Explanation Significance

Vocabulary Word (Who/what is this person, place, thing or idea?) (Why is this person, place, thing significant to history?)

immigration The movement of people to a new country. The immigrants came to the US for the hope
of more economic oportunity due to the

conservatism Political doctrine that emphasizes the Conservatism began to take root after the
value of traditional institutions and upheavals of the French Revolution. The
practices. The government is to be the conservatives rejected the French Revolution
servant, not the master, of society. and supported the monarchy. And the
general violence of the revolution allowed for
the restoration of the pre-Revolutionary

nationalism A sense of identity with the nation. The unification of people based on language
and culture wanted their own countries.
Germany and Italy are such countries. And
industrialism also spurred the nationalism
movement, with the invention of steam
machines and factories helped to urbanize
and make large cities.

Voltaire A French Enlightenment writer. He attacked the Catholic Church and
advocated for freedom of religion, speech and
separation of church and state.

liberals Political philosophy based on liberty and The French Revolution used liberal
equality. philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of
what it deemed a tyrannical rule.

First, Second, Third Estates The estates of the realm were the broad The estates were generally difficult to move
orders of social hierarchy used in Christian between. The possible exception would be
Europe in France until the French exceptional military service or monetary or
Revolution. The Clergy were the first commercial success. However, movement
estate, the nobles were the second and between the states required the blessing of
the peasants and bourgeoisie were the nobility at some point.

bourgeoisie Identified as a social class oriented to The term usually refers to the ruling upper
economic materialism and hedonism and class of a capitalist society.
to upholding the economic and political
interests of the ruling class.
Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789, members of the French It was a pivotal event in the early days of the
Third Estate, began to call themselves the French Revolution.
National Assembly took the oath vowing,
not to separate, and to reassemble
wherever circumstances require, until the
constitution of the kingdom is established

Bastille A french prison in Paris. Was stormed in the opening days of the
French Revolution and became a symbol of
the despotism of the ruling Bourbon

primogeniture The right of succession belonging to the The concept is based on keeping large land
firstborn child by which the whole real masses united in order to maintain social
estate passes to the eldest son stability and wealth within families

John Locke And English philosopher and physician Known as the “Father of Liberalism.”
regarded as one of the most influential
Enlightenment thinker.

Social contract Is the view that the person's’ moral and One of the dominant theories within moral
political obligations are dependent upon a and political theory throughout the history of
contract or agreement among them to the modern West.
form the society in which they live.

Baron Montesquieu French political philosopher whose major Major contribution to political theory.
work, ​The Spirit of Laws.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau Saw modern philosophy as alienating the Rousseau focused on finding a way to
modern individual from humanity’s natural preserve human freedom in a world where
impulse to compassion. human beings are increasingly dependent on
one another for the satisfaction of their needs.

Thomas Paine Founding Father of the American “These are the times that try men’s souls.”
Revolution. Author of ​The American His writings inspired passion and criticism.
Crisis. The Age of Reason ​is also his
work. He was anti slavery and an
advocate for world peace.
The Age of Reason Written by Thomas Paine. He brought Challenges institutionalized religion and the
ideas to the common man which had been legitimacy of the Bible. Pain advocates
before only available to the educated elite. reason over revelation and rejects the
miracles of the Bible. Felt to be too radical for

Declaration of Is the statement adopted by the second They formed a new nation- the United States
Independence Continental Congress in 176, which of America.
announced the then thirteen American
colonies regarded themselves newly
independent sovereign states, and no
longer under British rule.

United States Constitution Delineates the national frame of It is the supreme law of the United States of
government. America.

Separation of powers Is the model of governance in which the The typical division is the legislature,
state is divided into branches each with executive and judiciary.
separate and independent powers.

Checks and balances Limits imposed on all branches of This system guards against absolute power
government by vesting in each branch the by providing for separate executive, judicial
right to amend or void those acts of and legislative bodies who share powers and
another that fall within its power. thereby check and balance one another.

Declaration of the Rights of France 1789, fundamental document of The rights of man are held to be universal, it
Man the French Revolution and in the history of became the basis for a nation of free
human and civil rights. individuals protected equally by law.

Code Napoleon The French civil code established under A major step in replacing the previous
Napoleaon I, stresses clearly written and patchwork of feudal laws.
accessible law.

Balance of power Theory in international relations suggests After the French Revolution, with the
that national security is enhanced when restoration of comparative calm, the principle
military capability is distributed so that no of balance of power once more emerged as
one state is strong enough to dominate all the operative motive for the various political
others. powers.
Napoleon Bonaparte Was Emperor of the French from 1804 to One of the greatest commanders in history.
1815. He dominated European and global His wars and campaigns are studied at
affairs for more than a decade while military schools worldwide.
leading France in the Napoleonic Wars.
He built a large empire.

King Louis XIV Louis the Great or The Sun King. Monarch He had one of the longest reigns of any major
of the House of Bourbon from 1643 to his monarch in European history, and he was a
death in 1715. leader in the growing centralization of power
in the age of absolutism.

Maximilien Robespierre A French lawyer and politician. One of the Outspoken advocate for the poor and
best known figures of the French democratic institutions. Important in
Revolution and the Reign of Terror. arranging the execution of king Louis XIV.

Tsar Alexander I Reined as Emperor of Russia from 1801 to Defeated Napolean’s invasion of Russia. As
1825. Alexander the Blessed. a result, he gained Finland and Poland. He
formed the Holy Alliance.

Adam Smith Scottish economist, philosopher and He is best known for two works: ​The Theory
author. A pioneer of political economy and of Moral Sentiments​ and ​An Inquiry into the
a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations-
The first modern work of economics.

Wealth of Nations Written by Adam Smith at the University of Laid the foundation of classical free market
Glasgow and Oxford. economic theory.

laissez -faire Is an economic system in which Form of capitalism promoted in Europe.
transactions between private parties are
free from government intervention such as
regulation, privileges and tariffs and

Otto Von Bismarck Conservative Prussian statesman who He engineered a series of wars that unified
dominated German and European affairs the German states, deliberately excluding
from 1860 to 1890. Austria, into a powerful German Empire under
Prussian leadership. He used the balance of
power diplomacy to maintain Germany’s
position in Europe.
socialism Is a range of economic and social systems Socialist political movements are diverse and
characterised by a social ownership and originated in the general concern for the
democratic control of the means of social problems associated with capitalism.
production as well as political theories and

Spinning jenny Multi spindle spinning frame Key development of the industrialization of
weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.

Water frame A water powered spinning frame which Produced stronger and harder yarn than the
was an easy way to create cotton thread. spinning jenny, thus, greatly ushering the
factory system.

Eli Whitney American inventor best known for This was a key invention in the Industrial
inventing the cotton gin. He also Revolution and shaped the Antebellum South.
advocated for interchangeable parts.

Interchangeable parts Advocated by Eli Whitney. Are parts that The parts are easily mass produced and
are made to specifications that ensure that replaceable.
they are identical that they will fit into any
assembly of the same type.

Steam engine Is a heat engine that performs mechanical The stationary steam engine was a key
work using steam as its working fluid. component of the Industrial Revolution,
Patented by James Watt in 1781. allowing factories to locate where water power
was available.

James Watt Scottish inventor who greatly improved the Instrumental invention for the Industrial
steam engine. Revolution.

Crop rotation Is the practice of growing a series of Reduces soil erosion and increased soil
dissimilar or different crops in the same fertility and crop yield.
area in sequences seasons.

Transcontinental Railroad Is a continuous network of railroad Transcontinental railroads helped open up
trackage that crosses a continental land unpopulated interior regions of continents to
mass. exploration and settlement that would not
otherwise have been feasible. They formed
the backbones of cross country passenger
and freight transportation networks.
Trans-Siberian Railroad A network of railways connecting Moscow Improved the development of Siberia and
with the Russian Far East. it is the longest connected it to the rest of the country.
railway in the world.

Bessemer process The first inexpensive industrial process for This process revolutionized the making of high
the mass production of steel from molten quality steel.
pig iron. The process removes impurities
from the iron.

urbanization Refers to the population shift from rural to Town and cities are formed and become
urban areas. larger and can be linked to industrialization.

Meiji Is a Japanese era which extended from During this time Japanese society moved from
1868 to 1912. This period is the first half being an isolated feudal society to its modern
of the Empire of Japan. form.

industrialization Is the period of social and economic Involves the extensive re-organization of an
change that transforms a human group economy for the purposes of manufacturing.
from being an agrarian society to an The results are increased wages and
industrial one. increased markets for consumer goods and
services of all kinds.

Cottage industry Is a small scale industry where the Often unique and distinctive products because
creation of products and services is home they are not mass produced.
based rather than factory based.

Factory system Is a method of manufacturing using High cost of equipment and buildings, usually
machinery and division of labor. are owned by capitalists who employ the
labour. And this system produces a lot of

Division of labor The separation of a work process into Applied to mass production and the basic
tasks each performed by a separate organization of the assembly line. Does not
person or group of persons. necessarily mean decreasing skill of labor.

Assembly line Is a manufacturing process in which Used in automobile manufacturing and
interchangeable parts are added as the electronic goods.
assembly moves from workstation to

Agricultural Revolution Gradual transformation of the traditional Compact farms and improved irrigation and
agricultural system with increased machinery increased production.
investment in technical improvements and
breeding and crop rotation.
Enclosure movement Is the division or consolidation of This prevented community use of the land
communal fields, meadows and pastures during the off season. The manorial lords
into individually owned and managed farm encouraged this for increased efficiency.
plots of modern times. Complete by the end of the 1800’s.

consumerism Increased consumption of goods Increases with increased wages

corporations A legal entity that is distinct and Many businesses function as corporations
separate from its owners.

monopoly Refers to a sector or industry Can be an extreme result of free market
dominated by one corporation capitalism. Limited by antitrust laws and
regulations. And these laws are in place to protect

capitalism An economic system based on private Private property and capital accumulation are
ownership and the means of central to capitalism as are wage labor and
production and their profit. competitive markets.

utopia An imagined community or society The opposite is a dystopia. Utopian ideals are
that possesses highly desireable or often egalitarian societies in terms of economics
nearly perfect qualities for its citizens. and politics for the citizens.

Karl Marx Prussian/German philosopher and His writings have shaped the intellectual
revolutionary wrote the ​Communist movement of Marxism.

The Communist Manifesto Written by Marx in 1848 is a political It represents an analytical approach to the class
pamphlet commissioned by the struggles and the problems of capitalism and the
Communist League. capitalist mode of production.

Means of production Physical and non -human inputs used The subjects of the labor act on the means of
for the production of economic value production to create goods.
such as facilities and machinery and

communism Is the ideology whose ultimate goal is Includes Marxism.
a socioeconomic order structured
upon common ownership of the
means of production and the absence
of classes and money and the state.
tenement A multi-occupancy building of any sort During the industrial revolution and immigrants
usually low cost for tenants. came to the US and workers were housed in these

slums Heavily populated urban informal The poor workers were living in slums at times.
settlement characterized by
substandard housing and squalor.

Working class Are the people employed for wages Known a blue collar jobs, some white-collar jobs
especially manual labor occupations in and most service-work jobs.
skilled industrial work,

White collar A person who performs professional Performed in an administrative setting.
or managerial work.

Cult of domesticity Or cult of true womanhood. Is a term A true woman was supposed to possess: piety,
used to describe a value system purity, domesticity and submissiveness. The
emphasized the role of the woman woman being the center of the family.
within the home.

Labor unions Are representative of workers in many Their activity is centered on collective bargaining
industries recognized under US labor over wages, benefits and working conditions of its
laws. members.

proletariat Is a term for the class of wage-earners Known in Marxist theory as those who do not have
in a capitalist society. ownership of the means of production.

bourgeoisie Is the social class that came to own A social class oriented to economic materialism
the means of production during the and hedonism.
modern industrialization.

imperialism Is an action that involves a country It may involve exploitation of these territories an
extending its power by the acquisition action linked to colonialism.
of territories.

Scramble for Africa Was the invasion, occupation, Known as the Partition of Africa and the Conquest
division, colonization and annexation of Africa. In 1870 only 10% of Africa was under
of African territory by the European European control, by 1914 90%.
powers during the period of New
Imperialism between 1881 and 1914.
Berlin Conference Of 1884-85, also known as the Congo Called for by Portugal, its outcome can be seen as
Conference, regulated European the formalization of the Scramble for Africa. The
colonization and trade in Africa during conference resulted in a heightened colonial
the New Imperialism period and activity of European powers, which eliminated
coincided with Germany’s sudden most existing forms of African autonomy.
emergence as an imperial power.

Boer Wars 1880 between Great Britain and South Resulted in a defeat for the British and the second
African Republic. independence of the South African Republic.

Zulu kingdom Monarchy in Southern Africa. The kingdom grew to dominate much of Southern

Anglo-Zulu War 1879, between the British Empire and Several bloody battles, followed by the defeat of
the Zulu Kingdom. the Zulu army. A British victory.

Roosevelt Corollary An addition to the Monroe Doctrine, to The corollary states that the US will intervene in
address the Venezuela Crisis of conflicts between European and Latin American
1902-03. countries to enforce legitimate claims of the
European powers.

Indian National Conference Broad based political party in India Lead to independence from Great Britain.
founded in 1885.

Pan Africanism Is a worldwide intellectual movement Substantial base amongst the African diaspora in
that aims to encourage and strengthen the Caribbean and the US.
bonds of solidarity between all people
of African descent.

Export economies Is trade and economic policy aimed to Implies opening domestic markets to foreign
speed up the industrialization process competition in exchange for market access in other
of a country by exporting goods for countries.
which the nation has a comparative

Cash crops An agricultural crop which is grown for Typically crops are purchased by parties separate
sale to return a profit. from the farm. Used to differentiate marketed
crops from subsistence crops, which are grown to
support the farm such as to feed the livestock.
Tea An aromatic drink using boiled water. The drink was important from a production
standpoint and the caffeine helped the workers
stay alert and there were felt to be health benefits
from drinking with boiled water and the acids in the
tea killed germs.

Cecil Rhodes British businessman and mining Rhodes Scholarship is funded by his estate.
magnate. 1890’s. An ardent believer
in British imperialism.

Penal colony Is a settlement used to exile prisoners The British and French used North America and
and separate them from the general Australia for penal colonies. In North America, they
population. were auctions and sold mostly landing in Maryland
and Virginia.

Charles Darwin An English biologist best known for On the Origin of Species​ addressed evolution, and
contributions to science and evolution. natural selection.

Social Darwinism Used to describe natural selection to The term emerged in the 1880’s.
the concept of human society.

Afrikaners Are a Southern African ethnic group They dominated South Africa’s agriculture and
descended from the predominantly politics prior to 1994.
Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17
and 18th centuries.

Aborigines Are legally defined as people who are Coined by the British to refer to the inhabitants of
members of the Aboriginal race of Australia.

Maori Are the indigenous Polynesian people The unique polynesian culture is called Maori with
of New Zealand. rich traditions in horticulture and war, and language
and mythology and arts.

White Australia Policy Comprises the historical policies that There was never any specific policy but there was
effectively barred people of a collection of policies aimed to discourage people
non-European descent from from Asia and the Pacific Islands from immigrating
immigrating to Australia. to Australia.
Gavrilo Princip Bosnian Serb born 1894-1918, and The organization seeking to end the Austro-Hungarian
member of the Young Bosnia. rule in Bosnia. He assassinated the Archduke Franz
Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, setting into
motion a chain of events that would lead to the
outbreak of WWI

Archduke Francis Ferdinand 1863-1914, and was assassinated Lead to WWI
in Sarajevo and precipitated
Austria-Hungary’s declaration of
war against Serbia.

Woodrow Wilson 1856 - 1924, and American He lead the country during WWI. He championed the
politician and the 28th president of League of Nations.
the US.

David Lloyd George British Liberal politician and He was a key figure in the introduction of reforms
statesman of Welsh parentage and which laid the groundwork for the modern welfare
upbringing. 1863-1945. state. Also, active in the Paris Peace Conference of
1919 that reordered Europe after the defeat of the
Central Powers.

Georges Clemenceau French politician and served as the Principle architects of the Treaty of Versailles. He took
Prime Minister of France during a harsh position against defeated Germany. And won
WWI. an agreement for large sums for reparations from

Vittorio Orlando An Italian statesman who Leading figure to change Italian government into a
represented Italy in the 1919 Paris Republic.
Peace Conference. Professor of
Law and is known for his writings on
legal and judicial issues.

Ho Chi Minh Vietnamese Communist He lead the movement establishing the Communist
revolutionary leader who was prime ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam and defeating
minister and president of the the French Union. His cause was a united and
Democratic Republic of Vietnam in communist Vietnam. The capital Saigon was renamed
1945 as well as the People’s Army Ho Chi Minh City.
of Vietnam and the Viet Cong
during the Vietnam War.

Black Hand Secret military service formed 1911 They originated in the conspiracy group that
in Serbia. assassinated the Serbian royal couple
Triple Entente Is the understanding linking Russia, The understanding supplemented by agreements with
France and Great Britain after in Japan and Portugal, was a powerful counterbalace to
1907. the Triple Alliance of Germany-Austria-Hungary and
Italy in WWI.

Allies Known as the Entente were France, Were opposed to the Central Powers in WWI.
Britain, Russia. And Japan

Triple Alliance Was a secret agreement between Opposing to the Triple Entente
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
formed in 1882.

Soviet Russia Is a term usually used to informally The largest of the fifteen republics that comprised the
refer to the Russian Soviet Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Federative Socialist Republics.

Soviet Union USSR, was a socialist state in The government that replaced the Bolsheviks in the
Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. Revolution of 1917.
Gorbachev resigned in 1991.

League of Nations Was an intergovernmental First international organization whose principal mission
organisation founded 1920 as a was to maintain world peace.
result of the Paris Peace
Conference that ended WWI.

Weimar Government Unofficial historical designation for The name derives from the city of Weimar where its
the German state between 1919 constitutional assembly first took place.
and 1933.

Pan-Arabism Is an ideology espousing the Known as the Arab World and Arab nationalism which
unification of the countries of North asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation.
Africa and West Asia from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea.

Zionists Is one who follows the national Since the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948,
movement of Jewish people that Zionists primarily advocate on the behalf of Israel and
supports the re-establishment of a address threats to its continued existence and
Jewish homeland in the territory security.
defined as the historic Land of
May Fourth Movement Was an anti-imperialist movement This movement marked the upsurge of Chinese
growing out of student participants, nationalism and shift towards political mobilization and
away from cultural activities. And a move towards a
populist base rather than intellectual elites. And, many
political and social leaders of the next decades
emerged at this time.

The Great War WWI 1914 to 1918. Over 9 million soldiers and 7 million civilians died
including genocides.

militarism Is the belief or the desire of a North Korea, US, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union
government or a people that a and also the Roman Empire are examples
country should maintain a strong
military capability and be prepared
to use it aggressively to defend or
promote national interests.

Secret alliances Between 1946 and 2013 the UN The secret treaties were difficult to reconcile with the
has a number of treaties that are various powers.
unregistered and therefore secret

Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, the One of the main factions during WWI and was
Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria, also defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around
known as the Quadruple Alliance. the Triple Entente

self-determination The process by which a group or During WWI, the Allies accepted self-determination as
people, usually possessing a certain a peace aim.
degree of national consciousness,
form their own state and choose
their own government.

stalemate A situation in which neither side can Such as in trench warfare on the western front.
win a clear victory.

Lusitania A British ocean liner that a German Causing a major diplomatic uproar.
submarine sank in WWI
Zimmermann Telegram Was a secret diplomatic Secret diplomatic communication issued by the
communication issued from the Germans
German Foreign Office in 1917 that
proposed a military alliance
between Germany and Mexico in
the event of the United States
entering WWI against Germany.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Was a peace treaty signed in 1918 The treaty ene Russia’s participation in WWI.
between the new BolsheviK
government of Soviet Russia and
the Central Powers

Total war Military conflict in which the WWI was a total war.
contenders are willing to make any
sacrifice in lives and other
resources to obtain a complete
victory, as distinguished from a
limited war.

Propaganda Is information, especially of biased During WWI, propaganda was employed on a global
or misleading nature, used to scale. And used to shape international opinion.
promote a political cause or point of

Global war Another term for world wars. WWI and WWII are considered global wars

Gallipoli A campaign in WWI that took place Between 1915 and 1916. Great Ottoman victory and a
on the Gallipoli peninsula in modern defining moment in the nation’s history: a final surge
Turkey. in the defense of the motherland as the Ottoman
Empire crumbled.

ANZAC A small cove on the Gallipoli Famous site of the WWI landing of the ANZAC in
peninsula in Turkey. Australian and 1915. Main base for the army’s during the Gallipoli
New Zealand Army Corps. campaign.

Armistice Day November 11, 1918 Commemorates the armistice signed between the
allies and Germany for the cessation of hostilities on
the Western Front of WWI.

Paris Peace Conference 1919, Versailles Peace Conference To set peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
was the meeting of the Allied victors
following the end of WWI
Fourteen Points Was a statement of principles for Outlined in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson.
peace that was to be used for peace
negotiations in order to end WWI.

Treaty of Versailles 1919, ended the state of war Most important of the peace treaties that brought WWI
between Germany and the Allied to an end.

reparations Were compensation imposed during Each of the defeated powers was required to make
the Paris Peace Conference upon payments in either cash or kind.
the Central Powers following their
defeat in WWI

decolonization Is the undoing of colonialism. In the process the colonies become independent of the
colonizing country.

Mandate system The system established after WWI to The US emerged as the world power committed to anti
administer former territories of the imperial policy and sought to consider the national
German and Ottoman empires. aspirations of indigenous peoples as well as imperial
agendas of the victors.

Balfour Declaration 1917, single paragraph letter from Considered by the Arab leaders as a violation of
the UK Foreign Secretary previous agreements.
encouraging the establishment of a
home for the Jewish people in

Palestine A geograpical and historical region of State of Palestine is a modern sovereign state in the
the Middle East. Middle East.

Poison gas Toxic chemicals used as weapons A chemical weapon of WWI
such as tear gas, and lethal gases
such as mustard gas, phosgene and
chlorine gases.

Machine guns A mounted or portable fully Inflicted appalling casualties during WWI. Firing 400
automatic firearm to fire bullets in rounds per minute
quick succession from an
ammunition belt or magazine.

tanks A tank is an armoured fighting Heavy firepower and strong armour and track providing
vehicle designed for front line good mobility. The first tanks were designed to
combat. overcome the deadlock of trench warfare. Now they
are the mainstay of modern ground forces.
submarines A watercraft capable of independent In WWI submarines played an important part in the
operation under water. war. Both sides had several types of submarines. It
was the first time that military submarines made a big
difference. Most famous were the German U boat.

Trench warfare A type of land warfare using Most famous use was the Western Front in WWI.
occupied fighting lines consisting
largely of trenches.

U-boat Undersea boat, a German The U boat was expert at destroying enemy shipping.

Influenza epidemic In 1918-1919 the influenza killed Somewhere between 20-40 million people and has
more people than the Great War. been cited as the most devastating epidemic in world
WWI history.

pandemic An epidemic of infectious disease An example is the Influenza Pandemic in 1918
that spread through human
populations across a large region.

Bolsheviks Were a faction of the Marxist A revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898
Russian Social Democratic Labour to unite the various revolutionary organizations of the
Party. Russian Empire into one party.

Soviets Means “council” were political Gave the name to the later state.
organizations associated with the
Russian Revolutions.

Lost Generation Was the generation that came of age Using 1883-1990 as birth years for the generation.
during WWI. Coined by Gertrude Stein and popularized by Ernest
Hemingway. Lost means not vanished but disoriented
and wandering without direction.

Armenians An ethnic group native to the Armenians left to live in Russia and other countries as
Armenian Highland. a result of the Armenian Genocide.

genocide Is an intentional action to destroy a Armenian Genocide, the Holocaust.
people, mass killing.

Lyndon Johnson 36th president of the United States Introduced things like medicare
Ho Chi Minh Was a Vietnamese communist was Chairman and First secretary of the Workers'
revolutionary leader Party of Vietnam

Douglas MacArthur Was a five star American general in Was a prominet figure in the Pacific theater
the 1930s

Nikita Khrushchev Lead the Soviet Party during the Instigated Cuban Missile crisis
Cold War

Fidel Castro Prime Minister of Republic of Cuba Under his rule Cuba became a dictaorship

John F Kennedy Served as 45th president pf the Improved tensions in Cuba and Vientam
United States

Ronald Reagan Served as 40th president of the Increased defense (Star Wars Missile Defence
United States System) and brought a swifter end to the Cold War

Mikhail Gorbachev eighth leader of the Soviet Union Was a leader who increased defense in Atomic bombs

United Nations (UN) Assembly of countries Was used to solve world problems so that it would not
erupt in war.

General Assembly Once a year meeting of all Discussion of general issues in world
countries with membership

Security Council One of six organs of united Nations Charged with peace and security of the world

International Court of Justice Is the primary judicial branch of the Is used for international matters of law
United nations

Council for Mutual Economic 1949 to 1991, was an economic This was a response to the formation of Western
Assistance (COMECON) organization under the leadership Europe’s organizations geared to stop the spread of
of the Soviet Union and allied communism and related to the Marshall Plan with the
countries. majority of funds going to Allied countries.

North Atlantic Treaty Is an intergovernmental military Collective defense whereby its members agree to
Organization (NATO) alliance between several North mutual defense in the event of an attack by an external
American and European states and party. Became active in the Korean War.
was signed in 1949.

Warsaw Pact A collective defense treaty among Was the military complement to the CoMEcon. Was a
Soviet Union and seven satellite reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO
states during the Cold War
Communist bloc Group of communist states of And also used to denote states aligned with the Soviet
Central and Eastern Europe and Union.
the Soviet Union and countries of
the Warsaw Pact.

Southeast Asia Treaty International organization for Created to block further communist gains in Southeast
Organization (SEATO) collective defense in Southeast Asia and is generally considered a failure. Did fund
Asia signed in 1954 and dissolved cultural and educational programs with long standing
in 1977 effects.

Central Treaty Organization Or, Baghdad Pact, 1955 and Least successful of the treaties
(CENTO) dissolved in 1979. Committed to
contain the Soviet Union by having
a strong alliance of states along the
Southwestern frontier

European Union (EU) Is a political and economic union of Covers 7.3% of the world population has a high GDP.
28 member states mainly in considered an emerging superpower.
Europe. A monetary system was
established in 1999

Nuclear Non-Proliferation 1968 the international treaty whose Promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Most
Treaty objective is to prevent spread of successful treaty related to nuclear power.
nuclear weapons and related

Strategic Arms Limitation Two rounds of conferences Lead to the Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty. Was
Treaty (SALT) involving the US and Soviet Union supposed to terminate the military rivalry between the
on issues of arms control 1969-79 super powers or cooperation which was not the case
since neither country rendered themselves disarmed.

Cold War A state of geopolitical tension after General timeframe between 1947 and 1991 when the
WWII between powers of the Soviet Union collapsed.
Eastern Bloc and Western Bloc

Truman Doctrine An American foreign policy created Implied support for other nations under the threat of
to counter Soviet expansion during Soviet communism, beginning of the Cold War
the Cold War, 1947.

Marshall Plan And American initiative, beginning More aid went to Allied countries than Axis countries.
in 1948, to aid Western Europe in The Soviet Union refused Plan benefits.
which the US gave over $13 billion
(130 today) to help rebuild after
West Germany And enclave which comprised the Formerly controlled by the Western Allies. Had great
western part of the city of Berlin symbolic significance during the Cold War and seen as
during the Cold War, completely an “island of freedom”
surrounded by East Berlin

East Germany Was a socialist state in It was the region of Germany occupied by Soviet
central-western Europe during the forces.
Cold War.

Military-industrial complex An informal alliance between a It is seen together as a vested interest which may
nation’s military and arms industry influence public policy.

Tiananmen Square Is a city square in central Beijing Pro democracy protesters met with armed suppression
and the site of the protest of 1989. and the death of hundreds of protesters.

Korean War Between 1950-1953 when North The Soviets declared war on Korea and liberated
Korea invaded South Korea. Korea Korea north of the 38th parallel. And the US supported
was ruled by Japan until the closing the South. There was an armistice signed in 1953 but
days of WWII. no peace treaty. And there is a de militarized zone.

Vietnam War Between 1955-1975. The second The North was supported by Communist countries and
of the Indonesian wars between considered a Cold War-era proxy war.
North and South Vietnam

Viet Cong National Liberation Front was a They were on the winning side and employed guerilla
political organization with its own and regular arm units.
army in South Vietnam and
Cambodia that fought against the
US and South Vietnamese

Tet Offensive One of the largest military It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military
campaigns of the Vietnam War, and civilian control centers.
1968, by the Viet cong and North
Vietnamese People’s Army.

Brezhnev Doctrine Was a Soviet foreign policy, from The intervention was meant to put an end to uprisings
1968, stating that treats to one that threatened the Soviet and Eastern Bloc
socialist country comprises a threat
to all.

Irish Republican Army Is any of several armed movements It believed in political violence as a necessary means
(IRA) in Ireland dedicated to Irish to achieve its goal.
republicanism and the independent
Berlin Wall Was a guarded barrier that The wall actually served to prevent massive emigration
physically and ideologically divided and defection that had marked East Germany and the
Berlin from 1961 to 1989. communist Eastern bloc in the post WWII.

Bay of Pigs A failed military invasion of Cuba The cuban exiles were defeated by the Cuban
undertake by the CIA sponsored Revolutionary Army under the leadership of Fidel
Brigade 2506 in 1961. Castro.

Cuban Missile Crisis Was a 13-day confrontation between The standoff occurred because of American ballistic
the US and the Soviet Union in missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent
1962. Soviet missiles deployed in Cuba. This is considered
the closest the Cold War had come to escalating to full
scale nuclear war.

glasnost Russian word meaning “publicity” in Refers to reforms to the judicial system ensuring that
the sense of being open to public the press and the public could attend court hearings

Universal Declaration of Is a declaration adopted by the UN Stemming from WWII the document supports human
Human Rights General Assembly in 1948. rights.

Iron Curtain The name of the boundary dividing The East side had Communist influences while the
Europe into two separate areas at West side were non communist.
the end of WW II, 1945, until the end
of the Cold War in 1991.

Cultural Revolution Was a movement in China from To preserve the true communist ideology by purging
1966 to 1976, set in motion by Mao the remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from
Zedong. Chinese socieity.

refugees Is a displaced person who has been Handled by the UN office for refugees.
forced to cross national boundaries
and who cannot return home safely.

International Monetary An international organization to The IMF works to improve the economies of its
Fund (IMF) foster global monetary cooperation. member countries.

World Bank Is an international financial Part of the UN system. And the main goal is the
institution that provides loans to reduction of poverty.
countries for capital programs.
World Trade Organization Intergovernmental organization that Began 1995, by 123 nations and provides a framework
(WTO) regulates international trade. for international trade.

Great Leap Forward Economic and social reform by the Lead by Mao Zedong to rapidly transform China from
People’s Republic of China by the an agrarian to industrialized economy.
Communist Party of China from
1958 to 1962.

perestroika Political movement for reform within Lead by Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnots
the Communist Party of the Soviet (openness) policies. Signifies the end of the Cold War.
Union during 1980’s until 1991.

Americanization Is the influence of the American Used since 1907. Term used by critics to target the
culture and business on other American influences.

Ethnic cleansing Is the systematic removal of ethnic The result is an ethnically homogeneous society.
or religious groups.

Green Revolution Refers to a set of research that Helpful in the developing world in the late 1960’s to
increased the agricultural production combat hunger.

Jonas Salk An American medical researcher Polio had been a frightening public health concern.
and virologist who developed one of
the first successful polio vaccines.

Nelson Mandela South African anti-apartheid His government focused on dismantling the legacy of
revolutionary. 1918 to 2013. apartheid.

Margaret Thatcher British Prime Minister from 1979 to Longest serving British PM. First woman to hold the
1990. And was leader of the office. Nicknamed the Iron Lady.
Conservative Party.

Slobodan Milosevic The President of Serbia with the He also lead the Socialist Party of Serbia in 1990.
Socialist Federal Republic of Marked by reforms that reduced the powers of the
Yugoslavia from 1989 to 1997. autonomous provinces in Servbia and transitioned from
a one party to multi-party system.

Arab Spring A revolutionary wave of both violent The revolutions and protests were met with violent
and nonviolent demonstrations, responses from authorities. The end result was a
protests, in North Africa and the struggle between religious elites and democracy.
Middle East that began on
December 2010.
African National Congress Is the Republic of South Africa’s It has been the ruling party post-apartheid South Africa
(ANC) governing social democratic political on the national level beginning with the election of
party. Nelson Mendela.

World Health Organization A specialized agency of the United It is derived from an agency of the League of Nations.
(WHO) Nations that is concerned with The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report.
international public health,
established in 1948,

apartheid Was the system of institutionalized Initiated under the Dutch Empire between the Dutch
racial segregation and discrimination and the slave population.
in South Africa between 1948 and