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**The macroscopic velocity of any one stream is found by dividing the volume rate of flow by the
**

cross-sectional area of the channel or pipe. For pumps, compressors, blowers, and the like, changes of

kinetic energy are often ignored when calculating work and heat requirements.

Internal energy is a conceptual term defined as all of the energy possessed by a mass other than

potential or kinetic. The symbol "U" is used commonly to represent internal energy.

By this definition of "U,"

Total Energy = U + PE + KE (7.4)

**For a closed system Equation (7.4) expresses the total energy possessed by a mass provided some
**

means for calculating internal energy is provided. In a closed system no mass crosses the system boundary

and the system boundary can move, i. e., the volume of the system can change.

In most process applications it is more convenient to treat the system as "open." In an open system

mass can cross the system boundary and the system boundary is fixed. Also, in an open system the volume

of fluid entering at the inlet boundary (V 1 ) can do so only by displacing an equal volume of fluid already

there at pressure P 1 . Thus, an additional energy, P 1 V 1 , is involved.

At the system exit the reverse is true and additional energy P2V2 is involved. To facilitate the

inclusion of these PV terms into the energy balance a new concept, enthalpy, is defined by the equation:

H = U + PV (7.5)

Since work (defined later) also may contain a PV term, sometimes there is confusion between work

and the PV term of Equation 7.5. In this equation the PV term is an energy change associated with the mass

involved. Work is non-mass associated.

As noted in later chapters enthalpy is the primary concept used in energy correlations. It is seldom

that one has a need to calculate "U" or "PV" separately in Equation (7.5).

The energy terms U, H, PE and KE are sufficient to describe the energy associated with the mass

contained in, flowing into or flowing out of, the system. The next step is to define energy terms independent

of mass.

There are two mechanisms by which energy may enter or leave a system without any mass being

involved. They are called work (W) and heat (Q).

The total amount of such non-mass associated

energy is the algebraic sum of Q and W.

Heat (Q) is defined as all energy crossing

the boundary of the system in the prescribed time

period that is in no way associated with mass, solely

as a result of a temperature difference between the

system and the surroundings. Heat gained by the

system is arbitrarily defined as plus (+). That lost is

Figure 7.3 Overall Energy Balance Example minus (-).

Work (W) is defined as all energy crossing

the boundary of the system in the prescribed time period that is in no way associated with mass, by any

mechanism other than a temperature differential, e.g., all non-mass associated energy crossing the boundary

other than that falling in the category of heat. Work done by the system (leaving it) is defined as plus (+).

That done on the system (entering it) is minus (-).

204 VOLUME 1 : THE BASIC PRINCIPLES

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