1.1 Weighing of Cattle Dung (Weighing Machine) 1
1.2 Collection Tank (Collection Tank) 2
1.3 Homogenization of Raw Manure (Dissolution Tank) 2
1.4 Anaerobic Digestion (CSTR Type Digester) 2
1.5 Biofilter 3
1.6 Biogas Storage 4
1.7 Biogas Utilization 4
1.8 Biofertilizer Production 4
1.9 Effluent Treatment Plant (Activated Sludge Process) 5



4.1 Specifications of Anaerobic Digester 11
4.2 Specifications of Double Pipe Heat Exchanger 13
4.3 Specifications of Biofilter 15
4.4 Specification of Effluent Treatment Plant 18


6.1 Safety Design Criteria 21
6.2 Instrumentation 22
6.2.1 Selection 22
6.2.2 Instrument Power Supply 23
6.2.3 Instrument Signals 23
6.2.4 Control System 23

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6.3 Process Control and Plant Operation 24
6.3.1 Dissolution and Feed Preparation 24
6.3.2 Anaerobic Digester and Desulphurization Unit 25
6.3.3 Biogas Collection 26
6.3.4 Biogas Utilization 26


Annexure- 1 31
Annexure -2 37



1.1 Process Plant Layout 6

2.1 Material Flow Diagram of 200 TPD Biogas Plant 9

3.1 Energy Flow Diagram of 200 TPD Biogas Plant 10

4.1 CSTR Type Anaerobic Digester 12

4.2 Double Pipe Heat Exchanger 14

4.3 Biofilter of H2S Removal 17

6.1 Process Instrumentation Diagram-1 34

6.2 Process Instrumentation Diagram-2 35

6.3 Process Instrumentation Diagram-3 36

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vii . Works 30 7.1 Waste Characterizations for Material Balance 7 2. LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.1 Land Area Requirements for 200 TPD Plant 19 7.1 Price Break Up of Civil Works 28 7.2 Price Break Up of Mechanical Equipment 29 7.1 Specifications of Anaerobic Digester 11 4.2 Material Balances Summary 7 3.1 Energy Balance Summary 9 3.3 Summary of Electro Mech.2 Net Energy Balance for 200 TPD Plant 10 4.4 Summary 30 A . 2.2 Specifications of Double Pipe Heat Exchanger 13 4.4 Specifications of Effluent Treatment Plant 18 5. TITLE PAGE NO.3 Specifications of Biofilter 15 4.

Anaerobic fermentation of organic wastes leading to biogas generation is one such process. it is unloaded in collection tank and the empty trolley is reweighed. A biogas plant is a decentralized energy system. and at the same time reduces environmental pollution. Biotechnologically produced energy has been identified as an attractive alternative to increasingly scarce fossil-fuel supplies. food waste and other biomass in oxygen less environment to produce valuable by- products.PLANT DESCRIPTION SECTlON-1 Energy-deficient age in which we live today. Loaded trolleys are weighted by electronic weighing machine. which can lead to self-sufficiency in heat and power needs. which has considerable potential to supplement energy supplies. A–1 . organic fertilizer and protein. The net weight of dung collected is noted in the machine. Anaerobic digestion is the treatment of animal waste slurry. usable energy in the form of methane gas. The plant includes the following unit operations: (i) Weighing of Cattle Dung (Weighing Machine) (ii) Collection of Cattle Dung (Collection Tank) (iii) Homogenization of Raw Manure (Dissolution Tank) (iv) Anaerobic Digestion (CSTR Type Digester) (v) Biofiltration of Biogas (Biofilter) (vi) Biogas Storage (yii) Biogas Utilization (Gas Engine) (viii) Biofertilizer Production (ix) Press Water Treatment (Effluent Treatment Plant) These unit operations are discussed in following subsections. After weighing.1 Weighing of Cattle Dung (Weighing Machine) Cattle Dung collected from small dairy societies and dairy farms are brought in small trolleys. demands that new and renewable sources should be fully exploited. 1.

4 Anaerobic Digestion (CSTR Type Digester) The homogenized waste is pumped into two CSTR type digesters each of 5000 m3 working volume where stabilization of organic waste takes place anaerobically with the production of biogas. while the other tank is available to receive the waste. It is a rectangular tank of dimension 12m*12m*5. In the present report since all the waste is to be collected and delivered to the plant in about 8 hours. The flue gas from the gas engine provides necessary heat energy for the heat exchanger. The homogenized waste is passed through a macerator to reduce the particle size to 5-10 mm (a range of particle size effective for biodegradation). 1.2 Collection Tank (Collection Tank) Collection lank is used for storing cattle dung.lm. Both dissolution tanks are equipped with homogenizer/mixer for completely mixing of the manure and water. It can store 3 days supply of cattle dung. The solid concentration in the raw waste is in the range of 14-16 %. one tank is available to feed the digester. Screw pumps have been provided to transfer the feed to the CSTR digester.3 Homogenization of Raw Manure (Dissolution Tank) The fresh cow manure is blended in two collection tank of dimensions 10m*l0m*4. Two tanks (each of capacity 400m3) have been provided to ensure that at any given time. Therefore. 1. and a waste feed with a solid concentration not exceeding 10%. The homogenization of the waste provides a waste of uniform characteristics. the waste is diluted with water to reduce the solid concentration to about 10%.1. A heating system (Double Pipe Heat Exchanger) is provided to raise the temperature of the feed (during winter months only) which favors the growth of microorganisms responsible for the decomposition of the waste. The combined capacity of the tanks is sufficient to hold four days waste after dilution. A-2 .lm and working volume of collection tank is about 600m3. The CSTR digesters are cylindrical in shape. The slurry of this concentration is fed into the CSTR digester. its dimensions are 18 Фm x 25 m. while the feed to the digester is feed over in 24 hours period.

In large diameter digester. The discharge flow / Plume continue the mixing /agitating of the liquid and impart uniform mixing throughout the tank. Jet Mixers are used to overcome this problem. entraining / mixing bulk liquid into the jet. a fast moving stream of liquid [Motive Liquid] is injected into a slow moving or stationary liquid [Secondary Liquid]. So. H2S concentration above 200 ppm damages the biogas engine. Agitator arrangement contains shafts on which impellers are mounted. it is not easy to provide the agitator arrangement because a large diameter shaft and impellers are needed and also the installation cost becomes high. it entrains [Entrainment Ratio=l:3] fluid from the tank through the suction chamber. This mixing layer grows in the direction of jet. Jet mixer / Mixing Eductor comprise of two critical components namely Motive Nozzle & Diffuser. In Jet Mixing. 22 New Apollo Estate. The H2S concentration in treated biogas from biofilter is around 100 ppm. the operating fluid can be liquid drawn from the same tank or it can be second liquid drawn from a different source that is to be mixed with the tank contents under consideration. Mumbai 400 069. The Static Pressure at the entrance of nozzle is converted into Kinetic energy by allowing the fluid to flow freely through a convergent type nozzle. The velocity gradient between the jet and secondary liquid creates a mixing layer of jet boundary. The divergent portion of the diffuser section then partially converts the velocity head back to the static pressure at the discharge of the Eductor.The main advantages of CSTR digesters are its perfect mixing system. 1. Mixing in CSTR type digester can be achieved by two arrangements. Jet diffusers may be obtained from M/s Mixrite Mixing Systems.5 Biofilter Biogas produced in digesters contains 400-1200 ppm H2S. A predetermined amount of liquid [Motive / Operating fluid] is pumped through a header in one or more jet mixers submerged inside the tank. Mogra Lane. These bacteria arc immobilized on packings of biofilter. Depending upon the application. first by agitator and second by Jet Mixer. 5 ppm exposure of H2S to human being cause sever health problems and even death. ability to control scum/sediments and handle high solid concentration. A–3 . As the operating fluid exits the nozzle. E-mail: mixrite@gmail. removal of H2S is necessary and it is done in a biofilter where Thiobacillus group bacteria convert H2S into elemental Andheri (East). The operating fluid along with entrained fluid then undergoes thorough mixing in the partially section of the diffuser.

This gas holder is made of a synthetic membrane (polyester) and is suspended in a concrete silo or it may be of other type.7 Biogas Utilization The digester gas (biogas) has a heating value of 22400 kJ/ m3. A-4 . A gas holder of 600 m3 capacity and dimensions has been provided which is sufficient to hold about three hours of gas storage.5 MW capacities or one biogas engine of 1 MW capacity.8 Biofertilizer Production The digested substrate leaving the digester is stored in an effluent buffer tank of suitable capacity (300 m3 working volume). The produced biogas has a composition of 55-60% methane and 35-40% carbon dioxide. a Low Tension supply should be availed for the purpose. from where it is taken up for dewatering in a screw press. 1.1.6 Biogas Storage Treated biogas from biofilter is automatically stored in gas holder. In place of a conventional gas holder which is prone to corrosion. The electrical energy would be generated at 415 volts and would be stepped up to 11 KV before supplying to the sub-station. The station is designed for 8000 hours operation each year. A portion of the electrical energy (~15% of the generated energy) would be required to meet the in house power requirement and the balance would be fed to the grid. the biogas is sucked off by a blower and transferred to the engine / flare. 1. From the gas bag. Three screw presses have been installed for the dewatering of the digested sludge. The electrical energy conversion efficiency of the engine is 37%. The gas holder is installed to buffer the differences between gas production and gas consumption. which may be kept in open. The entire station consists of two biogas engine of 0. The produced biogas is converted to thermal and electrical energy in a cogeneration power station. The gas coming from the digester flows through a combination of gravel filter/security device and enters the gas bag through the bottom flange. In order to meet the in house power requirement during start-up (until the plant generates power) / breakdown of the gas engines. a dry type gas holder will be used.

The effluent treatment plant consists an aeration tank followed by a secondary clarifier.9 Effluent Treatment Plant (Activated Sludge Process) The BOD/COD concentration of the press water is quite high to be disposed off directly. It is almost free of odour and can be precisely applied due to its homogeneity. Sufficient area has been provided to dry the dewatered residue for increasing the solids concentration upto 70% by solar drying. The press water from the dewatering station is initially sent to the press water collection tank for primary sedimentation and then to the aeration tank. So it is required to treat the high concentration press water in the effluent treatment plant to meet the regulatory discharge limits.The digested substrate shows a much better availability of nutrients for the plants due to its biochemical composition. which is having concentration in the limit. Some of the activated biomass (settled solid) is recycled to the aeration tank to maintain the food to micro-organism ratio. and the settled solid are sent to the drying yard. it would be necessary to increase the solids concentration to around 70%. The effluent from the secondary clarifier. In order to improve the market value of the organic fertilizer. A-5 . is discharged into sewage. 1.

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45%.16 Fraction of Dry Solid in Diluted Feed (X2) = 0.063 3 Screw Filter Press Solid Fraction in Dewatered Slurry (X5) = 0.80 % 4.1 Amount of Cow Dung (W1) = 200 TPD Amount of Diluted Feed (W2) = 320 TPD Amount of Water Added (W3) = 120 TPD Dry Solid in Feed (Wds) = 32 TPD Total Volatile Solid in Feed (Wvs) = 25.56 kg/m3/day Biogas Production Rate (Vg) = 10000 m3/day Total Solid After Digestion (Wsad) = 19.35 Solid Fraction in Press Water (X6) = 0 Amount of Dewatered Slurry (W5) = 56 TPD Amount of Press Water (W6) = 252 TPD 4 Drying Yard Solid Fraction in Dewatered Slurry (X5) = 0. 2: Table 2.1: Waste Characterizations for Material Balance S. used in calculations.35 Solid Fraction in Biofertilizer (X7) = 0. Sulphates (as SO4) * 0.2 provides the material balances with reference to fig. Volatile solids* 80% 3. No. Total solids 14-16% 2. Table 2.2: Material Balance Summary Basis: 200 TPD 1 Homogenization Tank Fraction of Dry Solid in Feed (X1) = 0.1 shows the characteristics of the waste.7 Amount of Dewatered Slurry (W5) = 56 TPD A-7 . Parameter Composition 1. Lignin* 35. Note: (*) Analysis on dry basis Table 2.32 TPD Total Amount of Digested Slurry (W4) = 308 TPD Solid Fraction in Digested Slurry (X4) = 0.MATE RIAL BALANCE SECTION-2 This section covers the summary of the Material Balance Calculations. Table 2.6 TPD 2 Anaerobic Digester (CSTR Type) Volatile Solid Loading Rate (VSDR) = 2.

2: Material Flow Diagram of 200 TPD Biogas Plant A-8 .6 TPD Amount of Treated Water (W9) = 238 TPD Figure 2.2 Continued Amount of Biofertilizer (W7) = 28 TPD Water Evaporated (Weva) = 28 TPD 5 Effluent Treatment Plant Concentration of Biomass in Aeration Tank (X) = 3000 gm/m3 Concentration of Biomass in Recycle Stream (Xr) = 8000 gm/m3 Total Flow Rate to Aeration Tank (W8) = 403 TPD Amount of Recycle Stream (Wr) = 151 TPD Amount of Wast Water (Ww) = 22.Table 2.

No.5 2 8 m3/hr 24 312 11 Substrate Pump 25 1 170 m3/hr 5 125 12 Raw Water Pump 6..1: Energy Balance Summary Auxiliary Power Requirement SI. heat exchanger etc.5 2 800 m3/hr 16 240 14 Flare Blower 7.5 2 40 ton/hr 5 65 13 Engine Blower 7.5 3 20 ton/hr 8 156 10 H2S Blower 6. Equipment Capacity Units in Capacity Working Total Power (kW) Operation (ton/hr) hrs/day Consumption (kWh) 1 Raw Manure 25 1 40ton/hr 5 125 Pump 2 Agitator 15 2 12 360 3 Macerator 13 1 40 ton/hr 10 130 4 Feed Pump 6. agitator. blower. Energy requirement by the various auxiliary equipments has been calculated on the basis of material flow information as described in previous section.5 1 40 ton/hr 10 65 5 Aerator 25 2 N/A 8 400 6 Secondary 2 1 N/A 8 16 Clarifier 7 Press Water Tank 3 1 40 ton/hr 8 24 Pump 8 Effluent Buffer 13 1 40 ton/hr 10 130 Tank Pump 9 Screw Press 6. . ENERGY BALANCES SECTION . Net energy balance by the plant depends on the total power generated by gas engine. auxiliary power requirement data has been taken from the existing operating plant.5 1 500 m3/hr 13 98 15 36 2 N/A 9 640 Digester Agitator 16 Miscellaneous N/A N/A N/A N/A 550 Load 17 Fire Fighting 50 Used in Case of Emergency Pump Total Power Consumption 3436 A-9 . and power consumed by various auxiliary devices like pump. Table 3.3 This section covers the total energy flow information of the Waste to Energy Conversion Plant.

Gas Yield 11000 m3/day ii. Auxiliary Power Requirement 3436 kWh/day 4 Net Energy for Export to Grid i.Table 3.6 kWh/m3 2 Power Station i.2: Net Energy Balance for 200 TPD Plant SI. No. Calorific Value 6.10 . Description Value Unit 1 Biogas Generation i. Unit Energy Generated in Plant 1020-1120 kWh ii. Daily Power Exported 21044-23444 kWh/day A .0-6. Energy Generated in the Plant 24480-26880 kWh/day iii. Electric Efficiency 37% 3 Energy Generation from Power Plant i.

SPECIFICATIONS OF EQUIPMENTS SECTION-4 This section provides the specifications sheet of the various equipments.25 days 2 Digester Tank Specification Diameter of Digester Tank (Dt) = 18 m Height of Liquid in Digester (HL) = 20 m Height of Digester (Hd) = 25 m 3 Impeller Specification Type of Impeller = 3 Blade Hydrofoil Number of Impeller Set (Ni) = 3 Blade Angle at Hub (θ1) = 45° Blade Angle at Tip (θ 2) = 22° Impeller Speed (Ni) = 6 rpm Impeller Diameter (Di) = 5.4 m Distance Between Impeller Set (Hi) = 8 m Height Between Digester Bottom to Impeller Bottom (Hdi) = 2 m 4 Shaft Specification Material of Construction (MOC) = Stainless Steal Diameter of Shaft (Ds) = 6.1: Specifications of Anaerobic Digester 1 Operating Parameters Number of Digester (N) = 2 Working Volume of Each Digester (Vd) = 5000 m3 Substrate Flow Rate (W2) = 320 m3/day 0 Operating Temperature (T) = 25-30 C Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) = 31. Table 4.11 .5 inch Total Number of Turn Over in a Day (Nt) = 18 Working Hours in Day (Wh) = 9 Hrs Total Power Requirement (P) = 640 kW/day A .

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46 °C Heat Duty = 516000 J/s 6 Heat Transfer Coefficients Inner Tube H.2: Specifications of Double Pipe Heat Exchanger 1 Substrate Slurry (Cold) Flow Rate (m) = 20 kg/s Temperature at Inlet (t1) = 30 °C Temperature at Outlet (t2) = 36 °C 2 Hot Fluid (Water) Flow Rate (M) = 4.219 m Length of Tube (L) = 6 m 4 Outer Tube Specifications Fluid = Hot Water Standard Size = 0.C (Uc) = 786.2731 m 5 LMTD and Heat Duty Flow Mode = Countercurrent LMTD = 28.200 m Inner Diameter of Tube (di) = 0.000176 (W/m2K)-l Dirt Factor for Diluted Feed (Ud1) = 0.T.C (hio) = 1626.260 m Inner Diameter of Tube (Di) = 0.13 .00053 (W/m2K)-l Clean Overall H.2027 m Outer Diameter of Tube (do) = 0.Table 4.T.C (ho) = 1521.C (Ud) = 505.97 W/m2K Outer Tube H.T.54 W/m2K A .T.2545 m Outer Diameter of Tube (Do) = 0.06 W/m2K Dirt Factor for Hot Water Fluid (Ud2) = 0.94 kg/s Temperature at Inlet (Tl) = 75 °C Temperature at Outlet (T2) = 50 °C 3 Inner Tube Specifications Fluid = Substrate Slurry Standard Size = 0.12 W/m2K Designed Overall H.

54 m2 Number of Tube Lengths (L) = 12 Number of Hair Pins = 6 8 Pressure Drop Pressure Drop at Inner Tube Side - Cold (ΔPi) = 1481 Pa Pres.2 Contd.Table 4.Hot (ΔPo) = 5207 Pa A . Drop at Annulus Side .14 . 7 Heat Transfer Area. Tube & Hair Pins Actual Heat Transfer Area (Ap) = 49.

Table 4.56 m2 Working Volume of Filter Bed (Vf) = 5.62 cm Velocity of Gas in Gas Distribution Pipe (Vpg) = 25.56 m3 Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) = 48 sec.825 Liquid Feed Pipe Type = TP-719 A .35 cm Minimum Liquid Rate (Lmin) = 5 lt/sec Packing Gas Injection Support Plate Types = TS .92 Specific Surface Area of Packing (a) = 73.2 m Length of Packing (Lp) = 3. Actual Residence Time (RT) = 44.2 sec.05 m Gas Superficial Velocity (Ug) = 0. 3 Packing Specifications Type of Packing = Pall Ring Material of Packing = Polypropylene Size of Packing (Dp) = 7.0635 m/sec Total Pressure Drop (ΔPt) = 730 Pa 5 Column Internals Specification Diameter of Gas Distribution Pipe (Dpg) = 7.62 cm Void fraction of Packing (Ɛ) = 0.854 Liquid Distributor Type = TP .3: Specifications of Biofilter 1 Operating Conditions Operating Temperature (T) = 25 °C Operating Pressure (Patm) = 1 atm Volumetric Flow Rate of Biogas (Vg) = 10000 m3/day Volumetric Flow Rate of Air (Va) = 8 m3/day Inlet Concentration of HI2S in Gas (Cgo) = 1200 ppm Outlet Concentration of H2S in Gas (Cge) = 100 ppm 2 Filter Bed Specifications Area of Filter Bed (Af) = 5.15 .976 Bed Limiter Type = TP .2 m2/m3 Heap Weight of Packing (Whp) = 60 kg/m3 4 Packed Column Specification Diameter of Column (Dc) = 1.4 m/sec Diameter of Liquid Feed Pipe (Dpl) = 6.52 m Total Length of Column (Ltc) = 5.

16 .8 mm2 Distance Between Upper Packing Layer to bottom surface of Liquid Feed pipe line (HA) = 79.1 cm Thickness of Holder of Column Internals (HD) = 0.3 Contd.8 mm2 Area of Compensation Required (Acr) = 93.3 cm Distance Between Centre of Gas Feed Pipe to Bottom of Support Plate (HC) = 38.4 cm Distance Between Upper Packing Layer to Bottom Surface of Liquid Distributor (HB) = 20.4 cm Maximum Horizontal Distance Compensation (Hhd) = 21.Table 4. 6 Structural Specifications Material of Construction = Stainless Steel Design Pressure (P) = 107.5 cm Area of Compensation Provided (Aacr) = 304.15 kPa Thickness of Column Shell (ts) = 4 mm Thickness of Nozzle (tn) = 3 mm Maximum Vertical Distance for Compensation (Hvd) = 152.661 m A .

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bio) = 181 kg/day Air Requirement (Ro) = 10020 m3/day Type of Aerator = Bubble Ceramic Diffuser Height of Aerator From Tank Bottom = 0.01 m Liquid Height in Sedimentation Tank = 3.5 m Cone Angle = 10 Solid Detention Time (td) = 4.1 m3/ Dimension of Effluent Box = 2x2 mxm Difference Between Height of Water in effluent Box to Height of Effluent Launder = 0.4: Specification of Effluent Treatment Plant 1 Operating Data Intel BOD Concentration in Press Water (So) = 1250 mg/l Outlet BOD Concentration in Press Water (S) = 10 mg/l Volumetric Flow Rale of Press Water (Qpw) = 252.71 m A .4 hrs Quantity of Biomass Produced (Px.01 m3/day 2 Aeration Tank Specifications Average BOD Load = 1.5 m Liquid Height in Sedimentation Tank = 4 m Cone Height of Clarifier = 0.31 m Flow in Each Launder (Ql) = 1.5 m Type of Notch = V .6 Area of Sedimentation Tank (Ast) = 12.2 hrs Width of Launder (Wlo) = 0.4 m Liquid Height in Sedimentation Tank = 3.024 m Average Designed Flow Rate From Clarifier(Qac) = 252 m3/day Actual Weir Loading = 1.5 m Length of Effluent Weir Plate (L) = 9.Table 4.5 m Height of Aeration Tank = 5 m Hydraulic Retention Time = 34.Notch Angle of Notch (θ) = 90° Total Number of V-Notches (N) = 24 Flow Per Notches (Q'ac) = 10.5 m3/day/notches Head Over V-Notch (H) = 0.46 lt/day Depth of Launder (Y1) = 0.4 kg BOD/m3/day Aerobic SRT = 6 days Number of Aeration Tank = 1 Working Volume of Aeration Tank = 361 m3 Diameter of Aeration Tank (Dat) = 10.18 .5 m 3 Sedimentation Tank Specifications Recycle Ratio = 0.6 m2 Number of Clarifiers = 1 Diameter of Sedimentation Tank (dst) = 4.31 m Total Depth of Launder (D1) = 0.

Collection Tank 1 12m x 12m x 5. 1 6m*5mx7.1mФ x 4. Hooper Bottom Settling 1 4mФ x 2m 25 . 71 Exchanger Shed 9. Aeration Tank 1 10. 450 .5 2 Packed Column 6.2m 870 800 95 8. Fire Fighting Station 1 6mx 6m x 3m 108 .6m 400 310 96 Tank 7. Manure Drying Yard 1 100m x 45m x 7m 31500 28500 5000 16.0m 260 . Gas Holder 1 10mФ x13m 1020 1000 90 10. LAND AREA REQUIREMENT SECTION -5 Table 5. 40 17.52mФ x 5. Press Water 1 4mФ x 3.1 provides the list of equipments/units and the ground area requirements.1m 735 600 160 2. Secondary Clarifier 1 4.1: Land Area Requirements for 200 TPD Plant S. 16 11.19 . Effluent Buffer 1 10.2 m 56 44 15 15. Digester 1 18 mФ x 25m 12750 10000 560 5. Laboratory 1 8m x 6m x 4m 192 . Dewatering Station 1 14. 4. Homogenization 2 10m x 10m x 4. Table 5. Biodesulphurizer 1 1. Gas Flare 1 .44 5.5m 225 200 33 macerator etc. 14 Tank 12.0m 37.7 30 14 Collection Tank 13.2m x 6m x 10.1m 820 640 220 Tank 3.5Ф x 4. Dry Well with pumps. 53 A .1mФ x 5m 1230 950 175 14.2m 9. Double Pipe Heat 1 10m x 6.No Equipmcnt Number Dimension Total Usable Land Area Volume Volume (m3) Requirement (m3) 1.5m x 4.

25acre ≈ 2.5 MW) 2 20m x 3 m x 3m 180 . 12 22.e. 71 19. Table 5. 40 Total land area requirement = 6986 m2 Land area requirement for spacing between different units. lawns. 2100 m2 Gross land area requirement for 200 TPD biogas plant = 9086 m2 ≈ 9100 m2 ≈ 2. S.No Equipmcnt Number Dimension Total Usable Land Area 3 3 Volume (m ) Volume (m ) Requirement 18. Administrative Office 1 8m x 6m x 4m 192 . A . Weigh Bridge 1 5m x 2m x 1m 10 . accounts for about 30 % of the total land area.20 . 55 23. Electricity Station 1 10m x 8m x 4m 320 . parking and open space etc. i. 66 21. Control Room 1 8m x 8m x 4m 256 . Security Office 1 6m x 6m x 3m 108 .1 Contd. 88 20. Gas Engine (0.5 acre.

6) Critical control of various parameters in biogas engine.1 Safety Design Criteria The basic approach in selection of instruments & control philosophy is to ensure safety of the plant. Remote indicator will be provided wherever required. 7) All field instruments will be provided with grounding. 2) Acidic and corrosive nature of slurries which necessitate selection of suitable material of construction for instrument sensors/transducers 3) Large quantities of slurry holds up in some of the equipments with considerable time lag in measurement of process parameters & corrective action based there on. Some of the major considerations are: 1) All the field instruments shall have minimum Class-IP-55 protection. A . 6) Instruments to be used for control purpose shall be independent of the instruments used for process parameter measurement as far as possible. 4) Control of temperature & pressure in digesters as well as biological desulphurization unit within a narrow and critical range. 5) Handling of biogas with CH4 as inflammable gas and it being the major constituent. 3) All motors shall be provided with over load protection and protection against single phasing. The motors from digester onwards in any process stream line will be flame proof as they are likely to be exposed to biogas containing methane environment. 4) All the instruments will have field indicators. 5) All the control panels shall have IP-20 class protection.INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL SECTION-6 PHILOSOPHY The basic features of biomethanation of cattle dung plant to produce biogas and then power generation are: 1) Handling of large quantities of slurry having silt and suspended solids.21 . 2) All the motors in the plant from dung collector to slurry feed lines to the digester will be with IP-55 protection. 7) Economics of the plant cost as one of the major consideration but with out sacrificing the safety aspects of the plant 6.. machinery and that of the plant personnel during operation and maintenance.

Some of the criteria are as follows. The instruments and gauges will be suitable for rating to with stand up 130% of the maximum range without affecting the calibration.1 Selection The instruments are selected to meet specific features of the application point. The flow meters in the large size biogas line will be orifice type sensor with differential pressure transmitter calibrated for volumetric flow rate. The instrument shall have display at local control panel with contacts available for signal transmission for PLC. while those for high pressure application will be bourdon type.6. 4) Remotely operated valves will be selected. 5) Electric contacts will open in emergency/abnormal conditions to bring the equipment in fail-safe condition.22 . 2) Pressure gauges for low pressure measuring range will be diaphragm type for better accuracy. 1) Flow meter in slurry lines shall be of Ultrasonic / Electro magnetic type without having any moving part where the calibration of the instrument may be affected because of solids /silt / fibrous material suspension in the liquid. such as to come in fail safe condition in case of power failure. type with multiple probes along the length. 8) Transparent tubular type level gauges shall be used for clear liquid while capacitance/ ultra sonic. in general.2 Instrumentation 6. will be selected such that the normal operating range will be between 40% and 70% of the full scale.2. The normal operating range shall be 30-70% of full scale. 3) Temperature measuring sensors are of RTD type (PT-100) wherever remote indications are required while bimetallic/vapor filled gauges will be used where only field indications are needed. 6) The instrument range. 7) Pressure switches shall be adjustable type and used for alarm annunciation or trip functions as needed. Normal flow rate shall be between 50-70% with 90% as the maximum. shall be used for slurry application. A . 9) The sensor assembly for CH4 & H2S analyzer shall be field mounted while the electronics shall be installed in a control panel with suitable power supply.

more importantly. single phase.2. 6. will be connected to PLC based controlled system. 6.230V AC or 24 V DC (iii) RTD-Pt-100 ohm (iv) pulse/frequency (v) digital signals will have potential free contact or powered.2. Supply for critical control system will be from UPS (Uninterrupted. single phase. homogenization tank and feed tank. A .10) The critical process parameters shall have display at local control panel as well as contacts in the instruments for onward transmission to PLC for remote indication/control purposes.2. Barring a few initial operations like cattle feed tank. These valves will also have manual over ride facility. wherever required either for remote indication or control function. the safety of plant. the power supply will be class-iv. 50HZ. 11) All remotely operated valves (MOV) will have limit switches to display on/off indication on LCD and also for status on PLC. 230 V. The signal from the instruments will be (i) current . Power Supply) system at 230 V.4 Control System The basic purpose of process control system in the plant is to operate various equipment in the plant within the specified limits of process parameters. the UPS shall be able to supply power for 30 minutes.3 Instrument Signals The field instruments. However.23 . In case of normal power supply failure. 50 HZ (Class-II)/24 V DC (Class-I).2 Instrument Power Supply For normal instrument and control applications. will be operated through PLC/SCADA. plant personnel and environment has to be ensured. and later on the effluent treatment section of the plant. The plant for biogas production by methanation of cattle dung and subsequent power generation shall be operated based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. apart from to bring the plant to safe condition in case of abnormal/emergency eventualities requiring minimum human intervention.4-20 mA (ii) voltage . 6. all other operations requiring critical control.

PLC is connected to SCADA through appropriate communication links.3 Process Control and Plant Operation Non-critical operations will be carried out from LCP only with/without status display on PLC depending upon the requirement.The gas engine normally has its own control panel inclusive of PLC. this will have interface with the plant main PLC. homogenization and feed tank will be operated from locally from LCP. selection of pumps. Control logics for process control shall be only through PLC and LCP operation can not intervene.24 . 6. retrieval etc. However. Similarly the submersible pumps in the first two tanks will be operated from LCP. computation and interfacing with data acquisition. display alarms.3. The SCADA will basically monitor & control the process parameters. Auto/manual switches for operation of valves will be provided on the control panel. all critical operations shall be carried out either from PLC or in some cases LCP but must have display at PLC. PLC programming will also be done through SCADA. The plant can be operated in auto/manual mode. Auto/manual feed back is taken to the PLC system for display on the SCADA system. It will be operated through a PC in the control room. The main PLC will also have interface with MCCS (Motor Control Centers). The PLC system will carry out various control functions. 6. However. All PLC related components are housed in a panel mounted in the control room. storage. Macerators. Data acquisition storage & retrieval shall also be done through SCADA. SCADA will work on HMI (Human Machine Interface) and will be interconnected with PLC through appropriate communication system. thus providing enough redundancy for A . status monitoring etc. Apart from indications and status of various equipment/ components like valves. Any one of the two numbers of macerators and also any one of the two screw pumps can be brought on line to feed slurry to the digester. UPS etc.1 Dissolution and Feed Preparation The agitator motors mounted in cattle dung collector.

The temperature of the slurry in digester tank is controlled by slurry circulation arrangement through heat exchangers HX-2 and HX-3 in an external loop. 3) Neither of Ore screw pumps can be started unless all the MOV upto at least one of the digesters is open. 6. 4) In case. • Temperature sensors with multi channel temperature indicator on LCP/PLC are provided to map temperature at various locations in the digester.3. heated by flue gas discharge from the engine to HX-I is used as the heat source. 2) In case (he screw pump slops. The pressure in the desulphurization unit and hence up stream in the digesters are A . The heat supply to the slurry in HX-2 and HX-3 will be controlled by auto on/off of the hot water circulation pumps. • The operation of agitators in the digester is from LCP/PLC. any of the MOV in the digester line is closed. the operating macerator motor will trip automatically. Electro pneumatically operated valves. which can be operated either from LCP/PLC also. the operating macerator motor and screw pump motor will trip. A control valve (normally open for fail safe condition) has been provided in the engine flue exhaust line to the atmosphere to regulate the flue gas flow to the hot water HX-1. The MOVs in the system can he operated either from i . once the desired slurry temperature is reached. The hot water supply from the biogas engine section. GV-25 and GV-26 installed in the hot water supply lines to the slurry heat exchangers. The biogas from the digesters goes to biological desulphurization unit for removal of H2 S.these venerable equipments. the slurry circulation pump and one of the hot water circulation pumps will start and the valve in the hot water supply line of the HX-2/3 will open automatically.2 Anaerobic Digester and Desulphurization Unit Each of the digester is provided with (1) agitator (2) level switches high and low (3) temperature indicator controller (TIC) (4) temperature indicator TI (5) Pressure transmitter (PT). Interlock 1) Neither m the macerator motor can be started until at least one of the two screw pumps is in operation. The operations are carried out from LCP/PLC.25 . When the temperature in the digester drops below the set point.CP or from PLC. HX-2 and HX-3 will also close automatically.

to maintain predetermined pressure. gas supply source when gas is in short supply. 7) Valve in hot water supply line to HX-2/HX-3 will open when temperature in digester is low.26 . 6) Valve in hot water supply line to HX-2/HX-3 will close when temperature in the digester is high. of gas feed blower and gas engines to generate power. One of the two blowers will be in operation with A . A control valve. The pressure and level of gas in the gas holder are continuously maintained. this line is also connected to flare stack through a flame arrestor and a motorized valve (MOV). The CH4 and H2S content in the gas are also monitored in the line through a gas analyzer. A) M-10/M- 11 will stop in case temperature in TIC is high. The gas holder provides a surge collection tank when plant is not in operation. The biogas produced and piped to the gas holder is metered and logged through a totalizer with display in both LCP and PLC.3 Biogas Collection The biogas from the desulphurization unit goes to the gas holder via a manually operated valve.3.required to be maintained as critical process parameters. GV-25/GV-26 will open only when M-10/M-11 are in operation. has been provided in the gas discharge line from thc digester and suction to the blower system operates based on pressure signal from the PIC. However. 6. 5) GV-25/26 will close automatically when M-10/M11 not in operation.3. CV-1. Interlocks I) The MOV in the slurry feed line to the digester will close in case LS(Level switch) is high and will open automatically based on 'low' signal from LSHL 2) M-10/M-11 will start when temperature in TIC is low. 3) The valves. mounted on desulphurization unit.4 Biogas Utilization This section consists of 2 nos. 6. This valve is normally open and power supply to close to bring the plant to a fail safe condition in case of power failure where operations in down stream can not be carried out.

another stand by. Pressure Relief valves have been provided at discharge of each blower which are generally of positive displacement type.2 & 6. The blower speed. 6. The speed of the blower is controlled by Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) to meet the varying capacity requirement and also to maintain pressure in the surge tank. When pressure in pressure switch in the blower feed line goes down below a set valve the blower shall trip. The motor drive speed can also be adjusted manually from blower LCP.1. The engine will have its own control system/PLC & control logic which is interfaced with main PLC.27 . The selection of blower and their START/STOP operations are controlled from LCP/SCADA. Blowers can be manually started/stopped from PLC/LCP. A . The flow rate will be recorded and also totalized through at orifice-differential pressure transmitter flow meter in field as well as PLC display. The process instrumentation diagrams of biogas plant. Gas from the blower via a surge tank goes to engine. depicted in figures 6. The VFD is controlled by pressure signal from pressure transmitter at engine suction to provide gas to the engine at constant pressure.3 arc given in Annexure 1. blower in operation and trip indications will be available on the blower panel.