# SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Tutorial :1 SOIL PHASE RELATIONSHIPS ( Basic definitions and simple tests )

1. A sample of wet silty clay soil has a mass of 126 kg. The following data were obtained from
laboratory tests on the sample: Wet density,  γ = 2.1 g/cm3, G = 2.7, water content, w - 15%.

Determine (i) dry density  ,γ d (ii) porosity, (iii) void ratio, and (iv) degree of saturation. {Ans : i) 1826.2 kg/m3,ii)

32.37%, iii) 0.4786 ,iv) 84.6%}

2. Earth is required to be excavated from borrow pits for building an embankment. The wet unit weight of
undisturbed soil is 18 kN/m3 and its water content is 8%. In order to build a 4 m high embankment with
top width 2 m and side slopes 1:1, estimate the quantity of earth required to be excavated per meter length
of embankment. The dry unit weight required in the embankment is 15 kN/m 3 with a moisture content of
10%. Assume the specific gravity of solids as 2.67. Also determine the void ratios and the degree of
saturation of the soil in both the undisturbed and remoulded states. {Ans : 21.55m3 , Undisturbed state
( e=0.56,S=36.9%), Remoulded state (e=0.75; S=35.6%}

3. The moisture content of an undisturbed sample of clay belonging to a volcanic region is 265%
under 100% saturation. The specific gravity of the solids is 2.5. The dry unit weight is 21 Ib/ft 3.
Determine (i) the saturated unit weight, (ii) the submerged unit weight, and (iii) void ratio .{ Ans : i) 76.65 lb/ft 3 , ii)
14.25 lb/ft3, iii) e= 6.59}.

4 . A sample of saturated clay from a consolidometer test has a total weight of 3.36 Ib and a dry weight
of 2.32 Ib. The specific gravity of the solid particles is 2.7. For this sample, determine the water
content, void ratio, porosity and total unit weight. {Ans : w=44.9%, e= 1.215, n=54.8%, γ =110.3 lb/ft3 }

5. A sample of silty clay has a volume of 14.88cm3, a total mass of 28.81 g, a dry mass of 24.83 g, and
a specific gravity of solids 2.7. Determine the void ratio and the degree of saturation. {Ans: e=0.618, S=70% }

6. A soil sample in its natural state has a weight of 5.05Ib and a volume of 0.041 ft3. In an oven-dried
state, the dry weight of the sample is 4.49Ib. The specific gravity of the solids is 2.68. Determine
the total unit weight, water content, void ratio, porosity, and degree of saturation. {Ans : γ =123.2 lb/ft3 ,w= 2.5%,

e= 0.53, n= 34.64%, S=63.2% }

7. A soil sample has a total unit weight of 16.97 kN/m3 and a void ratio of 0.84. The specific gravity
of solids is 2.70. Determine the degree of saturation, dry unit weight and moisture content of the
sample. { Ans : S= 58%,  γ d = 14.4 kN/m3, w=18% }

8. A soil sample in its natural state has, when fully saturated, a water content of 32.5%. Determine the
void ratio, dry and total unit weights. Calculate the total weight of water required to saturate a soil
mass of volume 10 m3. Assume Gs = 2.69. {Ans : 45.8 kN}

9. A saturated sand sample has dry unit weight of 18kN/m 3 and specific gravity of 2.65 .if unit weight of
water 10kN/m3 , determine the water content of the soil. (GATE 1991).

10. A partially saturated sample from a borrow pit has a natural moisture content of 15% and bulk unit weight of 1.9g/cc.
the specific gravity of solids is 2.70. Determine the degree of saturation and void ratio. What would be the unit
weight of the sample on saturation. {Ans : e=0.64 , S=63.3%,   , γ s a t = 2.04g/cc }

11 . The void ratio and specific gravity of a sample of clay are 0.73 and 2.7 respectively. If the voids are 92% saturated ,
find the bulk density, dry density and water content. ESE 1999, {Ans : bulk density = 1949.03kg/m3 ,w= 24.87 , dry
density =1560 kg/m3, w(fully saturated)=27.03% }

12. In a proctor compaction test , the soil specimen of one of the observatons had a bulk density of 19kN/m3 with a
moisture content of 15%. Find a) degree of saturation of the specimen if G=2.7 , b) additional moisture content
required for saturating the soil specimen . ESE 2004 , {Ans : a) S= 67.16%, b) w = 7.33%.}

13. An oven dry soil sample of volume 225cm 3 weighs 390g. If the specific gravity is 2.72 . Determine the void ratio
and Shrinkage limit .What will be the water content which will fully saturate the sample and cause an increase in
volume equal to 8% of the original dry volume? ESE 2011, { Ans : e= 0.57 , SL= 20.95% , w( fully saturated =
25.6%)}.

e=0.764 . {Ans : e= 0. w= 28. ESE 2012 . void ratio . 16.7lb/ft3.67} 18. A soil sample has a unit weight of 105.4 kN/m3 } .71 is mixed with 16% by weight of water and compacted to produce a cylindrical sample of 38mm diameter and 76mm long with 6% air content . A saturated soil sample has a unit weight of 122.7. A soil deposit has a void ratio of 0. Find dry density . The specific gravity of the soil 2.81kN/m3}.6 by compaction .9. 15.79%} .667.5 lb/ft3. {Ans: e=0.5 lb/ft3 and Gs=2. { Ans : dry density =95.65 and the soil is made of entirely clean quartz sand . if its dry unit weight is 17. A soil sample has a porosity of 40% .85kN/m3 . Determine the weight of the water that must be added to the cubic metre of the soil to attain a 95% degree of saturation .7lb/ft 3 and a saturation of 50%. { Ans : 2. 14.52 } 17. { Ans : 18.n = 43. A project engineer receives a laboratory report with tests performed on marine mass calcareous silt.3 % } 19. G=2. ESE 2014 . Are the engineers suspicious correct ? If so which one of these values is wrong and what should be its correct value. dry density = 15.5 kN/m3.28kN per m3 of soil } 20. Determine the percentage reduction of volume by this compaction. the specific gravity of the solids is 2.88kN/m3 . Its void ratio is reduced to 0. When its saturation is increased to 75% its unit weight increases to 112.6 g .81. Calculate the void ratio dry density unit weight if the soil is 50% saturated and if the soil is fully saturated . The engineer suspects that one of the measurement is in error . Calculate the mass of the mixed soil required and the void ratio of the sample.7 . e = 0.ɤ( 100% sat) = 19. {Ans : 15. moisture is 4% . Determine the void ratio and specific gravity of the soil.3 . { Ans : M =177. ɤ ( 50% sat) = 17. porosity and water content . Dry soil with Gs =2.