Construction Scheduling With
Primavera P6
Jongpil Nam

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It also includes the missing manuals of schedule management textbooks and Primavera P6 manuals. This book introduces examples and tips. Therefore. Furthermore. I wish you success in schedule management. This book covers all matters schedulers should know and understand regarding schedule management. A project schedule provides a pathway towards the completion of a project as scheduled. a primary concern of schedulers today involves developing comprehensive schedules as early as possible. Thus. This book focuses on planning and scheduling for construction projects and presents field- site-based best practices related to schedule management and Primavera P6. This book is designed to be Primavera P6 user-friendly. I recommend that those who want to be a skilled scheduler make use of this book. along with schedule management textbooks and Primavera P6 .Preface Project scheduling is one of the vital factors that contributes to a project’s success or failure. as well as suggestions for developing efficient schedules and management methods that ensure immediate improvement in schedule controlling. and offers strategies that utilise scheduling methodologies and tools. which can be applied in every field site no matter what the construction project type is. However. a good schedule has to provide schedulers and project management team members with an opportunity to anticipate any risks so that the project management team can prepare countermeasures to mitigate them. These strategies are based on the theory of schedule management and features of scheduling software packages. schedule controllers are often frustrated when their schedules are impeded by unexpected events. or at colleagues’ failure to comprehend their schedules correctly and communicate with schedulers efficiently. so readers using P6 can understand P6-based schedule management with ease. PMP kity0607@gmail. and continuous feedback on how the project is progressing. Jongpil Nam Schedule Manager. and using them efficiently to best communicate with their clients and colleagues.

cooperating with the staff of Bechtel. explored efficient ways to develop and control the master schedule of railway construction projects. he conducted lectures for government officials at the Egypt Railway School. he worked on the construction of the Korea High-Speed Line (an 11 billion USD project) and other sizeable railway construction projects. He lives with his wife. His current job involves managing the master schedule of the Enhancement Programme of the national railway infrastructure. As a scheduling engineer and project planner. he studied for a master’s degree in Railway System Engineering and Integration at the University of Birmingham. The book was adopted as a textbook by Woosong University in South Korea. Based on his vast experience of project schedule planning and controlling. Between 2011 and 2012. which were organised by the Egyptian government. he published a book on the subject in 2014. UK.About the Author Jongpil Nam He began his career at Korea Rail Network Authority in South Korea in 1995. entitled “Time Management in Railway Construction Projects”. In December 2014 and March 2015. son and daughter. His master’s dissertation. Inc. and earned him the University of Birmingham’s award for Best Technical Dissertation. entitled “How Railway Systems Work”. which introduces various basic knowledge of railway and railway construction project planning and controlling methods. The theme of these lectures was managing construction schedules for efficient railway construction projects. .

Contents OVERVIEW OF SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT What is schedule management? Overview of the schedule management process Schedule and documents typically required for a project Schedule types in terms of presentation technique Schedule Management Techniques and Methods Critical Path Method (CPM) Earned Value Method (EVM) Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Rolling wave planning Applications for Schedule Management Primavera P6 MS Project MS Excel Primavera Risk Analysis Project Management Information System (PMIS) Organisations & Requirements for Schedule Management Schedule Management Team (Project Management Team) and other departments Is a scheduler a Primavera P6 operator? Contract type affects schedule management methodology Schedule levels and types Procedures Schedule-related standards Schedule management of portfolio and programme Schedule development process at the programme level Schedule structure in a multi-contractor project Preparing to develop a schedule Defining users and security profiles as well as layouts .

Sharing layouts Settings in P6 Fifteen must-remember keyboard shortcuts in Primavera P6 Settings for a new project How do P6 users select duration types? How do P6 users choose Percent Complete Types? Columns and layouts Handy Tip – Finding missing activities Handy Tip – Customising names of timescale PLANNING & PUBLISHING Strategies in planning Requirement-oriented project management Schedule-related requirements in contract documents The dos and don’ts of developing a schedule Deceptive schedules are not allowed Requirements for counterparts Importing P3 files into P6 Data backup is the most important activity for P6 operators! Establishing a sandpit database Easy regular backup Handy Tip – Finding out who has changed a schedule in Primavera P6 Define scope and develop WBS Advance preparations Define scope and develop Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Handy Tips – Various WBS development methods Organisation Breakdown Structure and responsibility assignment matrix Developing schedule management documents Develop activity list and sequences Recommendations for activity numbering and naming structure Ways to rename activity IDs .

Units (resources) and Duration Easy resource loading and project statusing Handy Tip – Erasing all units assigned to activities in one go Developing activity duration and relationships Duration units and activity duration estimation Graphical evaluation and review technique (GERT) for inspections and tests Schedule contingency Suspending and resuming an activity Activity relationships between work packages Negative value lag (lead) Handy Tip – Removing multiple relationships Assigning calendars Working hours per day Workable days per week Non-working days of the year Handy Tip – Viewing 12 months at once Assigning constraints and activity codes Assigning constraints Activity codes Comparing activity codes and UDFs (User Defined Fields) and global change . Creating an activity list (or draft of a schedule) and sequences under a work package Setting steps Handy Tip – Importing data from Excel to P6 WBS summary activities and level of effort (LOE) Using filters efficiently Loading resources Properties of resources Role. resource and work crew Developing a quick S-curve (Top-down resource allocation) Resource loading (Bottom-up resource allocation) Monitoring the progress of Physical (deliverables).

Handy Tip – An easy way to change the order of columns in an activities table Refining the schedule Check the basics Scheduling Schedule log review Finding missing relationships Spatial constraints review Intentional delay Levelling resources What-if scenarios Analysing the schedule Defining critical activities Critical path and near-critical path Handy Tip – Showing near-critical activities graphically Risks analysis Handy Tip – Finding lag Remaining early cost curve and payment curve Organising milestones Checklist before submitting schedule to client in the planning phase UPDATING. ANALYSING AND REPORTING Methodologies and processes of progress updating Data to maintain in the implementing phase Communication types for collecting progress data Collecting progress data by means of XER files Handy Tip – Importing a higher version XER file Collecting progress data by means of an Excel file Collecting progress data by means of a Project Management Information System Updating the schedule Prior to updating progress in Primavera P6 Progress updating for each type of activity .

Summarising and storing period performance Handy Tip – Updating progress (EV) using Activity % complete Setting the Data date Technique for computing Performance percent complete Handy Tip – Computing the workload of schedule updating The reasons why Actual Cost should be updated Analysing progress Comparing schedules Earned Value Method Payment calculation Performance analysis Controlling the revision number of the master schedule Corrective actions and schedule revising Activity delay Delay by retaining logic Corrective actions for delayed activities Example of crashing based on Minimum Cost Expediting Process for revising the project schedule Reporting Effective progress report Developing reports with Primavera P6 Sample monthly progress report Printing Probability of on-time project completion Handy Tip – Displaying all activity names when printing out SCHEDULE-RELATED CLAIMS AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES Delay analysis As-planned versus As-built Window analysis method Impacted As-planned .

Time Impact Analysis Detail process of Time Impact Analysis Dispute resolution and FIDIC FIDIC Schedule-related conditions Issuing claims Dispute Adjudication Board (DAB) and the dispute resolution process Advanced technologies for schedule management 4D schedule management tool Schedule presenting methodologies – Line of balance XML format Recommendations for upgrading Primavera P6 PPM NAM – A new approach to analysing the project schedule Defining the priority of near-critical paths to monitor Monitoring near-critical paths Conclusion APPENICES Acronyms Calculation of data fields used in Primavera P6 References .


When it comes to contractors. Figure 1 – Structure of cost progress data in Primavera P6 . Above all. scheduling applications have become more sophisticated. schedulers have to deal with greater amounts of schedule data. Thus.). Thanks to advanced technology.) and software packages (Primavera P6. contractors cannot stop it like they can adjust costs and resources. many projects require schedulers to have abundant experience and knowledge of schedule management. To develop a reasonable project schedule and manage it efficiently. MS Excel. schedulers use schedule management methodologies (CPM. Sometimes schedule management means utilising scheduling applications based on the schedule management theories and methodologies. EVM. etc. • Time is not procurable. etc. PERT. schedulers are sometimes bewildered when they update their schedules only to find that the project progress does not show what they expected. • Time passes. When it comes to larger projects. except when contractors procure it by claiming an extension of time (EOT) for delays caused by the client.What is schedule management? The aim of schedule management is to complete a project within the timeframe set by a contract agreement or approved by a project owner. MS Project. it is critical to understand the relations between data. as project claims often centre on schedule issues. time management is one of the biggest challenges because: • Delivering projects on time is the top priority. If a scheduler understands this structure. it is almost impossible to manage all of the schedule data without software packages. Figure 1 shows the structure of progress data for cost in Primavera P6. and understand data flow to manage them. no matter what. Accordingly. Schedulers are required to develop a project schedule that will be used not only for managing project time. he or she can easily find any data that have been input by mistake. but also for analysing risks and communicating with all project participants. Primavera Risk Analysis.

decomposing. scheduling. assigning. or materials) and calendar are assigned to activities to compute proper durations. • With the requirements and constraints found in the contract conditions. the project’s objectives. progress monitoring. OVERVIEW OF THE SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT PROCESS The schedule management process consists of two phases – planning and performing. • Organisation breakdown structure (OBS) will be developed based on the project type and size. or by subcontractors. filtering and sorting. . • To find any constraints (contractual dates and benchmarks) to be taken into account in developing a project schedule. as these will be critical in issuing and resolving any project claims later. scope of work and additional requirements are identified. and communication between project participants. and work packages are assigned to it. and activities will be linked with each other. project controlling. Figure 2 – Planning phase • A project starts with the signing of a contract by which quantities of deliverables. and analysing processes. payment and project duration are set. equipment. The planning stage comprises defining. schedulers decompose deliverables by creating a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that will be the basis for communication between the client and the contractor. Components at the lowest level of WBS are called work packages. • The work packages will be divided into tasks (activities) by schedulers or staff at departments and field sites. • Based on the contractual documents. schedulers should carefully review contractual terms and conditions. • Appropriate activity codes will be assigned to the activities for easy grouping. • Resources (personnel. as shown in Figure 2. and they should be measurable and assignable for responsibility assignment.

and analysing) before the master schedule is approved by the client or project owner. and completed and/or progressed deliverables. • When there is any delay in the project schedule. field site offices or subcontractors will perform activities to actualise deliverables. and project participants (e. the performing phase involves four processes – actualising. • Based on the collected progress data. analysing and revising (if necessary). are monitored periodically.. • If necessary. schedulers will experience an iterative planning process (decomposing. the master schedule will be reviewed to assess schedule-related risks. their performance. if the delay has been caused by the client. departments. resource and staffing plans. and planned dates and as-built dates (start and finish). Since a project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service. • After approval from the client or project owner. to revise the project schedule. subcontractors).• To optimise a project’s master schedule. the project schedule will be revised. considering construction methods. the baseline and updated schedule will be compared to find any variances between planned duration and actual duration. • Prior to being submitted to the project owner or client. resource productivity and cost usage are also monitored. a scheduler will incorporate approved change orders and prepare a recovery plan (fast- . scheduling. schedulers update the schedule and analyse the project status (scheduled dates and activity progress). departments. the contractor will prepare documents to issue a claim for an EOT.g. monitoring. schedule engineers have to develop multiple scenarios to meet the schedule-related requirements suggested by the contract agreement. In the performing phase: • In accordance with the master schedule. the master schedule will be issued to relevant organisations. and the constraints of the workplace. assigning. the impact of the delay will be analysed. As shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 – Performing phase • To evaluate performance with Earned Value Method (EVM) technique.

there are two types of baselines: schedule baseline and cost baseline. • During the preparation of a progress report. schedule changes and thresholds. tracking or crashing) with the help of counterparts at departments. and the cost baseline is used for monitoring the monthly payment plan. information and reports between organisations. their dates . schedule control. including trends identification and forecasts development. procedures for developing and changing the schedule and progress monitoring. • Schedule (Master Schedule) – A schedule typically consists of activities. It generally consists of the schedule management approach. and standards for creating and managing schedule data. • Then the progress report will be submitted to the client. schedule baseline and cost baseline are not clearly separated. Theoretically. schedulers will perform additional tasks. The schedule baseline is used as a basis for measuring the project progress. These baseline values refer to the Planned Value (PV) in EVM. Figure 4 illustrates a summary of a typical process of schedule management in terms of transmitting data. and subcontractors. While applying EVM in progress monitoring. scope change. • Baselines – These are the aggregated values of planned progress over the project period. Figure 4 – Typical process of schedule management SCHEDULE AND DOCUMENTS TYPICALLY REQUIRED FOR A PROJECT Below are the documents and information required by clients regarding schedule management: • Schedule Management Plan – This provides outlines for the schedule management of a project. field site offices.

Clients usually require a monthly progress report and a quarterly progress report. however. many types of schedule presentation techniques have also been devised. if client staff is not proficient with electronic scheduling files. and a bar chart. analysis reports for the master schedule are attached. the network diagram is not necessary in deed. • Regular Progress Report – Progress reports are prepared and submitted to the client or project owner to apprise the project status. The progress report will contain physical progress (Earned Value). for example. and sometimes a weekly progress report. which will be the basis for identifying the actualised activities and delayed activities and calculating the payment amount. Critical path analysis focuses on finding the critical activities on the critical path which defines the project duration. a software package developed by Oracle. A project schedule can be represented as follows: Figure 5 – Sample Gantt Chart . If a schedule is created using scheduling software. Although it is very difficult to find schedule-related risks. the diagram should be prepared. SCHEDULE TYPES IN TERMS OF PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE As schedule management techniques and tools have been improved. however. From the perspective of a contractor. • Analysis Report – When the master schedule or the project progress report is submitted to the client. the master schedule and baselines can be processed in different ways – the Master Schedule in P6 format and the baseline in Excel format. and is used to judge the impact of predecessors’ delay. schedulers can manage them with Primavera Risk Analysis. if the client staff is not proficient with electronic scheduling files. the master schedule and baselines are not separated. Analysis is typically performed on critical path and schedule-related risks. (start and finish). as well as the near-critical activities which are not on the critical path but can become critical activities due to activity delay. • Network Diagram – This shows the relationships between activities.

narrow sites. Figure 6 – Sample Network Diagram • Time-Distance Diagram – This is a schedule that has a Y-axis for time scale and an X- axis for distance. it becomes easy to understand the whole project and project status. suggested by Karol Adamiechi in 1896 and independently developed by Henry Gantt in the 1910s.) adopt this schedule representation method assigning relationships to activities. It is apt for projects with long. Thus. as shown in Figure 7. It consists of multiple graphic symbols. MS Project. schedulers generally use this only when printing out a network diagram to identify the impact of an activity delay. also known as Activity on Node (AON). Once a user gets used to the symbols. The Gantt Chart shows no relationships between activities. that illustrates the start and finish dates of activities in a project. thus it is difficult to check whether start and finish dates are correct in a mega-scale project.• Gantt Chart – A type of bar chart (see Figure 5). as shown in Figure 6. and was devised to help understand relationships between activities. this method also has constraints in illustrating a large number of activities and their relationships. etc. such as railways and roadways. resulting in automatic date calculation. Although scheduling software has a function to represent a network diagram. Figure 7 – Sample Time-Distance Diagram . • Network Diagram – This currently uses Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM). however. current scheduling software packages (Primavera P6.

for performing tasks correctly and resolving claims in a dispute. predecessors and successors. per cent of completion. Since a schedule generally has graphic elements. and graphical representations such as a Gantt Chart. Schedule management software packages also allow users to load resources on activities so that schedulers can manage resources. diagram schedules. etc. Schedule and progress data are created with the help of a computerised schedule. actual units. Figure 8 is a screenshot of an activity usage profile in Primavera P6 that shows the budgeted cost of a project. etc. lag and lead. schedule data (start and finish dates. or Time-Distance Diagram. Network Diagram. people tend to accept only schedules that are illustrated graphically. however. which the financing team can use to develop a financing plan or ask the project team to make changes to the project schedule in order to meet the S-curve. MS Project. for example.) are more critical than bar chart schedules. use a database or file with schedule data used for calculating the start and finish dates of activities. such as Primavera P6. etc. The horizontal red line on the lower left indicates funding constraints. Figure 8 – Activity usage profile . Primavera Risk Analysis and Tilos.• Computerised Database (or File) Schedule – Current schedule management software packages.) and progress data (remaining duration.

The traveller has three paths by which to prepare his journey prior to taking the trip (Activity G). illustrating how to define critical activities and calculate early start and finish dates. in days. and the float of each activity using CPM. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) Generally speaking. The critical path is the longest sequence of activities in a project schedule (which refers not to the number of activities on a path.Schedule Management Techniques and Methods Since all schedule-related software packages. the critical path of the schedule is A-D-G and the total duration of the path is 17 days. the . schedulers need to understand them well. What if the duration for renewing his passport decreases to five days? In that case. he cannot start his journey because the passport has not been renewed yet – a process that takes 11 days to complete. contract conditions. revealing the critical path on which the critical activities lie. According to the schedule. renewing the passport. meaning that the project will take 17 days to complete from the beginning (A) to the end (G). the contract scheduling specifications mandate the use of critical path method (CPM) in developing schedules for construction projects. Blue boxes show various activities. preparation for the business trip begins with getting permission for the trip (Activity A) and has three paths – buying a bag. but to their total duration). and processes and procedures are based on schedule management techniques and methods. late start and finish dates. This defines the duration of the project. and booking airs. CPM is a project planning and scheduling technique to calculate the float of each activity with forward pass method (FPM) and backward pass method (BPM). As a result. An understanding of the underlying mathematics that form the basis of critical path methodology is a necessary prerequisite to understanding schedule management and its requisite skills. Figure 9 – Schedule for an overseas business trip Even if he has completed booking (E) and reserving (F) early. and each has a letter and a number corresponding to the activity name and duration. Below is a network schedule (see Figure 9) for an overseas business trip.

and require a total of 13 days. duration changes can change the critical path. while activity D takes 11 days? In this case. Figure 10 – Forward pass method FPM is used to estimate early start and finish dates for each activity. Activities C. and then Activity C can start on day 5. Consequently. Activity C can start on 12 May because its predecessor (Activity B) starts on 12 May. What if activity B is delayed 10 days. The float that does not delay project completion is called total float. BPM is the opposite of FPM in that it computes the dates by calculating from the final activity (Activity G). taking 13 days in total. Activity G can begin after all of the preceding activities (C. As such. . Even though Activity A finishes on 7 May. and the float that does not cause a delay of subsequent tasks (successor activities) and project completion is called free float. and Activity C can start on day 11 because it requires two days. Float. The float of each activity can be computed by FPM and BPM. the early start date of the successor activity always depends on that of its predecessor(s). where activities A and B have FS (Finish-to-start) relationship and activities B and C have SS relationship. which depends on each activity’s float. before Activity G begins. Activities B. or calendar setting including non- workable days.critical path will change from A-D-G to A-E-F-G. The red numbers above the boxes in Figure 10 indicate the early start and finish dates of each activity. for example. Activity B will be finished on day 4. Figure 11 – Forward pass with SS relationship When the relationships are start-to-start (SS). D and F) are completed. D and E can begin on day 2 after Activity A is complete. Figure 11 shows an example of FPM. The blue numbers below the boxes in Figure 12 are the late start and finish dates. D and F can be completed on day 12. also known as slack. Activity B may need to start on 12 May due to a lag between activities A and B. is the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without causing a delay of the project completion. the path A-B-C-G will become the critical path.

which means that if Activity D is delayed. Figure 12 – Backward pass method For finish-to-finish (FF) relationships in BPM. calculation is slightly different. you will find more realistic critical activities. Figure 13 – Backward pass with FF relationship The difference between early start and late start (or early finish and late finish) is called “total float”. what if activity F is delayed 7 days? The critical path will be changed from A-D-G to A-E-F-G. as shown in Figure 14. If there are no successors. so Primavera P6 provides two options to find the critical path – “Total Float less than or equal to 0 (days)” and “Longest Path”. Since Activity C has no successors. the total float of Activity C is 6 days. As mentioned earlier. the critical path on the schedule is A-D-G. In Figure 12. On the other hand. Thus. where activities A and B have FS relationship and activities B and C have FF relationship. In a working schedule that has a calendar set with non-workable days and a lot of activities with complicated relationships and constraints. and the activities on it are called the critical activities or critical path activities. On the other hand. a critical activity can have any number other than zero (0). In a project. Figure 13 shows an example of BPM. the late dates depend on the date of the final activity. the completion of the project will also be delayed. Activity D has no float. The path that has the greatest likelihood to become the . the late finish date depends on that of Activity A. the sequence of activities with zero float is considered the critical path. the critical path changes frequently. total float is the float time within which an activity can be delayed without affecting the completion date of a project. Therefore. schedulers should continuously monitor and manage any paths that could become the critical path. When you choose Longest Path. which means that Activity C can be delayed 6 days without causing a delay in project completion. Generally.

if a contract has been made to produce 20 newly designed chairs at 2. They all are defined based on the amount of the total float. schedulers should discuss and define Steps with the client prior to developing the schedule. testing 400 USD (20%). also known as earned value management.critical path is called the near-critical path. manufacturing 1. a weight factor based on its relative importance compared with other activities. however. .200 USD (60%). What is value in EVM? An activity’s value can be calculated from its assigned resources or. For instance. Value in EVM is presented as money or cost. and delivering 200 USD (10%). is a project management technique to measure project performance. and the activity on the near-critical path is called the near-critical activity. manufacturing and testing. Figure 14 – Changed critical path EARNED VALUE METHOD (EVM) EVM. progress and cost in an objective manner. if there is no resource assigned. Since there is no standard for defining Steps. all products are usually delivered in a lump after going through designing. so the value (cost) should be restructured as: designing 200 USD (10%). Figure 15 shows how to calculate value for each activity – the upper table is based on resources and its quantities and unit price. and the lower table is based on weight. weight factor is used to assign value to the Steps of an activity. Figure 15 – Calculating values In Primavera P6. each chair can be 100 USD (5%) in terms of value.000 USD.

PV has slightly different definitions. The DD is the progress point or as-of date used as the basis for calculating project progress and remaining durations. the blue bar is the actual (progressed) duration. PV and EV have different names in Primavera P6 – Planned value cost and Earned value cost.EVM requires three basic values: • Planned Value (PV) – PV can be defined as scheduled progress. this is called PV or planned progress. When developing a schedule. In Primavera P6. The yellow bar shows the baseline duration. You can set the DD when you schedule the project. Figure 16 – Example of computing PV and EV Figure 16 shows an example of computing PV and EV in Primavera P6. The Performance % complete of an activity is the percentage of its performed work as of the DD. PV is calculated as BAC multiplied by Schedule % complete. Figure 17 shows how to calculate the Schedule % complete of an activity. After scheduling. And AC is the actual total cost (labour costs plus non-labour costs plus actual material costs plus expense costs) incurred leading up to the DD. respectively. the red bar shows the remaining duration to complete the activity. Figure 17 – Computing Schedule % complete of an activity . PV is the planned value based on the data date (DD). • Earned Value (EV) – EV is measured progress for a product on the basis of the predefined value of deliverables. • Actual Cost (AC) – AC is the cost incurred for the actual tasks completed. The Budget at completion (BAC) of an activity is the planned (baseline) cost through its completion and the Schedule % complete specifies how much of the activity’s project baseline duration is complete as of the project DD. and the red vertical dashed line is the DD. an activity will have start and finish dates as well as value over the activity duration. a scheduler assigns resources (or a weight factor based on cost) to each activity. EV is calculated as BAC multiplied by Performance % complete. As of the DD. the Schedule % complete is calculated as “a” (progressed baseline duration) divided by “b” (the total baseline duration).

standard deviation for each activity can be calculated as shown in the following equation: Based on average duration and standard deviation. • Then the project progress is measured as of the DD in terms of EVM – PV (work planned to be completed). the average duration of each activity will be computed as shown in the equation below.To conclude. and to help reduce risks in schedule management. Based on PERT. resources. EV and AC). EV (work actually completed). each activity has a Z-score. Estimate to complete (ETC) and Estimate at completion (EAC) and others are computed based on these three values (PV. and AC (cost incurred for work completed). below are processes through which to use EVM to monitor and analyse the progress and performance of a project: • The scope of a project is decomposed into numerous tasks and value (budget. • SV (Schedule variance) and SPI (Schedule performance index). for target duration as shown in the equation below: . also known as a standard score. PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT) PERT was devised to analyse projects that have a lot of uncertainties in scheduling. or weight factor) for each task is defined and assigned to each task. With the optimistic duration and the pessimistic duration. • A project baseline (or Planned Value) is established through scheduling. CV (Cost variance) and CPI (Cost performance index).

31%. This means that the activity has a 63.. Figure 18 – Standard statistical table for Z-score The current version of Primavera P6 does not provide a feature to utilise PERT in calculating activity durations or project duration. when applying PERT. it shows that the probabilities that a project is completed on time. suggesting probabilities of project completion for various project duration scenarios. if a Z-score for a certain activity is 0. Activities at a lower level of detail in the rolling schedule include . • Indeed. three or four months) tasks are planned to a lower. the contractor will develop the detailed rolling schedule in which all near-term (e. When a project begins.g. a software package for schedule analysis. discrete level of detail. 5%.34 for a target duration. and this technique is frequently used in mega-sized construction projects with long durations. Thus. it is not possible to develop a reasonable and robust master schedule that includes all tasks fully detailed enough to carry out. they vary due to working conditions. ROLLING WAVE PLANNING Rolling wave planning is a method of scheduling by which tasks to be done in the near term are planned for a higher summary level. duration can be shortened easily by recovery methods such as crashing and fast-tracking. a contractor is required to develop a master plan which covers all components of the project within two or three months. Within such a short duration. schedulers can calculate the probabilities of target durations for each activity. According to the Standard statistical table. the master schedule will first be created as a summary level schedule. Near-term in construction projects typically implies several months from the current date. and 78%. does. a month early or a month late will be 47%.With a Z-score and Standard statistical table (See Figure 18). For instance. however. Primavera Risk Analysis estimates a project duration using Monte Carlo Simulation. schedulers should take into account that: • It is not easy to judge the optimistic duration and the pessimistic duration for each activity. respectively. while Primavera Risk Analysis. Each month. the probability is 63.31 % chance of completion for the target duration.

because it helps schedulers: • Have time to review contractual conditions which should be included in the project schedule as detailed activities. • Have enough time to take into account on-site situations relevant to staffing. . conflicts. procuring resources. • Minimise low-level schedule changes. The rolling wave method is frequently used in gigantic construction projects. as well as long-term development projects. and risks.those that can help schedulers identify project problems. etc.

PRIMAVERA P6 P6 is one of the most powerful schedule management tools. On the other hand. Even a small mistake in processing schedule data can affect the entire project schedule. twelve windows. Figure 19 – Screenshot of Primavera P6 PPM (version 15. and to navigate to specific projects. ten dictionaries and lots of dialogue boxes to control data (see Figure 19). if possible. Thus. There are two types of Primavera P6 products – P6 PPM (Professional Project Management) and P6 EPPM (Enterprise Portfolio Project Management). As it has a lot of features that require various data types.1) has eight menu groups. such as Oracle XE or Microsoft SQL Server. P6 EPPM is a web-based application more focused on the enterprise as a whole – strong portfolio management. • Projects – Used to view the Enterprise Project Structure (EPS).Applications for Schedule Management Schedulers deal with many activities every day. they help schedulers deal with schedule data rapidly and prevent them from making mistakes. It provides the programme-level overview of all the schedules that . which have commends to operate P6. schedulers should try to manipulate schedule data not manually but systematically. a future project selection tool. The usages and tips in this book will be mainly for Primavera P6 PPM. or automatically. etc.1) As various schedule data is manipulated in the windows. P6 PPM is used as a standalone application accessing a locally installed database. enterprise dashboards. The software packages and add-ins introduced here are used world-wide for schedule management. so users need to understand the structure before using it. It provides a multi-user system if database server can be shared. its data structure is very complicated. Primavera P6 PPM (Release 15. users need to know the function of each window.

Each project will have a WBS. Dictionaries in Primavera P6 PPM have codes and settings to be assigned to projects or activities. and manage the database’s various work breakdown structures. Cost and schedule fields are the impact fields. • Activities – Used to view. whichever is higher is used to compute the score. and modify activities in an open schedule. you can select it in Toolbars from the View menu. exist in the Primavera P6 database. and to the report-writing functions. and schedule. activity usage spreadsheet. or calculate risks and their impacts for an open project. resource usage spreadsheet. and its lowest level will be a work package. A threshold is a variance range on a given parameter. create. user defined fields are commonly used. The overall risk score varies from 0 to 72 based on the values of three fields: probability. • Project expenses – Used to manage indirect costs and expenses for a project. • Project issues – Used to add. This window is used the most. activity usage profile. • Resources – Used to view. Thresholds can be used to monitor performance. Figure 20 illustrates the hierarchy used in Primavera P6. • WBS – Used to view. create. resource usage profile. activity codes. and delete resources assigned to activities. and dictionaries for calendars. these levels will contain different versions (or copies) of the project. P6 operators can manage codes and settings in the dictionaries. • Risks – Used to add. or modify issues for an open project. such as start date variance. which can be applied to a specific work breakdown structure element. This window provides a similar view with activity usage spreadsheet of Activities window. • Tracking –Used to display and create tracking layouts for the open project. create and manage resource items at a global level. and activity logic. Issue files are useful for tracking the ongoing history of a specific activity. delete. New projects can be created in the lowest levels of EPS. activity step templates. and provides six views: activity details. delete. Properties of resources can be manipulated in this window. cost. Under . text and graphical reports. add. • Reports – Provides access to the preformatted. • Resource assignments – Used to view. • Project thresholds – Used to add or delete thresholds for an open project. • WPs & Docs – Used to create and assign work products (WPs) and documents (Docs) for an open project. If you want to view the dictionaries toolbar.

. and accordingly any entity (activity) with child activities becomes WBS. with the following exceptions: • MS Project changes activity numbers automatically when inserting or deleting an activity. Any element at the lowest level becomes an activity. MS Project has been upgraded with database functions. Recently. • MS Project does not allow multiple users to work on a single project at the same time because it does not operate based on a database. activities will be created (some activities have Steps). Figure 20 – Hierarchy in Primavera P6 MS PROJECT MS Project (see Figure 21) is a schedule management software package with an interface similar to MS Excel. The original activity numbers of “Construction Plan” was 48 but it has been changed to 49 due to an inserted activity (New Task). as shown in Figure 22.each work package. • In MS Project. there is no need to separate WBS or activities. Figure 21 – Screenshot of MS Project It performs almost all the functions Primavera P6 PPM does. so any user who is familiar with Excel may easily learn how to use it. • MS Project does not have a feature to create Steps for an activity.

Figure 22 – Revised activity numbers due to an inserted activity MS Project is currently used in many projects. choose “Microsoft Project”. it is impossible to import files (. save a schedule with extension “XML”. XML and XLS formats are the only ones that Primavera P6 and MS Project users can share. go to the File menu and click Import.mpp) directly from MS Project version 2013 into Primavera P6 version 15. so Primavera P6 users will probably experience using MS Project schedule files from time to time. and then click Next. • In the next dialogue box. so users mainly use XML. According to Figure 23. however. Figure 23 – Exportable and importable format To import an MS Project file into Primavera P6: • In MS Project. • Choose the XML file that you have saved and click Next. • Click Close and review the imported schedule to confirm that it looks correct. • When the Import dialogue box appears. • With Primavera P6 open. MS EXCEL Put plainly. add a new template and click Next. you will see Primavera P6 start transforming automatically.1. it can . select XML. Indeed. • If you click Finish. XLS formats have limitations in transferring schedule data. Excel does not have any features for schedule management. however.

the features in the application are limited. • Developing cost curves – With Remaining early cost and Remaining late cost. lots of mini applications (with wonderful features). Furthermore. schedulers can create early cost curves and payment curves in various ways in a significant role in schedule management. People use Primavera Risk Analysis (PRA) because: • It has features to define the probability of success for a project in terms of schedule (see Figure 24). • It helps schedulers prepare a reasonable mitigation plan on the basis of quantitatively identified risks. Although Primavera P6 provides functions that help schedulers review and analyse schedule and progress data. • Dashboard – P6 has rudimentary graphic reports. Figure 24 – The probabilities of success • It helps identify high risk areas in the project schedule and project management to focus key resources where attention is needed. MS Excel supports the following features: • Manipulating and importing data – It is much easier to create and manipulate schedule data in Excel than in P6. all you need to do is copy data in P6 and paste it in Excel. is useful to analyse and find schedule- related risks in a project schedule. Most P6 users use Excel to prepare schedule data and P6 to schedule it. Once you created a dashboard with graphics in Excel. most likely duration. PRIMAVERA RISK ANALYSIS Primavera Risk Analysis. while Excel allows users to manipulate data in unlimited ways. using Monte Carlo simulation for the optimistic duration. developed by Oracle. . such as XER File Parser and P6XL Bridge. exist as add-ins in Excel. and pessimistic duration of each activity.

The mitigation plan and the risk management plan that you have prepared on the basis of risk analysis may help assure your client that you are looking ahead and prepared for any potential impacts. One of the advantages of using Tilos is that it can illustrate a graphical schedule (see Figure 25). which allows schedulers to view the whole project schedule easily and identify any schedule-related interferences between disciplines. The DCMA 14 Point Metrics were developed to identify potential problem areas with a contractor’s master schedule. Figure 25 – Time-Distance Chain Schedule Small applications The following utilities help P6 users communicate with the P6 database or manipulate schedule data (they are available on websites and some are free): • XER File Parser – An Excel file provided by Oracle that can read the data contained in a “. It is useful for construction projects which have narrow and long field sites such as railways and roadways. When manipulating . and gives the users the ability to modify information and build a new XER file to import to Primavera P6.• It provides on-going risk management strategies by reviewing schedule risks in the implementing phase. • ASAP Utilities – An Excel add-in that fills the gaps in Excel. Tilos Tilos is time-location chain scheduling tool showing the status and progress of deliverables graphically over the project period. • XER Reader – An Excel Macro file to run DCMA (The USA Defense Contract Management Agency) 14 point checks. • P6XL Bridge – An Excel file using the P6 SDK (Software Development Kit) to help users communicate with P6 SQL database.xer” file.

by comparing the updated XER file and original XER file. progress monitoring requires supports from departments or field site offices. but it still provided powerful features. a progress management system called KPROMIS was developed around 1998. it provides users with very convenient functions. • Change Inspector – This helps users find updates in P6 XER files. PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (PMIS) Although schedule development is performed by the schedule management team (or schedulers). The database architecture of KPROMIS was designed to be somewhat simple in order to help schedulers manipulate the database with ease. changes to calendars. also called Progress Management System) is designed for defining Physical (deliverables in P6) or Steps. such as activities added or deleted.. • XER Toolkit – An Excel add-in that provides a lot of features for XER analysis. schedule data for progress monitoring is entered into the system as a planned schedule. In 2005 it was converted into a web-based system for the second section of the line. dates changed. schedule data in Excel. helping staff in field site offices input progress data and descriptions of delay. you will save time because it makes the P6 database available to external applications. etc. which includes the activity . KPROMIS was a client-server-based system used in the first section of the line. On some mega-scale projects. • XER Manager – This helps users see the details of XER files and clean them by deleting unnecessary data prior to sending to others and/or importing it. and illustrating summarised progress for the client. After establishing or revising the project master schedule. the Project Management Information System (PMIS. If you can use the SDK (Software Development Kit) which is an optional component of Primavera P6. etc. relationships. Figure 26 – Screenshot of PMIS (SAP) In the case of the Korea High Speed Rail project. such as statistic of activities.

WBS number. per cent of completion.number. activity owners (counterparts at departments or field site offices) input progress data. and activity owner name. and reasons for delayed activities and their recovery plans. which includes actual start or finish dates. schedulers summarise the project progress and analyse the project status based on the progress data in the system. WBS name. expected start or finish dates. After activity owners complete the updates. Any activity below 85% of performance compared to planned progress (Physical or Steps) or the activities that have not started or finished on time are identified as delayed activities. At the end of every month. activity name. . start and finish dates.

and schedule updating and controlling. field site offices and subcontractors. Furthermore. The schedule management team cannot manage the project schedule alone. Thus. a lead scheduler. produce electronic files instead of paper-based documents. The key to schedule management is to communicate effectively with your counterparts. etc. MS Word. the schedule management team needs the help of departments. field site offices and subcontractors. • Eliminate unnecessary steps or processes in cooperating with other teams. progress monitoring. the schedule management team generally consists of a planner (or planning engineer). schedule and progress data collectors. the . saving time and preventing mistakes. the member of the schedule management team should frequently communicate with a Project Manager and staff of other departments and field site offices to lead project schedule smoothly. • Secure as many communication channels with your counterparts as you can and maintain them. and P6 (or MS Project) operators. as well as preparing the progress reports. and schedule managers. Excel or any other software will help you process electronic files automatically and systematically all at once.Organisations & Requirements for Schedule Management Note that this book frequently explains the concepts and theories of schedule management from the perspective of a scheduler of a big construction project as if he or she has numerous field site offices and subcontractors to control at the same time. This standpoint has been selected because it covers all aspects of schedule management – the jobs of Primavera P6 operators. • Record all events related to schedule management. The planner is responsible for defining the work scope of the project and developing WBS identifying work packages. such as submission and approval of schedule. • If possible. The records will be useful in issuing claims or resolving disputes. including departments. Here are some strategies for building your schedule management team and developing good relationships with other teams: • Share all information with your team members. The lead scheduler and P6 operators work on scheduling. as well as their counterparts. From the beginning of schedule development to the end of the project. SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT TEAM (PROJECT MANAGEMENT TEAM) AND OTHER DEPARTMENTS On a big project.

A scheduler sometimes needs to take the role of a coordinator between counterparts at departments. electronic files can easily be shared with others. no matter what kinds of problems arise (including those related to Primavera P6). No one knows everything. A project schedule will be loaded with resources. By leaving it to the computer. schedulers should focus on all areas of a project. schedulers must have diverse skills and experiences. Consequently. Figure 27 – Example of the process of a railway project Since clients now require more elaborate schedules than they used to. IS A SCHEDULER A PRIMAVERA P6 OPERATOR? Schedulers are not just Primavera P6 operators. Below are the proficiency levels schedulers should have in using applications (1 is high and 5 is low): • Primavera P6 (or MS Project) – 1 • MS Excel – 2 • PMS (or PMIS) schema – 2 • Primavera Risk Analysis (or Pertmaster) – 2 • Word and PowerPoint – 3 . affected by their predecessors and affecting their successors. not just time management. • Remember that any repetitive manual work can be processed automatically without your effort. and all the risks and issues will be identified there. you or your team members can save time and focus on more productive work. • Do not be afraid to ask your counterparts for help. etc. They should have the ability to depict an entire project processes (see Figure 27) and control all the activities at the same time because activities in a project have very close relations with each other. subcontractors.

• Labour-Hour Contracts (LHC): The LHC type is a variation of the TMC. This type includes Definite-Quantity Contracts. Based on CRC. Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee Contracts. in appropriate cases. Contract types can be categorised as follows: • Fixed-Price Contracts (FPC): The FPC type is commonly used in the construction industry and provides for a firm price or. to the extent prescribed in the contract. Fixed-Price Incentive Contracts (ICs). This type includes Cost Contracts.• Tilos (for the schedulers of railway or roadway projects) – 3 • CAD (Computer Aided Drawing) software package – 4 CONTRACT TYPE AFFECTS SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY Since schedule management methodology has a close relationship with payment type for the contract deposit. FPCs with Prospective Price Redetermination. • Indefinite-Delivery Contracts (IDC): The IDC type is a contract that does not specify a firm quantity of supplies or services and provides for the insurance of order for the delivery of supplies or the performance of tasks during the period of the contract. Under FPC. according to task type. Cost-Sharing Contracts. This type includes Firm-Fixed-Price Contracts. some activities will have “Physical” and others will have “Units” for Percent Complete Type. some activities will have “Duration” and others will have “Units” for Percent Complete Type. • Time-and-Materials Contracts (TMC): The TMC type is used only when it is impossible to estimate accurately the extent or duration of the work. Cost-Plus- Award-Fee Contracts. and Indefinite- Quantity Contracts. FPCs with Economic Price Adjustment. Percent Complete Type of activities in P6 should be “Units”. and Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee Contracts. an adjustable price. according to task type. differing only in that materials are not supplied by the contractor. Under the IC type. according to task type. Under LHC. Requirements Contracts. and Fixed-Ceiling-Price Contracts with Retroactive Price Redetermination. Percent Complete Type of activities in P6 should be “Physical”. • Incentive Contracts (IC): The IC type is appropriate when the required supplies or services can be procured at lower costs and. in certain instances. • Cost-Reimbursement Contracts (CRC): The CRC type provides for payment of allowable incurred costs. Percent Complete Type should be “Duration”. Under IDC. Based on TMC. SCHEDULE LEVELS AND TYPES . with improved delivery or performance. schedulers should take the type of contract into account. some activities will have “Physical” and others will have “Units” for Percent Complete Type.

according to the contract: • The Initial Schedule – A schedule to be submitted at the beginning of a project with a four- or six-month detail schedule. It will be basis for all measurements. The number of activities is approximately 30 to 50. Figure 28 – Filtering activities PROCEDURES In case of construction projects that involve many participants and various organisations . There may be three types of schedules submitted to the client for review. The number of activities depends on the size and characteristics of the project. and calculations for the project progress and status. It is reported to the client’s management. graphical elements (photos and symbols) or time-distance diagrams can be used in creating the schedule. To help management understand the whole process of the project. • Level 2 Schedule – Summary schedule of Level 3 schedule. • Level 1 Schedule – Summary schedule of Level 2 schedule. • The Master Schedule – A schedule to be submitted after submitting the Initial Schedule. To print a three-month detail schedule. • The Detailed Rolling Schedule – A schedule covering a two- or three-month detail schedule. any activities in progress and the activities that will start or finish within three months can be filtered. as shown in Figure 28. It is used by the staff of the client. analyses. The number of activities is approximately 300 to 500.There are three types of schedule levels for different level of reviewers as follows: • Level 3 Schedule – A master schedule used by schedulers and the staff of the departments of a contractor.

contractors will develop their own Contractor Working Schedules (CWS). and the client – schedule development.that have numerous contracts to control. and the role of Project Management Consultancy (PMC) is to coordinate schedules. and schedule change. three types of procedures for schedule management are shared among the project management team and department. Instead. Generally. subcontractors. Supervisor. and Construction Contractors. PMC should prepare an Integrated Project Schedule (IPS). PMC. Each coloured area shows the job area to be performed by the Client. it is essential to prepare procedures for good communication in schedule management. The rectangles show the tasks for each team. it is not necessary to prepare the IPS prior to CWS. CWS serves as the basis for the IPS. the arrows demonstrate the flow of information or deliverables. and the blue big rectangle shows the work scope of the schedule development. in order to integrate with the contractors’ schedules. If there is only one contractor in the project. to be reviewed by a supervisor. progress management. a Level 2 Schedule. a Level 3 Schedule. Figure 29 – Schedule development process Figure 29 illustrates a schedule development process for a construction project with multiple contractors. Figure 30 – Progress management process . With the IPS. A Milestone Summary Schedule (MSS) is a Level 1 Schedule. Since the project has multiple contractors.

Figure 30 shows a sample progress measurement process in which the coordination
meeting (or a monthly meeting) may be held to review project progress and discuss
critical issues. After executing the tasks, the contractor will input progress data into the
system or update their schedule, and then the supervisor will review the project progress.
If there are any issues related to EOT or changes to the master schedule due to delayed
activities, the contractor will issue a letter to require the EOT and/or prepare a schedule
change proposal. The supervisor will review the schedule change proposal and decide to
accept or deny it. If the supervisor denies it, the contractor should prepare a recovery plan
for delayed activities and their successors to meet the project duration approved by the
client. In the meeting, the client and PMC will review the preliminary monthly progress
report, including the schedule change proposal, if applicable.
Figure 31 – Schedule Change process

Figure 31 shows an example of the schedule change process. Schedule changes can arise
due to delayed activities or various requests from the client. On projects that have multiple
contractors, the IPS should be changed before any of the contractors’ schedules is
changed, in order to best integrate all schedules. All changes to CWS should be reviewed
by the supervisor, who should confirm that CWS have been revised based on the IPS.
For easy schedule management, a project team needs to prepare schedule-related standards

or criteria that will be shared with counterparts at departments, field site offices, and
subcontractors. Details will be introduced in later chapters.
• Structure for schedule levels
• Structure for schedule revision number
• Structure for WBS IDs and names
• Structure for activity IDs and names
• Creating and erasing activities
• Activity duration, relationships and constraints
• Setting calendars
• Baseline maintenance

Schedule management of portfolio and programme
PMI (2013) suggests a hierarchy of strategic plans, portfolios, programmes, projects and
sub-projects, as shown in Figure 32. Each level of the hierarchy is a collection of its lower
levels. Portfolios or programmes do not need to be interdependent or directly related to
each other, while projects and sub-projects are essential elements of their higher levels,
and have close relationships with other elements at the same level.
Figure 32 – Hierarchy of portfolios, programmes and projects

The role of managers for schedule management at each level is different. Project managers
or sub-project managers have full responsibility for their projects or sub-projects schedule,
and they try to trade off between time and cost to complete their tasks on time and within
the budget. On the other hand, portfolio managers and programme managers are only
interested in the necessity and the completion dates of their programmes and projects.
While the responsibilities of project managers and sub-project managers begin after a
project charter is issued or a contract is made, that of portfolio managers and programme
managers begins before a project is created and mainly focuses on study to decide whether
to begin a programme or a project. Thus, schedulers at the programme level have a
different approach towards schedule management.

Mega-scale infrastructure construction projects, such as housing complex development
and conventional railway construction, consist of numerous sections and require various
disciplines. Such projects should be redefined as programmes because they involve
multiple contractors that can be defined as a project.
Figure 33 illustrates the approach to developing the programme master schedule, which is
a collection of the project schedules. First, the programme management team prepares a
draft programme schedule that is created with assumptions such as approximate project
scope, budget and schedule. Next, each project team develops its own schedule based on

. the programme management team will put them together into a master schedule template and connect activities as per the documented relationships prepared by the project teams.the draft schedule. When developing a project schedule. • IPS – IPS is the second level of schedule used by schedulers of a programme management team. It is created based on the IPS and includes only the major milestones of projects. • CWS – CWS the lowest level of schedule developed by contractors based on the IPS and will be a part of contractual documents. Figure 33 – Programme schedule development process SCHEDULE STRUCTURE IN A MULTI-CONTRACTOR PROJECT As mentioned above. coordinating schedules between projects is one of the biggest issues for schedulers of a programme management team in a multi-contractor project or multi- disciplinary programme. the programme management team will communicate with project teams to adjust the schedules. When schedule adjustment is complete. With the master programmed schedule. Thus. After collecting schedules from the project teams. If the draft master schedule does not meet the programme duration. the activities that need to be linked with other activities in other projects have to be documented. each project team will develop its detail master schedules. they need to set a hierarchy of schedules as follows: • MSS – MSS is the highest level of schedule to manage a programme or a multi- contract project. a new master programme schedule will be published.

Schedulers. For counterparts at departments. prior to developing the schedule. Expenses. assign them to activities. Earned value cost. and then use Filter function to narrow down activities to view. Variance-BL project start date. and bottom view should be set. field site offices. filter. Activity name. • Counterparts at the client – They should have privileges to view P6 data only. Each setting and option affects the schedule. Finish. Performance % complete. should be defined. clients and staff in field site offices should prepare different layouts that allow P6 users at different levels to set layouts according to their use of P6. Steps. Original duration. and Variance-BL project finish date. Performance % complete. If the P6 database is shared among P6 users on a big project. DEFINING USERS AND SECURITY PROFILES AS WELL AS LAYOUTS Prior to planning. To develop the layout for each counterpart. The client will use P6 to view the project schedule and progress. For counterparts at the client: • Filter – Filter setting should be “All Activities”. columns. Primavera P6 provides features to configure screen layouts and save those settings for reuse. which helps narrow down the data to be viewed in P6. schedulers need to understand the options and settings in order to develop an appropriate schedule and manage it with ease. you have to create Activity codes for the responsibilities for each counterpart. • Counterparts at departments. as well as its security profiles. thus. AC. the users who will operate Primavera P6. Variance-BL project duration. Schedule variance. Start. users can be classified as follows: • P6 users of the schedule management team – They should have all privileges to access and control the database. Relationships. and WPs & Docs. and subcontractors: • Filter – To filter the activities which belong to a certain counterpart. while staff in field site offices will use it to input progress data. • Columns – Columns in the activities table should include Activity ID. At completion duration. Finish. Planned value cost. field site offices. Original duration.Preparing to develop a schedule There are lots of settings and options in Primavera P6. Activity Name. Start. Resources. Risks. • Bottom view – Activity details should have Status. and Schedule . • Columns – Columns in the activities table should include Activity ID. and subcontractors – They should have privileges to update the progress of their own activities only. Notebook.

Follow the steps below to share your layout files: • Set the current view by adjusting filter. • Now you can email that file to your colleagues. • Open the layouts dialogue box by clicking “Open of Layouts” in the View menu. When you get a pop-up asking you to save changes to the current layout. You have to customise the shape of the Activity usage profile for the client. When you get a pop-up asking you to save changes to the current layout. select No if you do not want to save it. and then save the current view by selecting “Save layout as” in the View menu. When setting options in Primavera P6. and select the saved file. • Bottom view – The Activity usage profile should be displayed. performance index. SHARING LAYOUTS Sharing layouts with other P6 users is easy.plf”. • Choose what to name the file and where to save it. and bottom view. .plf” file that you have received to your computer. SETTINGS IN P6 Primavera P6 provides schedule engineers with multiple options to help them organise and manage project activities properly. users should take into account the contract type and the current project phase. • Select the layout to export and hit the Export button in the dialogue box. P6 users can set the following options: Admin Preferences (Admin menu) • Time Periods – All durations in P6 are stored as hourly-based data. select No if you do not want to save it. Recipients can import the file into their Primavera database as follows: • Save the “. You will see the file you have just saved with extension “. activity columns. “Hours/Day” in the option “Hours per Time Period” is for specifying the number of work hours for a given day. • Name the layout and save it. • Open the layouts dialogue box by selecting “Open of Layouts” in the View menu. • Hit Import in the dialogue box. five to twelve hours will be shown as one day due to rounding. • Choose the layout in the Open layout dialogue box and hit the Open button to use it. Accordingly. If “Hours/Day” is eight. 13 to 20 hours will be two days.

If you select Day for Durations Format. you can select Currency in the Currency tab of User Preferences in the Edit menu. User preferences (Edit menu) • Time Units – For choosing time formats for resources and activities. Figure 34 – User preferences dialogue box FIFTEEN MUST-REMEMBER KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS IN PRIMAVERA P6 . especially for materials. activity durations will show day-based durations. WBS. Types will be used for defining the type of each item. and notebook. Units Formant is for setting the time unit of resources and Durations Format is for setting the time unit of activity duration (see Figure 34). and etc. 4-digit year. and volume. • Currency – For choosing a currency for viewing monetary values. • Units of Measure – Users can add or delete units of measure for weight. Estimate to Complete (ETC). • Industry – This option is for selecting terminology and default calculation settings according to industry types. expense. Currencies (Admin menu) • P6 users can add or delete currency types.• Earned Value – Users should specify methods for computing performance percent complete. • Dates – For selecting date format. For viewing monetary values in the schedule or report. risk. and the Earned Value from a baseline use. length. 24-hour format. document. area. Units defined in this option will be used as units of resources. Admin categories (Admin menu) • P6 users can add or delete types and categories for baseline.

. Among them. When constructing EPS.” + status (sent/from) + counterpart + date = “Korea High Speed Line – Reflec. It is very convenient to put all versions of a project under the same room. the following 15 shortcuts are most commonly used: • Commit changes to the database – F5 • Refresh screen data from the database – F10 • Schedule – F9 • Re-schedule – F9 + Enter • Level resource – Shift + F9 • Spell-check – F7 • Search – Ctrl + f • Search and replace – Ctrl + r • Undo last action – Ctrl + z • Fill down a value – Ctrl + e • Select all objects – Ctrl + a • Delete the selected objects – Delete • Cut/Copy/Paste an object – Ctrl + x / Ctrl + c / Ctrl + v SETTINGS FOR A NEW PROJECT Prior to creating a new project. and reflection versions. • Backup: Project name + “Backup” + purpose (e. such as the latest baseline and old baselines. submitted) + date = “Korea High Speed Line – Backup – Submitted to client – 10 Aug 2017”. you must organise the EPS of the Enterprise menu group. current version and backups. Reflection versions are created to update the schedule.. a scheduler on a project management team creates it and sends it to counterparts at departments.. approved) + date = “Korea High Speed Line – B01 – Approved – 05 Jun 2017”. field site offices. – Sent – Seoul office – 20 Nov 2017”. it is recommended that the lowest level of EPS be rooms where various versions of a project will lie.1). The EPS is the hierarchical structure of the database of projects. Below are naming structures and sample names for each version of a project: • Baselines: Project name + “B01” (baseline version) + purpose (e.There are 29 keyboard shortcuts in Primavera P6 PPM (version 15.g. • Reflection versions: Project name + “Reflec.g. “Status” in the reflection version name indicates whether the schedule has been sent out or received. which helps P6 users group and organise projects in a manner meeting the organisation’s needs.

and they update the project progress and send it back to the scheduler. In order to choose the appropriate duration type in accordance with schedule management tactics. • Fixed Units – This is used when the amount of the units is fixed. “Fixed Duration and Units/Time” (FDUT). and units. and Resources. Defaults. There are four types of duration. “Fixed Units” (FU). the units remain constant. schedulers must first understand following formula: . the amount of budgeted labour units also increases while resource units per time remain constant. If you cannot view any of those tabs. thus. and “Fixed Units/Time” (FUT). The following options in the Defaults tab are related to schedule management tactics. Many options for activities lie in the Defaults tab.) • Duration Type affects the correlation between duration. The option has three types – Duration. units assigned to activity. you can set six options in the Project window – General. and Units. while FU and FUT are generally used for developing scenarios in the planning phase. HOW DO P6 USERS SELECT DURATION TYPES? Duration type determines the relations between remaining duration. and each type is used for a different purpose – “Fixed Duration & Units” (FDU). Calculations. When the duration of an activity with this type increases. changing this setting does not affect existing activities.and subcontractors. (The options in the Defaults tab are for new activities only. • Fixed Duration and Units/Time – This is used when the duration and resource performance have constraints. and remaining units per time as follows: • Fixed Units/Time – This is used if the activity has fixed productivity output per time period. Dates. FDU and FDUT are generally used in the construction phase. • Fixed Duration & Units – This is used when the duration and the amount of the resources have constraints. When a user updates the duration or units per time. Settings. Physical. you can customise tabs. Physical is recommended. Decreased units per time causes the activity duration to increase. the scheduler reflects it to the original. After creating a new project. units/time (performance). Under the fixed price type contract. • Percent Complete Type defines the actual progress of an activity. After comparing the updated file with the original and confirming there are no problems.

On the other hand: • When duration increases. performance should increase because a client generally will require to complete the tasks on time by increasing performance [6]. in terms of schedule management.In the implementation phase: • When duration is shortened. • When the quantity decreases. • When performance increases. Figure 35 demonstrates the correlation between duration. and 384 hours (units). duration will decrease because a client will probably require to complete the tasks earlier [3]. performance (units/time). and quantity (units). . performance will decrease [4]. Fixed Units is not a good choice because: • Doubled Units/Time does not always mean double performance and schedulers do not care changes of Units/Time but those of durations or units. duration will decrease [5]. • When the quantity increases. duration will increase [2]. 32 units/time. The basis activity is A0000 (Original) with 12 days. • When performance decreases. Fixed Units seems more desirable. performance (Units/Time) should increase in order to complete the planned quantities (Units) on time [1]. In the perspective of mentioned above. Figure 35 – Changes according to duration types However.

In other words. This is computed as: • Physical – Used for activities whose progress can be assessed most accurately based on the complete of deliverables. and vice versa. Duration and units are not usually important for clients because: . For example.• Durations or units should not be changed unexpectedly because successor activity owners can hardly follow up predecessor activities’ change. what type of Percent Complete should be assigned to each activity? To answer the question. In Primavera P6. So. This is computed as: Each activity must have one of the Percent Complete types in accordance with its task types. the activity is estimated at 30 % complete. This is calculated as: • Units – Used when actual work effort accomplished and actual work effort remaining can be used to accurately represent progress for the activity. HOW DO P6 USERS CHOOSE PERCENT COMPLETE TYPES? Percent Complete is an estimate of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity. each activity must have one of the following Percent Complete types: • Duration – Used when progress for the activity can best be reported based on original planned work days and scheduled work days remaining. it is necessary to consider the client’s point of view. and it is estimated that there are four work days remaining. To conclude. Fixed duration & units is recommended in the implementation phase. and is commonly used in managing schedules. the activity is estimated to be 60 % complete. The duration of the activity with Fixed Duration & Units type only will not change when units change. if an activity had an original duration of 10 working days. if an activity was allotted 100 hours of work and the contractor has spent 30 hours.

you must check the activity characteristics. although Duration can be an element of the client’s requirements. value of Physical will be that of Activity complete for the activity. For instance. Figure 36 – Relations of progress data and deliverables If EV and activity percent complete are not linked together. On the other hand.• Duration is not what the client wants to get. spent units. what client wants to get is the information about completed quantities (completed deliverables) on time and it will be indicated by means of EVM – EV and PV. values of completed deliverables. “Physical” of Percent Complete is frequently recommended in construction projects. As previously mentioned. When schedule is updated. and elapsed time will be progress of Physical. . “Physical” in Primavera P6 represents deliverable for which the client has made contract and the client will pay in accordance with complete of deliverables. and Duration. Figure 37 – Earned Value preference When choosing an activity percent complete type. if an activity has Physical for its Percent Complete type. Units. please check EV preference in Admin Preferences at Admin menu (See Figure 37). Units. PV is calculated from schedule (actually. Figure 36 illustrates the relations of progress data and deliverables. activities loaded with resources) and EV comes directly from Activity complete that is indicated from one of Physical. In conclusion. there are some contract types that require monitoring units to estimate payment. • Units are the quantity of resources that a contractor will spend. Progress data of “Physical” indicates EV in EVM in case of that Physical is selected in Activity complete option. and Duration respectively.

• Physical is generally used to assign Percent Complete Type. Below are the columns and filter sets needed in each layout. you must determine. it is best to print out a layout list with each item’s columns set and keep it on your desk for reference. • Calendar: To assign a calendar to activities. Note that all layouts must have an Activity ID and Activity Name. • Activity codes: To assign activity codes to activities. When analysing the critical path. with the client. . (filter critical activities by selecting Critical in the filter dialogue box). the columns should be saved as a layout. users tend to make lots of layouts unnecessarily for columns set. please check the option “Activity percent complete based on activity steps” in Calculations in the Project window. use: • Remaining duration: To view the duration assigned to activities. Saved layouts help P6 users save time when setting columns. • Secondary constraint: To view the secondary constraint assigned to activities. use: • Primary constraint: To view the primary constraint assigned to activities. • Secondary constraint date: To adjust the secondary constraint date assigned to activities. weight for each process. use: • Performance % compete: To view the current progress. it may be difficult for users to determine which columns a layout has based on the layout name. COLUMNS AND LAYOUTS Since Primavera P6 users change columns set in the activities table frequently. If you cannot use steps in the schedule. • Duration is assigned to the activities that are not component of deliverables and do not have resources. however. In that case. • Primary constraint date: To adjust the primary constraint date assigned to activities. If there are numerous layouts. It is generally used for activities in Labour-Hour Contracts. When developing a new schedule. Since there is no standard measurement method for Physical. • Finish: To view the assigned finish date of activities based on the remaining duration of activities. • Units is usually used for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts that provides for payment of allowable incurred costs. • Start: To view the assigned start date of activities on the basis of schedule logic. When analysing constraints.

• Schedule % complete: To view the baseline % complete status of activities. • Finish: To view the assigned finish date of activities on the basis of the remaining duration of activities. To look ahead. Figure 38 – Filtering activities to look ahead When comparing a schedule with the baseline. • BL project duration: To view the baseline duration of activities. This is the total working time from the actual start date to the data date for in-progress activities. • Start: To view the assigned start date of activities on the basis of schedule logic. • BL project finish: To view the baseline finish date of activities. • Finish: To view the assigned finish date of activities based on the remaining duration of activities. and set columns to “When analysing critical path”. • Variance – BL project start date: To view the difference between activities’ baseline start dates and the current schedule start date. • Variance – BL project duration: To view the difference between activities’ baseline durations and the current schedule. .• Actual duration: To view the actual time spent on activities. filter activities using the filter dialogue box as shown in Figure 38. • Remaining duration: To view the amount of time to be spent on activities. • Total float: To view the level of criticality of activities. use: • Performance % complete: To view the current progress. • BL project start: To view the baseline start date of activities. • At completion duration: To view the forecast duration of activities. • Start: To view the assigned start date of activities on the basis of schedule logic. or the actual finish date for completed activities.

• Remaining units: To view outstanding labour units to be spent by resources on an activity. and set columns to “When analysing critical path”. When setting columns in the resource tab. • Remaining units/time: To view the amount of resources per time available to work on an activity. filter activities using the filter dialogue box as shown in Figure 39. Figure 39 – Filtering near-critical activities When assigning resources.• Variance – BL project finish date: To view the difference between activities’ baseline finish dates and the current schedule finish date. • Actual units: To view actual labour units spent by resources on an activity. • Remaining cost: To view the outstanding cost to be spent by resources assigned to an activity. • Finish: To view the assigned finish date of activities on the basis of the remaining duration of activities. When analysing near-critical activities. • Budgeted labour cost: To view the cost of labour resources assigned to activities. • Budgeted total cost: To view the cost of labour and non-labour resources as well as resources assigned to activities. . • Budgeted units: To view planned units to be spent on an activity. • Actual cost: To view the cost incurred by resources assigned to an activity. • Start: To view the assigned start date of activities based on schedule logic. • At completion duration: To view the forecast duration of activities. • Price/unit: To view resource prices. use: • Resource name: To view resource names. use: • Performance % complete: To view the current progress. • Budgeted cost: To view the planned cost of resources assigned to activity.

• Schedule % complete: To view the baseline % complete status of activities. • Schedule performance index: To view how the progress of work performed compares to the progress of work planned. • Budgeted at completion: To view the planned cost at completion of activities. use: • Performance % complete: To view the current progress. • BL project finish: To view the baseline finish date of activities. • Finish: To view the assigned finish date of activities on the basis of the remaining duration of activities. • At completion duration: To view the forecast duration of activities. • To complete performance index: To view the projection of the future cost performance required to achieve either BAC or EAC cost. • Earned value cost: To view the budgeted cost of work performed. If the status is not “All Activities”. • Start: To view the assigned start date of activities based on schedule logic. . They are actually not missing. • Schedule variance: To view the difference between achieved schedule performance and planned schedule performance. • Planned value cost: To view the budgeted cost of work scheduled. check “All Activities” in the Filters dialogue box (see Figure 41). HANDY TIP – FINDING MISSING ACTIVITIES When opening your project. you may find that all activities are missing. • Estimate at completion cost: To view the forecast cost at completion of activities. Activities are never missing until you delete them. • BL project start: To view the baseline start date of activities. Check the filter status as shown in Figure 40.When reviewing Earned Value. • BL project duration: To view the baseline duration of activities. • Actual cost: To view the actual cost of work performed. • Variance at completion: To view the difference between the forecast cost at completion of activities and the planned cost at completion of activities. • Cost performance index: To view how the cost of work performed compares to the cost of work planned. • Cost variance (or Accounting variance): To view the difference between the spent cost of work performance and planned cost performance.

and M 3. Figure 42 – Customising timescale . • Open the file and find the strings “4251|JAN”. as well as other month names.en-us” at c:\Program Files (x86)\Oracle\Primavera P6\P6 Professional\Languages. for example. • Backup the file before opening it. Figure 40 – Filter status Figure 41 – All activities HANDY TIP – CUSTOMISING NAMES OF TIMESCALE You can customise the names of timescale in the chart area as shown in Figure 42 – M 1. • Run Primavera P6. • Close Primavera P6. You will find the names of the months have changed. • You can customise other strings by changing strings in the file. • Find the file “comStrins. • Change “JAN” as you want like “M 1”. M 2.


a Project Master Schedule is developed. etc. codes. HSE (Health. if the work scope is changed or redefined. schedulers should take the following strategies into account: • Schedule methodology. Safety. and tools should be documented and approved for efficient communications. and (3) the manner of working. regulations. etc. and records). For better schedule development. (3) All activities relevant to the project shall be performed according to laws. which will be delivered in terms of requirements for: (1) the object itself. WBS and activities should also be changed or redefined. WBS is not a collection of the tasks but of the deliverables. it is essential to look over the nature of project management first. • WBS in a schedule should cover 100% of the scope. procedures. To understand the properties of schedule management and apply them in the workplace.Strategies in planning In planning process. (2) All documents (plans. A construction project has a clear target building or infrastructure designed to provide a function or service. (1) Deliverables shall be completed with designed physical quantities meeting a predefined level of quality. In other words. and the documents for maintenance work for buildings or infrastructure (plans. and Environment). criteria. (2) the object-related or project-related information produced during the project lifecycle (maintaining documents. Figure 43 – Satisfying client’s requirements .) and records produced during the project period shall be stored and maintained systematically. Project management requires various techniques and tools to tackle requirements suggested by a project owner. or stakeholders.) shall be prepared. specifications. procedures. technique. drawings. • Schedulers should spend enough time defining the work scope and developing WBS to reduce the need for rework on scheduling. drawings. REQUIREMENT-ORIENTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT Beginners in Primavera P6 have difficulty scheduling not because they do not know schedule management theories or how to operate P6 but because they do not fully understand project management. calculations. a client. manuals. etc.

On the other hand. and the authority to receive the amount of money stated in the contract. and “completed as planned” will be accomplished through schedule control. The client will be satisfied with deliverables that meet appropriate quantities and quality codes. as well as the client. there are two categories – correctable and uncorrectable items – in the test and commissioning phase. Thus. When a contract is settled between a client and a contractor. The contractor has the responsibility to complete the required deliverables on time in a proper manner. this type of work must be monitored. would be concrete strength that cannot be estimated accurately after concrete work is completed. and these items will undergo corrective actions until they pass the test. and tested by a supervisor in the constructing phase. Even though budget and time can be defined as resources. from the contractor’s point of view. Appropriate quantities will be achieved by design review. requirements can be categorised as follows: • Deliverables – physical quantities satisfying quality codes. a project manager will have the budget and time to complete a project. for example. documents. and the responsibility to pay for it. As for quality management. checked. Therefore. and these should be completed as planned. reworking columns or girders would cause serious problems for the contractor. punch lists will be made for items that have failed to pass the test. if they later fail to meet a quality code. they can be also constraints (requirements) for the project manager and project participants at the same time because a project has to be completed within the timeframe and budget defined by the contract agreement. An uncorrectable item.Figure 43 shows an example of a flow satisfying a client’s requirements in a construction project. . and anything for stakeholders’ interests. In the test and commissioning phase. Project management can be defined as a process by which to actualise the planned deliverables and tackle requirements. the client has the authority to be delivered the target building or infrastructure. Even if concrete strength of structure could be measured correctly in the test phase.

such as temperature. • Resource – Activities shall be loaded with resources. constructing. schedule (duration) and any required constraints from clients or stakeholders. constraints. • Manner of working – laws and regulations. WBS dictionary. while budget and schedule (duration) belong to constraints. SCHEDULE-RELATED REQUIREMENTS IN CONTRACT DOCUMENTS Below are the major schedule-related requirements that you may find in contract documents: • Submission of the Initial Schedule – This shall have detail tasks for the first four months (or six months) of the project. if necessary. etc. • Calendar – The calendar shall include all public holidays and non-work days. • Submission of the two-month (or three-month) detail schedule – The contract shall submit the two-month detail schedule using rolling wave planning technique at the end of every month.• Constraints – budget. including an outline for the remaining period of the contract. procuring. • Software and version – Schedules shall be prepared using CPM scheduling software (Primavera P6 or MS Project). budget. rain. schedule engineers should be most concerned with quantities. manufacturing. controlling and updating schedules. snow. • Submission of the Master Schedule – This shall have the Inception reporting. as well as initial maintenance tasks. designing. testing. and commissioning. In dealing with scheduling and monitoring progress. • Methodology – Schedules shall be computed by CPM (Critical Path Method) using the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM). for example. and codes. • Activity duration limitation – Activity shall not have a duration of more than 20 work days (or 30 work days). HSE. fitting out. In order to understand the options set in Primavera P6. • Schedule Analysis Report (SAR) – SAR shall include assumptions. risks. • Organisation Breakdown Structure (OBS) – An OBS dictionary with responsibilities . • Progress measurement methodology – The contractor shall suggest methodologies for monitoring. and wind. and schedule. readers should remember that physical quantities belong to requirements for deliverables. Non- work days generally reflect weather conditions.

Activity relationship • Relationship – All activities should be linked to identify critical activities and calculate the project duration. • Activity number – Activity numbers shall reflect the high level of WBS numbers. share the abbreviation list with others. • Constraints – Only the constraints provided by the client shall be assigned to activities. engineers. • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) – Schedules shall be organised in a logical WBS. EV analysis (PV. and to share them with the schedule management team because schedule management requires schedulers to deal with a lot of schedule-related data in a limited time. If you want to use abbreviations. THE DOS AND DON’TS OF DEVELOPING A SCHEDULE It is important to establish dos and don’ts in developing schedules. while others allow the project start and finish milestone to have one successor or predecessor . they should have unique names that include a verb. they shall be used in the schedules. • Activity code – If any activity codes are provided by the client. • Uniformity in naming structure – Standards should be prepared for developing activity descriptions. Some clients suggest that the number of activities without predecessors and/or successors should not exceed 5% of the total activities. “Prepare shop-drawings for the fifth floor”. • Monthly Progress Report (MPR) – MPR shall be submitted covering all aspects of the execution of tasks: schedule (actually started and finished activities. and delayed activities and reasons). for example. • Responsibility – The contractor shall assign activities to departments.). Additionally. the greater the potential for confusion. EV. • Start-to-Finish (SF) relationship – Use of SF relationships shall be avoided. EAC. shall be prepared. ETC. Following are dos and don’ts that clients usually suggest for efficient schedule management: Activity • Activity name – Since activities are tasks for work packages. work packages should clarify the target deliverable without verbs. etc. field site offices and subcontractors. • Monthly Progress Meeting (MPM) – MPM shall be held to review monthly progress and performance regularly. AC. photographs. issues of the three-month rolling schedule. • Less abbreviations in names – The more abbreviations in the names.

Start On or Before + Start On or After. while others ban the use of the SF type. Must Finish On. • Lead-lag manipulation – Schedulers can make change to the start date of an activity by . however. contractors should separate an activity into two. • Lead (negative lag value) – Since leads can distort the total float and the critical path. Constraints • Hard constraints (Must Start On. and some clients require that at least 90% of the total predecessor relationships to total activities be the FS type. some clients require contractors not to use it because split activities can distort the critical path. Instead. • Calendar manipulation – Schedulers can extend or shorten the calendar duration of activities by assigning inappropriate calendars to them. activity. Finish-to-Finish [FF]. DECEPTIVE SCHEDULES ARE NOT ALLOWED Some skilled schedulers (claim-oriented contractors) use numerous methods to create deceptive schedules to their advantage in solving disputes. while others allow less than 5% of activities with lags. Some clients allow less than 5% of the total activities to have high float. Miscellaneous • High float – High float can be defined as the floats outnumbering 44 working days. • High duration – High duration can be defined as the duration outnumbering 44 working days. Some employers allow less than 5% of the total activities to have high duration. and Finish On or Before + Finish On or After) – Some employers maintain that more than 5% of the total activities are not allowed to have hard constraints because they prevent activities from moving forwards or backwards as per changes of predecessors’ dates. Start-to-Start [SS]. and cause resource conflicts. • Splitting activities – Some scheduling software provides a feature for splitting activities. • Relationship types – There are four types of activity relationships (Finish-to-Start [FS]. • Permitted constraints – It is recommendable to assign the permitted constraints not to activities but to milestones. as follows: • Illogical activity relationships – Schedulers can pull forward or push back an activity by assigning unnecessary relationships to activities. and Start-to-Finish [SF]). they are not allowed in the schedule. • Lag – Some clients prohibit using lag.

the following requirements should be added: . production rates. However. • Percent complete types for each activity should be “Physical” because this type indicates the progress of deliverables. activity codes and code values. it is important to establish requirements to control the project schedule produced or updated by counterparts. as well as free from pitfalls. clients should perform schedule validation and schedule auditing. relationships to external projects. Exchanging XER files involves the risk of making your Primavera P6 database become entangled with global data coming along with XER files from your counterparts. • Activity ID and name should follow Activity ID structure and naming standards. calendars. manipulations may be excusable. calendars. • Hours per time period in Admin preferences should be set to Primavera P6’s default because changing one of the options may change activity durations and dates. To inspect and prevent deceptive schedules with evil intentions. • Critical activities shall be on the longest path (scheduling option). Validation occurs when the initial or revised baseline schedule is submitted prior to the start of any tasks. REQUIREMENTS FOR COUNTERPARTS From the standpoint of a scheduler who needs to exchange XER files and collect progress data. An inspection should ensure that the schedule incorporates appropriate construction methods. and thresholds. Below are recommended requirements for counterparts to follow: • Duration type of each activity should be “Fixed duration & units” because the dates of this type do not change when units and performance (units/time) change. Below are XER data that will update your database but you may not want to: WBS IDs and names. • Over-progressing – Schedulers can distort the total per cent of completion by over- progressing activities that are on the critical path but have large weight (budget). issues and risks. assigning lead or lag to relationships. if their intention is not for claims but to encourage the project team members to meet the project deadlines. • Schedule auditing should occur several times during the execution phase of the project in order to maintain transparency in the schedule by ensuring that the project has proceeded according to plan. as well as review that its goal is meeting the project’s requirements in terms of scope. and resource availability compatible with the environment. project expenses. • Schedule validation is an external evaluation to ensure that a schedule is correct in its scope and assumptions. work products and documents. Therefore. and that the progress in the period has impacted the project completion date. time and resources.

calendar names. To import P3 files to Primavera P6. which is activated (see Figure 44). predecessor and successor. the option for P3 importing in the Import dialogue box is not activated. WBS codes. activity codes. resource assignments. and lag.0 or higher)? When no version of Primavera P3 is installed in your computer.prx” extension. original and remaining durations. What if you have a P3 format file and you are now operating only Primavera P6 (Version 8. follow the steps below: • Search for W32MKDE. • Import the P3 file into P6. variance-BL project labour and non-labour units. and C:\P3WIN\PROJECTS. • When you start Primavera P6. (The files may be zipped. however. Figure 44 – The activated option for importing P3 files . and expenses): • Activity area – Activity IDs and names.• Activity codes should be Project level because Global activity codes can overwrite each other. you can find the option for P3 in the Import dialogue box. • Relationship area – Relationship type. you will find the instruction file and other files. activity % complete. If the file has a “. activity status. C:\P3WIN\P3WORK. • Follow the instructions to make folders – C:\P3WIN.exe and other files in the website and download it in your computer. • Calendars should be Project level because Global calendars with the same name can overwrite other project calendars. you cannot import all data this way. Exchanging Excel files instead may prevent spoiling your database. primary and secondary constraint and its dates. C:\p3win\P3PROGS. unzip it into the folder. • Copy the P3 file into \P3WIN\P3PROJECTS.) • When you unzip them. predecessor free float. • Follow the instructions to copy the files into the folders you made. actual start and finish dates. and variance-BL 1 labour and non-labour units. Below are the data you can import (more data types can be imported in three areas – resources. C:\P3WIN\P3OUT. IMPORTING P3 FILES INTO P6 Sometimes schedulers refer to or use historical schedules. percent complete type.

it provides a powerful feature that allows you to merge a reflection with the source project if you determine that the reflection has no problems. You can copy and paste a project in the Projects window. There are three data backup types: database copy. run a global change. If you accidentally import a file updating your project. Reflection provides a feature to compare the reflection schedule with the original schedule. • Project copy – Whenever analysing a project schedule. 32 bit – C:\Program Files\MSSQL\Primavera\MSSQL.ldf. If you understand the detail relations between Primavera P6 and its database (see Figure 45).ldf (64 bit – C:\Program Files (x86)\MSSQL\Primavera \MSSQL. the database file name is PPMDBSQLite.1\Data).db (C:\Users\[Computer name]\Documents). schedulers must backup the database every day by copying the database file. you must use the copied project because the Undo feature in P6 cannot cover all of your “Oops!” such as scheduling and resource levelling. To copy the database file of SQL. it is very important to backup often because we all make mistakes.mdf and pmdb$primavera_LOG. Therefore. DATA BACKUP IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ACTIVITY FOR P6 OPERATORS! If you are in a busy editing period. In SQL. In SQLite. you are in trouble unless you have a backup copy. or pmdb$primavera_DATA. project copy. as SQL is controls a database in a database . the database file names are pmdb_DATA. • Reflection creation – This is similar to copying a project. • Database copy – Since the database in Primavera P6 contains all projects and settings. and reflection project creation. however. Primavera P6 is a software package that controls a P6 database. you will know how to deal with the P6 database properly.mdf and pmdb_LOG. or delete a large section of the schedule. and some mistakes cannot be undone in Primavera P6. you should make a copy for backups whenever you have a chance.1\Data. you need to stop the SQL Server (PRIMAVERA) in the SQL Server Configuration Manager prior to copying it.

• Hit the “New Query” icon. (Google the XER Manager for more information. • Input the third query “@filename2 = N‘[path name and file name]’”. • Save.) To create a sandpit database: • Copy SQL database files as previously explained and paste them in the same folder with a different name. • Input “EXEC sp_attach_db@dbname = N‘[database name]’. simulate and perform any project you like. Figure 45 – Relations between software packages and database management system ESTABLISHING A SANDPIT DATABASE It is a good idea to make a sandpit database where you can create or copy.” at the right section. then re-export and import them to your project database. close and rerun the SQL Server Management Studio Express. input “SQL Server Authentication” for Authentication. You can import the XER files to your sandpit database and cleanse the imported project’s associated global data. “sa” for Login ID. Figure 46 – Login dialogue box . and “Prima123Vera” for password. but you can process it automatically with tools like XER Manager or even Global changes. • Run the SQL Server Management Studio Express. Another advantage of the sandpit database is that you can prevent your Primavera P6 database from becoming entangled with global data coming along with XER files from other companies or counterparts when importing them in your project schedule. • In the login dialogue box. It may seem like a lot of work. • Input the second query “@filename1 = N‘[path name and file name]’”.management system.

x and up). you can make your computer work for you (it works in Primavera P6 8. • In the next dialogue box. “Validate Database Connection”. • If you see the message “Connection Successful!”. . input “[computer name]\PRIMAVERA” for Host name and Database name. and select Microsoft SQL Server for Driver type. • Run Primavera P6 and click the button. hit Finish. “Enter Public Login Information”. however. hit Configure and you will see the Database configuration dialogue box. • Now you will see a new database in the Edit Database Connections dialogue box. input “pubuser” for Username and “pubuser” for Password. as shown in Figure 46. in which you can input the Database name for Database alias. EASY REGULAR BACKUP Here is handy tip for automated regular backups for those who cannot use Job Services in Primavera P6. • In the Edit database connections dialogue box. click Next. “Configure SQL Server Connection”. Select it and input a password.• Check whether a new database has been created and close it. to display the Edit database connections dialogue box. Note that creating a new database with SQLite is much easier. If you follow these steps. the use of its features is limited. • In the next dialogue box. • In the next dialogue box.

the path is C:\Program Files\Oracle\Primavera P6\P6 Professional\PM.xml. You have to change “XXXXX- 01” and “XXXXXX-02” to the project IDs that you want to back up. You can check the project IDs in the Projects window in Primavera P6. . If you want to back up more projects. and save it as follows: (1) Primavera P6’s path and file name. and then save it. If the Windows system is based on 32 bit.• Be aware of the project IDs that you want to make XER files.xer”.exe (2) Login Name (you can see it when you log in to Primavera P6) (3) Password (4) Database name (you can see it when you log in to Primavera P6) (5) The path and the name of XML file that you made. the XER file has been exported from the database successfully. • After executing the batch file (. You can check any errors with this file.txt) and input the code below.txt). just add the line “<ProjectID>XXXXXXX</ProjectID>”.bat and run it. • Rename the file with the extension . • Create a new text file (. If you see the message “Returning Exit Code: 0” in the log file. input the code below with no spaces between lines. • Your backup file will be saved with a name according to the line “C:\pathto\yourfile. (6) The path and the name of the log file that will be created while executing. • Create a new text file (.bat). open the log file and check it. Change the path and the name in the line as you like. • Rename the file with the extension .

as shown in Figure 47. Figure 47 – Adding columns . and Last modified date. Add the following columns to your layout – Added by. Last modified by. In that case. Added date.If you want to run the batch file regularly and automatically. They will show you who has made changes to the schedule. you can set Windows Task Scheduler to do so. you can find out who did it. HANDY TIP – FINDING OUT WHO HAS CHANGED A SCHEDULE IN PRIMAVERA P6 You may have had the experience of having one of your colleagues make changes to your project schedule without leaving any comments in a Primavera P6 notebook.

they can play a role as WBS codes. it will be decomposed into WBS. etc. Assigned activities with activity codes can be grouped. In terms of procurement. Accordingly. OBS. filtered and summarised in P6. it is important to limit user privileges at the EPS and WBS levels. etc. as well as the organisational structure. and the resources to be hired. Resources are classified into three types in P6 (labour. a scheduler should prepare or define some elements as necessary. sorted. construction sections. and is best used in PMIS. locations. The level of detail for WBS depends entirely on the size and characteristics of a project. • Activity codes – These are used to classify and organise activities on the basis of specific categories (disciplines. • Standardised Steps for Physical type activities – Project progress will be monitored based on the progress of Steps assigned to activities. COA allows you to easily identify components. specifications. and material). letters. When using Primavera P6 EPPM. OBS codes and cost accounts. Prior to defining scope and developing WBS.Define scope and develop WBS WBS is a product-oriented grouping of project components that defines the total scope of the project. a code of accounts (COA) should be prepared. a planner will study the contract agreement. After the work scope is clearly defined. they can be categorised into two types: secured resources (staff and machines). non-labour. Schedulers should spend enough time studying the work scope to minimise rework on WBS development because redefining WBS also requires rework on activities. or a combination of the two to every element on the WBS. ADVANCE PREPARATIONS Prior to developing the schedule. etc. DEFINE SCOPE AND DEVELOP WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (WBS) To define the work scope. • OBS – OBS should not be limited to a project team. There are two . phases. purchased and leased. COA is a project management tool which assigns a code made from numbers. drawings. • Cost accounts sheet. but include any organisations and stakeholders that can affect a project schedule. drawings. and any other related documents.). Below are the elements that the schedule team should prepare or define to keep the integration of a schedule: • Resources information – Information for resources needed in a project can be obtained from a Bill of Quantity (BOQ).

the lowest levels (Work Packages) should be countable and assignable: • Countable – Work Packages should be clear. You can move sentences using icons in the Outline Tools. Excel files for the SDK add-in and XER Parser are available on the websites. “Planning a new transportation system” is not specific. or by dragging and dropping using the mouse. as well as the up and down keys to move up or down. • Put the cursor on the line or the sentence that you want to level up or down. If you build it in MS Word using Outline before entering it into P6. “Developing a Feasibility Study” or “Establishing an Environmental Impact Assessment”. Note that it is impossible to add WBS values at the top level. HANDY TIPS – VARIOUS WBS DEVELOPMENT METHODS To build the optimised structure. For instance. for example. Figure 48 – Outline view of MS Word Another approach to WBS is to create it in Excel and import it into P6 using SDK or XER Parser.things to consider in developing WBS: WBS should be as simple as possible to help the project participants comprehend whole components of the project. ORGANISATION BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE AND . Instead use. • Assignable – A work Package should be assigned to only one team (team leader) or one person in order to clarify where the responsibility lies. when decomposing the work scope. • Hit the Tab button on the keyboard to level down. WBS will be revised frequently in planning phase. Below are the steps to create it in MS Word (2013 version): • Choose Outline in the View menu. which is automatically named with the project name in the WBS window in Primavera P6. you can easily revise it as many times as you like. even though P6 users can create WBS by clicking Add and organise it by hitting the left and right arrow keys on the Command bar to promote and demote. or press Shift+Tab to level up. Another advantage of creating WBS with MS Word is that you can share it in compatible formats for others to review.

work scope of schedule management. • Schedule Controlling Procedures – As mentioned earlier. or staff. schedule-related risks analysis and management. PMP illustrates how to monitor project progress. and schedule change procedure (SCP). review and approval for changing the master schedule. the schedule management strategy including schedule management levels and schedule controlling procedures. miscommunications can occur.RESPONSIBILITY ASSIGNMENT MATRIX OBS is a hierarchical model describing the established organisational framework for a business or project. definitions and abbreviations. as shown in Figure 49. RAM can be also used to determine whether or not all work packages have been assigned. as well as the roles and responsibilities of each participant. schedule management software and systems. Since projects involve many participants. WBS. department. plus any requirements to control subcontractors’ schedules. roles and responsibilities. it is best to develop a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) which shows the responsibility assignments of work packages. gather progress data. reviewing and approving schedules. OBS. the criteria should reflect the requirements provided by the client. It supplies . and control and update project schedules. Cost Account Structure. Figure 49 – Responsibility assignment matrix DEVELOPING SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS Contractors on construction projects over a certain size need subcontractors – no individual company fills all disciplines and trades. Therefore. • Schedule Development Criteria – This aims to maintain the integration of the schedule format and will be used not only by the schedule management team but also by subcontractors. and schedule-related reporting and communication methodologies. progress measurement procedure (PMP). these will include schedule development procedure (SDP). Below are recommended documents and guidelines to help schedulers integrate schedules and people communicate efficiently: • Schedule Management Plan – This should contain an introduction to the plan. and schedules can be created in different (non-standardised) formats. SCP mainly focuses on responsibilities for proposal. Since every work package has to be assigned to a team. SDP introduces processes for developing. project overview.

activity name format. use of constraints. guidelines for the qualifications of lead scheduler. schedule software and version. creation date. Each document should be updated as needed and have. • Schedule Assessment Checklist – This should be developed for the review of CPM schedules made by subcontractors. use of activity relationships. drafter and approver. limitation of activity duration. revision number. its own document number. and revision control of schedule. at minimum. lag and lead (negative lag). . activity number format.

level of effort [LOE].. • Resources – The expected lack of resources and efficient use of resources (e. and include activity code. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTIVITY NUMBERING AND NAMING STRUCTURE Before beginning activity development.).. • Numbers should start with 100 or 1000 to leave room from 000 to 099 or 0000 to 0999 for non-task dependent activities (milestones. and project ID. where the activity belongs. local government and third party vender). • If you want to use long activity IDs.Develop activity list and sequences When creating a draft schedule. you should change the maximum number of activity IDs in the ID lengths tab under Admin preferences in the Admin menu.g. When it comes to an ID for a task-dependent activity. the scheduler should prepare the standard activity numbering (ID) and naming structure to ensure the integration of activity numbers and names. activities performed by organisations outside the contract company (e. or expected opposition from residents or NGO (Non- Governmental Organisations). Figure 50 – Adjusting activity ID maximum characters . but what are the differences between them? IDs are unique names of items such as activity ID. and essential advance preparation and activity sequences for performing tasks with ease. You will see numerous ID types and code types used to identify data in Primavera P6. resource ID.g. while codes are used to classify items. resource code. etc. • Process – The physical or procedural sequences of tasks. it is important to identify critical items that will affect developing activity list and sequences. • Environmental factors – These could include constraints of the working area (e. narrow space or crowded area). it is recommended that activity IDs have two halves: • The first half of an ID should have letters that are parts of WBS.g.. • The second half of an ID should have numbers showing the sequence of an activity. machine rental). as well as fragnet for delayed activities. etc.

When naming non-task dependent activities.For an ID of non-task dependent activities: • The first half should have letters indicating which WBS the activity belongs to. DELAY – GVB10030 (activity ID or name). for example: SM – NTP. FM (Finish milestone). • Put descriptions after the dash. When it comes to naming a task-dependent activity: • Use verbs plus an object’s name and location. . If a scheduler created an activity with ID “A130” for construction and later made ID “A140” for design. • The second half should have numbers between 000 to 099 or 0000 to 0999. he or she may want to rename one of the IDs to keep schedulers from misunderstanding activity sequences. WAYS TO RENAME ACTIVITY IDS Schedulers may want to rename activity IDs when: • The order of activity IDs does not match the activity sequences. design has to begin prior to construction. SUMMARY (WBS summary). If the object is for the whole of the project. DELAY (fragnet). • As mentioned earlier. If you want to use them. SUMMARY – KEGVB (WBS ID or name). for example: SM (Start milestone). its location is not necessary. avoid using abbreviations whenever possible. LOE. LOE – GVB10010 to GVB10050 (activity IDs or names). as well as fragnets for delayed activities: • Use capital initials followed by a dash “ – ” for each activity in the first part of the activity name to distinguish them from normal activities. make an abbreviation list and share it with all participants who deal with the project schedule to avoid misinterpretation of activity names.

and click “Renumber Activity IDs”. T54KTR97. but 100 is preferable in the planning stage. The default value is 10. “B”) that any activity does not have in order to avoid duplication. A1120. A1300. If you want to export activities with a small number of data. and A1050. you can “Renumber Activity IDs” (see Figure 51): • Select all activities of WBS B. as . • Choose options in the Renumber activity IDs dialogue box. WBS C – A1110. and click “Commit Changes” in the File menu to refresh the database and avoid making duplications for A1070 and A1080. such as A110. If a newly created activity should be inserted between two activities (A110 and A111. A1200. and A1130. Right- click the mouse in the activity table. it will lose its WBS ID in Primavera P6. CHG32. WBS B – A1070. • Renumber them again to align the renumbered activity IDs. If you want to renumber the activities of WBS B to align them with those of WBS A and WBS C. • Delete the activities being changed from P6. and A1400. • Hit OK. • Activity IDs are not systematic. A1040. and you will see the “Export to Excel” menu. A1080. and define “A” for the prefix and input “1060” for the suffix. • Import the new activities from Excel to P6. How can you prevent or minimise the need to rename activity IDs? Here are some tips: • Prepare criteria suggesting standard activity ID and naming structure. • Increase the “Increment” of Defaults tab in the Project window. Check whether each activity has a WBS ID before importing. select “Auto-number” and define Prefix with a letter (for example. In the Renumber activity IDs dialogue box. WBS B has some activities with an incoherent set of ID numbering: WBS A – A1010. If there are activities with different ID structures in a WBS. If you have a lot of activities to renumber. etc. select “Auto-number”. schedulers may want to change them. If it does not. there is an easier way. A1030.• There is no room between two IDs to insert an activity. A1020. schedulers should probably change them immediately. • Right-click the mouse and click “Renumber Activity IDs” again. for example). right-click the mouse.. you can use Export as follows: • Export activities from Primavera P6 to Excel and change activity IDs in Excel. • Hit OK. In the following example.

if possible. Click it. and save the Excel file. not all. . Milestones are certain key events. Before creating an activity list. The activity’s resources are scheduled to work according to the activity calendar. There are six types of activities in Primavera P6: • Task dependent – This is used when the work needs to be accomplished in a given period regardless of the assigned resources’ availability. milestones that a contractor is required to track and report. There are two ways to develop an activity list (or draft of a schedule). activity development is a technique for defining the processes of tasks (work packages). The draft of the activity list (or draft of the schedule) will require the review of departments or engineers. Project documents may identify some.shown in Figure 51. anyone who is trying to develop activities should understand the process involved in tasks. This is typically used when multiple resources assigned to the same activity can work independently. and the duration is determined by the assigned calendar’s workweek. • Resource dependent – This is used when the work is to be accomplished depending on the assigned resources’ availability. A milestone has zero duration. Figure 51 – Right-click CREATING AN ACTIVITY LIST (OR DRAFT OF A SCHEDULE) AND SEQUENCES UNDER A WORK PACKAGE While WBS development is a process of decomposing the work scope. milestones should be defined. The activity’s duration and resources are scheduled according to the primary resource’s individual calendar. The first one is that the scheduler prepares activity list by himself referring to a project master schedule of other similar projects. they represent important immediate goals with the network. and is typically used to represent the beginning or end of a group of activities. The second way involves departments or engineers preparing their own activity lists according to assigned work packages.

and per cent complete values for a group of activities that share a common WBS code level. Constraints and expenses can be assigned to this activity type. duration. you can establish them yourself. It should be noted that constrains cannot be assigned to this activity type. the scheduler’s job scope varies with each project. • Add as many numbers of steps as you like by hitting the Add button. • WBS summary – This is used to roll up dates. and then go to the “Step” tab in the Activity window. • When you finish making steps. You can make more step groups by clicking the Add button. however. This activity is a zero duration activity with a finish date only. This is similar to a level of effort activity. This activity is a zero duration activity with a start date only.000 activities per scheduler is reasonable. and assign weight to each step. Below are the processes for creating steps: • Go to Activity step templates (Enterprise menu) and you will see dialogue with three sections. (see Figure 52) • Hit the Add button on the right side and create a step name. There are two ways to create steps: by using a step template. etc.• Start milestone – This is used to mark the beginning of a phase or to communicate project deliverables. as its duration is determined by its predecessor or successor activities. and by setting steps directly. • Finish milestone – This is used to mark the completion of a phase or to communicate project deliverables. . It is typically used for ongoing tasks dependent on other activities. you have to do two things. Second. you should prepare standard steps for tasks that have weight (percentage). and have them approved by your client. check the option “Activity percent complete based on activity steps” in “Calculations” tab of the Project window. Some say 3. There is no correct answer because the number of activities in a project depends entirely on the project’s size and characteristics. If your client has no preference. • Level of effort – This is a summary activity which summarises the earliest start and latest finish dates of its predecessors and successors. but roles or resources cannot. Constraints and expenses can be assigned to this activity type. such as final inspections. SETTING STEPS Prior to assigning steps. Schedulers sometimes ask themselves how many activities are appropriate for a project. but roles or resources cannot. but provides more summarisation functionality. click Close. as well as the number of staff who will deal with schedule data. name them. First.

Now you can see steps in the steps tab. Figure 53 – ASAP Utilities WBS SUMMARY ACTIVITIES AND LEVEL OF EFFORT (LOE) WBS summary activity is used to summarise all activities belonging to the same WBS. when you create data. If you do not have enough time to assign all activities with resources in a project but want to assign resources roughly and make S-curve quickly. hit Add from template. and choose a step template. you can use a WBS summary activity . however. “ASAP Utilities” is a powerful Excel plug-in that offers many features.• Select an activity you want to assign. Figure 52 – Activity step template dialogue HANDY TIP – IMPORTING DATA FROM EXCEL TO P6 Importing Excel files into P6 is useful. Primavera P6 does not recognise data without an apostrophe (‘) in front of each cell in Excel. you have to add apostrophes manually. Thus. you can also do this in Excel by using Text to Columns in the Data menu of ASAP Utilities. such as the ability to add apostrophes to cells by means of ASAP Utilities (see Figure 53). Of course.

A LOE activity’s duration is dependent on its predecessor and/or successor activities. Figure 55 – Examples of user-defined filter sets Figure 56 – Filter dialogue box . they can save time by using combinations of filters. and many schedulers use it for expenses. Figure 54 shows default filters commonly used by schedulers. Figure 54 – Default filters If schedulers create a filter (see Figure 55) to fill a gap in the default filters. for example) that is not assigned to a specific activities. selecting options of Filter dialogue box and selecting multiple filter sets (see Figure 56). “A1010-A1530”. it is recommended to indicate the range of linking. When naming the LOE activity. USING FILTERS EFFICIENTLY A commonly used menu in Primavera P6 is filter. which helps narrow down the range of activities displayed in the activity table. LOE can be used for many assigning it with all resources belonging to the WBS. for instance. such as travelling expenses. so it is usually used to summarise several activities. If you want to assign indirect cost (expense. Some of them are currently used for bar chart settings. you can make a LOE activity and assign it with expenses. which cannot be deleted or modified.

and check Item [6] from the default filters and Item [a] from the user-defined filters. and check Item [b] and Item [c] from the user-defined filters. • To filter activities that are milestones and will start or finish within three months. select “All selected filters” in the filters dialogue box. select “Any selected filter” in the filters dialogue box.Below are example using combinations of filters – multiple choice filter set: • To filter activities that are both design activities and critical activities. . select “All selected filters” in the filters dialogue box. • To filter activities that are near-critical activities or have free float. and then check Item [2] from the default filters (Figure 54) and Item [d] from the user-defined filters (Figure 56).

ea. purchasing or renting new machines. carpenter. non-labour (reusable but depreciable). or making contracts with subcontractors. for instance.). roles can be regarded as a type of code for resources. while resource is an actual item assigned to activities.g. RESOURCE AND WORK CREW Role in Primavera P6 is used as a plan for resource assigning. . RSMeans is the industry source for accurate and expert information on materials. • Non-labour is equipment or subcontractors. crew composition. Schedulers compute activity durations as the quantity divided by performance (quantity per day) of crew. The information for quantities comes from the BOQ. and material (consumable) – and they are procured as follows: • Labour is man-power. To use materials. There are two types of resource allocation methods: top-down and bottom-up. for example. ton. John Doe.Loading resources The purpose of resource loading on activities is to compute activity durations and identify resource constraints (Max units) in the planning phase. and it can be procured by redeploying retentive machines. in P6 while a resource to be hired is presented with its role name. labour and construction costs. A resources employed in a company are presented with its name. Work crew is a collection of resources used to calculate activity durations based on performance and units (quantities). you need to predefine units of measure in the option (Admin – Admin categories – Units of measure). and it defines the level of skills required to perform a task. and (3) review resource assignments in the Resource assignments (window) of the Project menu. To load resources to activities. Labour and non-labour share the same unit (h/d) while material has predefined units (e. There is a column for roles in the resources window in P6. and it can be procured by redeploying employed staff or employing new staff. (2) assign them to activities in the Resources tab of the Activities window. PROPERTIES OF RESOURCES There are three types of resources in Primavera P6 – labour (reusable). daily output (performance) and total cost. ROLE. (1) create resources in the Resources (window) of the Enterprise menu. The former is mainly used in the planning phase and the latter is used in developing schedules. and crew.. RSMeans is a good example of source for applying work crew. which has resources (labour. which means that resources can be categorised into roles. • Material includes all materials used in the project. Each crew in RSMeans has a task description. and to document financial records for analysis (cost management and progress monitoring) in the performing phase. Thus.

or labour + non-labour/material). . however in the schedule you need to split the work into more detailed sections.. this will include other minor non-labour and/or materials’ costs. payment or other items related to the contract price. operating expenses) and headquarters (e. all viaducts of different sizes can be grouped under one activity. create activities with activity type WBS summary at the next highest level of WBS and allocate resources to the activities. Instead simplify each activity’s resources into at most two or three – labour and representative non- labour/material. One to Multiple – one activity is the summary of many pay items (in other words. Next. DEVELOPING A QUICK S-CURVE (TOP-DOWN RESOURCE ALLOCATION) If you want to make a quick S-curve for accumulated progress. resources and quantities for activities can be obtained from Bill of Quantity (BOQ) and assigned to activities as follows: • Analyse BOQ to define a coefficient (weight factor) since the total amount of a contract price consists of direct costs for tasks and indirect costs for offices (e. you can use WBS summary Representative non-labour or material means a resource with the highest cost among non-labours or materials. There are three types of relations between activities and items on the BOQ: One to One – one activity represents one pay item on the BOQ. You do not need to load all resources to activities. • Multiply the quantity of resources by unit prices by the coefficient (weight factor) to determine the budget of each activity. If it is possible to divide the resource into the next highest level of WBS because the plan has advanced and costs are divided into the next level. RESOURCE LOADING (BOTTOM-UP RESOURCE ALLOCATION) In bottom-up resource allocation. profit). As time goes on. and material) and its quantities for each component of deliverables.. The total amount divided by direct costs gives the coefficient. and Multiple to One – in many cases the BOQ has the total quantities. and you can breakdown costs further and assign them to activities. • Reorganise BOQ in accordance with WBS (Work packages) and activities.g. the cost structure will become clear. the activity should have a resource curve that you can manipulate. The resource is used for showing price or cost only. such that each activity has one or two resources (labour. First. you need to create an activity with activity type WBS summary (Activities window – General tab – Activity Type) at the highest level of WBS assigned with the total amount of the contract price. adjust the budget of the activity (at the top) and the activities at the next level of WBS in order to meet the total amount of the project cost.

Figure 57 – Progress The Physical % complete and the Activity % complete cannot be rolled up at the WBS or Project levels because it is a value added manually by a user. Earned Value Cost (EV). This is because that most work is done by people (labour). duration type of an activity must be fixed – only “Fixed duration & units” and “Fixed duration and units/time” types can be assigned. Earned value labour units. use Performance % complete instead. UNITS (RESOURCES) AND DURATION The progress of Physical (deliverables) can be monitored in terms of Planned Value Cost (PV). it is not possible to get an accurate value on summary level from Duration % complete because it computes project percentage based on baseline duration and remaining duration. If you want to obtain a rolled up Physical % complete. Expenses has three types of curve: • Start of activity – The entire expense costs are accrued at the start date of the activity. EASY RESOURCE LOADING AND PROJECT STATUSING . On the other hand. What about units (resources)? Only labour has values for EVM monitoring – Planned value labour units. Nevertheless.If you want to set a resource curve for each activity. and Actual labour units. MONITORING THE PROGRESS OF PHYSICAL (DELIVERABLES). as shown in Figure 57. if you want to assign a resource curve to “Fixed units” and “Fixed units/time” type activities. • Uniform over activity – The expense costs are accrued uniformly over the duration of the activity. you will see that Unit % complete and Duration % complete display their values rolled up to WBS and project level. so labour units should be used as the basis for monitoring the progress of resources. • End of activity – The entire expense costs are accrued at the finish date of the activity. rather than actual duration and remaining duration. When you status your project. you can use Expenses (Activity window – Expenses tab) instead. and Actual Cost (AC) in Primavera P6.

If you want to classify costs into the project CA structure. and you can create just one resource to be used for all activities or multiple resources according to the project cost account (CA) structure if needed. you can use “Top Down Estimation” (Tools – Top down estimation) by inputting “0” in Estimated Units and hitting the Apply button. you can customise it in the Columns dialogue box) according to the total amount of the activity cost multiplied by the coefficient (weight factor). Figure 58 – Top down estimation .If a resource type or item is not important and the only purpose of resource loading is to monitor progress. If there is no column for Budgeted Units. you can manage it in a simple way as follows: • Create a resource with $1/d price (rate) and then assign it to activities. you can compose a project CA structure in resources window and compute the totals of each CA. supply constraints. for example. create a new resource for the item with $1/d price and assign it to the activities. • Define Budgeted Units in P6 (Activities window – Resources tab. the budgeted units will be defined on the basis of the activity duration until you convert it into other basis. The method mentioned above is known as the weighting factor method. Define budgeted units for each considering the total amount of the activity cost. • If there is any resource that needs to be controlled due to. HANDY TIP – ERASING ALL UNITS ASSIGNED TO ACTIVITIES IN ONE GO If you want to erase all units of resources assigned in a project. What if there is no precise budget for each activity so you cannot assign budget to them? In that case.

Relationships. In Figure 59.Developing activity duration and relationships The most important thing in schedule management may be activity relationships. and Activity C is the successor activity of Activity B. When analysing a project schedule. In Figure 60. Activity A and B are the predecessors of Activity C. also referred to as logic ties or network connectors. Activity B is the successor activity of Activity A. it will start on 13 May. Figure 59 – Sequence of activities • Successor activity: An activity falling behind another activity in an activity sequence. this is an important technique for tracking the driving predecessor activities from the end of the activity sequence. and they will be finished on 7 May and 12 May. In this case. and Activity B is the predecessor activity of Activity C. Figure 60 – Predecessors of an activity Figure 61 – Predecessors of an activity . Activity B is the driving predecessor activity for Activity C. Inappropriate relationships can spoil a project schedule and. respectively. • Driving predecessor activity: An activity affecting the start or finish date of the successor activity. • Predecessor activity: An activity falling prior to another activity in an activity sequence. moreover. Activity A is the predecessor activity of Activity B. it is very difficult to find an inappropriate relationship in a big schedule. hold the various activities and milestones together and are noted by arrows in the network diagram. You can see the driving activity check in the box of predecessors (see Figure 61). Since Activity C can start only when all predecessors have finished.

and historical or related data. a determination should be made as to the unit of measurement and level of accuracy required.• Non-driving predecessor activity: An activity not affecting the start or finish date of the successor activity. • Lag: The duration assigned to a relationship between a predecessor activity and a successor activity to delay the start or finish date of the successor. Activity A is the non-driving predecessor activity in Figure 60. When the subcontractor submits a schedule including an activity with duration of 10 days. The budgeted units can be derived from the BOQ. and the pessimistic duration in order to apply PERT. When using analogous analysis. Prior to estimating durations. if a schedule management team sets eight hours per day as standard work hours for their schedules but a subcontractor sets twelve hours per day. schedulers in the team will find that activity durations are lengthened when they import the subcontractor’s schedule into their schedules at the ratio of 150% (= 12 / 8). such as RSMeans. • Analogous analysis: Schedulers reflect experts’ experiences and judgements. Duration is computed as budgeted units divided by performance (units/day). DURATION UNITS AND ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATION Some common methods and sources for deriving or enhancing duration estimates include: • Parametric analysis: Schedulers use established standards. which suggest daily rates per required quantity based on historical records of accomplishment. its hourly duration is actually 120 . From a schedule analysis perspective. • Lead (negative lag): The duration assigned to a relationship between a predecessor activity and a successor activity to accelerate the start or finish date of the successor. it is best to ascertain the optimistic duration. it is highly recommended to make all duration time units alike within the same schedule. the most likely duration. This is because all duration data is stored on an hourly basis in the P6 database. The reason for this recommendation is that mixing time units within the same schedule may result in slight differences and inconsistencies to float values that are internally calculated. For example.

Since GERT allows loops between tasks. and if some of them fail. it should be understood that schedule float. However. schedulers should compute the expected duration of the task themselves. The purpose of CCPM is to secure a buffer.hours. Thus. test. GRAPHICAL EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (GERT) FOR INSPECTIONS AND TESTS GERT is a network development technique used in schedule management that allows probabilistic treatment of both network logic and estimation of activity duration. as shown in Figure 62. however. SCHEDULE CONTINGENCY Schedule contingency (also known as schedule reserve or schedule margin) should be based on project risks and duration uncertainty. and take it into account when calculating activity durations. and be clearly identifiable when included within the master plan. This technique is based on methods derived from Theory of . because Primavera P6 does not provide this feature. In other words. should not be considered as a schedule contingency. it is mainly used for the activities that depend on the results of inspections or tests. the rework will be performed again and again until successful. Figure 62 – Workflow of GERT In this case. Figure 63 – Schedule adjustment based on CCPM One of methods to secure schedule contingency is Critical Chain Project Method (CCPM). preventing project delay. For clarification. duration for the task should be calculated as the total duration of tasks (ready for test. which is a calculated value based on network logic. and rework) divided by the probability of passing the test. also known as Critical Chain Method (CCM). certain components need to pass a test. schedulers on the schedule management team will find that the activity takes 15 days because their duration basis is eight hours per day (120 hours / 8 hours per day = 15 days). it should fall on the critical path.

schedulers should divide secured contingencies into smaller blocks of buffers. Goldratt. CCPM is based on the idea that task owners try to secure more time and resources than their tasks actually need (Parkinson’s law). to use as a measure by which to monitor project schedule and performance. and a FF relationship with the last one. and it is unlikely that they will yield the slack. in a lump. SUSPENDING AND RESUMING AN ACTIVITY Sometimes schedulers feel the need to suspend and resume an activity. suspension is not recommended because it distorts total float. If a task will require three periods of suspension. If the delayed activity lies at the beginning of the schedule and none of its successor activities have slack. • Even though schedulers have succeeded in securing slack time from task owners. only do so for the four activities. To secure the buffer. introduced by Eliyahu M. Figure 64 – Suspending and resuming an activity . they may have to change their schedule. in applying CCPM to schedule management. Thus. a scheduler should collect slack time from each task and use it as buffer by putting it at the end of the schedule. make four activities linking them. and as a buffer in case of project delay. If needed. they may continuously experience project delay because there is no buffer mitigating delay at the beginning or in the middle of the schedule. and insert them in the middle of the schedule at regular intervals. To ease off. schedulers can reduce the durations of all activities by a ratio of 2% or 3%. for instance. Do not assign resources to the LOE activity. Only task owners (engineers) know the exact amount of slack time for their tasks. with FS relationships and lag for the task. Only activities in progress can have suspend and resume dates. schedulers do not have the capability to judge the amount of slack time each task has.Constraints (TOC). However. there are some issues to consider: • Generally. however. but Primavera P6 does not. and they will only start to apply themselves to a task at the last possible moment before its deadline (Student syndrome). Assign a SS relationship with the first activity. as shown in Figure 63. you can use LOE. Then create an LOE activity and link it with the activities you have created. What if you need more suspending periods on an activity? MS Project provides such a feature.

however. they can change the relationships from FS to SS with lags. Changeable relationships from FS to SS are called soft logic. Soft logic is set for cost-saving and convenience in performing. but linking activities belonging to different work packages can be complicated. Finish to Finish (FF). FS relationship is frequently used to link activities. ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WORK PACKAGES It is not difficult to assign relationships to activities belonging to the same work package. the predecessor activities are just a precondition for the successors to start. Figure 65 – Sample network diagram for a railway project As you know. and Start to Finish (SF). and unchangeable relationships are hard logic. a scheduler should first develop a network diagram (see Figure 65). When they need to recover delayed activities or finish tasks earlier. so take note of all soft logics in UDF (User Defined Field) in P6 for easy search in case of finding points for fast-tracking to recover delayed activities. even though they can use SS. In that case. Start to Start (SS). there are four types of relationships in scheduling – Finish to Start (FS). some P6 operators use FS for no other reason than to secure duration contingency in case of a schedule delay. To help establish reasonable relationships between activities. Below are examples of hard logics: .

• Orders from the client or licensing from local government. For example. as shown in Figure 66. • Convenience: It is reasonable to perform painting work before wallpaper work.• Physical sequence: The structure of the second floor can be built only after that of the first floor is finished. Figure 66 – Change of activity relationship In that case. HANDY TIP – REMOVING MULTIPLE RELATIONSHIPS Go to the relationship tab in the activity window and open the “Assign Successors” window. instead of FS with negative lag value. Figure 67 – Removing multiple relationships . Activity B should have started five days later because the completion date of its predecessor (Activity A) has been delayed five days. • Constraints of resources: If there are five tasks that require a certain special machine and only one is available. as shown in Figure 67. • Procedural sequence: Construction can begin only after the supervisor has approved the construction plan. suppose Activity B began ten days prior to the completion date of its predecessor (Activity A) and an unexpected event occurred two days before the completion date of Activity A. the tasks should be processed one by one. negative value lag (lead) is prohibited in scheduling because it is hard to anticipate the successor’s start date. causing it to be delayed five days. many guidelines recommend using SS with positive lag value. Below are examples of soft logics: • Efficient use of resources: To utilise construction machines at multiple sites instead of buying additional machines. • Constraints in working: Permanent way work and catenary work in a railway project cannot start at the same time due to the narrow space. NEGATIVE VALUE LAG (LEAD) In many guidelines. Then click the Remove button. To prevent this situation. Select multiple activities in the activity window and those in activity assignment pop-up window.


It is best to create a new calendar for a new project.g. schedulers should fully understand the nature of both. and then adjust work hours per day in the Calendar weekly hours dialogue box. and non-working days of the year. public holidays and non-working days due to bad weather conditions) – Select a day and click Non-work for non-workable days in the calendar dialogue box.g. and the limits for that period are determined from the shift definition on that resource. They are used only for resource dependent activities. (2) Workable days in a week (e. copying from a calendar. and then adjust Standard work hours in the Calendar weekly hours dialogue box. Calendars should be set in terms of three different time levels: working hours of the day. When used properly by contractors. working days of the week.g. It is best to input eight (8) for workable days and zero (0) for non-workable days. because sharing calendars may cause serious problems in scheduling. There are three types of calendars: • Global calendars – These calendars are accessible to all projects in the EPS network and are available for all resources and activities. 8 hours per day) – Select Total work hours/day and click Workweek in the calendar dialogue box. Monday to Saturday) – Select Detailed work hours/day. Changing an activity’s calendar or Time period in Admin preferences can cause problems with activity durations from time to time.. click Workweek in the calendar dialogue box. (3) Non-workable days of the year (e. the calendar will demonstrate all working and non- working days for a project.. Thus. Figure 68 – Defining workable hours and dates .Assigning calendars Calendars are an important part of project schedules because they directly affect the duration of the project (specifically. • Resource calendars – These are used to determine when the resource can work. (1) Working hours per day (e. but are available only within a specified project. • Project calendars – These are similar to global calendars. the activities)..

for example. its original hourly duration is actually 80 hours. you can see the option “Use assigned calendar to specify…” as shown in Figure 69. you will need to define the work hours per day in both the Workweek and Time periods of each calendar. hourly durations will remain the same. each assigned calendar will define the daily work hours of an activity individually. If you uncheck it and change Hours/day. however. Figure 69 – Admin preferences If you want to use a different daily work hour basis. you can see changed daily-based durations in the activity table immediately. WORKING HOURS PER DAY Since work time is not usually visible in the activities table or Gantt chart. If you check the option. so when an activity is assigned a calendar that has. What if you want to change the work hours per day from eight to ten? First. you need to select a method by which to specify work hours/day. All durations in Primavera P6 are stored as hourly-based data. schedulers sometimes make of mistake of combining working hours per day and Hours/Day in the Time periods in the calendar set. as shown in . In the Time periods tab under Admin preferences in the Admin menu. eight work hours per day and the original duration of the activity is ten days.

) WORKABLE DAYS PER WEEK P6 users set workable days per week by defining work hours in the Workweek of the calendar set. work hours in the Workweek should be ten. . but daily work hours in the Workweek remain at 8? The durations of all the activities assigned with the calendar will be halved. If you select Hour for Durations format in the Time units tab under User Preference (Edit menu).Figure 70. construction projects usually allow for six or seven work days. Figure 71 shows an original schedule on the left. (Note that as long as all participants who deal with the schedule count durations on a daily basis. At first. If the Hours/day of Time periods is changed from eight to ten. you will never see changes to the original hourly duration in the activity table. even if Hours/day in Time periods are changed. if the activity has 10 days as its original duration. When work Hours per day in Time periods is 16. For example. Figure 70 – Work hours per day What will happen if work Hours/day in the Time periods of a calendar have been changed from 8 to 16. its hourly duration will be 80 hours. and non-workable days should have 0 hours. as previously mentioned. duration changes due to changes in Time periods will cause real changes to activity durations. however. and a revised schedule on the right. as previously explained. The dark grey-coloured dates are non-working days. When setting workable days. the daily duration will be 5 (80 = 16 x 5) because Time periods is just the setting option to display work hours per day. Many countries have five work days per business week. schedulers should consider the working environment of the site. If you want to make activity durations appear to be increased or decreased without changing their actual original hourly duration. workable days should have 10 hours. the amount of delay of a predecessor activity does not always equal the delay days affecting the successor activity’s start date. When there are non-workable days in a week in the assigned calendars. you need only to alter work hours/day in the Time periods of the assigned calendar.

such as concrete. schedulers also have to take the latest local weather trends into account. The initial calendar duration (not the working duration) of Activity B was six days – from 10 to 15 December. Figure 71 – Work days and calendar days If you want to define the activities that are most affected by a calendar setting. however. and statistics for weather conditions. the start date of Activity B is delayed four days. Later. due to climate change. The benefit of identifying the most-affected activities by calendar setting is that it allows you to take them into account when analysing a project schedule or developing a recovery plan. you need only to calculate the difference between original duration and calendar duration: • Calculate calendar durations (calendar duration = finish date – start date). Activity A has been delayed by two days and finished on 11 December. Prior to setting non-workable days of the year.Activity A is scheduled to finish on 9 December and Activity B to start on 10 December. schedulers should collect two data – the national calendar for public holidays. elevated work. . it is helpful to use long-term statistics to increase probabilities. tasks should be classified according to their sensitivity to the impacts of weather conditions and holidays. NON-WORKING DAYS OF THE YEAR To set non-workable days of the year. • Affected by wind – outdoor spray work. • Compute the difference between calendar duration and original duration (= calendar duration – original duration). • Affected by rain – exterior paint work. In addition. Below is a sample classification for impacts and tasks: • Affected by low temperature – any tasks using water. even though the predecessor has been delayed only two days. its revised calendar duration is four days (reduced by two days). You can find in the specifications the weather conditions affecting certain tasks. When it comes to weather conditions.

. hit Load XER. you do not need to create a calendar that has non-workable days for low temperatures. and find the XER file you created. In Middle Eastern countries. Figure 72 shows sample calendar types where “X” means non-reflection and “O” means reflection. to minimise interruptions in schedule analysis. tunnel work. • Affected by no weather conditions or public holidays – shipment. Figure 72 – Sample calendar types For the countries that have warm temperatures throughout the year. • Affected by holidays – review and approval process by client and central or local government. Download XER- Reader from the website and follow the steps below: • Make an XER file of your project from Primavera P6. there should be as few calendar types as possible. For example. • Open XER-Reader. Each task should be assigned an appropriate calendar type since each task is affected differently by weather conditions and holidays. By the way. • Snowfall – The daily total amount is 50 mm or more. additional review is required because not all foreign labourers follow it. Calendar C has non-working days for low temperatures. • Temperature – The daily average temperature is 0 degree Celsius or less. Ramadan (a fast and prayer period) is a considerable factor in setting a calendar. • Wind – The daily maximum speed is 13m/second or more. To reflect Ramadan in developing a calendar. There is a way. Errors of float calculation can occur between activities with different calendar types. Below are typical weather conditions and criteria under which certain work is prohibited: • Rainfall – The daily total amount is 80 mm or more.• Affected by no weather conditions – indoor work. HANDY TIP – VIEWING 12 MONTHS AT ONCE Schedulers sometimes feel the need to view 12 months at once to quickly review the settings for non-working days throughout the year.

with comments corresponding to grey- coloured days (non-working days). Figure 73 – Calendar showing non-workable days over 12 months . and red-coloured days (inherited exceptions from the global calendar). select the project by clicking the drop button. In the calendar sheet. and you will see a pop-up box. and you will see the project information. • Input the year and select the calendar you want to see.• After loading the XER file. green-coloured days (exceptions). you will see 12 months. • Hit Calendar. as shown in Figure 73.

if the calculated start date is after the constraint. activity codes provide convenient functionalities for dealing with activity data. • Finish on or before – This places a deadline on the completion of an activity or milestone. for example. • Finish on – This is used to force an activity or milestone to finish on the constraint date. • Start on or after – This sets the earliest date on which an activity or milestone can begin and forces the earliest start date to be equal to the constraint date. overriding schedule logic entirely. On the other hand. so schedulers should use as few constraints as possible. • Mandatory finish – This forces early and late finish dates of an activity or milestone to be equal to the constraint date.Assigning constraints and activity codes Sometimes constraints interrupt scheduling and identifying critical path. forcing the activity or milestone to finish no later than the constraint date. P6 users can adjust the dates arbitrarily by assigning constraints to the activities. so schedulers should create. assign and use as many activity codes as possible. • Start on – This forces an activity or milestone to start on the constraint date. • Start on or before – This places a deadline on the start of an activity or milestone and forces the activity or milestone to start no later than the constraint date. There are nine constraint types in Primavera P6: • Mandatory start – This forces early and late start dates of an activity or milestone to be equal to the constraint date. Constraints should be assigned to activities only as required by the client. regardless of schedule logic and calculations. ASSIGNING CONSTRAINTS Normally. Thus. regardless of schedule logic and calculations. regardless of the calculations of the schedule. • As late as possible – This consumes the free float of an activity or milestone. however. Most clients do not allow constraints because constrains affect an activity’s total float. any constraints assigned to activities must be documented with reasons and sources. the later date will apply. The nine constraint types fall into two categories in terms of their ability to fix the dates of . and pushes the activity or milestone as late as possible without impacting the start of the successors (free float). however. • Finish on or after – This sets the earliest date on which an activity milestone can finish. an activity’s start and finish dates are defined by its relationships with predecessor activities. regardless of the calculations of the schedule.

floor. some P6 users prefer to use activity codes instead of WBS codes. you can create a WBS summary activity in each WBS level. Furthermore. for instance. activity owner (responsible team. you want an activity to start between 3 January 2017 and 17 January 2017. and vice versa in the image at right. Finish On or After. most software packages share WBS format. Mandatory Finish. and As Late As Possible. while activity codes can create problems. building. you can easily merge WBS outlines into other software. or location. Thus. or movement only within a given range. Figure 75 shows an example of organising activities based on activity codes – Building and Floor. department. Figure 75 – Organising activities based on activity codes . there are features in WBS that activity codes cannot provide. and includes Start On. and Finish On or Before + Finish On or After. which are less flexible and versatile than activity codes. or in one direction. as shown in Figure 74. You can summarise activities based on WBS. Start On or Before + Start On or After. which shows a summary of WBS directly. and help P6 users group and filter activities. It includes Mandatory Start. however. but not based on activity codes. Soft constraint allows an activity to move back and forth. They represent broad categories of information. In grouping activities. you need to set two constraints – select “Start on or after” in the Primary constraint on 3 January 2017 and “Start on or before” in the Secondary constraint on 17 January 2017.activities – soft constraint and hard constraint. Figure 74 - Constraints ACTIVITY CODES Activity codes are like tags. thus. Hard constraint is the constraint (or combination of constraints) that allows no movement. Finish On. such as phase. division of work (department or discipline). Activity codes can act like WBS codes. or staff). Start On or After. If. Finish On or Before. the activity code for Building is located at a higher level than that of Floor in the image at left. Similarly. Start On or Before. organising activities in a hierarchy and providing even more powerful features to organise them in various ways by combining several activity codes at the same time.

select an activity. click the cell of the activity code. Click Close. Hit OK. and you will see a pop-up asking you to select a value. click Add to create as many Code values as you like. Click Close. • Search the activity code in the Available options area and move it to the Selected options area by double-clicking it. and then define Max length of code value for the activity code you created. Figure 76 – Creating activity codes Below are the steps to assign activity codes to activities: • Display the Columns dialogue box by right-clicking on the columns of the activity window. as shown in Figure 77. name it.Below are the steps to create activity codes and assign them to activities: • Open the Activity codes dialogue box (Enterprise – Activity codes). • Click Modify in the dialogue box and you will see the Activity code definitions dialogue box (See Figure 76). • Hit Add in the dialogue box. • In the Activity codes pop-up. and name them. . • In the activity window.

as shown in Figure 78. duration % complete. primary constraint and constraint date. activity codes. while a UDF has no code value. Below are data types that are commonly used in schedule management and can be changed with Global change: • Activity area – Activity ID and name. • If you want to assign the value multiple activities. they differ in usage – an activity code has a code value used in grouping and filtering activities. duration type. • Progress area – actual start and finish. activity type. and units % complete. and WBS. Figure 78 – Activity code and UDF Global change is commend allowing P6 users to make batch changes to activities and their attributes. including durations. percent complete type. UDF is generally used for taking a note or recording data temporarily while using Global change.• Double-click the value. HANDY TIP – AN EASY WAY TO CHANGE THE ORDER OF . and secondary constraint and constraint date. expected finish. Figure 77 – Dialogue box for selecting an activity code value COMPARING ACTIVITY CODES AND UDFS (USER DEFINED FIELDS) AND GLOBAL CHANGE Even though UDFs (User Defined Fields) look similar to activity codes. calendar. physical % complete. expenses and more. you can use the Fill down command. • Duration and date area – Original and remaining duration.

.COLUMNS IN AN ACTIVITIES TABLE You can click and drag any column that you want to move.

the level of experience and knowledge of each scheduler will be revealed.Refining the schedule Refining the schedule means optimising the project schedule by reviewing network logic and removing constraints on the working space or resources. and Data date. • Reschedule the copy: many calculated fields and log files will be updated. Before you begin refining your project. specifications. guidelines for schedule management (if any). etc. Go through each document and tag on any page that has schedule-related information or requirements. The quality of the project schedule is dependent on this stage. Figure 79 – Dates tab of the Projects window • Activity types have to be reviewed. When the project is still in the planning phase. . Planned finish date. you need to review all relevant documents: The Contract Agreement. you need to preserve the original in case you end up needing to go back. as well as performing what-if scenarios as necessary. and any work scope-related documents. drawings. • Create a copy of your project and re-name the copy as suggested in the preparation chapter: Project name + “Backup” + “Analyse” + date. In this stage. • Check whether the WBS of the schedule covers all of the work scope. The Planned finish date should fall on or before the Must finish by date so that activities do not have negative float. In this phase. CHECK THE BASICS Prior to scheduling. Must finish by date. the Project Management Plan. Normal tasks should be of the task-dependent type. schedulers will experience a lot of repetitive work – scheduling and adjusting – to find the optimised project schedule. the Project Charter (if any). • Check four key dates in Primavera P6 and confirm that they are set in the Dates tab of the Projects window (see Figure 79) – Planned start date (project start date). the DD should not exceed the Planned start date. the approved Work Estimate.

get rid of them. if possible. • Check constraints in the schedule. Current DD should not exceed the project start date. • Does your client allow the schedule to have leads or lags? If not. To view the Schedule option dialogue box. Figure 80 – Schedule dialogue box Before scheduling. thus. schedulers should make sure that each calendar has proper non-working days and working hours/day. • Ignore relationships to and from other projects – This determines whether Primavera P6 will take into account logic relationships between the active project and any other projects while scheduling. • Use expected finish dates – This determines whether P6 is accounting for expected finish dates. and each activity is assigned to the proper calendar. • Level resources during scheduling – This determines whether resources will be .• Calendars seriously affect project duration. • Schedule automatically when a change affects dates – This determines whether P6 will recalculate the schedule automatically whenever any date is changed. You can find them by using the P6 Report Wizard. Are they all allowed by your clients? If so. Fix other activities with open-ended relationships by linking them with other activities. SCHEDULING Scheduling aims to determine whether or not the draft schedule to meet the project completion. Finding lags using the Report Wizard is discussed in another chapter. • Make open-ended activities critical – This determines whether the software will show activities without successor relationships as critical. only the start and finish milestone activities are allowed to have an open-ended relationship. click the Options button in the Schedule dialogue box. Current DD and Schedule options. users must set some options in the Schedule option dialogue box. • Generally speaking. record reasons in UDFs. This relates to the ability of P6 to have logic links between multiple projects.

or as a function of a certain value of total float. therefore. • Compute total float as – This determines how total float is calculated. The retained logic setting means that if an activity starts out of sequence. Details are introduced in another chapter. • Recalculate assignment costs after scheduling – This determines whether assigned costs will be recalculated after scheduling. This is related to processing out-of-sequence activities. The schedule log is a text file that can be generated automatically while scheduling. levelled while scheduling. “Calculate multiple float paths” in the advanced option is to determine how P6 will trace multiple logical paths to specified activities. Since a lag is assigned to a relationship. some clients define this option in their requirements related to schedule management. or actual dates. therefore. users have to choose one of the options. • Calendar for scheduling relationship lag – This determines how P6 will calculate relationship lag. • Calculate float based on finish date of – This determines how P6 will take into account multiple projects linked together. A lag is created because of a successor activity. the remaining duration of that activity will be delayed until all of its predecessors have finished. Figure 81 – Sample schedule log . • Calculate start-to-start lag from – This determines how SS relationship lag is calculated. • Define critical activities as – This determines whether the software is calculating critical activities as the longest path. the successor is responsible for the lag. progress override. SCHEDULE LOG REVIEW The schedule log shows key schedule-related statistics. This option can affect the project duration in updating the schedule. You can view it by hitting View log in the Schedule dialogue box (see Figure 81). The early start setting means that the amount of lag is dependent on the early start date of its predecessor. • When scheduling progressed activities use – This determines whether the schedule is calculated using retained logic.

and completed can be used as information in the regular report. • Finish milestone and predecessors have different calendars – Shows whether finish milestones and their predecessors have different calendars. data of activities. Scheduling/levelling results • Projects scheduled/levelled – Relates to how many projects were scheduled.) • Projects – Shows how many projects were scheduled using P6. • Activities with constraint – Provides a count of the total number of activities with constraints. in progress. • Activities without successors – Shows the number of activities that lack successors. • Not started – Shows the number of activities that have not yet started. • Activities – Defines the total number of activities in the schedule. Warnings (Data of warning is used in analysing a schedule) • Activities without predecessors – Shows the number of activities that lack predecessors. • Activities with actual dates > data date – Shows the number of activities that have actual dates later than the DD. • Completed – Defines the number of activities completed. not started. . • Out-of-sequence activities – Shows the number of activities that have started before their predecessor activity has finished. • In progress – Shows the number of activities in progress. • Milestone activities with invalid relationships – Checks the legitimacy of logic relationships to milestone activities.Scheduling/levelling settings show the settings for schedule options. Statistics (Among statistics. • Relationships – Provides the total number of relationships used in the schedule.

• Activities scheduled/levelled – Provides the number of activities scheduled. Figure 82 – Example of a graphical summary schedule SPATIAL CONSTRAINTS REVIEW . • Earliest early start date – Shows the earliest early start date in the project after calculation. viaducts. and the vertical rectangles represent civil works (earth work. and tunnels). Figure 82 shows an example of a graphical summary schedule for a railway project. thus. Track work cannot start before all civil works are completed. An ex post facto method is to draw a graphical summary schedule that will be used in checking the omission and failure of network logic. • Data date – Show the data date. Incorrect relationships can easily distort total float. This summary schedule is prepared on the basis of the draft schedule. If any relationship is missing between civil work and track work. To develop a proper project schedule. • Relationships with other projects – Shows relationships by which activities are linked with the activities in other projects. without omitting. all civil works should lie under track work in the schedule. • Latest early finish date – Shows the latest early finish date in the project. FINDING MISSING RELATIONSHIPS The most difficult aspect of developing a schedule is probably accurately linking activities with each other with appropriate relationships. and its graphical icons help to clarify the schedule and check activity dates. The horizontal orange lines are permanent ways work (track). schedulers have to prepare network diagram of work package level in advance. track work will start before the civil work in that section is finished. resulting in an incorrect project duration.

Sometimes work interferences occur between disciplines in a small work space. and areas. follow these steps: • Identify the areas. and rooms that are expected to be crowded by different subcontractors. thus. increasing the project cost. spaces. • Create activity codes and assign them to activities according to location. • Review Gantt charts at each area. the buildings and facilities of depots (which are used to keep and maintain trains) used to be completed one year prior to opening. Figure 83 shows an example of grouping by floor. and its buildings and facilities will be maintained unnecessarily until opening. In terms of economics. Figure 83 – Grouping by Floor (third floor) INTENTIONAL DELAY On railway construction projects. even though they have no successor tasks. • Reorganise activities in accordance with activity codes by using “Group and Sort”. some infrastructure or facilities do not need to be completed early. and room. To do this review. floors. LEVELLING RESOURCES . rooms. Railway construction projects usually have long construction durations. link the activities with Finish to Start relationship to prevent overcrowding. floor. if a depot is finished one year early. such as floors. the plan should be rescheduled to reduce the project cost. Depots tend to have sizable infrastructure requiring huge budgets. Schedulers can find these types of constraints by grouping activities that will be performed at the same time and place. If there is any place where multiple tasks will be performed at the same time and it is expected to be crowded with different subcontractors. space. its interest cost for one year cannot be ignored.

causing a resource shortage. Figure 84 – Resource usage profile Even though levelling resources is a useful feature in Primavera P6. are performed at the same time. P6 operators prefer to adjust activity dates manually. Primavera P6 processes resource levelling by moving schedule tasks mechanically. beginning with those with a large Free float. see if there is any room to change the schedule without modifying the completion date of the project.Levelling resources is a technique by which the start and finish dates of activities are adjusted on the basis of resource constraints (or resources limitations). adjust the activities with a large Total float first. Figure 84 shows the usage profile of plasterers (R-10). • Go to Resource Usage Profile view and check any over-allocated resources. There are some cases in which multiple activities requiring the same resources. • Adjust the activities. • All activities moved due to levelling resources should be recorded in order to be reviewed when developing the recovery plans. the black line represents the maximum units per time. • If you have finished adjusting the activities with free float and there are still over- allocated resources. by adding relationships or lags. • If you have finished adjusting the activities with Total float and there are still over- allocated resources. not only for solving resource constraints but also for achieving a more consistent level of resources throughout the schedule duration. The tasks should be rescheduled to resolve the resource shortage to adjust resource usage profile. and the red bars represent over-allocation. WHAT-IF SCENARIOS . The purpose of levelling resources is to balance the demand for resources with the available supply. such as machines. Actually. Since levelling resources is not controllable. its use is not recommended because levelling resources sometimes generates unintentional changes in the schedule. The following steps are for manual resource levelling: • Display columns of Free float and Total float to view.

• You can see changes of duration when you change the units/time of critical activities as well as the project duration. which can also be used in catch-up planning. activities should be assigned with resources. find critical activities.To find the optimised schedule. and click “Create Reflection” in the popup menu. How quickly can it be done with six men per day? To optimise duration and performance.000. . • If you have built the optimised schedule. • You will have a dialogue box (see Figure 85) in which to review changes to the project. • Right-click. • Hit “Merge Changes” to apply. Figure 85 – Preview dialogue box for merging changes • Open the project. The optimised schedule reflects the working environment and resource management strategy. schedulers develop various what-if scenarios in the planning phase. Here are some examples of questions for scenarios: • How many people per day will be needed to complete this activity in three weeks? • If we increase work time from 10-hour to 12-hour shifts. and the duration type should be “Fixed units”. and click “Merge Reflection into Source project”. • Go to the Projects window and select the project for which you want to create what-if scenarios. and change its units/time. Select the activities to merge them with the original project. right-click. • You will see a project with a question mark (?) at the project icon. how much time will we save? • The budget for this task is $20. So what is a scenario? A scenario involves a question and an answer. and its project name has “Reflection” additionally.

• Check whether any relationships are missing for the critical activities. You can draw critical paths and near-critical paths with scheduling in Primavera P6. a schedule needs to reflect as many risks as possible by repeating schedule development cycle. • Check whether any critical activity has constraints. In a simple schedule. the scheduler should monitor near-critical paths. Points you have to review for the critical path: • Compare the critical path revealed by scheduling with the critical path you expected. too. DEFINING CRITICAL ACTIVITIES Do you know the difference between the critical paths revealed by “Total float less than or equal to” and “Longest path” in the scheduling options box? The critical path presented by “Total float less than or equal to” is determined on the basis of total float. Here are the steps: • Go to the editing dialogue box for columns in the activity table. • Check whether the critical activities have proper durations and calendars. To filter near-critical activities. thus. CRITICAL PATH AND NEAR-CRITICAL PATH In the executing phase. you can use float path and float order. any activity path can become the critical path due to a delay of the activities on the non-critical path. Float path demonstrates the order of a group of total float value. As for the “Longest path” option. • Add them to the Selected options area. the lower the . analysing. • Search for one called “Critical” and another called “Longest path”. you will find that both options present the same number of critical activities while different numbers of critical activities in a big schedule. thus. • You may see that the longest path has more activities than does the critical path with zero (0) total float. A scheduler should repeat the cycle of developing. the lower the number. Sometimes we feel like comparing the two. and revising a project schedule alternately in order to produce a robust and detailed schedule.Analysing the schedule The schedule development phase and the analysis phase are not separated when establishing a schedule. Participants in a construction project will encounter unfamiliar environments. any activities that have total float less than or equal to one will be critical activities. • Check whether any activity on the critical path has unnecessary or incorrect relationships or lag. the chain of activities that has the longest duration will be the critical path. If the option has one day.

Float path and float path order provide powerful features to analyse the critical path and near- critical path. Use these steps to show near-critical activities in other colours: • Go to the Filters dialogue box and create a new filter by clicking Add. If you do not see the Driving column in the Successors section. • Filter only the last activity (the project completion activity) with “Activity ID” for “Parameter” and “equals” for “Is”. it will give you a beautiful graphic view. You will see only the activity in the Gantt chart window. but near-critical activities are not. if you follow these steps: • Go to the Group and sort dialogue box. and click OK. Float order is the sequence of the activity relationships in the same float path. thus.amount of floats. and then repeat displaying other activities by using the “GoTo” button. and click OK. as shown in Figure 86. • Hit the “GoTo” button below and you will see the activity you selected. sort activities by clicking the Start column. Figure 86 – Float path and Float path order You can organise the critical path and near-critical paths in different ways without changing any data. • Go to the Relationships tab and select the activity’s predecessor that drives the dates of successors. • When completing displaying all activity you want in the Gantt chart window. a float path with number 1 is the critical path. If you use Activity network view. Select the activity that appears. you can display it by customising columns. . HANDY TIP – SHOWING NEAR-CRITICAL ACTIVITIES GRAPHICALLY Critical activities are usually shown red in the bar area. You may need to create a UDF to record these orders. delete WBS in Group by column.

• Save it by hitting OK. and select “Remain Bar” for Time scale. follow the steps below: • Go to the UDF dialogue box and create a new UDF.g. hit Commit changes. However. fluctuating resources. resource experience. such as “TF 4–6”. “=” for Is. “TF 1–3”). RISKS ANALYSIS In terms of schedule management.. “TF 1–3”) and click Modify. • Choose “TF 1-3” in the filter column. • Name it “TF 1–3” and close the dialogue box. and “Green” for the Parameter/Value column. if everything is OK. You can also make more near-critical bars. • Go to the Global change dialogue box and create a new change. • Select the bar type and colour at the Bar style below. • Make sure “Display” for the new filter is checked and save it by hitting OK. • Input “1d” in the Value column and “3d” in the High value column. choose the Critical indicator for Parameter. • Name it (e. The activities having positive . Schedule risks that impact schedule duration include design issues (design changes and design errors). • Display the column you create in the activity table.. etc. • Go to the Bars dialogue box and create a new bar by hitting Add. and close the Filters dialog box. • Choose “Total float” for Parameter and “within range of” for Is. all activity delays can be risks. If you want to show near-critical activities graphically in the activity table. You will see green indicators in the UDF column “TF 1–3” in the activity table. not all issues have the same impact on the schedule: • A delay of the activities on the critical path has a stronger impact on the schedule than that of other activities which have positive total floats. and run the Global change you have made. • Input “1d” in the Value column and “3d” in the High value column. • Save it by hitting OK. • Click Modify. • In the section named “Then”.• Name it (e. You will see that activities with a total float of 1 to 3 have the bar type and colour you have set. • You will see the Global change report.g. Review it and. and select “Total float” for Parameter and “within range of” for Is.

causing no delay of a project completion date. • Criticality Index – the proportion of the iterations in which an activity was on the critical path. • A delay of the activities with numerous successors has a stronger impact on the schedule than that of activities with a sole successor. To easily . as follows (Figure 87 illustrates the relationships between factors and analysis): Figure 87 – Relations between analyses • Duration Sensitivity – computes the correlation between the duration of each activity and that of the entire schedule. If an activity ranks high in this analysis. Instead. • Duration Cruciality – calculated by multiplying its duration sensitivity by criticality index. • Schedule Sensitivity Index – computed by multiplying its criticality index by the ratio of its variance against the variance of the whole schedule. Variance means standard deviation ([pessimistic duration – optimistic duration] / 6). delay of the activity will highly affect the project completion. Unfortunately. you have to review the activities one by one. which provides four powerful analysis functions. some are not visible. such as lag. however. total floats can be delayed within the range of total floats. which can take a long time. • A delay of the activities lying on the front of the critical path has a stronger impact on the schedule than that of activities lying on the back of the critical path because the former has more successors than the latter. If you want to see lag. HANDY TIP – FINDING LAG You can see most schedule-related data in the database of Primavera P6 by customising the columns of each window. schedulers cannot analyse the impact of each activity’s delay (risks) quantitatively with Primavera P6. using Pearson’s product moment. the activity will likely become a critical activity. If an activity ranks high in this calculation. you can analyse schedule-related risks with Primavera Risk Analysis.

hit the Columns button and bring lag from the Available options section to the Selected options section. hit the Run report button. Hit Next.find the lag of an activity using Report Wizard: • Open the project for which you want to find lag. Figure 88 – Report Wizard and the columns dialogue box REMAINING EARLY COST CURVE AND PAYMENT CURVE Figure 89 shows an example of a remaining early cost curve and payment curve. • In the Report title dialogue box. while clients use payment curves to calculate the funds to secure over the project period. • Run Report Wizard (Tools menu). Hit OK. • If you can see the Report generated dialogue box. Contractors use remaining early cost curves to calculate budgets and anticipate workloads over the project period. • You will see the Run report dialogue box. bring it from the section “Available Subject Areas”. create a name and hit Next. • You will see a second dialogue box. Click Next. If there is no “Activity relationships” in the section “Selected Subject Areas”. • You will see the lag of activities in the report. • When you see the third dialogue box. Primavera P6 PPM (version 15. Hit OK.1) has the report. as shown in Figure 88. and you will see the Report Wizard dialogue box (“Modify Wizard Report” will be checked). Figure 89 – Early cost curve and payment curve . • Go to the Reports window (Tools – Reports – Reports) and select the report (AD-02 Activity Relationships).

• Sum up the cost over the period in Excel. . invoice processing takes time. To make a payment curve. • Sum up the cost over the period. On a big project. It will usually be most efficient to group milestones and put them at the top of the schedule. • Select all the remaining late cost data and copy and paste it into another Excel sheet. and put it in Month 0 (at the beginning of the period). ORGANISING MILESTONES The bigger the project. which are usually important activities for estimating project progress. • Go to the Resource assignments window in Primavera P6 and set up Spreadsheet fields to display remaining early cost. and draw a graph based on the table. In that case. as shown in Figure 90.The two curves do not synchronise because the client pays the contractor the advance payment (284) at the beginning of the project (Month 1). it may be difficult to identify milestones. and deducts part of the advance payment and retention from every payment. the greater the number of activities. schedulers should manipulate the remaining late cost data in Excel. • Select all the remaining early cost data and copy and paste it into Excel. There are some contracts that suggest to pay based on the actualised milestones. • Change the timescale according to the time units of the graph. • Go back to the Resource assignments window and set up Spreadsheet fields to display remaining late cost. as well. grouping milestones will help the client and contractor communicate smoothly. if any. • Deduct part of the total amount of the advance payment and retention from the monthly remaining late cost. • Define the total amount of the advance payment and retention. make cumulative date by adding values. • Combine both summaries into a table.

international standard codes.g. subcontractors. etc.g.g.. subcontractors. etc. field site offices. contract agreement and contractual documents. Figure 90 – Milestones CHECKLIST BEFORE SUBMITTING SCHEDULE TO CLIENT IN THE PLANNING PHASE Schedule management • What are the requirements related to schedule management? • Have the requirements been defined by reliable documents (e.. etc.)? Schedule • Does the end date of the schedule meet the completion date of the project? • Do activities follow the standard activity ID and name structure? • Has the schedule been created based on schedule-related requirements? • What is the basis for activity durations and relationships? • Have constraints and lag/lead of activities been recorded? • Have resource allocations been reviewed to prevent over-allocation? • What are the milestone activities in the schedule? • What are the critical and near-critical activities in the schedule? • What are the schedule-related risks in the schedule? . suppliers.)? Work scope • Has the work scope been defined by reliable documents? • Has WBS been reviewed by participants (e..)? • Do the work packages cover all the work scope and all requirements of the client? • Have all work packages been assigned to responsible teams or organisations (e. suppliers. field site offices. departments. departments.


Methodologies and processes of progress updating
After a project baseline (planned schedule) is published, engineers in departments and site
offices carry out their tasks according to the project baseline and update the progress
status. The main purposes of progress updating are to (1) understand the project status, (2)
anticipate the finish date of the project by computing performance, and (3) calculate the
When updating the project schedule, it is necessary to define progress based on as-built
schedule information, such as daily field reports, project meetings, progress photographs,
etc. Progress can be defined by schedulers, department staff, counterparts at field site
offices, or subcontractors. When defining progress, relevant documents, photos, and
records should be procured as evidence.

Primavera P6 has many kinds of data, so it is no exaggeration to say that schedule
management is P6 database management. Schedulers should understand data types and
their relations with other data. To analyse and maintain progress data, schedulers should
know controllable data from uncontrollable data. Figure 91 illustrates the relationships
between progress data. As the diagram shows, controllable data are Original duration,
Remaining duration, Actual labour units, Actual non-labour units, Remaining labour units,
and Remaining non-labour units.
Note that once an activity has started (its start date has been actualised), you can change
its finish date, not by changing the original duration, but by changing the remaining
duration or At completion duration. Original duration is used only for computing Duration
% complete. In other words, once an activity has started, original duration becomes
planned duration, which is the basis for calculating Duration % complete.
Figure 91 – Relationships between schedule progress data

Primavera P6 (version 8.3) has 671 data types; however, users do not need to understand
all of them because P6 has been developed for various types of projects to support various

users. Figure 92 shows recommendable data types and names for P6 operators to
understand and monitor in the updating phase.
Figure 92 – Data types to monitor in the updating phase

Progress and as-built information will be gathered to reflect actual progress as of the DD
or contractor’s monthly progress payment estimate date. There are several types of
methods for communication between counterparts and schedulers to transmit progress
• Using a network version of Primavera P6 (EPPM) – P6 EPPM gives the project team
anytime, anywhere access to their project information through web-based user
interfaces. It also provides various interfaces such as PC (or tablet), iOS, Android, and
• Sharing a Primavera P6 (PPM) database – If counterparts at departments, field site
offices, and subcontractors can access the Primavera P6 database using a network, they
can update the project schedule directly.
• Submitting progress data in XER format – “.xer” is a file format created from the
database of Primavera P6. Engineers can submit it by email or other media to a
scheduler, who then imports it into his or her own Primavera P6 database.
• Submitting progress data in Excel format – If engineers (departments and site offices)
do not have the P6 application, they may use Excel to update their activities.
• Using network solutions (3rd party applications) – A project management team can
develop their own progress management solution or customise a SAP application for
progress management.
• Other types – On smaller projects, a project team can use phone, email or other media
to update schedules and communicate.
To share information conveniently, many people use cloud services, which are designed to
provide easy access to applications, resources and services, and are fully managed by a
cloud services provider. Examples of cloud services include online data storage and
backup solutions, Web-based document collaboration services, and more.

the scheduler can merge it into the source schedule. and subcontractors. . field site offices. a layout for each counterpart should be created to help them focus on their own activities when updating. • The scheduler imports the XER file into the Primavera P6 database and converts the schedule into a reflection. he or she can ask the counterpart about it. • A scheduler on a project management team makes reflection files for counterparts with different name based on naming standard if any. • Counterparts update the schedule (reflection file) based on actual performances and send it back to the scheduler. Figure 94 shows the process of updating a schedule using reflection files (XER files). • If the updated schedule is OK. Figure 94 – Schedule updating using reflection files • The scheduler exports the reflection files in XER format and distributes them to counterparts at departments. If there are any unsatisfied updates in the reflection schedule. • He or she then analyses the updated schedule by comparing it with the original schedule prior to merging it into the source schedule. • Using filter. Figure 93 – Structure of sharing files using cloud services COLLECTING PROGRESS DATA BY MEANS OF XER FILES Collecting progress data by transmitting XER files is a classic method among P6 users.

(This “fix” is not guaranteed to work every time because there may be version differences that will no longer be handled properly. if “Tab” is selected. as follows: • Open the XER file in Windows Notepad. Click it and then select the XER file. you can open and modify it in any text editor or program that can read a text file. • Import the file into Primavera P6 as usual. Select “Delimited” and hit Next. • Save it without changing the file extension. In the second dialogue box. but results are most often favourable. a scheduler who needs to centrally collect all schedule-related data from them should use Excel files as . resources. The first is to call the counterpart and ask him or her to save it as a lower version that your P6 can process. COLLECTING PROGRESS DATA BY MEANS OF AN EXCEL FILE If field site offices and subcontractors have no Primavera P6 package. for example. The second is to change it yourself. etc. • You will see the version of Primavera P6 on the very first line. and send it again. Their global data comes along for the ride – any calendars. used in a project go with the project when it is exported and may end up polluting your P6 database when you import an XER file they have sent you.) Figure 95 – XER file opened in Windows Notepad You may be wondering how this works.xer” file than your Primavera P6 can import? There are two solutions to this problem. You will see a pop-up asking you to choose the file type. codes.There may be a problem when importing XER files from other users (subcontractors or staff of field sites).1” (see Figure 95). You will see XER data in the sheet. and then go to data menu. click Next and hit Finish in the third pop-up. Thus. HANDY TIP – IMPORTING A HIGHER VERSION XER FILE What if a counterpart has sent you a higher version “. • Edit the number in the line to match the version of P6 installed on your computer. An XER file is a simple database file with Tab as a delimiter. You will see “From text”. including Excel: Open a new sheet in Excel. “ERMHDR 15.

or typing the progress data into a Reflection schedule manually. If you find any problems when comparing it with the original. • Gather updated Excel files. as shown in Figure 96.follows: • Export the Excel file from P6 and modify it for data collecting. there are two types: client-server and web-based. while the web-based system does not. and then distribute it to them. • There are two ways to import data in Excel to P6 – modifying the format of the collected files to import into a Reflection schedule in P6. it requires installation of the system on each personal computer. The client-server system is much faster than the web-based system. merge it with the original schedule. who will manipulate planned data and actual data. Scheduler mode is for the schedulers on the project management team. delay of activity. contact counterparts to fix the problem. scheduler. and management. Figure 96 – Example of Excel format for progress data collection COLLECTING PROGRESS DATA BY MEANS OF A PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM If you plan to run a self-developed PMIS for schedule management. designing. Super user mode is for the system administrator who will assign security profiles to each user and manipulate planned schedule data. • It should provide at least four types of access modes (security and privilege): super user. • When all problems with the Reflection have been fixed. • Reschedule the Reflection schedule. the following should be taken into account when planning. however. counterpart. • Excel files are updated by counterparts at site offices and subcontractors. Counterpart mode is for the . developing and operating the system: • When it comes to network systems. for example.

(2) Opening the system – A super user opens the system to let the counterparts input actual data. and subcontractors. a super user closes the system. field site offices. (4) Closing the system – After inputting all actual data. (5) Analysing progress – The scheduler exports progress data from the system. updates the project schedule. and analyses it. counterparts should be contacted. Below is the process for running PMIS: (1) Establishing a plan – A scheduler exports the approved project baseline in Excel format from Primavera P6 and inserts Excel data into the PMIS as a plan. • Manuals should be prepared for system maintenance. data maintenance. who will input actual data into the system. and the user- interface for inputting progress data should be similar Primavera P6’s. input of actual data. data should be changed. input of plan data. Counterparts will not be able to change any data while schedulers at the project management team analyse the project schedule. (6) Updating baseline or actual data – If a master schedule is changed or actual data in the system needs to be fixed. counterparts at departments. • The data types processed in the system should be similar to the data types previously introduced in “Collecting progress data by means of an Excel file”. (3) Updating the schedule – The counterparts input progress data into the system. User-interface should not require much training of its users. If a problem is found with the updated schedule. (7) Repeat (1)–(6) at the next updating period. • The user-interface for inputting plan data should be similar to Excel’s. Management mode is for the management or client who will only view the plan and actual data of the project. etc. .

and each manner of updating is slightly different. even if the date is a non-work date. The following steps are for the activities assigned with Physical for percent complete type (see Figure 99): (1) Check “Started” (or “Finished” if the activity is in progress). (3) Go to the Step tab and check completed step(s). DD in the Value column means DD (the latest update date). Any date can be actualised. PRIOR TO UPDATING PROGRESS IN PRIMAVERA P6 If you have finished gathering information and data related to project progress. which will be updated automatically based on the original and remaining durations. and units) related to progress updating in P6. or update percent of step(s). Figure 98 shows a filtering set to narrow down the activities for monthly progress updates. schedulers should make a copy of the current project schedule. Figure 97 – Filter setting If you want to narrow down the range of activities in terms of start and finish date on the basis of DD. This is to ensure that each and every update has a unique schedule file associated with it.Updating the schedule When updating the schedule. Figure 98 – Filtering activities PROGRESS UPDATING FOR EACH TYPE OF ACTIVITY There are three items (duration. (2) Update remaining duration. physical. and then select the date. you can use another filter option. If there . as shown in Figure 97. Do not make changes to “At completion”. use Filter for the activities that have not started or are in progress.

Do not change “At completion”. The value of Units will affect that of Actual Cost (C). using Expected finish date is sometimes preferable to entering remaining duration for the activities that are not completed. you do not need to update the percentage. (4) Go to the Resource tab and update actual and remaining units. The following steps are for the activities assigned with Duration for percent complete type (see Figure 100): (1) Check “Started” (or “Finished” if the activity is in progress). The value of Physical will affect that of Earned Value Cost (B). Figure 99 – Statusing for Physical type When updating activities. thus. P6 users have to check whether “Use Expected Finish Dates” is activated. Remaining duration is linked with Duration %. (3) Go to the Resource tab and update actual and remaining units. many P6 users prefer using Expected finish date. which will be updated automatically based on the original and remaining durations. To use this. The value of Duration % will affect that of Earned Value Cost (B) because it is linked with Activity complete type. The value of Units will affect that of Actual Cost (C). Figure 100 – Statusing for Duration type . (2) Update remaining duration. and then select the date. P6 operators frequently make a mistake when inputting remaining days because of non-working days. Therefore. is no step there. you can update Physical % in the Status tab.

(3) Go to the Resource tab and update actual and remaining units. follow the steps below: • Go to the resources window and select any resources except Material type resources.0 and 10. .The following steps are for the activities assigned with Units for percent complete type (see Figure 101): (1) Check “Started” (or “Finished” if the activity is in progress). (2) Update remaining duration. The value of Units will affect those of Earned Value Cost (B) and Actual Cost (C).0. “Actual overtime units” and “Actual overtime cost” by customising columns. • Then go to the Resources tab of the Activities window and display three columns called “Overtime Allowed”. • Hit the Details tab. which will be updated automatically based on the original and remaining durations. Figure 101 – Statusing for Units type If you want to input actual overtime units (actual overtime cost). Do not change “At completion”. The overtime factor must be between 0. check “Overtime Allowed” and enter a value in the Overtime factor. and then select the date.

(2) Select the end date of the financial period. Actual overtime cost will be computed as Actual overtime units multiplied by cost per time (“Price / Unit”) multiplied by Overtime factor. and then click Add to create. it is just the distributed total values of actual performance over the period. as desired. To store actual performance after updating the schedule. Therefore. display two more columns called “Actual Regular Units” and “Actual Regular Cost”. select a start date.• Enter values in Actual regular units. you need to save progress data regularly into the predefined financial period. And Actual cost will be calculated as Actual regular cost plus Actual overtime cost. . (5) You will see the financial periods you have just created. and then click Financial period. (3) Define the interval of the financial period. as follows: Figure 102 – Financial periods dialogue box • Open the financial periods dialogue box. SUMMARISING AND STORING PERIOD PERFORMANCE Performance data in the Activity usage spreadsheet is not actual progress data. • If you want to create multiple financial periods at the same time (see Figure 102). • Open the Store period performance dialogue box (Tool menu). create financial periods. If you want to view the relationships between Overtime cost and regular cost. follow the steps below: (1) Choose the start date of the financial period. (4) Click Batch create to create.

on 31 March and you are scheduling as of 31 March with a default hour of 0 a. when updating a Unit type activity. and then input progress data as needed. you need to be careful in setting the DD. its values of Physical and Activity % complete will be synchronised. To conclude.m. if a Unit type activity has 30 actual units and 70 remaining units. so it is not recommended. and any activity that has Steps cannot be updated. its default hour is 0 a. Also.? . That’s it! If an activity’s Percent complete type is Physical. indicating 30%. only the remaining units of resources are changed.m. In other words. The DD hour has to be set later than the working hours in the assigned calendar. updating the Activity % complete requires many conditions that often do not work as we would like. when you update it from 30% to 50%. Schedulers sometimes make the mistake of skipping the hour setting of the DD. for example.m. the remaining units will be 30. What if you have assigned an activity in P6 to be finished at 4 p.. Note that only the activities that are in progress (have the actualised start date) can be updated. 10 p. Figure 103 – Storing performance HANDY TIP – UPDATING PROGRESS (EV) USING ACTIVITY % COMPLETE Prior to following this tip. you must check that Activity % complete is selected in the option “Technique for computing performance percent complete” of the Earned Value tab under Admin preferences in the Admin menu. Note that the remaining duration of a Duration type activity is affected by the value of the Activity % complete. as shown in Figure 104. SETTING THE DATA DATE When scheduling.• Select a financial period and hit Store new to save performance. Display the Activity % complete column in the activity table.m.

The start dates of all activities that have not started (their start dates have not been actualised) will be delayed to the DD. Activity % complete is the default . 50/50 % complete. Figure 104 – Setting the Data date Note that DD setting affects your project.Its successor activity that is scheduled to start 1 April will be shown as starting 31 March. Among them. Activity % complete. check the option “Technique for computing performance percent complete” of EV (Admin – Admin Preferences). and the finish dates of all activities that have not finished (their finish dates have not been actualised) will be the DD plus the remaining duration. and 0/100 % complete are commonly used in defining progress. TECHNIQUE FOR COMPUTING PERFORMANCE PERCENT COMPLETE If EV does not equal what you expect after updating the project progress. as shown in Figure 105. Figure 105 – Earned value options There are six options.

option, and it reflects the progress of activities whenever updated. On the other hand, the
0/100 % complete option reflects progress only when an activity is completed. Any
percent complete will represent zero (0) percent progress until the activity is completed. In
the case of 50/50 % percent, once an activity has started (actualised), the tasks is marked
as 50% completed, and when it is completed, the progress will be 100%.
Figure 106 illustrates comparisons between the accumulation of real project progress and
that of measured progress in Primavera P6 for each option. In the case of Activity %
complete, measured progress equals real project progress at every DD when project
progress is updated. In the case of 0/100 % complete, the measured progress never equals
the real progress except when the project is completed (all activities are completed). When
it comes to 50/50%, although the measured progress exceeds the real progress, it is
reasonable because its excess compensates for the undervalued progress between DDs.
Figure 106 – Comparison of real progress and measured progress for each option

On the other hand, applying progress measurement varies based on task type. Below are
examples of progress measurement method assigned to activities in a project:
• Engineering tasks (e.g., design, feasibility study) – 0:100 % complete.
• Procurement tasks – Issues for procurement order (20%), manufacturing and shipping
(40%), delivery (20%).
• Construction – Activity % complete.
Below are the steps to calculate the workload for schedule updating:
• Copy the master schedule and delete units assigned to resources of activities by using
“Top-down Estimation”.
• Create a resource with $1/d price.
• Assign as many units as original duration to each activity using Global change.
• Display Activity usage profile view at the bottom of the Activities window and adjust
the time scale as desired.

• At the top of the Activity usage profile view, you will find the total budget of the
project based on the time scale.
As you can see in Figure 107, the client does not need to know the status of AC, which
comes from the value of Units in P6 under the Fixed-price-contract type; however,
schedulers should update it. Why?
Figure 107 – Relationships between EVM values and other data

• Some contract agreements have a condition stating that when the contract is
terminated, AC will be the basis for payment. This is not a good condition for
contractors because AC is generally smaller than EV.
• In the case of Force Majeure, compensation can be calculated on the basis of AC.
• Projects that do not allow for time to calculate exact quantities, such as disaster
recovery projects, will have a Cost-reimbursement type contract, in which AC is used
to compute payment.
• The client (actually, the supervisor) requires to analyse productivity for a contractor’s
work performance to increase performance in advance.
• In the case of an in-house project, AC is the most important factor by which to analyse
productivity. Productivity can be defined as the ratio of output to all of the resources
used to produce that output.

Analysing progress
Progress analysis aims to find any problems in implementing the project, and prepare
countermeasures. Analysing progress involves comparing the updated schedule with the
baseline. To compare them, P6 users have to create the project baseline and assign it to the
updated schedule. You will see two types of baselines in Primavera P6: Project baseline
and User baseline. A project baseline is the baseline that is set for all users who will access
that particular project, while a user baseline can be set for a current user. User baseline has
three types: primary, secondary, and tertiary user. While a Primary user baseline has
features that compare a project’s costs and resourcing, secondary and tertiary user
baselines do not.
Claim digger, in the Tools menu, helps schedulers compare the current schedule with the
updated schedule and view a detailed listing of the changes between them. It provides a
means for developing a report which shows detailed information about the changes
between the schedules. Schedulers should pay attention to the following:
• Changes in relationship types, especially changes from FS to SS relationships. This
can indicate that departments, field site offices, or subcontractors are trying to reduce
the overall planned duration of the schedule by fast-tracking the schedule.
• Changes to the durations of remaining activities, particularly activities on the critical
or near-critical path. This can indicate that departments, field site offices, or
subcontractors are trying to reduce the overall planned duration of the schedule by
crashing the remaining durations.
• Changes in activity names. Changing activity names can change the perception of the
scope of the work contained in an activity. Without associated changes in duration or
resources, it is possible that the newly named activity no longer presents a reasonable
duration for the execution of the new scope of work.
• Added activities, especially activities which represent alleged delays. Representation
of delays in an updated schedule is not appropriate until a Time impact analysis (TIA)
has been submitted and accepted by the client.
• Added constraints, particularly when they appear to fix the start of activities in the
future. Activities should be driven by the logic of the schedule, not constraints.
With three values (PV, EV, and AC), Primavera P6 computes Schedule Performance Index
and Cost Performance Index, etc. as follows:
• Budget at completion (BAC) – The total amount of money that you expect to spend to

complete a task or the entire project. • Cost variance (CV) – The difference between EV and AC (CV = EV – AC). • Cost performance index (CPI) – The ratio of EV and AC (CPI = EV / AC). It allows you to see the discrepancy between the amount of value that you earned on a task and the AC it required to perform. • [ETC = BAC – EV]: when you expect that the remaining work will be done by the remaining EV. It is a number that tracks how long you thought a task would take during planning versus how long it actually took. It allows you to estimate the total cost of a project as of the DD. It lets you look at how well that money is being utilised. • Estimate to complete (ETC) – Theoretically. It allows you to take a closer look at the overall schedule efficiency of a project. this is the difference between EAC and AC (ETC = EAC – AC). however. as shown in Figure 108. and provides an instantaneous check on cost performance at any point in the project. • [ETC = (BAC – EV) / CPI]: when you expect that the remaining work will be done by . taking into account the work that already done. • Schedule variance (SV) – The difference between EV and PV (SV = EV – PV). • Estimate at completion (EAC) – The ratio of BAC and CPI (EAC = BAC / CPI). and how that affects costs you are spending. You can see the value in the column called “Accounting variance”. • Schedule performance index (SPI) – Ratio of EV and PV (SPI = EV / PV). Primavera P6 provides various formulas to apply in calculating ETC. what option do schedulers have to select to compute ETC for their projects? Below are some examples schedulers should take into account: • [ETC = EAC – AC]: when you expect that the remaining work will be done by the remaining cost. Figure 108 – Computing options for ETC So.

the remaining EV, affected by CPI.
• [ETC = (BAC – EV) / CPI x SPI]: when you expect that the remaining work will be
done by the remaining EV, affected by CPI and SPI.
• [ETC = (BAC – EV) x arbitrary number]: when you expect that the remaining work
will be done by the remaining EV, affected by a factor you define.
Figure 109 – EVM view

Figure 109 shows an example of EVM view. Generally speaking, clients are not interested
in cost-related information; therefore, contractors hardly use this format in reports
submitted to the client.
Although EVM is a good technique for measuring project progress and performance, there
may be cases in which exceeding progress, as measured by EVM, does not guarantee that
a project will be completed before the completion date provided by the project owner.
Figure 110 – Example of project progress

Figure 111 – Progress as of the Data date

Suppose a project consists of three components that need to be completed according to
different budgets and durations, as shown in Figure 110, with budgets of £500m, £100m
and £400m for Components A, B and C respectively. Before the beginning of the project,
Component A was anticipated to have the longest duration; thus the completion date of
Component A would be the designated the completion date for the whole project. As the
project progresses, Components A and C are completed early, while Component B is
delayed. At a certain point (DD), the progress of the project will be exceeded (SPI is 1.4),
even though Component B is delayed, and the overall project will have been completed
behind planned schedule.
The payment amount will be calculated on the basis of EV. If the contract includes
advance payment and/or retention, a portion will be deducted from every payment, as
shown in Figure 112.
Figure 112 – Payment calculation

There are two important considerations regarding performance analysis: It allows the
contractor to view the project status correctly and increase performance to recover delayed
activities; a client can require a contractor to increase performance in advance in order to
prevent the contractor from abandoning the project later due to a lack of profitability. The
following is an example of the process of performance analysis:
A project has foundation work and its calculation in the BOQ is as follows:
• [A] Quantity of the foundation work is 10,000 CM (cubic metres)
• [B] The total amount of man-hours for the work is 900,000 mh
• [C] Accordingly, the planned productivity for the work is 90 mh/CM [B / A]
Performance for the work at the DD has been measured as follows:
• [D] Planned progress is 18% (1,800 CM) [A x 0.18]
• [E] Actual progress is 15% (1,500 CM) [A x 0.15]

• [F] Spent units is 160,000 mh
• [G] Actual productivity for the work is 106.7 mh/CM [F / E]
Analysis and revised productivity plans are as follows:
• [H] Actual performance factor is 0.84 [C / G]
• [I] Coefficient to recover performance is 1.19 [1 / H]
• [J] Revised productivity plan is 107.1 mh/CM [C x I]
Forecasting is as follows:
• [K] Remaining quantity is 8,500 CM [A – E]
• [L] Additional units to complete is 145,350 mh [(J – C) x K]
• [M] Budgeted units at completion is 1,045,350 mh [B + L]
After approval from client, the master schedule will be published as a schedule baseline.
The published baselines should have version numbers. The version number should have
three digits, and each digit should be changed as follows:
• X _ _ : when the completion date is changed.
• _ X _ : when any milestone is changed.
• _ _ X : when activities are changed.

with G20 being a milestone activity). and finish. you can use the Progress line. C30. and G40). Therefore. S10. a start delay does not come from an activity itself. Now you can see ascending variances of the finish date. delayed finish cannot be recovered. as shown in Figure 113. If you want to check the project progress. Below are examples of analysis on delayed activities: • The activities which have been delayed – all activities with minus value in variance (from C70 to C50). progress. Variance – BL Project Finish Date. Total Float.Corrective actions and schedule revising ACTIVITY DELAY There are three types of activity delays – start. schedulers should concentrate on finish delays. Figure 113 – Variances of finish date To check activity delay. and G40. with G20 being a milestone activity). Typically. Completed (finish date is actualised) activities have no total float. G20. and Activity % Complete. You must first delete WBS level in the “Group and Sort” dialogue box (right-click the activity table to view) and then sort activities by clicking the “Variance – BL Project Finish Date” column of the activity table. P6 users must first display some columns in the activity table of the activities window: Variance – BL Project Start Date. • The activities which should be recovered to prevent delay of the project deadline – all activities that have a zero (0) or negative value in total float whose finish dates have not been actualised (S10 and G40. • The activities which can be recovered – all activities that have not been actualised (C70. but is due to the finish delay of its predecessor(s). While progress delay can be recovered by crashing. • The activities which have delayed the project deadline – all activities with negative total float (S10. To turn on the .

the scheduler should prepare documents to claim an EOT (Extension of Time). Figure 114 – Progress line When a scheduler finds updated progress data with delayed activities. Initially. and then check whether the delayed activities affect the completion date of the project or whether they become critical activities.progress line. but it is automatically delayed when scheduling. even though its predecessor (C50) has already finished. Primavera P6 users sometimes encounter an activity that cannot start as soon as all predecessor activities have finished. DELAY BY RETAINING LOGIC After updating. the scheduler may want to adjust successor activities’ durations to meet the original completion date. On the other hand. but it is difficult for novice users to find. Figure 115 – Sample schedule . the activity is delayed. the scheduler should reduce the remaining duration of the delayed activity in the master schedule. as shown in Figure 114. if the catch-up plans show that they cannot recover and the delayed activities affect the completion date of the project or become critical activities. If the catch-up plans show they will recover the delayed tasks. and you will see a red line around the DD line. and vice versa. By connecting progress points on the basis of activity’s (3) Percent complete or (4) Remaining duration. If the progress line falls on the left side of the DD line. If the client has caused an activity to be delayed. he or she should first review the catch-up plans. There are four options for presenting the progress line (you can change the options in the Progress line tab in the Bar chart options dialogue): Based on difference between current and baseline activity’s (1) finish and (2) start date. select it from the View menu. If activities have been completed (finish date is actualised). Figure 115 below shows an example of activity delay. there is a reason. the progress line will be situated on the DD line. Activity C60 is scheduled to start 1 March.

instead of “Retained Logic”. its activity bar has been split because its predecessor’s predecessor (C40) has not yet finished. Even though it has no Suspend and Resume date. clients require (recommend) contractors to use these types of relationships. (2) lag is assigned to the relationship with its predecessor activity. Figure 116 – Schedule options Usually. select “Progress Override” in Schedule options. however. a high rate of activities that are linked in FS can be linked in SS with lag. the activity can be delayed. (4) the start date of the activity is constrained. a similar situation applies to Activity S10. The reasons listed above are related to the activity itself. On the other hand. (5) if the activity is Resource dependent. it can be delayed due to its resources’ constraints. furthermore. in construction projects. . delay caused by retaining logic can be found only when tracking its predecessors. Progress override is recommended. none of these reasons applies to Activity C60. However.The following reasons may account for this: (1) The start date of activities that have not started will be delayed to the DD. schedulers do not know all the details of tasks (activities). (6) when P6 operators perform levelling resources. so they link activities with FS relationships mostly. However. (3) the assigned calendar has a non-work day on the date when the activity should have started. What happened to the activity? The answer is that its predecessor’s predecessor (C40) has not yet finished. If you prefer to avoid these situations.

Figure 118 – Example of fast-track . for instance. schedulers should try to reduce or remove any lag in the schedule prior to performing corrective actions. There are two types of corrective actions for recovering delayed activities: crashing and fast-track. however. Below are crashing methods for recovering delayed critical activities: • Conduct overtime – Change calendar work hours/day from 8 hours to 12 hours per day. If all activities on the table are on the same critical path. The corrective actions in schedule management are techniques by which to recover the delayed activities so as to adhere to the project completion date. Activity E should be crashed first because its acceleration cost per day is the lowest ($10). Crashing is a technique for reducing the durations of remaining activities by adding more resources based on Minimum cost expediting (MCE). For efficiency. or interferences between predecessor and successor activities. schedulers should add buffers to the project schedule to mitigate activity delays. for example. rework can arise due to communication failure between predecessor activities and successor activities. the fast-track technique does not increase costs to implement. Fast-tracking methods used in Primavera P6 change relationships from FS to SS with lag. Therefore. fast-track is a technique for performing the remaining activities in parallel to compress the schedule. as shown in Figure 118. this is the MCE technique. The acceleration cost per day is calculated as (Crash cost – Normal cost) / (Normal time – Crash time).CORRECTIVE ACTIONS FOR DELAYED ACTIVITIES When the project schedule is delayed. costs for crashing should be analysed. Figure 117 – Calculation of acceleration cost per day To implement the crashing technique. According to schedule management theory. the corrective actions should be performed on critical activities first. as these actions may cause issues in terms of project cost. as shown in Figure 117. • Enlarge working days – Change calendar working days from 5 days to 6 days per week.

Now the total crashed duration is one day and the total cost for crashing is $10 in the first crashing. which will be reviewed first to apply the crashing technique. The table below the schedule shows acceleration cost per day and remaining crash-able days. as shown in the table of Figure 120. the path A-E-G-H will become a non-critical path. If Activity E is reduced by two days or more. The blue boxes in the network schedule above the table are activities. Reducing a non-critical activity is not efficient. and each of them has a letter and a number as its name and duration. Activity E is the best one to reduce since it has the smallest acceleration cost ($10) among the four options (A. It is reasonable to reduce the duration of the critical activities because the project duration is dependent upon them. Schedulers should minimise the increased cost when reducing durations. and H). due to the reduced duration of Activity E. Figure 120 – First crashing . EXAMPLE OF CRASHING BASED ON MINIMUM COST EXPEDITING In Figure 119. G. Figure 119 – Original schedule The duration of Activity E can be reduced by only one day because the path A-B-C-D-H has also become a critical path. E. The critical path of the project is A-E-G-H. a project has been delayed 10 days and a scheduler has to crash 10 days to meet the original project completion date.

Activities A and H are the critical activities. If only one of them is reduced. After review. Figure 121 – Second crashing The combination of Activities C and E has the smallest crashing cost ($35 per day). they can be reduced by two days. Figure 122 – Third crashing . In this case. it has been found that Activity H has the smallest crashing cost ($20 per day). reducing only one can reduce the project duration. two paths should be reduced at the same time. two days of its duration can be reduced. and they are linked with the two critical paths. In the schedule. In the second crashing. the total crashed duration is three days. the project duration will not change. and $50 is the total cost for crashing.Since there are two critical paths in the project.

Now Activity A is the best option. Figure 124 – Fifth crashing Even though crashing has been introduced here to demonstrate how to apply the technique. thus. The total crashed duration is now ten days. Figure 123 – Fourth crashing Finally. the durations of Activities D and E have been reduced by two days. the average crashing cost per day is $37. its duration is reduced by three days. and the total cost for crashing is $370. at an additional cost of $150. Thus. at a cost of $100. engineers should take into account the circumstances of field sites before .

To put it simply. • Mitigate resource peak. schedulers should document the causes of the revision. the crashing cost increases geometrically over the duration. • Get approval for the proposal from the client. . delete all relationships of an activity to be deleted and make its duration zero (0) in order to prevent reusing erased activities’ numbers. if the crashing cost is $10. it can also be used as evidence in the dispute resolution phase later. instead. the contractor will use the documentation for issuing claims. Over-allocation can cause further delay.accelerating work. as shown in Figure 125. If the reason comes from the client. No matter what the reasons for the schedule revision. Below are the steps for revising the project schedule: • Document the grounds for the schedule revision. • Analyse the impacts of the revised schedule in terms of time and cost. • Publish and distribute the revised schedule with a revision number to the counterparts and stakeholders.000 for 10 days for a project.000 or more. Figure 125 – Crashing and cost increase PROCESS FOR REVISING THE PROJECT SCHEDULE It used to be that the project schedule was modified due to schedule delay. • Prepare a draft proposal of the revised schedule. • Review resource constraints (Max units/time) again since resource allocation is also affected by delayed activities. and rarely due to early-project-completion. • Finalise the proposal and submit it to the client. Dos and don’ts for revising the schedule: • Do not delete any activities to be erased in Primavera P6. Typically. the crashing cost for 20 days may be $30.

Project progress reporting aims to help the client understand the project status and anticipate the end of the project. it is necessary to summarise the entire project progress. if any. diagrams. Click Next to go to the next dialogue box. Therefore. calculating payment. graphs. Sometimes tables. • Modify columns. follow these steps: • Go to the Report window (Tools – Reports – Reports). • Choose “Modify Wizard Report” and hit Next in the Report Wizard dialogue box. composing a draft. and reviewing it. • Name it and hit Next. . • Use tables and graphical elements. The progress report is a critical source for checking work performance. To help the client understand the report. and revising the template requires much effort. DEVELOPING REPORTS WITH PRIMAVERA P6 Even though Primavera P6 has features to create reports. and click Next to go to the next dialogue box. This is essential in regular reports. in which narratives are repeated. select additional subject areas that you want to include in the report. if any. and filter.Reporting EFFECTIVE PROGRESS REPORT The project progress report is not easy to write because planners and schedulers do not have enough time to spend collecting relevant information. take the following recommendations into account: • Keep schedule-related conditions in the contract agreement in mind. Nevertheless. the report should include not only progress but also critical issues. Hit Next. • In the next dialogue box. • Gauge the audience’s level of knowledge. and solving disputes. • Highlight the updated elements. if you want to create a report template in P6. Change timescale and time interval fields. and run Report Wizard (Tools – Report Wizard). they are not especially useful for preparing the project progress report because creating a report template takes quite a bit of time. as well as evidential material. • Include summaries in the report. If there is anyone (perhaps one of the project management team members) who feels like he or she has been fumbling in the dark trying to prepare a good project status report. • Select a report template that you would like to use. and photos communicate more than words. group and sort.

progress to date. delayed activities. • Summary of this month’s project progress. • Rolling wave schedule. and subcontractor. the accumulated progress. .• Uncheck format numbers and perform Run report. in Primavera P6) of the month (Jul 2017). SAMPLE MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORT Schedule performance reporting is the dissemination of meaningful information about the schedule’s overall status. • Activity status – Illustrates the actualised start and finish dates. and forecast to complete. and their reasons and recovery plans. department. Schedule reporting helps determine if the project’s objectives (or requirements) are being met. See Figure 127. The monthly progress report should consist of the following: The first part of the report will show overall status and statistics. • Project progress (or Earned value analysis) – Shows the performed progress (Physical. Figure 126 – Sample project progress table Figure 127 – Example of activity status The second part includes narratives and issues to explain the detail performances of each discipline. and planned progress of the next month (Aug 2017). See Figure 126.

Spreadsheet. some options (Profile. you can determine the value using a time lapse of the project period. and when 80% has passed. It is very . Otherwise. To print them. and Trace logic) may be deactivated (greyed). To be concrete. Figure 128 – Relationships between print options and view modes PROBABILITY OF ON-TIME PROJECT COMPLETION What if a client asks you the probability of on-time project completion as currently planned? If you can operate Primavera Risk Analysis. it will be 80%. The output is customisable and can include any or all of the layout elements created on the screen. At the beginning of a project. header and footer data can be configured to add descriptive information and pictures. the probability for on-time completion is very low. Additionally. you can compute it easily. construction • Procurement • Quality management • HSE • Cost management • Document management The third part will include critical documentary evidence. and it grows as the end of the project approaches. PRINTING Any Primavera P6 layout can be printed. construction plans.• Drawings. When you customise in Options tab in the Page setup dialogue box. the probability can be 30%. when 30% of the total duration has passed. you need to display those figures by selecting a proper view mode in the Activities window. Figure 128 shows the relationships between print options and views in the Activities window.

If you want to display the names fully. as shown in Figure 129. follow the steps below: • Create an activity code “LABEL” and a code value “Left” in the Activity codes dialogue box (see Figure 130) Figure 130 – Activity codes dialog box . 25% = (80 – 60) / 80 HANDY TIP – DISPLAYING ALL ACTIVITY NAMES WHEN PRINTING OUT When printing out a schedule. the progress is 25%. you can extend the timescale finish date in the Options tab of the Page setup dialogue box.simple to compute time lapse: Ratio of time lapse = (OD – RD) / OD In this equation. The printed page will have large margins. If the remaining duration of the project is 60 days. For example. Figure 129 – Print layout If you want to display the names fully with small margins. the names of the activities near the end of the project duration will not be displayed fully. OD is the original duration and RD is the remaining duration. suppose there is a project with a total duration of 80 days.

• Select “Label-left” for Filter. • In the Bar labels tab. • Make a filter. choose Left for position. Figure 133 – Adjusted label of a bar . as shown in Figure 131. • Name it “Label – Left” and choose Current bar for Timescale. as shown in Figure 132 Figure 132 – Bars dialogue box • When you choose value “Left” for the activity code “LABEL”. and make it invisible by selecting blank in Bar style. and select Activity name for Label. you will see the label at the left side of the activity. Figure 131 – Filter dialogue box • Make a new bar in the Bars dialogue box.• Set up columns to display the activity code “LEFT”.



levels of documentation. it is frequently used to support Global claims which record all causes of delay and ascribe the overall result to a combination of these causes. especially the critical activities. There are many types of analytical methods to analyse the impact of a delay on the project: As-Planned versus As-Built Analysis. and situational contexts. Time Impact Analysis (TIA). Figure 134 – As-planned versus As-built analysis WINDOW ANALYSIS METHOD This approach is similar to the As-planned versus As-built. Among them. etc. To provide tangible reasons for this. Thus. due to delays that were not the responsibility of the contractor. Delay analysis is an analytical procedure specified on construction projects to facilitate the award of excusable days to project completion. Window Analysis and TIA is used most often. schedulers should do a delay analysis on every event. These unforeseen problems cause schedule delay. The selection of a particular delay analysis method should be based on professional judgement because each claim is unique and deals with different contract requirements. Collapsed As-Built. contractors often encounter problems which were not foreseen at the beginning of the project. and which are not covered by the contract. rather than linking causes to particular results. Window Analysis. It is very simple to use. The key difference is the . Impacted As-Planned Analysis. AS-PLANNED VERSUS AS-BUILT This method is used to compare the duration of all the activities on the As-planned schedule with the corresponding activities on the As-built (actual) schedule that are affected by the excusable delay events. that has caused the project delay. or an activity delay.Delay analysis While implementing construction projects. but not appropriate for complicated schedules because it is very limited in its ability to define separate causes and effects when there are multiple issues.

weekly or daily reports. shop drawing submittals. such as correspondence. However. it does not show whether a delay to completion was actually incurred as a consequence of the modelled delay event. In this method. also known as Snapshot analysis or Time slice analysis.g. monthly-basis) comparing planned and actual critical path (see Figure 135) so that the effects of the variance rate of progress in different periods of the project can be assessed. etc. This methodology is similar to the Impacted as-planned . requires a CPM showing the differences between a schedule that includes an activity modelling a delay event and one that does not include the delay. the concurrent delays are taken into account. Responsibility for each delay is determined based on project documents. testimony. Thus. in which schedulers insert the delay event (fragnet) to calculate the effect on overall completion. Figure 135 – Window analysis IMPACTED AS-PLANNED This approach is based on the As-planned CPM model.assessment made within specific windows (e. the delayed duration caused by an event can be different from the calculated time extension due to calendar settings. Figure 136 – Impacted As-planned analysis TIME IMPACT ANALYSIS TIA.. etc.

as shown in Figure 137.analysis described above. and accepted by the client. The structure of Activity ID numbering should be prepared in the planning phase of the project. which should be the schedule that has been updated prior to the time of the delay or change. schedulers should note that the accepted current schedule here will be called “the Unimpacted schedule” and the schedule for a TIA will be called “the Impacted schedule”. DETAIL PROCESS OF TIME IMPACT ANALYSIS Before beginning a TIA. • Determine the accepted current schedule. This is a form of Window analysis. naming it “Delay –” + activity ID + TIA number. When should TIA be performed? There are several points at which TIA may be required: • Changes to planned work – This includes unforeseen changes to the work. The steps for performing a TIA are as follows: • Provide written notification of the event. • Identify the delayed activity and create a new activity for it to represent delay fragnet under the same WBS. Being based on a dynamic model that has been accurately updated to reflect the current situation prior to the occurrence of the intervening event. Figure 137 – Example of TIA form . but the delay event (fragnet) is applied to an updated schedule that represents the status of the project immediately prior to the event occurring. as the effect of the delay is assessed on the basis of a contemporaneous baseline. such as discovery of conditions other than those in the plans. multiple actual baselines may be used for different delays at different stages of a project. this is probably the most accurate of the forward-looking delay assessment options available during the course of the work. • Changes ordered by the client. • Changes which affect contractor-owned float – This relates primarily to delays caused by the client. in accordance with the conditions of the contract documents. • Prepare the TIA form.

• Recalculate the schedule. linking it with logical predecessors and successors. and total float of the affected activities. . These activities should be linked in a logical order which shows how the contractor intends to perform the work. with FS relationships. • Open the impacted schedule and create the fragnet. This could be one or two activities. early finish. • Analyse changes to early start. For most schedules. using the same DD as the unimpacted schedule. Figure 138 – Adding a fragnet • Document the reasons for the assignment of the affected activities as successors. and make a copy of the impacted schedule. which should be the affected activities. the initial schedule must be updated to show the project progress up to the point of the delay. In other words. as shown in Figure 138. • Recalculate the impacted schedule. or a whole sequence of activities. record the predicted completion date of the unimpacted schedule. a fragnet activity (F1010) is created and linked with both activities. • Assign delayed duration and add relationships to the fragnet (activity F1010). which will be a chain of activities representing the event and its duration to estimate the delay caused by the event. Prior to inserting the fragnet.• Update the unimpacted schedule. if Activity G1010 is delayed. it is acceptable to use the last updated schedule with a DD close to the event. G1010 and G1020.

• Check whether the project completion date is delayed or there are any changes to the critical path. and document delay of the project completion date and changes of critical path. . if any.

Dispute resolution and FIDIC The most common schedule-related critical issues in disputes between client and contractor are schedule delay. • Actual acceleration – The client requires the contractor to complete the project early. Since FIDIC standard contract forms are commonly used in construction projects. schedulers should make clear which party has required the acceleration. and liquidated damage. delay types can be categorised as follows: • Non-excusable – Any delay caused by a contractor does not entitle the contractor to EOT or compensation. schedulers need to identify a daily-based penalty and its maximum for project completion delay in order to decide the maximum crashing cost per day. Schedule acceleration is always accompanied by a cost increase. for example. sub-consultants. As to liquidated damages due to failure to attain full load performance. FIDIC FIDIC (Fédération Internationale Des Ingénieurs-Conseils. joint ventures and representatives. schedulers should know the limitation. liquidated damages for project completion delay have a limitation – 10% of the total contract price. entitles the contractor to EOT but not compensation. The International Federation of Consulting Engineers) is an international organisation for the construction industry. acceleration required by the client. the scheduler should become familiar with the contract templates in order to meet the conditions relevant to schedule management. • Constructive acceleration – The client requires the contractor to complete the project on time. even though the client has delayed the project. Generally speaking. such as Force Majeure. • Acceleration for recovering – The contractor performs crashing or fast-tracking to recover a delayed project schedule. The definitions in the FIDIC contract differ from the terminologies used in the schedule management field as follows: • “Schedule” refers to the document(s) completed by the contractor and submitted with . Thus. When it comes to the entitlement of EOT and compensation. consultants. • Excusable and compensable – Any delay caused by the client entitles the contractor to EOT and compensation. Therefore. or project completion delay. and publishes international standard contract forms for clients. • Excusable but non-compensable – Any delay caused by an uncontrollable event.

6 Rate of Progress – The engineer may instruct the contractor to submit a revised programme and supporting report describing the revised methods which the contractor . Unless otherwise stated in the conditions. and lists. detailed descriptions of progress.1 Right of Access to the Site – The employer shall give the contractor right of access to. • “Engineer” means the person(s) appointed by the employer to act as the engineer for the purpose of the contract.9 Delayed Drawings or Instructions – The contractor shall give notice to the engineer whenever the work is likely to be delayed.3 Programme – The contractor shall submit a detailed time programme to the engineer within 28 days of receiving the notice. all parts of the site within the time (or times) stated in the contract. • 8. SCHEDULE-RELATED CONDITIONS In a FIDIC contract template for Building and Engineering Works. the schedule-related conditions are as follows: • 1.2 Time for Completion – The contractor shall complete the whole of the works within the time for completion described in the contract. • 8. Such document(s) may include the BOQ. and possession of. the Letter of Tender. The report shall include charts. the commencement date shall be within 42 days of the contractor receiving the letter of acceptance.1 Commencement of Works – The engineer shall give the contractor not less than seven days’ notice of the commencement date. • 8. as follows: • “Employer” means the project owner. • 4.5 Delays Caused by Authorities – Any delays caused by the relevant legally constituted public authorities in the country. • “Contractor” means the person(s) accepted by the employer.21 Progress Report – Monthly progress reports shall be prepared by the contractor and submitted to the engineer. as included in the contract. data.4 EOT for Completion – The contractor may be entitled to an EOT for Completion for certain reasons. • 8. • “Subcontractor” means any person(s) appointed by the contractor for work. • “Programme” (or time programme) is used as a time schedule. • 8. • 2. and photographs showing the status of the progress of the site. There are also definitions for persons. • 8.

FIDIC states that within 42 .3 Duty to Minimise Delay – Each party shall use all reasonable endeavours to minimise any delay in the performance of the contract as a result of Force Majeure. • Relationships between causes and effects must be proved.1 Contractor’s Claims – If the contractor considers himself to be entitled to any EOT for Completion. ISSUING CLAIMS A claim in construction projects is a request by a contractor for an EOT. • 21. the contractor shall give notice to the engineer. but which the client refuses to grant to the contractor. • 19. not all of these can be causes for claims because: • Any claim must be based on the contract or applicable law. FIDIC states that the contractor must give notice as soon as practicable. and not later than 28 days after becoming aware of the relevant event or circumstance giving rise to the claim. the contractor shall pay delay damages to the employer for the default. additional payment.7 Delay Damages – If the contractor fails to complete the work on time. describing the event or circumstance giving rise to the claim. Common causes of schedule-related claims include: • Late issuance of NTP • Late approval of drawings • Late approval of shop drawings and samples • Late approval of job test • Delay in answer to field questions and field variances • Delay due to improper management of work (inefficiency) • Delay due to changes in the planned method of construction • Disruption or interference by other contractors under the direction of the client • Schedule changes by the client • Client’s delay in supply of materials and facilities • Suspensions of work by the client • Delay due to force majeure or acts of God However. • 8. • A notice for a claim has to be transferred to the other party. proposes to adopt in order to expedite progress and complete work within the Time for Completion. or some other relief under the terms of the contract or applicable law.

days of the contractor becoming aware of the event or circumstance giving rise to the claim. Thus. contractor’s notification and client’s reply • Issue analysis: Issues and relevant conditions of the contract. periodic status and progress reports. cost flow schedule • Orders and requests – Change orders. documentations is the first and best activities. When it comes to claims issuing. Below are the basic sources for proof of causation: • Logs – Daily logs. internal correspondences. productivity loss analysis. minutes of meetings Below are structure of claim documents: • Executive summary of claim • Overview or history of the project and claim: Project overview. team members should try to keep as many records and documents as possible. cost account records • Schedules – Schedules. payment records. telephone conversation logs. people try to include all conditions in contract documents. contract documents cannot cover all the events that can happen during a project. Thus. • Damages must be quantified. However. shop drawing logs • Records – Photographs. Bid work sheets • Correspondence and meetings – Correspondence. video tapes. cost reports. requests for information • Reports – Daily reports. equipment utilisation records. FIDIC limits the duration for computing quantities to 42 days. summary of contract. disputes can occur easily between client and contractor because conditions in the contract do not include enough detail. cost impact analysis • Conclusion: Summary of issues and analyses • Appendix: Supporting documents DISPUTE ADJUDICATION BOARD (DAB) AND THE DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROCESS To solve project-related disputes. Furthermore. material delivery and receiving records. the client and . or within such other period as may be proposed by the contractor and approved by the engineer. the contractor shall send to the engineer (the supervisor) a fully detailed claim which includes the extension of time and/or additional payment. history and cause of claim. proof of relationship between causes and effects • Impact and damage calculation: Schedule delay analysis.

any dispute shall be finally settled by international arbitration. Figure 139 – Dispute resolution process FIDIC standard contracts introduce the DAB and the process of dispute resolution as follows (see Figure 139): • Both parties (the contractor and the employer) appoint members of the DAB that will give their opinion when a dispute arises. • If either party denies to accept the opinion of the DAB. • Before the commencement of arbitration. either party may give notice to the other party of its dissatisfaction within 28 days of receiving the decision. . both parties shall attempt to settle the dispute amicably.contractor establish DAB for their disputes or use international arbitration to avoid spending a long time in court. • Unless settled amicably.

Advanced technologies for schedule management Project management tools and methodologies have been developed that enable schedulers and participants to get information related to a project schedule in various ways. with a Y-axis for the floors of a building and an X-axis for time scale. drawings must be created on the basis of drawing standards which define drawing layers and block names in a drawing. each identity (object. or layer) linked with an activity appears based on the schedule. this technique is already used to monitor and compute work performance. SCHEDULE PRESENTING METHODOLOGIES – LINE OF BALANCE Line of balance (LOB) is a simple diagram showing the location (or units) and time at which a certain deliverable is completed. but it is powerful for reviewing interferences between disciplines and calculating performance for each task. as shown in Figure 140. To do this. 4D SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT TOOL Sometimes. Software packages can also include a feature that compares a real scene in the field site camera with 3D CAD drawings of a virtual scene. As time goes on. they should use their imaginative power with drawings and the project schedule. schedulers and engineers use tools (or software packages) that enable them to check their interface for issues. Below are common applications of LOB in schedule management: • Floor-time diagram – This looks similar to a Time-distance diagram (see Figure 7). The advantage of using this tool is to help schedulers clearly view trends of performance and forecast the interference between the predecessor and the successor tasks. and girders and slab above the columns. It is a very simple schedule. To actualise this simulation. Figure 140 – Sample Floor-time diagram • Unit-time diagram – This is also similar to a Floor-time diagram. Some software packages can link the identities of 3D CAD drawings with activities in P6. helping people to understand how a target building will be constructed. In some construction projects. block. Suppose a three-dimensional drawing showing the construction process over the project period shows a basement with columns on top of it. and is used to .

S. Figure 141 – Bar chart schedule and Unit-time diagram XML FORMAT XML is a mark-up language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents. manage resources. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR UPGRADING PRIMAVERA P6 PPM . Figure 142 – Exporting a project in XML format Since an XML-formatted P6 file is actually more versatile than an XER file. If a project has serious constraints in procuring and managing resources. originally developed for the web as a companion to HTML. some government agencies in the U. such as the Department of Defense. For example.. When importing or exporting in Primavera P6 PPM (version 15. Their languages differ slightly. Activity 1 is loaded with Labour A (LA) and Activity 2 has Machine A (MA). as shown in Figure 142. The image below shows a resource usage schedule in which blue lines represent planned resource cumulative units and red lines represent actual resource cumulative units over the period.1). The picture above shows a general bar chart schedule in which activities are displayed with resources. you may have seen two XML options: Primavera- (XML) and UN/CEFACT format 6-(XML). this diagram will help schedulers comprehend the demand curve of resources. You can create it with the data of Resource usage spreadsheet in Primavera P6. submit schedules in the UN/CEFACT XML schema format.

P6 operators frequently adjust columns in the activity table or save and open layout to view columns. and moving scroll makes activity numbers and names hidden from view on the left side. and details). as we do in Excel. they will save time adjusting columns.1) is a powerful software package for schedule management. they have to move horizontal scroll to view some right side. sometimes users need to view many columns at the same time. • Filter – We wish we could filter in different ways. If users can freeze columns of activity numbers and names.Primavera P6 PPM (the current version is 15. . as follows: • Freezing pane in the activity table – The Activity window is separated into three sections (activity table. In that case. however. Gantt chart. however. some features still need to be upgraded. • Grouping columns in the activity table – We wish we could group columns and expand and collapse them.

Based on this background. as mentioned earlier. the . Thus. According to analysis in Primavera P6 (Float path). in NAM.NAM – A new approach to analysing the project schedule When it comes to contract conditions. As a result. If there are two near-critical paths (not activities) as follows. • Path B – Its total duration is 100 days and total float is 4 days. schedulers should focus on project duration rather than project performance. however. Path A will have a higher priority because of the smaller total float. DEFINING THE PRIORITY OF NEAR-CRITICAL PATHS TO MONITOR Project duration is determined by the duration of the critical path. as many claims arise due not to performance but schedule delay. the project will be delayed because of Component B. which will more likely become the critical path? (The longest path in the schedule option is preferable for defining near- critical paths. high performance as measured by EVM does not guarantee earlier or on-time completion of a project. Moreover. so schedulers need to monitor near-critical paths as well in order to meet the project period. Path B has a higher probability of becoming the critical path because it has more risks due to longer duration. EVM makes schedulers fail to properly expect the project completion date. the author suggested Network Analysis Method (NAM) in his Master’s dissertation for efficient project duration management. Often. rather than being fixed. or numerous stages. or both. In fact. a task with a long duration usually has a large amount of quantity.4) on the DD. progress during the implementation phase is less important than completing the project on time. the critical path changes due to delays of near-critical activities.) • Path A – Its total duration is 10 days and total float is 3 days. Even though SPI in following figure indicates good performance (1.

and a scheduler should pay attention to the path. In the case of Path B. Path A’s TF was two days. calculated as: Calculating the CQ of each path. its CQ has increased. suppose there are three near-critical paths with the same duration. RD is remaining duration. As of 28 February. which can act as a buffer when Activities I or J are delayed. For instance. as shown in Figure 143. A lower number means a higher probability of becoming the critical path. Path 2 has more risks for being delayed than Path 1 because it has two activities with long durations. and CQ is criticality quotient. its CQ has continuously decreased. and its CQ was three. The five paths with the lowest CQs would be enough for monitoring. As of 31 January 2018. where TF is total float. Figure 144 – Example of near-critical paths monitoring . Since its RD has decreased. The total duration of the path in the equation is not the period from the first activity to the last activity but the total amount of the activities’ durations on the path.priority of near-critical paths is defined based on the Criticality Quotient (CQ). Figure 143 – Comparison of near-critical paths MONITORING NEAR-CRITICAL PATHS The table below shows an example of near-critical paths monitoring monthly-base. Path 3 has fewer risks than Path 1 because it has lag. the path with the second lowest CQ is called the second near-critical path. and so on. On the other hand. the near-critical path with the lowest CQ is called the first near-critical path. In NAM. its RD has decreased to 40 days because some activities on the path have been completed. the total amount of its activities’ RD was 60 days. Path A is 30 and Path B is 4.

the priority of near-critical paths should be redefined based on duration and total float. NAM also helps focus on the important (critical) activities in managing the schedule to meet the project duration. CONCLUSION NAM is a method for analysing float path and monitoring the total float of each path to define the pressure of project delay. To use NAM. . Figure 145 – Trends of each path’s CQ Figure 145 illustrates the trend of each path’s CQ. As you can see. Its CQ should be measured regularly to monitor the pressure of project delay. The trends suggest that the project schedule is pressed to delay. most CQ has decreased.


Acronyms • AC: Actual Cost • AON: Activity on Node • BAC: Budget at Completion • BOQ: Bill of Quantity • BPM: Backward Pass Method • CA: Cost Accounts • CAD: Computer Aided Drawing • CCM: Critical Chain Method • CCPM: Critical Chain Project Method • COA: Code of Accounts • CPI: Cost Performance Index • CPM: Critical Path Method • CQ: Criticality Quotient • CRC: Cost-Reimbursement Contract • CV: Cost Variance • CWS: Contractor Working Schedule • DAB: Dispute Adjudication Board • DCL: Data Control Language • DCMA: Defense Contract Management Agency (USA) • DD: Data Date • DDL: Data Definition Language • DML: Data Manipulate Language • EAC: Estimate at Completion • EOT: Extension of Time • EPPM: Enterprise Portfolio Project Management • EPS: Enterprise Project Structure • ETC: Estimate to Complete • EV: Earned Value .

• EVM: Earned Value Method • FDU: Fixed Duration & Units • FDUT: Fixed Duration and Units/Time • FF: Finish-to-Finish • FIDIC: Fédération Internationale Des Ingénieurs-Conseils • FPC: Fixed-Price Contract • FPM: Forward Pass Method • FS: Finish-to-Start • FU: Fixed Units • FUT: Fixed Units/Time • GERT: Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique • HSE: Health. Safety. and Environment • IC: Incentive Contract • IDC: Indefinite-Delivery Contract • IPS: Integrated Project Schedule • LHC: Labour-Hour Contract • LOB: Line of Balance • LOE: Level of Effort • MCE: Minimum Cost Expediting • MPM: Monthly Progress Meeting • MPR: Monthly Progress Report • MSS: Milestone Summary Schedule • NAM: Network Analysis Method • NGO: Non-Governmental Organisations • OBS: Organisation Breakdown Structure • OD: Original Duration • PDM: Precedence Diagramming Method • PERT: Program Evaluation and Review Technique • PMC: Project Management Consultancy • PMI: Project Management Institute .

• PMIS: Project Management Information System • PMP: Progress Measurement Procedure • PPM: Professional Project Management • PRA: Primavera Risk Analysis • PV: Planned Value • RAM: Responsibility Assignment Matrix • RD: Remaining Duration • SAR: Schedule Analysis Report • SCP: Schedule Controlling Procedure • SDK: Software Development Kit • SDP: Schedule Development Procedure • SF: Start-to-Finish • SPI: Schedule Performance Index • SQL: Structured Query Language • SS: Start-to-Start • SV: Schedule Variance • TIA: Time Impact Analysis • TMC: Time-and-Materials Contract • TOC: Theory of Constraints • UDF: User Defined Field • WBS: Work Breakdown Structure .

[If the activity’s percent complete type is Units] (Actual Labour Units + Actual Nonlabor Units) / (Actual Labour Units + Actual Nonlabor Units + Remaining Labour Units + Remaining Nonlabor Units). • Actual This Period Material Cost = [If period performance is stored] Actual Material Cost – the sum of the stored Actual This Period Material Cost fields for all previous periods. • Actual Cost (Expenses) = Actual Units X Price/Unit. If no resources are assigned] Activity Actual Nonlabor Units X Project Default Price / Time.Calculation of data fields used in Primavera P6 • Accounting Variance = Planned Value – Actual Cost. • Actual Cost (EPS) = Actual Labour Costs + Actual Nonlabor Costs + Actual Material Costs + Actual Expense Costs. • Actual Labour Cost = [If no resources are assigned] Actual Labour Units X Project Default Price / Time. • Actual Regular Cost = Actual Regular Units X Cost per Time. [If the period performance is not stored] Actual This Period Cost is the same as Actual Cost. • Actual This Period Labour Cost = [If period performance is stored] Actual Labour Cost – the sum of the stored Actual This Period Labour Cost fields for all previous periods. [If the period performance is not stored] Actual This Period Labour Cost is the same as Actual Labour Cost. [If the period performance is not stored] Actual This Period Labour Units is the same as Actual Labour Units. [If the period performance is not stored] Actual This Period Material Cost is the same as Actual Material Cost. • Actual Cost (Assignments) = Actual Regular Cost + Actual Overtime Cost. • Actual This Period Cost = [If period performance is stored] Actual Cost – the sum of the stored Actual This Period Cost fields for all previous periods. • Actual Overtime Cost = Actual Overtime Units X Cost per Time X Overtime Factor. • Actual Nonlabor Cost = [For activities. • Actual This Period Labour Units = [If period performance is stored] Actual Labour Units – the sum of the stored Actual This Period Labour Units fields for all previous periods. • Activity % Complete = [If the selected activity’s percent complete type is Duration] (Planned Duration – Remaining Duration) / Planned Duration. • Actual This Period Nonlabor Cost = [If period performance is stored] Actual Nonlabor . • Accounting Variance-Labour Units = Planned Value Labour Units – Actual Units.

• BL1 Duration = Actual Duration + Remaining Duration. • At Completion Cost = Actual Costs + Remaining Costs. • BL1 Labour Units = Baseline Actual Labour Units + Baseline Remaining Labour Units. • At Completion Labour Cost = Actual Labour Cost + Remaining Labour Cost. • At Completion Expense Cost = Actual Expense Cost + Remaining Expense Cost. • Budget At Completion = Planned Labour Cost + Planned Nonlabor Cost + Planned Expense Cost + Planned Material Cost. • Actual Total Cost (EPS) = Actual Labour Costs + Actual Nonlabor Costs + Actual Material Costs + Actual Expense Costs. • At Completion Labour Units = Actual Labour Units + Remaining Labour Units. • At Completion Total Cost = Actual Total Cost + ETC (estimate-to-complete) cost. [If the period performance is not stored] Actual This Period Nonlabor Units is the same as Actual Nonlabor Units. • BL Project Duration = Actual Duration + Remaining Duration. Cost – the sum of the stored Actual This Period Nonlabor Cost fields for all previous periods. • At Completion Units = Actual Units + Remaining Units. • At Completion Nonlabor Units = Actual Nonlabor Units + Remaining Nonlabor Units. • Actual Total Cost (Activities) = Actual Labour Cost + Actual Nonlabor Cost + Actual Material Cost + Actual Expense Cost. • BL Project Total Cost = BL Project Labour Cost + BL Project Nonlabor Cost + BL Project Material Cost + BL Project Expense Cost. • At Completion Nonlabor Cost = Actual Nonlabor Cost + Remaining Nonlabor Cost. [If the period performance is not stored] Actual This Period Nonlabor Cost is the same as Actual Nonlabor Cost. • Actual Units (Assignments) = Actual Regular Units + Actual Overtime Units. • Actual This Period Nonlabor Units = [If period performance is stored] Actual Nonlabor Units – the sum of the stored Actual This Period Nonlabor Units fields for all previous periods. [If the period performance is not stored] Actual This Period Units is the same as Actual Units. • At Completion Material Cost = Actual Material Cost + Remaining Material Cost. • BL Duration = Actual Duration + Remaining Duration. • Actual This Period Units = [If period performance is stored] Actual Units – the sum of the stored Actual This Period Units fields for all previous periods. .

• Duration % Complete = Planned Duration – Remaining Duration / Planned Duration X 100. depending on project settings. • Cost Variance = Earned Value – Actual Cost. • Duration Percent = (Planned Duration – Remaining Duration) / Planned Duration X 100. • Current Variance = Current Budget – Total Spending Plan. • Earned Value Cost = Budget At Completion X Performance Percent Complete. • Estimate To Complete = Remaining Total Cost for the activity or the Performance Factor X (Budget At Completion – Earned Value). • Days Pending = the Current Date – the Assigned Date of the oldest currently assigned human task for the currently logged in user. • Cost Performance Index-Labour Units = Earned Value Labour Units / Actual Labour Units. • Cost Variance Index-Labour Units = Cost Variance Labour Units / Earned Value Labour Units. • Cost Variance-Labour Units = Earned Value Labour Units – Actual Labour Units. • Cost Performance Index = Earned Value Cost / Actual Cost. . • Estimate At Completion Cost = Actual Cost + Estimate to Complete Cost. • Earned Value Labour Units = [Activity Level] BL Project Labour Units or BL1 Labour Units X Performance % Complete. • Estimate At Completion-Labour Units = Actual Labour Units + Estimate to Complete Labour Units. • Current Budget = Original Budget + the sum of the approved budget changes from the budget log. [WBS Level] BL Project Labour Units X Performance % Complete. • Duration % of Planned = Actual Duration / Baseline Duration X 100. • Estimate To Complete Labour Units = either the Remaining Total Units for the activity or as Performance Factor X (BL Labour Units – Earned Value) depending on the earned-value technique selected for the activity’s WBS.• Cost % Complete = Actual Total Cost / At Completion Total Cost X 100. depending on the Earned Value technique selected for the activity’s WBS. • Cost % of Planned = Actual Total Cost / Baseline Total Cost X 100. • Cost Variance Index = Cost Variance / Earned Value.

• Net Present Value = Total Benefit Plan (Present Value) – Total Spending Plan (Present Value). • Forecast at Completion: Labour Units (Schedule Performance) = Budget at Completion Labour Units – Estimate at Completion Labour Units.• Expense Cost % Complete = Actual Expense Cost / At Completion Expense Cost X 100. Always in the range 0 to 100. • Forecast at Completion: Schedule (Earned Value Performance) = [For costs] Budget at Completion X Schedule Variance Index (SVI). • Nonlabor Cost % Complete = Actual Nonlabor Cost / At Completion Nonlabor Cost X 100. • Material Cost % Complete = Actual Material Cost / At Complete Material Cost X 100. • Labour Cost % Complete = Actual Labour Cost / At Completion Labour Cost X 100. • Planned Nonlabor Cost = [If no resources are assigned] Activity Planned Nonlabor Units X Project Default Price / Time. • Forecast at Completion: Labour Units (Earned Value Performance) = Baseline (BL) Labour Units X Cost Variance Index (CVI) Labour Units. • Overtime Factor = Standard Price X Overtime Factor. • External Late Finish = [If the relationship type is Start to Start or Start to Finish] Relationship Late Start + Remaining Duration of the predecessor. . • Labour Units % Complete = Actual Labour Units / At Completion Labour Units X 100. • Nonlabor Units % Complete = Actual Nonlabor Units / At Completion Nonlabor Units X 100. • Forecast at Completion: Cost (Schedule Performance) = Budget at Completion – Estimate at Completion. • Planned Labour Cost (Activities) = [If no resources are assigned] Activity Planned Labour Units X Project Default Price / Time. • Forecast at Completion: Schedule (Schedule Performance) = Remaining Finish Date – Baseline Finish Date. • External Early Start = [If the relationship type is Start to Finish or Finish to Finish] Relationship Early Finish Date – Remaining Duration of the successor. • Exposure = probability midpoint X cost midpoint. • Forecast at Completion: Cost (Earned Value Performance) = Budget at Completion X Cost Variance Index (CVI).

• Remaining Cost (Expenses) = Remaining Labour Costs + Remaining Nonlabor Costs + Remaining Expense Costs. • Remaining Nonlabor Cost (Activities) = [If no resources are assigned] Activity Remaining Nonlabor Units X Project Default Price / Time. • Schedule Variance Index-Labour Units = Schedule Variance Labour Units / Planned Value Labour Units. • Schedule Performance Index (Index Performance) = Earned Value of Cost or Quantity / Planned Value of Cost or Quantity. • Schedule Performance Index-Labour Units = Earned Value Labour Units / Planned Value Labour Units.• Planned Value Cost (Activities) = Budget At Completion X Schedule Percent Complete. • Remaining Units (Activities) = Planned Units – Actual Units. • Score (Resource Search Results) = Available units of the resource across the expanded . • Schedule Performance Index (Earned Value) = Earned Value / Planned Value. • Proposed Budget = Original Budget + the sum of the Approved and Pending Budgets from the budget log. • Schedule Variance-Labour Units = Earned Value Labour Units – Planned Value Labour Units. • Schedule Variance Index (EPS) = Schedule Variance Labour Units / Planned Value Labour Units. • Return on Investment = Net Present Value / Total Spending Plan (Present Value). • Remaining Cost (Assignments) = Remaining Units X Cost/Time. • Planned Value Labour Units (Activities) = Budget At Completion X Schedule Percent Complete. • Planned Value Labour Units (EPS) = Baseline Labour Units X Schedule Percent Complete. • Remaining Labour Cost (Activities) = [If no resources are assigned] Activity Remaining Labour Units X Project Default Price / Time. • Schedule Variance = Earned Value – Planned Value. • Schedule Variance Index (Activities) = Schedule Variance / Planned Value. • Remaining Units (Assignments) = Remaining Duration X Remaining Units per Time. • Remaining Float = Late Finish – Remaining Finish.

• Variance-Finish Date = Finish Date – Baseline Finish Date. • For labour units. • To Date: Schedule (Schedule Performance) = (Baseline Duration X Performance % Complete) – (Baseline Duration X Schedule % Complete). • Units % Complete (EPS) = Actual Units / At Complete Units X 100. • Variance-Material Cost = Project Baseline Planned Material Cost – At Completion Material Cost. • To Date: Cost = Earned Value Cost – Actual Cost. . • Variance-Labour Cost = BL Labour Cost – At Completion Labour Cost. • Variance-Labour Units = Baseline Labour Units – At Completion Labour Units. • Total Spending Plan = Plan Period $ / (1 + Annual Discount Rate) X years. • Variance-Duration = Baseline Duration – At Completion Duration. • Total Present Value (Discounted): Benefit Plan = Plan Period $ / ((1 + Discount Rate) to the nth power). Earned Value Labour Units – Planned Value Labour Units. • Total Float = Late Start – Early Start or Late Finish – Early Finish. • Unallocated Budget (EPS) = Total Current Budget – Distributed Current Budget. • Step Weight Percent = (Step Weight / Sum of Weight for all steps) X 100. • To Date: Schedule (Earned Value) = [For costs] Earned Value Cost – Planned Value Cost. activity time frame – Total Requested Units. • Total Benefit Plan = Plan Period $ / (1 + Annual Discount Rate) X years. • Units % Complete (Activities) = Actual Units / At Completion Units X 100. • Variance-Nonlabor Cost = BL Nonlabor Cost – At Completion Nonlabor Cost. • To Date: Labour Units = Earned Value Labour Units – Actual Labour Units. • To Complete Performance Index (Index Performance) = (BAC – Earned Value) / (EAC – Actual Units or Cost). • To Complete Performance Index (Earned Value) = (Budget at Completion – Earned Value) / (Estimate at Completion – Actual Units or Cost). • Variance-Expense Cost = Project Baseline Expense Cost – At Completion Expense Cost. • Units % Complete (Assignments) = Actual Units / At Completion Units X 100.

• Variance BL Project-Duration = Planned Duration – At Completion Duration.• Variance-Nonlabor Units = Baseline Nonlabor Units – At Completion Nonlabor Units. • Variance BL Project-Nonlabor Cost = Planned Nonlabor Cost – At Completion Nonlabor Cost. • Variance BL Project-Finish Date = Finish – BL Project Finish. • Variance-Start Date = Start Date – Baseline Start Date. • Variance BL1-Labor Cost = BL1 Labour Cost – At Completion Labour Cost. • Variance BL1-Finish Date = Finish – BL1 Finish. • Variance BL Project-Nonlabor Units = BL Project Nonlabor Units – At Completion Nonlabor Units. • Variance BL1-Expense Cost = Primary Baseline Expense Cost – At Completion Expense Cost. • Variance At Completion-Labour Units = Project Baseline Planned Total Labour Units – Estimate At Completion Labour Units. • Variance BL1-Duration = BL1 Duration – At Completion Duration. • Variance BL Project-Material Cost = BL Project Material Cost – At Completion Material Cost. • Variance BL1-Nonlabor Cost = BL1 Nonlabor Cost – At Completion Nonlabor Cost. • Variance BL1-Material Cost = BL1 Material Cost – At Completion Material Cost. . • Variance BL1-Nonlabor Units = BL1 Nonlabor Units – At Completion Nonlabor Units. • Variance At Completion = Budget At Completion – Estimate At Completion. • Variance BL Project-Labour Cost = Planned Labour Cost – At Completion Labour Cost. • Variance BL Project-Labour Units = BL Project Labour Units – At Completion Labour Units. • Variance BL Project-Total Cost = Planned Total Cost – At Completion Total Cost. • Variance BL Project-Start Date = Start – BL Project Start. • Variance BL1-Labor Units = BL1 Labour Units – At Completion Labour Units. • Variance BL Project-Expense Cost = BL Project Expense Cost – At Completion Expense Cost. • Variance-Total Cost = BL Total Cost – At Completion Total Cost.

.• Variance BL1-Start Date = Start – BL1 Start. • Variance BL1-Total Cost = BL1 Total Cost – At Completion Total Cost.

University of Birmingham. Time Management in Railway Construction. • PMI (2013). • Oracle (2014). Primavera P6 Data Dictionary Release 8.References • FIDIC (1999). FIDIC publications. Pennsylvania: PMI Publications.3. • Nam. . 1st Edition). Conditions of Contract for Construction (Building and Engineering Works. Oracle. PMBOK Guide 4th Edition. J (2012).