . .

The next case which I will p resent is fro m D r .

A K Youn g F R C S I o f the Terrace
. .
, . . . . .
, ,

M onaghan I reland ,
.

On e M on day night i n D e cember 1 8 36 D r , , , .

Yo u ng had the following dream o r as he wou l d , ,

pre fe r t o call it revelati on H e found himsel f
,
.


su ddenly at t he gat e o f Maj o r N M s aven u e . .
,

many m iles from his hom e Close t o him was a .

group o f p ersons on e o f them a woman with a
,

basket o n her arm the rest m en fou r o f whom
, ,
A S TRA N G E EXPE RIEN C E .
26
7

were t enants o f his own while t h e others were
,

u nknown t o h im S om e o f the strangers seem ed
.

t o b e m u rdero usly assaul ting H W o ne o f his . .
,

t enant s and he i nterfered H e goes on to say
, .


I st ru ck violently at th e m an o n my left an d
then with greater vi olence at the man s face t o ’

my right F i ndin g t o my su rp rise that I d id no t
.

knock hi m down either I st ru ck again and again
,

with all th e violen ce o f a man fren zied at the
sight o f my poo r fri en d s m u rder To my great

.

amaz em ent I saw that my arms alth ough visibl e
,

t o my eye were witho ut substan ce and the bodi es
,

o f the men I st ruc k at an d my own cam e c l ose
t ogether aft er each blo w through the shad owy
arm s I struck with My blows were delivered
.

with m ore extrem e viol ence than I ever b efore
exerted bu t I becam e pain fully convi n ced o f my
i ncompete ncy I have n o con sci ou sn ess o f wh at
.

happened after thi s feeling o f u nsubstanti al ity

cam e u p on m e .

N ext m o rn ing D r Yo u ng experien ced the st i ff
,
.

n ess and s oreness o f violent bodily exercise an d
was in formed by his wi fe that i n th e co u rse o f the
night he had m u ch alarm ed h er by st riking out
again an d again with his arms i n a t e rr i fi c manner ,

as i f fighting fo r his l i fe H e i n t u rn in form ed
her o f his dream and b egged her t o rem ember the
2 68 TELEPA TH Y AN D TIIE S U BL I M I I VA L SELF .

nam es o f the actors i n i t who were kn own t o
him .

On th e mo rning of th e following day W e d n e s ,

day h e received a l etter from his agent who re
, ,

sided i n t h e t own close t o the scen e of his d ream ,

i nforming h im that h is t enant H W had been , . .
,


fo und o n Tu esday morni ng at M aj or N M s gat e . .

speechless an d app aren tly dying fro m a f ract u re
o f the skull and th at there was n o t race o f th e
,

m u rderers That n ight D r Yo u ng st art ed for th e
. .

t own and arrived th ere on Thu rsday m orning .

O n his way t o a m eet ing o f th e magist rates h e
met th e senior magistrate o f that part o f th e cou n
t ry an d re qu ested hi m t o give orders fo r th e
arrest of th e th ree m en whom besid es H W h e , . .
,

had recogniz ed i n his dream and t o have them ,

examined separat ely This was done The th ree
. .

m en gave i dent ical accou nts of the occ urrence ,

an d al l named the woman wh o was with th em .

S h e was then arrested and gave p recisely similar
t esti mony .

They sai d that b etween el even and twelve o n
M onday night they had b een walking h omeward ,

al l t ogether al ong th e road wh en they were over
,

t aken by three stran gers two o f wh om s avagely
,

assaul ted H W while the oth er p revented h i s
. .
,

frie n ds from i nterferi n g T h e man H W d i d
. . .
279 TE LEPA TH Y AND TH E S UBL IMIN AL SELF .

being carried o ff the fi el d seri ou sly wou nded an d ,

h eard h is voi ce saying Take t hi s ri ng o ff my
,


fi nger and send it t o my wi fe .

A l l the next d ay I cou ld not get the sight no r
t he voice o u t of my m in d I n d ue tim e I h eard .

o f G en Ri chardson having been severely wou nde d
.

i n t he assau lt o n M o o lta n H e su rvived how .
,

ever an d is still livi ng I t was n ot fo r som e t im e
,
.

after the siege that I h eard from Colon el L the .
,

o fficer who helped t o carry Gen Ri chardso n o ff .

th e fi eld th at th e requ est as t o the ring was
,

act u ally m ad e t o him j ust as I h ad heard it at
,

F eroz ep ore at that very t im e .

M A RI C H A R D SO N . . .

The foll owi ng qu esti ons were addressed t o G en .

Richardso n .

I . D oes G en R ichardson remember sayi ng
.
,

when he was wou nded at M o o lt a n Take t his ,

ri ng o ff my fi nger an d sen d it t o my wi fe o r ,

words t o that e ff ect ?
A ns M ost d istinctly ; I mad e th e requ est t o
.

my comm anding o ffi cer Maj or E S L loyd wh o,
. .
,

was supportin g m e while my man was gon e for

assistan ce .

2 .

Can yo u reme mber the t i me of th e i n
ci d e nt ?
MISS HOSME R S EXPE RIEN CE ’
. 27 1

A ns . S o far as my mem ory se rves m e I was ,

wo u nde d abou t n ine P M o n S u nday the 9 t h . .
, ,

S eptemb er ,

3 H ad Gen Richardson b efore h e left home
. .
, ,

promised or sai d anything t o M rs R as t o send . .

i ng his ring t o h er i n case h e sh ou ld b e wou nded
A ns To the best of my recollection never
.
, .

N or had I any ki nd o f p resentim ent o n th e sub
j e ct I nat u rally felt that with su ch a fi re as we
.


were exp ose d t o I m ight get hu rt ,
.

The next case i s from M iss H osmer th e cel e ,

b ra t e d sculptor I t was written out by M iss.

B al fou r from the accou nt given by L ydi a Maria
,

Child and correct ed by M iss H osmer J uly 1 5 th
, , ,

1 885 .

A n I tali an girl
n amed Rosa was in my em
ploy for som e tim e b u t was fi nally obliged t o ,

retu rn hom e t o her sister o n acc ou nt o f co nfi rm ed
ill health When I took my c u st omary exercise
- .

o n horseback I frequently call ed t o s e e h er
, On .


o ne o f these o ccasion s I call ed abo u t six o cl ock
P M and fo u nd her b right er than I h ad seen her
. .
,

for som e t ime past I had long reli nqui shed hop es .

o f her recovery bu t there was n othing i n h er a p
,

e a ra n c e that gave m e th e impressio n o f imm e
p
diat e danger I left her with the expectat io n o f
.

calling t o see her agai n many t imes S he ex .
272 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBLIMIN AL SELF .

p ressed a wi s h t o h ave a b ottl e o f a certain kin d
o f wine whi ch I pro mised t o bring her mysel f
,

n ext m o rn in g .

D u ring the remaind er o f the evening I d o n ot
recollect that R osa was i n my thoughts after I
p art ed wi th h er I ret ired t o rest i n good h ealth
.

and i n a qu i et fram e o f m i nd B u t I woke from
.

a sou nd S l eep with an opp ressive feeling that
some one was i n th e ro om .

I reflect ed t hat n o on e cou l d get i n except my
maid wh o had t he key t o o ne o f the two doors o f
,

my roo m — both of whi ch doors were locked I .

was abl e dim l y t o disti ngu ish the furn it u re i n th e
room My bed was i n th e m i ddle of the room
.

with a screen arou n d t he foot o f it Thinkin g .

som e on e might b e b ehin d the screen I said ,



Who s there ? b ut got n o answer J ust th en

.

th e clock i n the adj acent roo m struck five ; and at
t hat m om ent I s a w the figu re o f Rosa standing
by my bedsid e ; an d i n som e way th ough I cou l d
,

n ot ventu re t o s ay it was th rough th e m edi um of
sp eech th e imp ressio n was c onveyed t o m e from
,

her of thes e wo rds : A desso s o n feli ce son con

,


te nta. A n d with that th e figu re vanished .


A t th e b reakfast t abl e I said t o th e frien d

who shared the ap artment with m e Rosa is d ead ,
.

What do yo u m ean by that ? she i nquired yo u
’ ‘
274 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .


A ft er I l eft the H igh S cho ol I went with G , .
,

my m ost i ntimat e f rien d t o att end th e classes at
,

t he U niversity There was n o divinity c lass b u t
.
,

we frequ ently i n ou r walks d iscu ssed an d spec
u la t e d u p o n many grave subj ects— among oth ers ,

o n th e i mmortality o f th e so u l and a fu tu re state , .

This qu esti on and the possibility I will n ot s ay
, ,

o f ghosts walki ng b ut o f the dead app eari ng t o
,

th e livi ng we re s ubj ects o f m u ch specul ati on ;
,

an d we act ually co mmitted t he fol l y o f draw ing
u p an agreem ent writt en with o u r b l ood t o th e ,

e ffect that which ever o f u s di ed fi rst sh oul d
app ear t o th e oth er and t h u s solve any d oubts
,


we had ent e rt ai ned o f th e l i fe after death ‘
.

A fter we had fi nished ou r classes at col l ege G , .

went t o I ndia having got an app oi nt ment there
,

i n the C ivi l S ervi ce .

H e seldom wrot e t o me and aft er t h e la p s e of
,

a few years I h ad a l most forgotten h im ; m ore ~

over his family having littl e con n ect i on with
,

E d i nb u rgh I seldo m saw o r h eard anything of
,

them o r o f h i m th rough them so that all hi s
, ,

sch ool b oy i nti macy had died o ut an d I had
-
,

n early forgotten his exi stence I had ta k en as I .
,

have said a warm bath and whil e lying i n i t an d
, ,

enj oying th e com fort o f th e heat aft er the lat e
freezing I h ad u nd ergon e I t u rn ed my head ,
H I S E XP L A N A TION .
27
5

rou nd looking t owards th e chai r o n which I had
,

d eposited my clothes as I was abou t t o get o ut
,

o f the bath O n th e chai r sat G looking calmly
.
,

at m e .

H ow I got o ut o f the bat h I know not but ,

on recovering my senses I fou nd myself s prawli ng
on th e fl oor The apparition o r what ever i t was
.
,

that had taken t he likeness o f G had disappeared .
, .

This vision p rod uced su ch a s hock that I had
n o i nclinat ion t o talk abou t it even t o S tewart ;
b ut the impressio n i t made u pon me was to o vivi d
t o b e easily forgott en ; and so st rong l y was I
a ffected by i t t hat I have h ere writ t en down th e
whole histo ry with the dat e l gt h D ecember and
, , ,

all the p art icu lars as they are now fresh before
,

me .

N o doubt I had fallen asleep ; and that th e
appearance presen ted s o distinctly t o my ey es was
a dream I cann ot fo r a m oment d oubt ; y et for
,

years I had had n o com m u nication with G n o r .
,

had there been anything t o recal l h im to my
recollectio n ; n othing had t aken plac e d u ring ou r
S wedish t ravels e ither connected with G o r with .

I ndia o r with anythin g rel at ing t o h im o r t o any
, ,

member o f his fam ily I co uld n ot discharge from
.

m y m i n d the i mp ression that G m ust have died
,
.
,

a n d that hi s app eara n ce t o m e was t o be received
276 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SE LF .

as a proof of a fut u re st at e ; y et al l th e wh ile I
fe l t convi nced that the whole was a dream an d
so pain fully vivid so u nfadi ng th e imp ression that
, ,

I could not bri ng mysel f t o talk of i t or make the

slightest allusion t o it .

I n O ct ober 1 8 6 2 L ord B ro ugham added as a
, ,

p ost scrip t
I have j u st b een copying o u t from my j ou rnal
t he accou nt of thi s st range dream : Cer t i ss i ma
m or t i s i m ag o I A nd n ow t o fi n ish the st o ry b e ,

gu n ab out sixty years ago S oon aft er my ret u rn .

t o E di nbu rgh there arrived a l ett er f rom I ndi a
, ,


annou ncing G s death an d stating that he had
.
,

died o n the l gt h of D ecemb er !
S ingu lar coi n cid ence ! Yet wh en on e refl ect s ,

o n th e vast nu mbe r o f dreams whi ch night after
night pass through o u r brain s the nu mber o f ,

coinciden ces between the visi on an d th e even t
are p erhaps f ewer an d l ess remarkable than a fair
calcu l ation of chan ces woul d warrant u s t o expect .

N or is it su rprisin g co nsideri ng the variety o f
,

thought s i n sl eep an d that they all bear s om e
,

analogy t o th e a ffairs o f li fe that a dream sho u l d ,

someti mes coin cid e with a co nt emp oran eou s o r .

even wi th a fut u re event This i s n ot m u ch
, .

m ore won derful than that a person who m we
have had n o reaso n t o exp ect sho uld appear t o
2 78 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

so u nd sleep ; sh e reasoned with he rsel f regardi ng
the p ossi bi lity of any o n e getti ng i nt o the room ;

? ”
sh e called ou t : Who s th ere S he s a w the
fu rnit u re heard the cl ock strike and cou nte d
, ,

fi ve ; an d i n another acc o u nt wh ich I also have ,

she heard th e familiar no ises abo u t th e h ouse o f
servant s at their u su al work and sh e resolved t o
,

get up A ll this before sh e s aw anything un us
.

ual ; the n t u rn i ng h er head sh e saw R o sa Clearly .

thi s was n ot a dream b ut a vision occu rrin g po s
s i b ly i n a conditi on o f reveri e
'

.


Taking u p L ord B rougham s case : i n simply
recording t he facts i n his d iary h e sp eaks of hi s
experi ence as a v i s i on and the i dea that it was a
d r ea m was evid ently an after thou ght - H e was .

e nj oy i ng th e heat ; h e was a bou t t o g e t ou t of t b e

ba tlt h e t ur ned h is head H e d escrib es the sen
.

s a t i o n s and acti on s o f a m an who i s a w ake o r ,

certai nly not i n a c o ndition t o h ave dreams d i s
connect ed with h is actual su rro undings A fter .

all this l ooking t oward th e chai r upo n which h e
,

had dep osit ed his cloth es— st ill a p art of his su r
roun di ngs o f whi ch he was p erfectly co nsci ou s
,

h e s a w G o n t h e chai r looki ng ca l m ly a t b i ni
. .

N o w t o have d r ea m t o f G h is old school fell o w
.
,
-

and friend l ookin g calmly at h i m wo u ld not have
, ,

been anythi n g sh ocking n or even su rprising ; i t
L OR D B RO UGHA M S VIE W CRITICISED

. 27
9

wo uld not have been even u ncom m on am ong d ream s
—i t would h ave been n othing o ut o f the ordinary

cou rse o f n at u re D reams seldom sh ock or even
.

su rprise u s— surely n ot u nless there i s som ething
i nt ri nsically shockin g represented by them ; bu t
when we s e e the phantasm o f a person whom we
know cann ot be th ere— that is u n u su al that i s ,

not i n the ordi nary cou rse of n at u re as we are ,

accustom ed t o observe nat u re and i t surp rises us
, ,

shocks u s perhaps frightens u s ; bu t it d oes so
,

because we are awake and can reason abou t i t
and compare its st rangeness with the usual order
o f thi ngs
.

L ord B rougham was awake h e d id so reason , ,

an d was accordi ngly shocked .

S o vivi d was the appariti on that he tu mbled
o ut o f th e bat h an d fainted I t is only som e t im e
.

after this when writin g u p his diary that he has
, ,

n o doubt that he had fallen asleep P reconceived .

t heori es abou t appariti ons now come up i n his
m in d an d get hi m i nto t ro uble ; h e m ust expl a i n
hi s vision .

N ow fo r th e explanati o n L ord B rougham
.

fi nds o n ret u rning t o S cotland that hi s form er
, ,

frien d is d ead and that th e ti me of his death cor
,

respon ded with th e tim e at which h e had see n
his app arition i n S weden D ecember l gt h
,
.
280 TELE P A TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

S ingular c oin ciden ce ! That i s L ord Bro u g
ham s explanatio n ; and that i s the u su al explana

t i on ; b ut it i s ill considered— i t i s weak— i t does
-

not cover the grou nd .

L o rd B rougham h ad b u t two theories from
which t o choose : n am ely Chance and S u per ,

n atu rali sm ; and of the two hor n s o f the di l emm a
h e chose the easi er on e .

L et us however place ou rselves for th e m om ent
, , , ,

o n his grou nd nam ely th at ( I ) I t was a dream ;
, ,

and (2 ) dream s are s o n u me ro u s t hat it is n ot
su rprisin g that some o f them coincid e with
cont emp oran eou s events .

E vidently th e m ore nu m erou s th e coincid ences ,

or the dreams which correspo nd t o cont emp o
r a n e o u s events t h e w eaker b ecom es the theory
,

o f cb a n ce coi nciden ces S upposing then L ord
.
, ,


B rougham s case t o h ave b ee n u ni qu e t hat not ,

an other sim ilar case was kn own to have occu rred ,

t hen we should h ave n o part icu l ar h esitat ion i n
assigning it to th e category of chanc e coi n ci
d e n ce s ; b u t even th en i t would be o u t o f th e
order o f us ua l coi nci denc es b ot h i n i nt erest an d
th e n u m b er o f separat e p oints i nvolved i t woul d
excit e S p eci al i nt erest b u t the reference o f it t o
,

chan ce wou l d n ot be consid ered u nreasonable : i f ,

h oweve r t h ree o r f ou r su ch cases ha d b e en re
,
282 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

namely S up ernat u ralism any l onger b e t a k en
, , .

A newly recogn ized method o f m ental i nteraction
is grad ually co ming i nt o V iew ; a n ew p rin ciple
and law i n psych ology i s bei ng established ; an d
u nder thi s l aw th e errat i c an d discre dit ed fact s o f
hist o ry as well as th e fact s o f p resen t observat ion
an d experi ment are f a ll in g i nt o l i ne and b ec om
i ng i ntell igible .

Th e n e w p rin cipl e or l aw as we h ave seen is
, ,

thi s : P ercept ion s o f th e c l ass whi ch have u sually
,

b een kn own as h all u cin ati ons may b e o riginated ,

an d t ransferred t elep a tlzi ca lly ; i n other words ,

there i s a sublimi nal sel f which u nde r vari ou s
, ,

con dit ions on the part of either agen t or p er
c i p i e n t o r b oth may com e t o th e surface and act
, , ,

i m pressing t h e sensitive percipi ent through th e
senses by dreams vi sions and apparit ions a s wel l
, , , ,

as throu gh hallu cinat i ons of heari ng and t ou ch .

Ret urning t o o u r well considered cases illu s
t ra t i n g some of these variou s cond it ions : having

p resented examples of veridi cal or t ruth t elling -

dreams and o f waking o r b orderlan d visions also
,

corresp on ding t o actu al event s t aking place at the
sam e tim e I wil l n ext presen t cases where t he
,

p ercipien t was u nd oubt edly a wa ke an d i n a norm al
c ondition The foll owing case is report ed o n the
.

a uth orit y o f S urgeo n H arris o f th e Royal A rti l
TH E CHILD S VISIGI V

. 2 83

l ery wh o with his two d aught ers was a wit ness
, , ,

o f the occu rrence
A party o f ch ildren sons an d daught ers o f
,

th e o ffi cers o f artillery stati on ed at Woolwich ,

were playing i n t h e garden S uddenly a little .

gi rl screamed an d sto od staring with an aspect o f
,

t erro r at a willow t re e stand ing i n the grou nds .

H er comp ani ons gathered rou nd askin g what ,

ailed her . Oh sai d s h e there— t here D on t ,

.


you s e e ? There s p apa l ying on th e grou nd and ,

th e bl o od ru nning from a big wou nd A ll assured .

her that they cou ld s e e n othing of the ki nd B ut .

s h e p ersist ed describing t he wou nd and the posi
,

t io n o f th e body still exp ressing surprise that
,

t hey di d n ot se e what sh e s o plainly s a w Two .

o f her companions were d au ghters o f on e o f th e
su rgeons o f the regi me nt whos e h ou se adj oined,

th e garden They called thei r father who at on ce
.
,

came t o t he sp ot H e fou nd the child i n a stat e
.

o f extrem e t error an d agony took her into his ,

ho use assu red her i t was only a fancy and having
, ,

given her restoratives sen t her ho me The i nci .

d en t was t reated by all as what the doctor
had c alled it a fancy and n o more was thought
, ,

o f it N ews from I ndia where th e child s father
.
,

was station ed was in t hose days slow i n coming
, ,

b ut th e arrival of the mail in d u e c o urse brought
284 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBLIMIN AL SELF .

the i n f orm at ion that th e father o f th e chil d had
b een kill ed by a sh ot and d ied u nder a t ree , .

Making allowances for di fferenc e i n tim e it was ,

fo u nd t o h ave b een about t he m oment when t he

d au ght er had t he vision at Woolwich .

The n ext c ase i s from M r F ran cis D art F enton .
,

form erl y i n the nat ive depart m en t o f the Govern
ment A u ck l and N ew Zealand I n 1 8 5 2 wh en
, , .
,

the i ncid ent occu rred M r F ento n was engaged , .

i n f orming a s ett l ement o n the banks o f th e
Waikato .

H e wri tes
March 2 st h 1 860 , .

Two sawyers F ran k P hi l p s an d J ac k M u l
,

h olland were engaged c u tti ng timber for the R ev
, .

R Mau nsell at the m o uth o f the A waroa Creek
.
, ,

a very l one l y p l ace a vast swamp no p eopl e with
, ,

i n mi l es o f them A s usual t hey had a Mao ri
.
,

with t hem t o assist i n felling t rees H e c am e .

from T i h o re wa m a v i lla g e o n th e oth er si de o f
,

the river ab ou t s i x mi l es o ff A s F rank and th e
, .

nat ive were cross cu tting a tree th e n ative st opp ed
-
,

su ddenly an d said What are yo u com e for ?
,
‘ ’

looking i n th e di recti on o f F ran k F ran k replied .
,


What d o yo u m ean ? H e said I am n ot ,

speaking t o you I am sp eak ing t o my b rother .


F rank said Where i s h e ?
, The native replied ,
286 TE LEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUB L IMIN AL SELF .

i n spi rit u alism b u t on t he cont rary i s a mat eri al
, , ,

ist an d h as bee n for forty y ears .

H e writes f ro m B eta H ou se 8 A lpha R oad S t , , .


J oh n s Wood N W ,
. .

A pril 1 st h 1 8 6 1 , .

O n J an u a ry 3d 1 8 56 my brother J oseph , ,

b ei ng i n command o f the steam er A l i ce o n th e ,

M ississippi j ust above New Orl eans she cam e
, ,

i n collisi o n with another st eamer The co ncu s .

sio n cau se d t he flagsta ff or p ol e t o f all with great
vi olence wh ich c om i ng i n c o n tact with my
,


brother s head act u ally divi ded th e skull causing
, ,

o f n ecessity in stant d eath I n O ctober 1 8 5 7 .
, ,


I visited the U nit ed S t ates When at my father s .

residenc e Cam den N ew J ersey the m e l ancholy
, , ,

death o f my brother b ecam e th e s ubj ect of con
versation and my m oth er narrat ed to m e t hat at
,

the very t im e o f the acci dent the appariti on of
my b rother J oseph was p resented t o h er This .

fact was corroborat ed by my father and fou r
sisters C amd en N J i s distant from the scen e
.
,
. .
,

of th e accident i n a direct li ne over on e t ho usan d
, ,

miles My moth er m enti on ed the fact o f the ap
.

p ar i t i o n on th e m orning of th e 4 t h o f J anuary t o
my fathe r an d S ist ers nor was i t u ntil the 1 6 th ,

or thi rteen d ays after that a l etter was received ,

confi rmi ng i n eve ry p artic u l ar the extraordinary
S EEN A TH O U S A N D MILES A WA Y
. 287

visitation I t will be i mportant t o m enti on that
.

my brother William and hi s wi fe l ived n ear the
locality o f th e dreadful acciden t and are n ow ,

livi ng i n P hiladelphi a ; they have also c o rrob o
rat ed to me the details of the i mpressio n prod u ced

up on my m other .

D r Collyer t hen qu otes a l etter from h i s m oth er
.

wh i eh contai ns th e following se nt en ces :

CA M D E N , N J . .
,
U N I TE D S TA T E S,
M arch 2 7 th , 1 8 6 1 .

M Y BE L O VE D
. S O N — O
the 3d of J an u ary
n
, ,

1 8 56 I di d n ot feel wel l and retired early t o b ed
, .

S om e time aft er I felt u neasy and sat up i n b ed I
looked arou nd th e room and t o my ut ter amaz e ,

m e nt saw J oseph standi ng at the d oor looking at
,

m e with great earn est ness ; h i s head was bandaged
u p a di rty night cap on an d a d irty whit e garment
,
-
, ,

som ethi ng like a s u rplice H e was m u ch disfig ure d
.

abou t t h e eyes and face I t mad e m e q u i t e u n .

co m fo rt able the rest o f th e n ight The next m orn .

in g M ary cam e i nt o my ro om early I t ol d her I .

wa s s u re I was going t o have bad n ews from
J osep h I t ol d all the fam ily at th e breakfast
.

table They replied I t was only a dream an d


.
,

n onsense b u t that di d not change my opinion .

I t preyed o n my mi nd and on the 1 6 th o f J a n u a ry
,

I received the n ews o f his death ; and singular t o
2 88 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

sa
y both William an d hi s wi fe wh o were
,
there say ,

th at he was exactly attired as I s a w him .

Y ou r ever a ffecti onat e m other ,


A NNE E . COL LY E R .

I n reply t o qu est ions D r C ollyer wrot e
,
My
father wh o was a scie ntifi c m an cal culat ed th e
, ,

d i fferenc e o f l ongit u de between C am den and
N ew O rl eans and fou n d th at the m ental impression

was at th e exact ti m e o f my b rother s death .

I n the p ublish ed accou nt I omitt ed t o stat e
that my broth er J oseph p rior t o his d eath had
, ,

ret ired for the night i n his berth h is vesse l was
m oored alongsid e th e l evee at t he ti m e o f th e
,

collisi on by an other st e a m er com ing d own the
M ississippi O f c ou rse my b rother was i n hi s
.

n i gh tg own . H e ran o n deck o n b eing called and
i n formed that a steamer was in close p roximity to
his own Th ese ci rcu mstances were com m u ni cated
.

t o m e by my b rother William wh o was o n the ,


spot at th e tim e o f the accident .

I n ad dition t o these acc ou nts M r P o dmore ,
.

says
I call ed up o n D r Col l yer o n March 2 5t h , 1 884
.

H e t ol d m e that h e receive d a full accou nt o f th e
story verbal ly from his fath er m othe r an d brother
, ,

i n 1 8 57 . H e was qu ite certai n of th e p recise

coincidence o f t i m e.
2 90 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SEL F .

I saw thei r feat u res (my mother s an d ’

the room an d th e fu rn it u re and parti cularly the
,

ol d f ashi on ed Ven etian bli nds My e l dest sist er
-

was seated n ext t o my moth er .

The followi ng i s an extrac t from a let t er writt e n
t o Co mman de r Aylesb u ry by on e o f his sisters and
forwarded t o M r Gu rn ey i n 1 8 8 3
.
,

I dist in ct l y remembe r th e i ncident yo u m en
t ion i n you r l ett er ( th e voi ce calling M other ‘

it made su ch an imp ressi on up on my m in d I s h all
n ever forget it We were al l sitti ng qu ietly at
.


wor k on e evening ; i t was ab o u t nin e o clock I .

thin k it m ust have been lat e i n th e su m mer as we ,

h ad l e f t th e st reet d oor open We fi rst heard a .

f ai nt c ry o f M other we al l l ooked up and sai d
t o o n e an other D i d y ou hear that ? som e on e
,


cried o u t M oth er We had scarcely fi nished
.

sp eaki ng when th e voic e agai n called M oth er ‘ ’

twice i n qu ick su ccession th e last c ry a fright ened
, ,

agoniz ing cry We al l start ed up an d mother
.

sai d t o m e G o t o th e d oor an d s e e what is th e
,

matter . I ran directly int o th e street and st ood
so m e few m i n u t es b u t al l was sil ent and n ot a
, ,

p erso n t o b e seen it was a lovely evening n ot a ,

breath o f ai r M othe r was sadly u pset ab o u t it
. .

I remembe r s h e paced th e room and feared som e
thing had happen ed t o you S he wrot e d own t h e
.
S EEN HEA RD
, AN D FEL T . 2
9:

dat e th e n ext day an d wh en you cam e home an d
,

t old u s how n early y ou had b een drowned an d ,

the tim e of day father sai d it would b e ab ou t th e
,


t i me n in e o cloc k wo uld be with u s I know th e .


d at e an d th e ti m e c orresponded .

I n t h e next case three o f th e sen ses — sight ,

h eari ng and to u ch were con cern ed I t i s fro m
, .


M r Gu rney s co ll ectio n
. .

F ro m M r A lg e ro n J oy
.
,
20 Walton P lace ,

S W
. .

th 1 8 8 3 Au g . 16 , .

A bou t 1 8 6 2 I was walking i n a cou nt ry
lane n ear Cardi ff by mysel f when I was over ,

taken by two you ng colliers who su ddenly
attacked m e On e o f th em gave m e a vi olent
.

blow on the ey e which kno cked m e down hal f ,

st u n ned I disti nctly rememb ered aft erwards all
.

t hat I had been thinking about both i mm ediately ,

p ri or t o the at tack an d for som e t im e aft er i t .

U p t o the m oment o f th e attack and fo r som e
t im e previo usly I was absorb ed i n a calc ulatio n
,

connect ed with P enarth D ocks then i n con s true ,

t ion o n which I was empl oyed My t rain of
,
.

tho ught was i nterrup ted for a m oment by the
sou nd o f footsteps b ehi nd m e I l ooked back an d .

saw the two you ng men b ut thou ght n o m ore ,
2
9 2 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

o f them an d i mm ediat ely ret u rned t o my calc ula
,

ti ons .

O n receivi ng th e b lo w I began speculating on ,

th eir obj ect what t hey were going t o d o n ext
, ,

h ow I co uld b est d e f e nd mysel f or escap e fro m ,

them an d when they ran away an d I had picked ,

myself u p I thought o f t rying t o i denti fy them
and o f d eno u ncing the m at the p o l i ce station t o ,

whi ch I proc eeded after following them u nti l I
l ost sight o f them .


I n short I am positive that fo r abo ut hal f a n
,

hou r p revi ou s t o th e attack and for an hou r o r ,

two afte r it t here was n o c onn ect io n whatever
, ,

di rect o r in direct between my thoughts an d a
,

p erson at that m om ent i n L ondon an d who m I ,


wi ll call A ‘
.

Two days aft erwards I received a l etter from ,


A writt en o n the d ay aft er the assaul t askin g
, ,

me what I had been doing and thin k ing abou t at
4 30 P M o n th e day p revio u s t o that o n
. .
,

wh ich h e was writing H e cont i nu ed : I had
.

j ust p assed you r cl ub and was thinki ng o f you ,

wh en I recogni zed you r footstep beh i nd m e .

Y ou lai d yo u r hand heavily on my shoulder I .

t u rned an d s aw y o u as d isti nctly as I ever saw
,

yo u i n my li fe Y o u looked dist ressed and i n
.
,


answer t o my greeting and i n qu i ry What s th e ,
294 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

F i rst on e from D r Wyld
,
.
, 4 1 C o u r t fi e ld Road ,

S W
. .

D ecemb er, 1882 .

Miss L and her m other were for fi ft een years
.

my most i nti mate fri ends ; they were l adi es of th e
highest i nt elligence an d perfectly t ruthful an d ,

thei r st ory was c on fi rm ed by o n e o f t h e se rvant s ,

th e other I co uld not t race .


M iss L som e years b efore I mad e her a c
.
,

quaintance o ccu pi ed m u ch of her t i me i n visit ing
,

th e p oor On e day as sh e walked hom ewards sh e
.

f elt c old an d tired an d l onged t o be at h om e
warming h ersel f at th e k it chen fi re A t o r ab ou t .

th e mi n u t e corresp ondi ng t o this wish t he two ,

servants being i n t he kit chen the d oor h andle was ,
-

seen t o t u rn th e d oor op ened an d i n walked M iss
, ,

L and going u p t o t he fi re s h e held ou t h er hands
.
,

and warmed h ersel f and th e servants saw s h e had
,

a p air o f g r een ki d gloves on her hands S he s u d .

d e n ly d isappeared b efore thei r eyes and the two ,

servants i n great alarm went u pst ai rs and t ol d t he
m othe r what t hey had seen i ncl udi ng the green ,

ki d gloves Th e m othe r feared som ething was
.

wrong b u t S h e att empted t o qu i et th e se rvants
,

by remi nding them that M iss L always wore black .

and n ever green gloves and that therefore th e ,

g host c oul d not have b ee n that of her dau ght er .
SEEN BY FO UR PE RSON S .
29 5

I n about ha lf a n hou r th e veritable M iss L .

entered the h ouse and goi ng i nt o the k it che n
,

warm ed h ersel f at th e fi re ; and sh e had on a pai r
of g r ee n kid gloves which she had b ought o n h er
way hom e n ot bei ng ab l e t o get a s u itable black
,

pai r
.

G WY L D M D .
, . .

The next case i s from D r Wm M B u chanan . . .
,

1 2 Rutland S quare E di nb u rgh , .

H e writes

The following circu mstance t oo k place at a
vil l a abou t o n e and a half m iles from G lasgow ,

and was t old m e by my wi fe O f i ts t ru th I am .

as certai n as i f I had b een a wit ness Th e house .

had a lawn i n front o f ab ou t three or fou r acres
i n extent with a lodge at th e gateway disti nctly
,


seen from th e ho u se which wa s abo ut eighty yards
,

distant Two o f the family were going to visit a
.


fri en d seven miles d istant and on the previou s
,

d ay it had been arranged t o take a lady M iss W , .
,

with them wh o was t o b e i n waiting at a plac e
,

abo u t a m ile distant Three of the family and a
.

lady visi t or we re standing at on e of the di ning
roo m wi nd ows wait i ng for th e carriage wh en ,

they i ncl u di ng my wi fe saw M iss W op en t h e
, ,
.

gat e at th e l odge The wi n d had d isarranged th e
.

f ront o f a pelisse which sh e wore which they ,
2
96 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

dist inctly s aw h er adj ust S h e wore a light gray .

col ored beaver hat and h ad a han dkerchief at h e r
,

m ou th ; it was su pposed she was s u ff ering from
t oothach e t o which sh e was subj ect S he entered .

the lodge t o t he su rp rise o f h e r fri en ds an d as sh e ,

di d n ot l eave it a servan t was sent t o as k her t o
,

j oi n t h e f am ily ; b u t S h e was i n form ed that M iss
W h ad not b een there and i t was aft erwards
.
,


ascertain ed that n o o n e except th e wom an s h u s
ban d had b ee n i n th e l odge that m orning .

The carri age arrived at t h e h ouse ab out t en
A M . an d M iss W was fou nd at th e pl ac e agreed
.
, .

u pon i n th e d ress i n whi ch sh e appeared at the
,

l odge an d su ff ering from t oothach e A s sh e was
, .

a n ervo u s p erson n othing was said t o h er abou t
,

her appearan ce at th e gat e S he died nin e years .


afterwar d s .

S ometim es an appariti o n seemi ngly i nt en ded
f or o n e p erson is n ot perceived by that p erson b u t ,

i s seen by some other person p resent wh o may b e a
st ranger t o th e agent or p erson wh ose image i s
see n Th e foll owing case i s i n p oint I t is fro m
. .

M rs C lerke o f C lifton L odge F arquhar Road
.
, , ,

U pper N orwood S E and a l so bel ongs t o M r
,
. .
,
.


Gu rn ey s coll ecti on

I n th e m onth o f A ugust 1 864 ab out three o r , ,

fou r o clo ck i n the aft ern oon I was sit ting reading

,
2 98 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E S UBLIMIN A L SELF .

( 3) I had no i dea h e was ill . H e was o n ly a
few days ill .

(4) The woman h ad never seen h im S he h ad .

bee n with m e ab out eight een m onths an d I con
s i d e r e d her truth ful S he had n o obj ect i n t e l ling
.

me .

H er h usband C ol one l C l erke c orrob orates as
, ,

follows
I well rem emb er that on th e day on which M r .

J ohn Br e rs fo rd my wi fe s brother died in Tobago
,

,

after a sh ort illn ess o f which we were n ot aware
ou r b l ack n u rse d eclared s h e s aw at as n early ,

as p ossible the t i m e o f his death a gent l eman ,

exactly answering t o M r Bre r s ford s d escript ion
.

,


leaning over th e back of M rs C le rk e s easy chai r .
-

i n th e open verandah The fi gu re was n ot seen
.

by any o n e el se .

S H A D WE L L H C L E R KE. .

I n this i nstance looking u po n th e dying brother
,

as the agent an d t h e sist er as the i n t en ded per
c i p i e n t th e qu estion arises why was s /
,
ze u nable t o
,

perceive the telepathi c i nfl u ence whi ch p resented
the likeness of he r b rother wh il e the colo red n u rse
, ,

an enti re stranger t o hi m sees an d d escribes h i m ,


standin g by his sister s chai r an d apparently
anxiou s that sh e sh oul d recogni z e hi m ?
I n an other o f M r G u rney s cases o f fo ur persons
.

,
RE V M R H S
. .

PHA N TASM .
29
9

present i n a b u siness o ffi ce where the phantasm o f
a fi fth well known p erson appeared two persons
-
,

sa w th e phantasm and two did n ot .


A bri dged f ro m M r Gu rn ey s acco unt th e ci r .

c u m s t a n c e s were as follows

Th e narrat or i s M r R M o uat , of 60 H u nting . .

do n S t Ba r n s b u ry N an d th e i nci den t occurred
.
, ,
.
,

i n his o ffi c e on Thu rsday S eptembe r 5 t h 1 8 6 7 , , .

The p ersons con cern ed were the Rev M r H who . .

had a des k i n the sam e o ffi ce and who m ay be
consi dered th e ag e n t ; M r M ouat himsel f a n d M r .
, , .

R a gentl eman from an o ffi ce upstai rs i n th e sam e
.
,

bui l ding th e p er cip i en ts ; while a clerk an d a
,

p orter wh o were also p resen t saw nothing .


M r M ou at goes i nt o hi s o ffice at
. o clock
o n th e m orni ng o f S eptember 5 t h sees his clerk ,

and the p orter i n conversation and the Rev M r ,
. .

H standing at t he corn er of a tabl e at the back
.

o f t h e cl er k H e is abo u t t o speak t o M r H
. . .

about his b eing th ere so early ( m ore than an ho u r
before his u su al t ime) when th e cler k com ,

m e n ce d speaking t o hi m ab out b usi ness an d
especially a t elegram con cerning which som ethi ng
was amiss This conversat i on lasted several
.

m in u tes and was decidedly animat ed D u ri ng .

this scene M r R fro m an o ffi ce upst airs com es i n
,
. .
, ,

and l isten s t o the e xcit ed co n versat ion H e lo ok s .
3 00 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

at M r H i n a comica l w ay m ot i oning with h is
. .
,

h ead toward th e two disp utants as m uch as to s ay ,

t hey are havi ng it hot ; b u t t o M r R s disgu st . .

Mr H does n ot resp ond t o the j oke M r R and
. . . . .

the porter the n l eave the room M r M o uat t u rn s . .

t o M r H who was all th e while standing at th e
. .
,

c orner o f the t abl e n otices that h e l ooks d own ,

cast an d i s with ou t his n eck t i e h e says t o him
,
-

,

Well what is the m atter with y ou you look s o ,

s ou r ? M r H makes n o reply bu t looks fi xedly
. .
,

at M r M ou at H aving fi nished som e pap ers h e
. .

was readi ng M r M ou at noticed M r H still st and
. . .

i ng at th e t abl e Th e c l erk at that moment .

handed M r M o uat a l ett er s aying H ere si r is
.
, , ,


a l et ter f rom M r H . .

N o so on er was the nam e p ro nou n ced than M r .

H disapp eared i n a seco nd
. .

M r M ouat i s d u m fou nded— s o m u ch so that
.

th e c l erk n otices i t I t is then discovered that t he .

clerk has n ot seen M r H at all and declares that . .
,

h e has n ot b een i n the o ffi ce that m orning The .

lett er fro m M r H wa s written on t h e p reviou s
. .

day an d i n forms M r M ouat t hat h e is i ll an d . ,

wi ll not b e at the o ffi ce t he n ext day an d asks t o ,

have hi s l ett ers sent t o h is house .

Th e next day F riday M r H enters th e o ffi ce at
, ,
. .


h i s usual ho u r twe l ve o clock and on being asked
,
3 2
0 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMI N AL SELF
.

n o part i cular exp erience of any ki nd A ll th at .

can be said is that i t m u st have been abo u t his
, ,

u su al t im e fo r starting fo r t h e o ffi ce ; h e had sent
a lett er abou t his m ai l which he knew would then
b e received an d al l th e general rou tine and hab it
,

o f his li fe woul d t end t o di rect his mind t o th at
l ocality at that p articular t im e H e was ill as h e .

app eared t o be to those who s a w h is app ea r a n ce
at the o ffi ce an d very l ikely he was n egligently
,

d ressed .

Why shou l d two o f those p resent have seen
his appariti on an d two others have fail ed t o see it
,

F or t he simple reaso n that as in o rdinary thought
,

t ransference o r i n th e willing gam e some are
,

g ood s u b j e ct s
,
o r pe rcipient s and oth ers are n ot
, .

F or th e same reason that of ten person s makin g
t rial of P lanchet te writing th e board will m ove for
-
,

only two o r three o u t o f th e wh ole n u mber— that
is i n only a f ew wo uld th e hand s act au t omat
,

i ca lly i n resp ons e t o a sublimi na l sel f ; and for
the sam e reason i t may al so b e t ru e that am ongst
severa l p ersons i n only a few o f those present
, ,

can th e s ense o f sight or h eari ng be e ffect ed by
a phantasm .

I n m any instances children and i n som e i n
, ,

stances very y o u ng children have been th e p er
, ,

c i pi e n t s — children t o o yo ung t o perceive any
A N IMALS P E R CE I VE F H A N TA S M S .
3 03

d i fference between the phantasm and a real p er
son and who hav e accordingly addressed i t and
,

sp oken of i t as th ey w ould o f a real p erson .

E ven animals especially h orses and dogs have
, ,

given u nmistakable evid ence — b y crouch ing t rem ,

bling an d fright— o f p erceiving the same phan
,

t asm s that have been seen by p er s ons wh o were
p resent with them The phantom bei ng so t o .
,

sp eak i n t k e a i r it i s p erceiv e d by t h ose whose
, ,

organizatio n i s so adj u st ed as t o m ake it i mp r es
s i on a b le and t o constit u t e t o a greater o r less
, ,

degree what i s known as a s en s i t i ve
,
.

D oubtless o n close examination i t wo u ld be
, ,

fou nd that p erso ns capabl e of hypn ot ization ,

though they may never have been hypnotiz ed ,

nat u ral som n ambul ist s persons accust omed t o ,

vivi d d reami ng reveri e abstract i on an d kindred
, , ,

states i n other words p ers o n s i n who m th e s ublim
, ,

i nal self s omet im es gives i ndi cat io ns o f i n d e p e n d
ent act i on are m ost likely t o have so m e m a r ked
,

p s ychical experi ence I t m ay b e only once i n a .

lifeti m e and this on e inst ance m ay b e th e p ercep
,

t io n o f a ph ant asm al appearance .

I n bringing t o a close these examples o f ap
p a r i t i o n s I wish t o i ntrodu ce o ne whi ch h as
,

sp ecially i mpressed me I t was th e experien ce .

o f a chi l d i t is report ed by the p ercipi ent her
-
30 4 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

se l f Th e st atement i s singu l arly straight forward
.
,

and simple ; som ething was don e o n accou n t o f
the v ision which impressed th e ci rcu mstan ce upon
others wh o di d not see i t fo r p romp t acti on ,

fou n ded upo n w hat was seen saved a li fe I ,
.

give i t i n the percipie nt s own words written t o

,

M r G u rney I t i s from M rs Br e t t a ny 2 E cki ng
. . .
,

t on Villas A s hbo urn e Grove D u l wi ch
, ,
.

S he wri tes
N ovemb er 1 8 84 , .

When I was a child I had many remarkab l e
experien ces o f a psychical nat u re an d which I ,

rem emb er t o have lo o k ed up o n as ordi nary an d
natu ral at the ti me .

On on e occasi on ( I am u nabl e t o fix th e d at e ,

bu t I m u st have bee n abou t t en years old ) I was
walki ng i n a co u nt ry lan e at A th e plac e wh ere .
,

my parents th en resi ded I was reading geomet ry
.

as I walked alo n g a s ubj ect littl e likely t o p ro
,

d u ce fan ci es o r m orbi d phenom ena o f any kind
, ,

when i n a m om ent I saw a b ed room known as
, , ,

t he Whit e R oom i n my ho me and upo n th e floor ,

l ay my m oth er t o al l appearances dead
,
.

The visio n m u st have re main ed som e mi n
utes du ri ng which t im e my real su rrou ndings
,

appeared t o pale and di e o u t b u t as th e visi on
faded act u al su rro u n di ngs cam e back at fi rst ,
396 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SEL F .

l ace b order b eside her o n the fl oor This I had .

d isti nctly noticed i n my visi on There were .

other partic ulars o f c oi nci den c e wh ich I c an n ot

p ut here .


M rs Bre t t a ny s father writes fu rther
.

I disti nctly rem ember bei ng su rp rised by see
i ng my d aught er i n company wit h the fam ily
d oct or o utside the d oor o f my residence ; an d I
,

a sk e d ,
W h o is ill ?
‘ ’
S h e repl ied Mam ma ,

.


S he l ed the way at once t o the Whit e R oom ‘
,

whe re we fou nd my wi fe lying i n a swoo n o n th e
fl oor I t was when I asked when s h e had been
.

taken ill that I fo u n d i t m u st have been aft er my
daught er had l eft the h ou se None o f th e s erv .

ants i n th e hou se knew anything o f t he su dd e n
i lln ess whi ch o u r do ct or assured m e woul d have
,

b een fatal had h e not arrived when h e d id .

My wi fe was qu it e well when I le f t her i n t h e

morning .

S G G WY N N E . . .

Taking as we m u st th e mai n i ncidents o f th is
, ,

narrative as tru e we have either a si mple case o f
,

clai rvoyan ce o n th e p art o f M rs Br e t t a ny as a .

child or e l se on th e oth er h and th e sublimina l
, , ,

sel f of th e u n co nsci ous m othe r hastened t o i m
p ress th e situ at i on u pon th e sensitive ch ild an d ,

wit h t he d efi nite goo d result whi ch i s record e d .
C H A PT E R XI I .

C ON C L U S I O N S .

I N gathering u p the resul ts o f these investiga
t ions i t m u st be stated that i n showing their
,

relati on t o scienc e there is n o thought o f any
d etract i on from the n obility and great ness of
sci entifi c labor and achievement i n th e material
world — that is gran d almost beyond exp ressi on .

The atti tu de o f science is conservat ive an d it is ,

right ; b u t soon er o r later i t m u st awake t o th e
fact t hat here i s a new fi eld fo r i nvestigati on
whi ch comes st ri ctly wi thi n the l imits of i ts aim s ,

an d even o f its m etho ds Many i ndivid ual m em
.

b e rs o f the great b ody of sci enti fi c workers s e e
an d kn ow thi s grad ually th e m aj ori ty will see i t .

O n the oth er h and it m ust be stated that there
,

i s n o i n tention of coveri n g t he whole grou nd of
alleged o cc ult psych ic phenomena b ut o nly a ,

po rt i on even o f su ch as re l at e t o o u r p rese nt l ife
,
.

Th e subj ect o f the ret u rn o f spi rit s is u nt o uched ;
i t i s o n ly shown that the d omain o f alleged
3 7
0
3 08 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

spirit u a l isti c mani festati ons i s deeply trenched
u pon by the act i on o f t he subli minal se lf of l iving
peopl e wh at li es beyo nd that is neither a fli rm e d
'

n or d enied i t rests u po n gro u nd yet to be cleared
u p and c on sidered ; an d any facts open t o sat is
factory i nvestigatio n are always wel comed by any
of th e m any p erson s an d societies i nt erest ed i n
discoveri ng what i s t ru e relat ing t o it .

C o n fi n i n g ou rselves withi n the li mits assigned ,

i f th e series o f alleged facts which has b een p re
sented i n th e preceding chapters b e t ru e the n w e ,

are in the presenc e o f a m om entous reality which ,

for imp ortanc e and valu e has n ot been exc eeded
, ,

i f i ndeed i t has been approached by any o f th e
, ,

discoveri es o f m od ern tim es .

B ut i t may b e said you r alleged facts are n ot
, ,

n ew they are coeva l with hist o ry with m y ,

t h o lo gy with f olk l ore with religio n
,
-
,
Grant ed that
.

the facts are o l d t hat similar ones have bee n
,

known from very early t im es h ow have th es e ,

facts been t reat ed by the l eaders o f thought i n
th e n i neteent h c ent ury ?
That th e e arth goes ro un d th e s u n is an ol d
fact yet it was n ot mad e p ate nt and c redibl e
, ,

even to the cu l tivated m u ch l ess t o the average
,

m i nd t ill recen t ti mes
,
E vol uti on has bee n
.

going o n si n ce m i l li o n s o f years be f ore th e hu m an
310 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

the pl anetary system s o wonderfully stron g ; it
h armo n iz es and redu c es t o syst em so m any know n
b u t otherwise u nrelated an d u nsystem at i zed fact s ;
an d i t is easier t o fi nd excu ses o r form m i no r
t heori es t o acco u nt fo r isolat ed and appare ntly
errati c facts l ike th e retrograd e m otions o f the
,

satellites of U ran u s an d N ept u ne t han t o give u p
,

a theory at o nce s o gran d i n itsel f an d at th e
,

sam e tim e harm oniz in g s o many important astro
n o m i ca l phen om ena . The sam e i s t ru e o f the u n
d u la t o ry theory o f light an d agai n o f th e theo ry o f
,

evolu tion wh ich f orty years ago was looked u po n
,

as a fl imsy hyp othesis b u t whi ch i s n ow u niversally
,

accept ed as an established t ruth S om e o f the .

facts are still u nclassi fied and u n explained yet i t ,

s o harm on iz es i n general th e facts o f t h e vi sibl e

worl d that inst ead o f a m ass o f disj oint ed an d
,

het erogeneou s obj ect s an d phen om ena su ch as ,

m en b eheld i n natu re o nly a hu ndred y ears ago ,

the arbitrary work of a blind chanc e or a cap ri
cio n s Creat or w e n ow behol d a b eauti ful an d
,

orderly sequ ence progression an d u n foldi ng o f
, ,

the n atu ral wo rld accordin g t o l aws which com
m an d ou r admi ration and sti m ul at e ou r reverence .

A part fro m recent st u di es exactly the sam e
,

condition of chaos an d con fu si o n exists regarding
p sych ical phen om ena as e xiste d concern in g the
IMPOR TA N CE OF PS Y CHIC S TUDIES .
31 1

fact s i n the p hysi cal world only a h u ndred years
ago No r is i t likening great thi ngs t o smal l
.

when we compare t he n ebular hypothesis o r ,

the theo ry o f evol ut ion conc ep ti ons which hav e
,

ed ucat ed an age and vastly enlarged the b ou n dary
of h u man th ou ght t o th e theo ry of t el epathy an d
,

the fac t and p ower of t he subliminal sel f F o r i f .

it was important that m en sh ou ld know th e laws
governing i nani mat e matt er t o co mprehend th e
,

orbits and m oti on s o f the planets ; i f i t develop ed
the u nderst anding t o contempl at e the grandeu r of
thei r m oveme nt s the vast sp aces which t hey
,

t raverse and the wo nderful speed with whi ch they
,

accomplish t hei r variou s j ou rneys— i f su ch knowl

edge has en l arged the cap aci ty o f m en s m i nds ,

given them tru er not i on s of t h e magn itu d e o f the
u niverse and grande r c oncept io ns o f natu re and
,

the i nfin it e power an d i ntelligen ce which per
vades and i s exhibited i n it is it not equally i m
,

portan t and equally improvi n g an d practical t o
st u dy the subtler fo rces whi ch p ervad e living
organisms th e st ill fi n er laws an d adj ustm ent s
,

which govern th e acti on o f m in d ?
I t has b een c ontended by a large an d i ntelligen t
class o f writers and those wh o m ost p ride them
,

selves o n sci entifi c methods an d the infallibility o f
s cientifi c i n d u ctions that mi n d i s only the pro
,
312 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

d u ct o f organi z ation and c eases to have any
act ivity or eve n existence when th e organs th ro ugh
wh ich i t usually manifest s itsel f have p erished .

Th e gen eral consens u s o f mankin d i s a sharp
p rot est against this c oncl us i on— b ut th e e xp e ri
m ental p roo fs have t o many seemed i n favo r o f
, ,

this scientifi c denial — th e healthy b rai n i n gen eral
exh ibits a h ealthy m ent al act ivity th e di seased o r
,

i mperfect brai n sh ows impai red mental acti on and ,

th e disorgani z ed brai n simply exh ibits n o mental
activity nor any evidenc e whatever o f th e exist
en ce o f mi nd Nevertheless i t is a lam e argu
.
,

m ent i t i s simply an att em pt t o p rove a n e ga t i v e .

Th e hea l thy rose em it s an agreeabl e odo r wh ich
o u r senses app reciat e Y o u m ay dest roy the rose
.

-
i t does n o t prove that th e fragrance which i t
emitted does n ot still exist even though ou r
senses fail t o app reciate it .

B u t exp eri ment an d scie ntifi c methods have
also som ewhat t o say u po n thi s subj ect A n d .

fi rst i n A u gu st 1 8 7 4 twenty two y ears ago at
, , ,
-
,

th e mom ent when the mat erialisti c schoo l was at
th e h eight of it s i nfl u en ce both t he scient i fi c an d
,

religiou s worl d were b rought to a m omentary
standstill — like a ship u nder full headway su d
d e n ly st ruc k by a t ida l wave — wh en one o f th e
mo s t em i n ent sci e n ti fi c m en o f his t im e o r o f a ny
,
3 14 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

of li fe sensation an d i ntelligen ce wh ich i n d u e
, ,

p rocess o f evol uti on has app eared u po n thei r s u r
faces I t p oi nt ed the way t o the thought o f an
.

i nfi nite c au sal energy an d intelligence pervading
m atter and working thro ugh n atu re i n all its variou s
grad es o f li fe fro m the fi rst o rganiz ed cel l up t o
the grandest m an I t gave a n ew m eaning t o
.

mi nd i n man as bei ng an i ndivi dual i z ed porti o n
,

of that divine p ot ency which ever existed i n
m att er an d wh ich acti ng t hro ugh constantly i m
,

p rovi ng an d d evelopi ng organism s am idst con ,

s t a n t ly i mproving envi ron ments at length a p ,

p e ar e d a di ff eren tiated i n divi d u ali z ed seeing
, , ,

reasoning knowing l ovi ng spi rit
, , .

Th e m in d th en i s o f i mportance I t i s n o t ran
, , .

sient visito r which m ay have m ade i ts appearan ce
by chanc e— a c oncat enat io n o f c oi ncidences fo rt ,

u nat e or u nfort u nat e b u t it i s the i nt elligen t
,

t enant and m aste r o f a singularly b eauti ful and
complicat ed house a hou se which has b een mil
,

lions u p o n m illi ons o f years i n th e bu ildi ng an d ,

y et which will b e lightly laid aside when it ceases
t o accom modate an d fulfi l the needs of it s
tenant .

Who and what then i s this l ordly t enant whose
, ,

germ was coeval with m att er whose bi rt h was i n ,

t h e fi r st l iv i ng cel l whi ch app e are d up o n the
TH E DE VEL OPME N T OF MIN D .
315

planet whose apprent iceship has b een served
,

thro ugh every grade o f existence from the h u mble
p olyp u pwards whose ed u cati on h as been car
,

ri ed o n th rough t h e brai n and organs o f every
grad e of animal li fe with it s cou ntless expedient s
for existence an d enj oy ment u ntil now as lord of
, ,

it s domai n i t looks back upo n its lon g cou rse of
,

development and ed u cation looks about up on its
,

envi ronment s an d won ders at itsel f at what i t ,

sees and at what i t p roph esi es Truly what is
, .

this t enant what are its p owers an d why is it
, ,

h ere at all ?
These are th e qu esti ons whi ch it h a s b een the
b usiness o f the st rongest and wisest t o discu ss ,

fro m th e t i me men began t o think and record
their tho ughts u nti l th e p resent t i m e ; bu t how
vari ous and unsatisfact o ry have been t he con
e l usions . The m ental philosophers psych ol ogists , ,

and encycl op edist s simply p resent a chaos o f con
fl i c t i n g d efi niti on s prin ciples an d p remises u pon
, , ,

n o ne o f wh ich are they i n full agreem ent amongst
themselves ; they are not even agreed regardi ng
th e n at ure o f m i nd — whether it i s m at erial o r
i m mat erial — ho w it sh ould b e studi ed h ow i t is ,

relat ed t o the body i ndeed wheth er it is an
,


ent ity at all or sim ply a series o f feel ings or
,

p ossibilit ies o f them wh eth er i t p ossesses i n
3 16 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

nate ideas o r i s S imply an accret i o n of experiences .

I n S hort the st ock o f generally received fact s
,

relati ng t o mind has always remain ed exceed
i n g ly small . P sych ologists h ave b u sied them
se l ves chiefly ab o u t its u su al and obvi o us acti ons ,

a n d when in ful l relatio n t o t he body ignoring ,

all other m ental act ion or arbit rarily exc l udin g i t
as ab no rmal and n ot t o b e t aken i nt o accou nt in
th e stu dy o f normal min d so wit h o nly hal f th e
subj ect u nder con sideratio n t ru e results coul d
hard l y b e attain ed .

S i nce t h e organizati on o f the S oci ety fo r P sy
chical R esearch in 1 8 8 2 n ew fi e l ds o f i nvest i
, ,

g a t i o n have been u ndert aken an d the u n us ua l
ph enom ena conn ect ed with the op erati ons o f
m ind have b een syst em at ically st udied A very .

hasty an d imp erfect sketch o f this st u dy an d o f
the results obtai ned has b een given i n t he pre
ceding chapt ers b ut for th e use here m ade o f
,

these st u dies i n con necti on with h i s own obse rva
t ions th e writer alon e is responsible I n these .

stu d ies th e fi el d o f investigat i o n h as b ee n great l y
ext ended b eyon d t hat exam in ed by th e ol d
philosophe rs an d physi ol ogists B eyon d th e
.

usu al activities i n which we co nstantly see the
m in d engage d — observat ion of su rrou ndi ngs mad e
by th e se n ses m em ory of th em reasoni ng abo ut
, ,
3 18 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

A gain it has b een demonstrated that som e per
,
~

sons can volu ntarily proj ect the m in d — som e m in d
— some centre of int elligen ce or i ndepend ent

m ental act ivity c l othed i n a recogni z abl e form a
, ,

distance o f on e a h u nd red o r a tho u s an d m iles
, , ,

and that it can there make itsel f kn own an d
recogni z ed p erform acts an d even c arry o n a con
, ,

versat i o n with the p erso n t o wh om i t was sent .

That i s m ind can a ct at a distan ce from and i n
, ,

d ep endent o f th e physica l b ody and t he organ s
,

through which i t u su ally m ani fests i tsel f .

These p rop ositio ns p resent an asp ect o f m in d
which th e au th orit ies i n the o l d fi eld s o f p sy
ch o lo gy have failed t o o bserve o r t o recogni z e ;

or i f t hey h ave at ti m es c augh t a gli mp se o f it
th ey have rather chosen t o close t heir eyes an d
d eny altogether th e phen om en a whi ch these prop
o s i t i o n s i mply becau se t h ey fou nd it was i m o s
, p
sibl e t o classi fy them i n thei r syst em I t has bee n .

t o a d egree a repetit io n o f t he f olly exhibi t ed by

Galileo s cont emporari es an d critics who re fu sed ,

t o look th rough h is t e l escop e lest th eir favorit e
th eori es o f th e u n iverse sho uld b e dam aged .

N evert h el ess thi s n ewly st u died aspect exists and
, ,

is adding greatly t o ou r know l edge o f th e nat u re
and act i on o f m i nd .

S till an other class o f u n us u al m ental phenome na
M O T OR A N D SEN S OR Y A UTOMA TI S M .
319

fou n d i n t his o utlyin g fi eld o f psych ology is that
k nown u nder the general nam e of aut omatism ;
and by this is m ean t s omething m ore than th e
u nco nscious cerebration and u nconscious
m u scular act ion of the physi ol ogists and some ,

thing qu ite di fferent from that .

There is fi rst the class o f mot or automatisms
, , ,

i ncl ud ing P lan chet t e writ ing and other m ethods
-

o f aut omati c writ ing drawing painting an d
, , ,

kindred performances also poeti cal or m et ri cal i m
,

r o v i s a t i o n s and tran ce an d s o called i nspirational
p , ,
-

S peakin g —S econd there are th e sensory a u t o m
,

a t i s m s ; o r su ch as are mani fested by i mp ression s

m ad e up on th e senses an d which are reckoned as
hallu ci nations The impression of h earing a
.

voi ce o f feeling a tou ch o r seeing a visi on m ay b e
, ,

reckoned as examples o f this ki nd o f aut omat ism .

N o other d ivisi on o f th is newly cultivated fi eld
p resents so many u nu sual and d ebatabl e phe
n omena . Not only d o those modern myst eries ,

P lanchette wri tin g t rance sp eaking an d medium
-
,
-
,

i s t i c u tterances com e easily u nder this class o f
m ental phenom ena bu t all t hat vast array of
,

alleged supernat u ral phenom en a which pervades
the l iterat u re of eve ry n ati on si nce th e time when
m en fi rst b egan t o record their experien ces The .

oracles of the Greeks and Romans the d aemo n of ,
3 0
2 TE LEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

S ocrates the voices o f J oan o f A re an d the wide
, ,

spread c ust o m o i d ivinat ion by means o f c rystal
gazi ng i n som e o f its many f orms have already
been referred t o an d their relati on t o aut omatism
o r the acti on of th e subli min al se l f h as b ee n noted .

There is still o n e important class o f persons
wh o have wi elded an e no rm ous i n fl u ence u p on
manki nd an in fl u en ce i n th e mai n wholesom e
, ,

e l evat i ng and d evel oping wh ose relati on t o
, ,

auto matism deman ds a passi ng considerati on I .

refe r t o th e religi o u s chi e fs o f th e world .

A s prom in ent exampl es o f those fo u nd ers o f
religion s we wil l bri efly n oti ce M oses Z o roaster , ,

M ahom et and S wedenb org E ach either p rofessed
,
.

h imsel f t o be or his followers have credited hi m
,

wit h being the i nspi red m outhpiece o f the D eity
, .

The re can b e n o do ubt i n th e m inds o f candid
st u dents that each o ne o f th ese rel igiou s l eaders
was p erfectly h onest both as regard s hi s co n ce p
,

t ion o f th e charact er an d i mp ort ance o f his do c
t rin es an d also regarding th e m ethod by whi ch he
p ro fesse d t o receive them E ach beli eved that
.

wh at h e t au ght was u ltimat e and i n fallibl e t ruth ,

an d was received di rectly from the D eity I t is .

evide nt h owever that from what ever sou rc e th ey
, ,

were derived the doct ri nes could n ot all be ultimate
t ruth si nce they were n ot i n harmony amongst
,
32 2 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

standing th e app arent egotism o f th e man and
the t iresom e verbiage o f many o f his co m m u n i ca
t ions are elevatin g and refi ning i n charact er and
,

u sefu l t o t hose wh o are attracted t o them That .

i n eithe r ca s e an i nfi nite D eity sp oke th e comm on
place which is att ribu te d t o H i m i n these c o m m u
n i ca t i o n s i s i ncredible b u t t o suppose i t all bot h
, ,

the grand and th e t rivial th e work o f the s ub
,

conscious sel f o i t he respective authors i s i n
accordance wit h what we k now o f au tomat ism
and o f the wonderfu l wor k o f t h e subl i mina l sel f
when l eft free t o exercis e i ts highest activit ies .

L et u s exam in e with som e care th e h isto ry o f
two examples of un u su al or sup ranormal m ent a l
action the fi rst fou nd i n o n e o f th e earl iest o f
,

h u man records an d reckoned as fully i nsp ired ;
,

th e other equ ally u nu su a l o ccu rring withi n the
l ast half centu ry and m akin g n o claim t o any
supernat u ral assistance .

The fi rst example is p resented in th e fi rst chap
t er o f Genesis an d i s a c l ear c onnected an d i n
, , ,

the m ain c orrect th ough by n o m eans complet e
, ,

accou nt o f the changing conditi ons o f th e earth
i n the earli est geol ogi cal peri ods an d of th e a p
,

p e ara n ce i n t h ei r proper o rder o f the di fferent
grades o f life u po n its surface That su ch a .

writt en accou nt shoul d h ave exist ed three thou
TH E VISION OF MOSES .
323

sand years b efore any sci ent ifi cally const ructed
schedul e even o f the order i n which plants an d
and ani mal s su cceeded each other mu ch less o f ,

th e manner i n which th e eart h was p repared fo r
their recept i on an d n u rt ure i s a m ost remarkabl e
,

c ircu mstan ce regarded either fro m a lit erary o r a
,

scientifi c standpoi nt I t has been criti ci s ed for
.

i ts lack o f S ci ent ifi c exact n ess and th e supposed
,

erro r o f representi ng l ight as created befo re the
s u n ignoring t h e early existence o f aqu atic li fe
, ,

an d S imilar poi nt s B ut let u s take o u r stan d
.

with th e grand old seer w hoever h e may have
,

b een who m we know as M oses wh o gave t o th e
, ,

world this graphic acco u nt o f the o rder o f creation
so m any c ent uries b efore sci en ce had thrown
i ts light upo n the cond it io n o f the earth i n
those far o ff ages and l et u s endeavo r t o see
-
,

what his qu ickened vi sio n enabled hi m to
b ehol d .

The panoram a opens and d iscloses i n an h ou r
the grand p rogressive action o f millions up o n
mill ions o f years .

The fi rst p ictu re represents the creat ed earth
c overed with wat er and envelop ed i n a t hick
mantle o f st eaming mist causing a c on dition o f
,

absolu t e an d imp enetrabl e d arkness upo n i t s s u r

face .I n the language o f the seer The earth ,
32 4 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

was without f o rm and vo id ; and darkness was upon

th e face o f th e deep F or ages the u nb roken
.

ocean which covered th e earth wa s heat ed by i n
t ernal fi res th e rising vap or as i t m et th e cooler
at mosphere ab ove was co ndense d an d fell i n o ne
c onstan t downpou r o f rai n U nceasing st eaming .
,

m ist vap or and rain wholly i mp enetrable t o
, , ,

light su ch were th e conditi ons .

A t length as th e coolin g p rocess went on the
, ,

d ensity o f the m ists was di minished — the won
d e r fu l fi at went forth “
L et light b e —and light
,

was B u t still the mantl e h u ng close u pon th e
.

u nb roken ocean .

T he second pi ct u re appears N ot only was .

t here l ight b u t a fi rm a m e n t— a n arch with a cl ear
spac e u nderneath it ; an d i t divi d ed the wat ers
which were above i t from th e wat ers which were
b eneath it .

P ict u re th e third Th e waters were gathered
.

t ogeth er an d the conti nents app eared ; an d the
land was c overed with verdu re — plant s and t rees ,

each b eari ng seed after its ki nd Of th e i nhabit .

ants o f the s e a the seer h ad t aken n o accou n t .

I t was simply a p ict u re that h e saw— a nat u ral ,

ph enome nal rep resent ati on .

P ictu re th e fou rth The m ists an d c l ouds are
.

a l t ogether dispelled The c l ear s ky app ears The
. .
32 6 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

Next take the oth er exampl e F ifty years ago.

a yo u ng man not yet twenty years of age u m
, ,

ed ucated a gro cer s boy an d shoemaker s a p p re n
,

ti ce was hyp not iz ed ; an d it was fou nd that h e
,

had a mo st remarkab l e m ental or psychi cal const i
t ution .H e had most u nu sual experi en ces an d ,

present ed u n u sual psychical phe nom en a whi ch
n eed n o t b e recou nt ed h ere .

A t l ength it was im presse d u p on him as i t
m ight have b een upo n S o crat es or J oan o f A rc ,

o r S weden b org o r M a hom et that h e had a m is
,

si on and had a m essage t o give t o the world H e .

cam e from th e ru ral town where h e h ad spent hi s
b oyhood t o t he city o f N ew Y ork and hi red a
room o n a p rominent tho rou gh fare H e then i n ,

his abno rma l c ondit i on p roceeded t o choose th ose
,

who shou l d b e specially associat ed with h im i n his
work— men of charact er and ability whom h e di d
not even know i n his normal stat e F i rst : Thre e .

w itnesses were ch osen wh o sh ou l d be fully
cogniz ant o f eve rything relat i ng t o t h e meth od by
which th e m essage o r b ook was p rod u ced O f .

t hese on e was a cl ergym an on e a physi cian and
, ,

o n e an i nt elligent laym an S econd : A scrib e
.

qu ali fi ed to writ e o ut the messages as h e dict at ed
them t o edit an d publ ish them Third : A phy
,
.

s i ci a n t o pu t hi m i nto the hypnoti c o r as it was ,
A MO DE RN R E VELA TI OI V .
32 7

then called the magneti c c ondition i n which he
, ,

was t o dictat e hi s m essages .

Th e fi rs t lectu re was given N ovember 2 8 t h ,

1 84 5 and th e l ast J u n e z l s t 1 847
, , D u ring thi s
.

tim e 1 5 7 l ect ures were given varying i n length
,

from forty m in utes t o fou r h ou rs and they were
,

all carefully writte n o ut by th e scribe To 1 40 .

of these m an uscripts were attac h ed 2 6 7 names o f
persons who list ened t o them an d subscribed
th e ir names as witn esses at the en d o f each l ec
t u re — t o some a singl e signatu re was a ffixed t o ,

som e m any
, . A ny person really desiro us o f
k nowing th e p u rport o f these l ectu res an d th e
man ner of th ei r d e l ivery coul d b e admitted by
making applicatio n be forehand .

A t each sitt i ng the sp eaker was fi rst p u t into
th e d eep hypnoti c tran ce i n whi ch h e was rigid
and u nco nsci ou s b ut his su b conscio u s or second
-

sel f was act ive and lu cid an d associated with the
,

p rincipl es an d kn owledge which h e needed and
which he was t o comm u nicate F rom this con .

d ition he came back t o th e som namb uli c stat e i n
which h e di ctat ed that which h e had acqu ired i n

th e deep t rance o r what h e call ed the sup erior
,

condit io n and th e t ransiti on from on e o f these
states to th e oth er took place m any times du ring
each l ect u re S u ch w er e th e conditio ns u n d er
.
328 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

which A ndrew J ackson D avis p rod uced the
P r i n cip les f o N a tu r e— H er D i v i ne R evel a t i on—
a

boo k o f nearly 800 pages divi ded i nto thre e ,

p arts —F i rst a sett ing forth o f fi rst pri nciples
, ,

which served as a ph il osophical explanati on o r
k ey to the mai n work S econd a cosm ogony or
.
,

d escripti on o f the m ethod by which th e u niverse
cam e t o its p resent state o f development and ,

t hird a statem ent o f the eth ical p rin ciples u p on
,

which so ciety sh ould be based and the p racti cal
working o f these p rin ciples I t assu mes t o b e
.

th oroughly sci entifi c and ph ilosophi cal I t has .

literary faults an d t here is plenty o f opp ort u nity
,

f or c avil an d scientifi c fau l t fi n d i n g ; b ut these
-

remarkable facts re main .

A p o o r boy tho roughly well known and
,

vo u ched for by hi s n eighbors for h is strict i n
t e g ri t y havi ng had only fi ve months o f o rdinary
,

d istrict sch ool i nstru ct i on for his edu cat i on ,

h aving never read a scientifi c o r phi l osophica l
b ook an d n ot a dozen all t ol d o f every k ind
, ,

h aving n ever associ at ed with p eople o f edu cat i on
excep t i n t h e m ost casua l way yet i n th e m an ner ,

j ust d escrib ed he dictated a b oo k c o nt ai ning the
o u tlines of a th oroughly sou nd an d reasonabl e
system o f philosophy theol ogy an d ethics an d a
, , ,

compl ete syst em o f cosmogony representing the
330 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF .

an d i n scienti fi c and t echn ical language In .

several part iculars h e d i ffered fro m th e received
opini ons an d gave his reason s f or so doing
,
No .

claim was m ad e t o i nspirati on n or t o the p resen
t a t i o n o f absol ut e or in fallibl e t ruth bu t when ,

hypn otized and i n what he t erm ed th e sup eri or
conditi on his perceptive fac ult i es were vastly i n
,

creased and that whi ch h e then p erceived he
,

m ad e kn own H e simply gave the tru th as h e
.

saw it an d h e comm en ded it t o the j u dgment
,

an d reason o f manki nd for recepti on or rej ection .

I n oth er word s th e su bli mi na l sel f was b rought
,

i nt o acti on by hyp notism an d then by means o f
,

its greatly i ncrease d perceptive p owers he gathered
knowl edge from vari ou s sou rces quit e inaccessib l e
t o him i n his o rdinary stat e an d seem ingly i n,

accessibl e also t o others .

Con cerni ng th e t ruth or falsity o f th e revel a
t ions b eyo n d what was already kn own or h as
sin ce been con fi rm ed by sci ence I d o not assu m e ,

t o p rono u nce j u dgm ent b ut that this also as we l l ,

as th e fi rst chapt er o f G enesis from either a liter
,

ary or scienti fi c standp oi nt i s on e of th e m ost
,

remarkabl e p rod u ct io ns o f thi s or o f any age will ,

not b e deni ed by any com petent and can di d
exami ner whil e t he rem arkabl e charact er o f th e
b ook will be st ill better app reciated when the
A N CIEN T A N D MODERN A U TOMA TI S M 33 1

stat u s o f the theory o f evolution and o f th e
science o f geol o gy fi fty years ago i s t aken i nt o
the accou nt .

H ere are p resent ed two p romin ent examples o f
sup ranormal ment al activity — o n e i n th e early

ages o f man s d evelop m ent when every t /zi ng was
,

sup ernat ural the imm ediat e work o f a god— the
,


other i n man s lat er d evelop ment when natural
l aw i s fou n d i ntervening between phenomena an d
thei r cau se and when i t i s fou n d p ossibl e for m en
,

t o comprehen d the fact that t ru th extraordinary
,

an d even that which had previo usly been u nknown
or was beyond the reach o f the senses i n thei r
ordinary stat e may nevertheless be discovered or
,

reveal ed by othe r means than direct co m m u n i ca
t ions from D eity .

I t i s seen then h ow variou s and h o w w onder
, ,

fully imp ortan t are the mental phenomena grouped
u nder the general designation of au tom atism .

Many examples of this and other classes o f u n
u sual m ental actio n have been given i n previou s
chapt ers not as cu m ulat ive evidence o f thei r
,

verity— that would requi re volu mes but simply
,

to ill ustrat e the subj ect and give some degree of
d e fi n i t e n e s s to ou r reasoning regard ing them .

N ot even all th e cla ss es of facts prop erly belong
i ng t o ou r s ubj ect have here been represented ;
3 3 2 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

but taking the m as they h ave bee n enu m erated
an d hastily d escri bed they c onstitut e a body o f
,

well observed an d well authe nticat ed fact s an d
ph eno mena of u ndeniable i nt ere s t an d i f received
,

as t ru e thei r imp ortanc e i s certainly t o be com
p ared wi th th e great est d iscoveries o f m od ern
s ci ence They are h owever t he very facts whi ch
.
, ,

t he sci ence an d philosophy o f t o day hesitates t o
-

accept The only except ion t o this stat ement i s
.

fo u n d i n the t reatm ent l ately accorded t o hyp
n o t i s m whi ch aft er a hun dred y ears o f hesitatio n
, ,

rej ectio n an d even ri di cul e has at l ength been
,

de fi nite l y received as regards i ts m ai n facts I t .

i s t ru e h owever that i n n u merou s other i nstances
, ,

the evidence regarding u n usu al m ental stat es an d
ph enom ena i s equ ally weighty and u ni mp each
abl e ; b u t b ecause these phen o mena are u nusu al ,

marvel ou s o r seemi ngly m i raculo u s b elongi ng t o
,

n o recogni zed class o f mental act ion th ere fore i t ,

is argu ed t hey c an not b e gen u ine ; there m us t be
,

s ome fl a w in the evid ence an d t hey cannot be
accepted .

I t i s te dio us going over the argu m ents wh ich
red u ce this mode o f reaso ni ng t o an ab s u rdity .

The sam e reasonin g has b een applied t o eve ry
i mp ortant d iscovery i n physical sc i enc e f or th e
past three h u ndred years ; an d i f it were carri ed
33 4 TE LEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMIN A L SELF .

com e familiari zed with the thought that t elepathy ,

clai rvoyance and the sublim inal self with its
, ,

au gm ented p owers are facts i n nat u re ; b u t thou
,

sands o f i ntelligent p eople an d many accu stomed
,

t o exam i ne facts c riti cally an d acc ord in g t o a p
proved m ethods are al ready s o i nte rp reting
,

natu re an d thei r n u mb er i s constantly i ncreasing
,
.

S u ch are som e o f th e facts d iscovered by th e
p ioneers i n th is o ut lyi ng fi eld o f psychol ogy I n .

attempt ing t o explain or accou nt for them i t i s
u seless to t ake refuge i n the hazy d efiniti ons o f
th e ol d psychologists or t o imagin e that th e
,

secret is bou n d u p i n th e vi tal p rocesses whi ch
o ccu py the biol ogist and physiologi st i nteresting
,

and i mp ortant as th ose st u dies are ; even th e
n eu rologist can h elp u s comp arat ively littl e — h e
can t ell u s al l abou t d iseases o f th e n ervou s sys
t em and h ow th ey manifest themse l ves and his ,

labor has earned fo r h i m t he grat itu de of man
kin d ; b u t h e cann ot t ell u s h ow thinkin g I S a c
com plished n o r what thou ght i s ; h e cann ot t ell
,

the cause o f so norm al an d easily observed a
phen omen on as ordina ry sl eep m u ch l ess o f th e
,

new facu lti es which are d evel oped i n s om na m b u
li s m . I n all th ese relat ed depart ments o f sci ence ,

i n co nsid eri ng mental phen omen a it is fou nd con
v e n i e n t t o deny th e e xist ence of that for which
TH E SUBL IMIN AL SELF BRIN GS ORDER ,
33 5

they cann ot account Natu re s processes h o w
.
,

ever are simpl e when once we c omprehend them
, ,

s o m u ch s o that w e wonder at their simpli city ,

and wonder that we ever could have failed t o
un derstan d t hem ; an d we l earn t o dist ru st ex
planat ions which are i nvolved and complicated ,

knowing th at error o ft en lies that way A nd o f .

this kind fo r the m ost part the at tempt ed ex ,

planat ions o f ment al p rocesses i n terms o f physi
ology have p roved to b e ; they are compl icated ,

i napplicable and u nsatisfactory an d they give n o
,

aid i n the gen eralizati ons whi ch have hithert o
b een so m u ch n eeded .

The ph enom ena i n this new fi eld at fi rst sight
seem heterogeneou s witho u t system o r any com
,

m on bon d ; t hey seem each t o demand a separate
origin an d fi el d B u t l et the idea of th e sublimi
.

nal sel f i ntelligent an d end owed with its higher
, ,

perceptive faculti es be p resented and l o all these
, ,

refract ory ph en omena fall i nto place i n on e har
m o n i o u s syst em The sublimi nal sel f i s the
.

act ive and e ffi ci ent agent i n t elepathy— i t is t hat
which sees and h ears an d act s far away from the
b ody an d reports the knowl edge whi ch i t gain s
,

t o t he ordinary se nses sometimes by m ot or an d
,

s ometimes by sensory au tomatism — b y aut omati c
writing sp eaki ng au diti on the vision th e phan
, , , ,
33 6 TELEPA TH Y AN D TH E SUBL IMI N AL SELF .

tasm I t acts som eti m es while t h e p rimary sel f
.

i s fully consci ou s — bett er and m ost f requ ently i n
reverie i n dream s i n somnamb ulism b u t b est of
, , ,

all wh en th e ordinary sel f i s altogether subj ective
an d the body silent i nact ive and insen sibl e as i n
, , ,

th at strange conditi on which accompani es th e
high er phases of tran ce and l u cid ity i nt o whi ch ,

few enter either sp ontan eou sly o r by th e ai d o f
,

hypn otism Then still retai ni ng its att enu ated
.

vital c onn ecti on i t goes forth an d sees with ex
,

t ende d visio n and gat hers t rut h from a tho usan d
vari ou s and h idden so urces .

Will it act less freely less i nt el l igently wi t h
, ,

l ess con sci o u sness and in divid ual ity when that
attenuat ed vital c on n ect io n i s severed an d t he ,

b ody lies— u nt enanted

TH E END .
33 8 IN DEX .

PA GE

Bor d e r l a n d case s — vi s i on s 2 69 , 2 7 1 , 2 7 3

Br a i d , H i s t h eory of h yp n o t i s m 31
Br e tt a n y , M r s .
, V i s i o n , p e r c i p i e n t a wa k e 304
Bri t ta n , D r . S . B , C a s e s r e p o rt e d by
.
99
-
10 1

Br ow n , A .
Jd p e r s o n al i t y
.
, A s e co n 1 19, 1 82

Br ou g h am L o r d Bo r d er l a n d ca s e
, ,
2 7 3—2 7 9

Bu c h a n a n D r W B C a s e by coll e ct i v e
, . . .
, ,
2 95

Bu rt o n M rs J u l i e t ta T A u t om a t i c wri t i n g
, . .
,
1 94

D r a wi n g a nd p a i n t i ng by . 1 95

P o rt r a i t by ,
1 96

P s y ch om e t r i c po we r s . 1 99

C .

Ca rp e n t e r D r W m B H i s th eory
, . . .
,

Ch a r cot P ro f H i s t h e o ry o f h y pn ot i sm
, .
,

C h i e fs R e l i gi ou s
,

M ose s Z o roas t e r M a h om e t , S we d e n , ,

In s t a n ce s of

A n c ien t an d m o d e rn
N a t ur e of

Cl e av e , M r. A . H . W .
,
and Mr . H . P S p ar ks Ph a n ta sm
.
,

p ro d u ce d by .

Cl e r k e ,
M ay , C a se r e p o rt e d by
C oll y e r ,
Dr . R . H C a se vi s i o n r ep o rt e d by
.
, , ,

C on e s , D r E . Ca s e r epo rt e d by .

U se d fo r p r o d u c i ngvi s i o n s
.
,

C ry s ta l g az i ng
-
,

Case s r e p o rt e d by M r E W . . . L ane “

P r a cti se d I n al l a g e s .

A m ong s t t h e H e br e ws

I n th e O p e ra of P a r s i fa l
Th e S h e w s t o n e o f D r D ee -
.

W h a t i t r e a ll y i s
E xpe ri m e n ts of M i ss X 2 09 - 2 1 4

C ol . W i ck h am ’
s po u c h be l t fou n d
- by .. 2 14
IN DEX .
339

C ry s t a l g az i ng , S p ri n g s
-
a nd we ll s u se d for
Cu m be rl a n d ,
M i n d rea der -
.

D .

D av is , A .
J P r od u ct i on of P r i n cip les f
o N a tu r e , H er

Be y e r , C o lJ J r e l a t i o n t o C ry s ta l g z i n g
H i s we ll , i n
a
-
. . .
, .

D i ag r a m s Il l u s t r a t i n g t h o u g h t t r a n s f e r e n c e
,

D r e a m s D e fi n i t e I m p r e ss i o n s d u ri ng
,

Ve ri d i c al c as e s o f ,

D u fa y D r C as e r eport e d by
, .
,

E .

E l li ots on , D r .
,
M es m e r c i t r e atm e n t by

F e n ton , M r . F . D .
, V i s i on , ca s e re po rt e d by
F i tzg e r a l d , J oh n , C l a irv o y a n ce of

G .

G e r au lt , D r .
, C la irvo y a n ce , ca s e r epo rt e d by
G iber t , D r E xp e ri m e n ts .
, , h yp n ot i z i ng a t a d i s ta n ce .

G h os t s t o ri e s S t at u s o f
-
,

G l i sso i d , M r . E . M yp n oti c e xp e ri m e n ts by
.
,
H
Gu r n e y ,
M r. E .
, E xp e ri m e n ts .

Cas e s r e po rt e d 2 63—2 66 2 8 4—2 89 , , , 29 1

2 94) 2 95 )

G ur woo d , J oh n , H is s u ppo se d sp i ri t
H is cr e s t

I n th e P e n i n su l a r W ar
Gu thr i e M al colm , , E xp e ri m e n t s in T h ou g h t T r a n s
-

f e r e n ce

H .

H a mm n d o , Dr . Wm . A .
, E xp e ri m e n ts r epo rt ed by .

H a rri s , S u rg eo n , A c hi ld ’
s v s on , i i cas e r e po rt e d

H ffe M a da m e T h e S ee r e ss o f P r ov er s t
au , ,

H odg so n , D r R i ch a r d , C as e r ep orte d by
.
340 IN DE X .

H r H a rri e t Bo r d er l a n d c ase
os m e , ,

H yp n ot i sm I n l i t e ra t u re , .

H i s t o ri c a l s k e t c h o f
Br a i d s t h eory o f ’

M e s m e r s t h e o ry o f ’

C h a r cot s t h e o ry o f

Be r n h e i m s t h eory o f ’

S t ag e s o f
T h e r ap e u t i c e ff e c t s o f

Ps y c h i c as p e ct o f

R a p po rt i n
S ug g e s t i o n i n
H yp n oti z i n g at a d i s t a n ce
E xp e ri m e n ts by Pr o f Ja n e t
.

and D r G ibe rt
. .

E xp e ri m e n t s by Pr of R i ch e t
.

a n d D r H eri co ur t
.

I .

I n di vi du a l T h e C on cept i o n o f
, ,

J .

Jam es P r o f Ca s e e xa m i n ed by
, .
,

J a n e C l a irvoy a n ce o f
,

Ja n e t P ro f H yp n ot i z i ng a t a d i s ta n c e
, .
,

H yp n ot i c e xpe ri m e n ts by
Joa n o f A r c H e r v o i ce s a n d v i s i o n s
,

J oy M r A Ca se h a ll u ci n ati on aff e ct i ng s ig h t h e a ri ng
, . .
, ,

and t ou c h

L A W , R e m a r k a bl e dr eam or vi s i on
. . .

L é o n i e , L é o n t i n e , L é o n or e
L i éb e a ul t , D r , S u g g e s t i o n fu lfi ll e d a ft e r m a n y d a y s
. .

S u gg es ts a
L uci d i ty , S ee C la i rv oy a n ce .

M ar i e , ”
Clai rvo ya n ce of 95 99
-
34 2 IN DEX .

PA GE

R ee d , O n Pe r s o n a l i t y 1 16

R e v e l a t i o n , A m od e r n 32 7
R i c ha r d so n , M rs . M . A .
,
Bo r d e r la n d c as e re p o rt ed by . 2 69

R u ss e ll , M r s J M C ase by
. . .
, . 2 46 —2 48

Ru th , M rs . W i ck ha m s se rva nt Cr y s ta l g az i ng ’
,
-
. 2 14

S o

S i dgwi ck , Pr o f H .
, V i c
. e -
Pr es S P R . . .
5
M rs . H , C ase s r e po rt e d by
.

S oc i e t y for Ps y c h i ca l R e se a r ch fo rm a t i o n
, of —
3 5 , 3 16
S oc r a t e s , D aem o n of 2 20

S o m n am b uli s m 1 29

H yp n o ti c 131

S t a i n to n , M ose s , R e v W , Pha n tom s pe r c e i v e d . . by . 2 3 7 , 2 38

S t e ad , W T , H i s a u t om a t i c w ri t i n g
. . 1 86

M i ss A .

s j ou r n e y au to m a t i ca ll y d es cri be d
1 88

N ee ds o f a s r an e
g t r wri tt e n ou t by 1 89

rr e spo n de n t i n a ra i l wa y car
H is co 1 92

S t e wa rt P r of Ba l fo u r
,
.
5
S u b l im i n a l s e lf T h e k e y t o m a n y p s y ch i ca l p h e n o m e n a
, 2 60 .

S o u r c e s o f i n fo r m a t i o n o f 1 77

T h eor y o f 25 7

S u gg e s t i on P os t h y p n oti c
,
-
61
S m i th J W a n d Ka t e E xp er i m e n ts
, . .
, , 22

S we d e n bo rg Cl a ir vo y a n c e o f
,
8 1—8 3

T .

Te l e pa t h y , T h eo ri es r eg a r d i n g 250 —2 6 1
E xp l a in e d by th e a cti on of th e su b l im

N o l o ng e r a m e r e fa n c y
Th o ug ht - tra n s fe r e n c e , Firs t r epo rt o n
C l as s i fi ca t i o n
E xp e ri m e n ts by d i ag r a m s . .

T e st e d by ta s t e .

o b j e c ts
IN DEX .
3 43

T h o u g h t-tra n s fer e n ce , T es te d by fi ct i t i ou s n a m es !

t wo
T y n d a ll , P r o f .
, H i s Be l fas t a dd ress , e ff e c t o f

U .

U rim and T hum m i m , A m e th o d of Cr y s ta l gaz in g
-

V .

1 24

V . i ss Pla n ch et te wr i ti ng by
,
M , 159 —1 6 4
Ve ri t y Th e M i sse s pe r ce i ve i n d u c e d p h a n tas m s
, , . 2 39 —2 44

V i s i o n s Pe r c i p i e n t be i n g a wa k e
, 2 82

Case s 2 8 2 , 2 84—2 86 , 2 89 —2 9 1 , 304
Vo i s i n , D r C as e s r epo rt e d by
.
, 1 2 4, 1 48

W .

W a t e r m agn et i zed d ete ct e d by pa ti e nts
, ,

We dgw ood M r H Pla n ch ett e wri t i n g , . .
,
-

W i ll i n g g am e .

W yld D r Case repor te d by
, .
,

X .

X .
, C a s e i llu s t r a t i n g ry au to m ati sm se n s o

X .
, F é li d a C a s e d ou b l e pe r s o n a l i t y
, ,

X . M i s s O n C ry s ta l g az i n g
,
-

Y .

Y oung , D r A . . K R em a rk a b l e dr e a m i i
o r v s on

Z .
, A lm a , C as e of
ilaenrg B olt a (l ot s M ewes t Books .


R i cb aro :iBri ns leg S b erib an .

By W F R A S E R R A E .Wi th a n I n trod ucti on .

S he ri d a n s g re a t -gran ds on , th e M a rqu ess o f D

fe ri n Wit h p ortra its 2 vols , 8 vo ,
. . .


A s tory of ro ma n tic and h u ma n i n t ere s t ”—A t la n t zc '

A
m a v e l ou s ! r de f p i e ce of i i t
.


! fl o u t /
11 n g e n ous a nd
i
b i ogra p ca l na a on rr ti r
R a e h as old a f u ll a n d n e
. t i tr
t ry t it
.

esi m s o a n d h ld w ll ” -
N Y T b n

T he
tg
, as o e r i u e .

r xi t
.

b es iog ra ph y of Sh e i d a n i n e s e nc e
. .

”—
R e v zew of R evi ews.

.

S oci al f orces i n G erman l i t erat ure.
By Pro f KU N O F R A N C KE 8 vo
. net ( ”is . , .

b ook i s bei ng tr a n s la ted i n to Ger ma n .
)
We d e b t ”o f gra tit u d e
ow e a t o t h e au th r o . h is e xpo
s i ri o n I s a d m i ra bl e — N a t zon ’

. .

® n D arooiz.
By A RT H U R S H AD W E LL M A RT I N . A n essa y on
th e a rt , a n d hu m orous sel ec ti ons . 1 2 m o,

Of i nfi n i t e d e l ig h t a nd r e sou ce r to l ov ers of E ngl is h
r
ve s e . — O u t l ook . F ull of g oo d x e a m p es . l !
—N a

t zon .

{Dob ern p oli ti cal ® rat i on s .
T we n ty f ou r s peeche s by Brough a m
-
M a c a ul ay ,,

F o x, C ob d e n Bul we r L ytt on ,
-
, Bri gh t , M o rl e y,
Be a c ons fi eld Gla d s t o n e C ha m b e rla i n Pa rn ell
, , , ,

M c C a rth y C hu r chi ll e t c
, e tc E d it ed by , .
, .

L E O P O L D W A G NER n et . .


R us s i an p oli t i cs .

By H ER BE R T M T H O M P S O N W ith m aps . . .

M os t i n t e ll igi bl e a nd i n t eres ti ng ” A tl a n t zc JlI on t/zly .
-

.

a n i mal S ymb oli s m i n E ccles i as ti cal
Zi rcb i tect ure.
By E P E VA N S . W ith 7 8 Ill us tra ti ons $ 2 n et
. . . .

M a ny a p ond erou s an d v ol u m i nous work o n m e d i aeva l his
t ry
o a nd a rt , r
iri g m t h f ” i t t d
equ n on s or s s u is re a lly fa r l e ss

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o f h i s p u b li c a d ve n t u r e s . A v e ry g oo d n o ve l .

Ti re A t l a n t i c M on t h ly :

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re s pe c t th ere i s no g l aring i m pro b a b ili ty a b o u t h i s
s to ry t h e h i g h l y d ra ma ti c c r i s i s o f t h e s t ory
T h e t o ne a n d m a n n e r o f t h e b oo k a r e n o bl e A ti m”e ly
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a c t e rs th a t h a v e a p p e a re d i n o u r fi c t i o n A v e ry
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a th i n l i t i c s c a ll s f or sym p a th i e s th a t a re
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as M u n i c l pa l
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S ti r li n g i s p os ses s e d o f t h e o ne W i th ou t los m g h i s se ns e o f
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re
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a l i ve a n d e as i l y re co g n i z a bl e .

N e w Y or k T i m es : M r F o r d s a bl e p o l itica l nove l
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a n d e nj oya bl e
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.

fl ag s
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c .

Th e Bos ton A d ve r t i s e r : S ure t o e x cit e a tt en tio n a n d
W i n po p a u l rity ”
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H E N RY HOLT CO amers
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