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d’équations simultanées∗

M. Augustine Cauchy

**Comptes Rendus Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 25, 536–538.
**

OC I, 10 (383), 399–402.

**Being given a system of simultaneous equations that the concern is to resolve, one
**

begins ordinarily by reducing them to a single one, by aid of successive eliminations,

save to resolve definitely, if it is able, the resulting equation. But it is important to

observe, 1 ˚ that, in a great number of cases, the elimination is not able to be effected in

any manner; 2 ˚ that the resulting equation is generally very complicated, even though

the given equations are rather simple. For these two motives, one imagines that it would

be very useful to understand a general method which may be able to serve to resolve

directly a system of simultaneous equations. Such is that which I have obtained, and

of which I am going to say some words here. I will limit myself for the moment to

indicate the principles on which it is founded, proposing to myself to return with more

details on the same subject, in a forthcoming Memoir.

Let first

u = f (x, y, z)

be a function of many variables x, y, z,. . . which never become negative and which re-

main continuous, at least between certain limits. In order to find the values of x, y, z,. . .,

which will verify the equation

(1) u = 0,

it will suffice to make decrease indefinitely the function u, until it vanishes. Now let

x, y, z, . . .

**be particular values attributed to the variables x, y, z,. . .; u the value corresponding to u;
**

X, Y, Z, . . . the values corresponding to Dx u, Dy u, Dz u, . . . , and α, β , γ, . . . some very

small increments attributed to the particular values x, y, z, . . . When one will put

x = x + α, y = y+β, z = z + γ, . . . ,

one will have sensibly

(2) u = f (x + α, y + β , . . .) = u + αX + β Y + γZ + · · ·

∗ Translated by Richard J. Pulskamp, Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Xavier Univer-

sity, Cincinnati, OH. July 17, 2010

1

. When.). . y. y. y. either to resolved this last equation. .) = u − θ (X2 + Y2 + Z2 · · · ).. .. . v = 0. z − θ Z. one takes α = −θ X. z. X2 + Y2 + Z2 · · · in the second member of formula (4).[537] We imagine now that.. by equating to zero the second member of formula (3). It is good to observe that. the function f (x.. . z. . one will be able. β = −θ Y. must satisfy no longer a single equa- tion. . If the new value of u is not a minimum. γ = −θ Z. It is easy to conclude from it that the value Θ of u. the value Θ of u will decrease until it vanishes. θ being a positive quantity. . one will have determined some already well approximated values of the unknowns x. It will suffice therefore. which will converge toward a minimum value of u. by aid of the method that we just indicated. y. In order to restore this last case to the preceding. w = 0. If. which is supposed not at all to admit negative values. θ comes to increase. or at least until it coincides with a minimum value. . in order to obtain a new value of u inferior to u. . and if. namely u (6) θ= . . by operating always in the same manner. a third still smaller value. if θ is sufficiently small. . . . as we have supposed. . . If the function u. now. . y − θ Y. . z. one will be able ordinarily to deduce another value Θ much smaller.) is continuous. one will find successively some values of u more and more small. . by continuing thus.. if the particular value of u represented by u is already very small. one will be able to deduce. determined by the formula (4) Θ = f (x − θ X. will become inferior to u. [538] of which the number will be able to surpass even the one of the unknowns. z − θ Z. or at least to attribute to θ a sufficiently small value. Formula (2) will give sensibly (3) f (x − θ X. y − θ Y. We suppose now that the unknowns x. determined by the equation in a single unknown (5) Dθ Θ = 0. z. provided that one chooses conveniently the values of x. if one 2 . . but a system of simultaneous equations (7) u = 0. there will be able always to be determined by the preceding method. and. and by substituting the value that one will obtain thus for θ . . offers some null values. it will suffice to substitute into the system (7) the unique equation (8) u2 + v2 + w2 + · · · = 0.

. some approximate values of the unknowns. some of among them serving to define some implicit functions of the unknowns. just as we have explicated in the preceding Memoirs. and by taking for unknowns the same elements of the orbit. and resolving them. and besides the number of equations increases with the number of observations that one wishes to make agree to the solution of the problem. latitudes. by applying them no longer to the differential equations. one will be able. Therefore.. Then the unknowns are in number six. 3 . as we just said. We add that the only numbers which enter into the equations to resolve are the longitudes. after having obtained by aid of the differential equations. are always more exact than their derivatives relative to time. etc. latitudes. of which I have made mention in the Memoir of 20 September. But the number of equations to resolve is more considerable.wishes. to obtain new very rapid approximations by aid of the linear or Newtonian method. by departing from these approximate values. but to the finite equations which represent the movement of this star. furnished by the observations themselves. etc. which enter into the differential equations. One is able to draw from the principles exposed here a very advantageous part for the determination of the orbit of a star. to obtain a very great precision in the results of the calculation. Now these longitudes. the finite equations of the movement of the star.

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