# BASIC THERMODYNAMICS AND APPLICATION OF ENERGY BALANCES

The macroscopic velocity of any one stream is found by dividing the volume rate of flow by the
cross-sectional area of the channel or pipe. For pumps, compressors, blowers, and the like, changes of
kinetic energy are often ignored when calculating work and heat requirements.
Internal energy is a conceptual term defined as all of the energy possessed by a mass other than
potential or kinetic. The symbol "U" is used commonly to represent internal energy.
By this definition of "U,"
Total Energy = U + PE + KE (7.4)

For a closed system Equation (7.4) expresses the total energy possessed by a mass provided some
means for calculating internal energy is provided. In a closed system no mass crosses the system boundary
and the system boundary can move, i. e., the volume of the system can change.
In most process applications it is more convenient to treat the system as "open." In an open system
mass can cross the system boundary and the system boundary is fixed. Also, in an open system the volume
of fluid entering at the inlet boundary (V 1 ) can do so only by displacing an equal volume of fluid already
there at pressure P 1 . Thus, an additional energy, P 1 V 1 , is involved.
At the system exit the reverse is true and additional energy P2V2 is involved. To facilitate the
inclusion of these PV terms into the energy balance a new concept, enthalpy, is defined by the equation:

H = U + PV (7.5)
Since work (defined later) also may contain a PV term, sometimes there is confusion between work
and the PV term of Equation 7.5. In this equation the PV term is an energy change associated with the mass
involved. Work is non-mass associated.
As noted in later chapters enthalpy is the primary concept used in energy correlations. It is seldom
that one has a need to calculate "U" or "PV" separately in Equation (7.5).
The energy terms U, H, PE and KE are sufficient to describe the energy associated with the mass
contained in, flowing into or flowing out of, the system. The next step is to define energy terms independent
of mass.
There are two mechanisms by which energy may enter or leave a system without any mass being
involved. They are called work (W) and heat (Q).
The total amount of such non-mass associated
energy is the algebraic sum of Q and W.
Heat (Q) is defined as all energy crossing
the boundary of the system in the prescribed time
period that is in no way associated with mass, solely
as a result of a temperature difference between the
system and the surroundings. Heat gained by the
system is arbitrarily defined as plus (+). That lost is
Figure 7.3 Overall Energy Balance Example minus (-).
Work (W) is defined as all energy crossing
the boundary of the system in the prescribed time period that is in no way associated with mass, by any
mechanism other than a temperature differential, e.g., all non-mass associated energy crossing the boundary
other than that falling in the category of heat. Work done by the system (leaving it) is defined as plus (+).
That done on the system (entering it) is minus (-).

204 VOLUME 1 : THE BASIC PRINCIPLES