3.1 Conclusion

From this paper we can find some conclusion:

1. Hydroelectricity systems generate electricity from running water - usually
a small stream. Small or "micro" hydroelectricity systems can produce
enough electricity for lighting and electrical appliances in an average
home. Hydroelectricity systems are also called hydro power systems or
just hydro systems.
2. the main advantages to develop small hydro comparing with other
electricity sources:
 It saves consumption of fossil, fuel, and firewood.
 It is self-sufficient without the need of fuel importation.
 It does not contribute for environment damages by resettlement, as it
occurs with large dams and reservoirs.
 It can be a good private capital investment in developing or developed
 It offers a decentralised electrification at a low running cost and with
long life. A small- scale project can also induce tourist activities and can
benefit both rural and small urban areas with a friendly water scenario.
3. Is hydro system sustainable for home?
To tell if a hydro system is right for you, there are a few key questions to
• Is there a river or steam close to your home? You'll need access to a
fairly fast flowing water course, and the right to build around it
• Does the water flow vary significantly during the year? If so, the
hydro system may not be able to supply you with all the electricity you
need during dry months. If you're not connected to the electricity grid,
you'll need a backup power system.


are totally immersed in the flow of water. 33 .there is no pressure reduction as the water pressure is atmospheric on both sides of the impeller. and the angular as well as linear momentum of the water is converted into shaft power . The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development. Theory of Operation: Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner. UK) 5. Bourton on Dunsmore. (Micro Hydro Practical Action. The blades of a reactionturbine. on the other hand. creating a force on the blades. Since the runner is spinning. CV23 9QZ. Warwickshire. Any electricity you generate but don't use can then be sold to electricity companies 4. Hydro Turbine type Head (H) Range in Head(H) Range in Meters Feet Kaplan and 2 < H < 40 6 < H < 125 Propeller Francis 10 < H <350 30 < H < 375 Pelton 50 < H < 1300 150 < H < 5000 Banki – 3 < H < 250 9 < H < 750 Michell Turgo 50 < H < 250 50 < H < 750 Fig 6: shows the use of different turbine units 6. Do you want to sell excess energy? Hydro systems can be connected to the National Grid if a suitable connection point is available. Rugby. The difference between impulse and reaction can be explained simply by stating that the impulse turbines convert the kinetic energy of a jet of water in air into movement by striking turbine buckets or blades .the pressure of water leaving the runner is reduced to atmospheric or lower.

reaction turbines and impulse turbines. they have an open cooling system.The precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the supply pressure of water. 33 . the force acts through a distance (force acting through a distance is the definition of work). In this way. When these generators are small. The same solution is frequently used with Pelton turbines. 7. but for larger units it is recommended that a closed cooling circuit provided with air-water heat exchangers. For example it is common practice to install a generator with extra-reinforced bearings supporting the cantilevered runner of a Francis turbine. Another criterion for characterising generators is how their bearings are positioned. energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine. and the type of impeller selected. Water turbines are divided into two groups. In that way the turbine axis does not need to cross the draft tube so improving the overall efficiency.