£' tAnrf. The height of the fountain-like spray depends on the pressure of the water at the nozzle. Complete gravity feed of water to the cooling pond. pipe in +1 < 1 . -< i 1 \ V 1 j \ ... Fig..„. 45). All kinds of angle characteristics are commercially available. a total of about 55 ft above ground level.1«1 .. r * * x» * * * >< (j muim uiuia uitxLwui IJJUUUM M murimtaiU Fig. 45. . 155 The spray nozzles are mounted on "stars" having 5 nozzles each (see Fig.

Nevertheless. the total number of "stars" required is known.000. cooling towers are not very popular. Disinfectant additions would not be practical. as in Venezuela. By further dividing the number of nozzles by 5. etc. The number of nozzles needed is calculated by dividing the total amount of water to the pond by the capacity of the nozzle at the head of water at the nozzle. infection is troublesome and requires much attention.000 gpm equivalent 5. For this reason. 25 gpm = 12450 lb/h.000 sq ft available area for each nozzle 80 sq ft available area for each star 400 sq ft assume: length X width = 256 X 125 32. Normal cooling-pond nozzles have a capacity of about 25 gpm at 16 ft of head of water (7 psi).000 sq ft distance between stars lengthwise 15 ft on length of 256 ft are 17 such distances: number of stars 16 total width 125 ft discount for leeward and windward side 24 ft 12 ft width between parallel pipes 89 ft distance between pipes 89/5 18 ft In places where the wind is rather strong during the grinding season. it is better to make the margins at leeward and windward sides larger to prevent heavy water losses. Sample calculation of cooling pond Assume: water to the pond 10. louvre-type walls are built on the leeward side. Injection water is seldom treated with disinfectants. The pump capacity must be somewhat larger than the injection water pump. the water has to be pumped to the cooling pond..000/154 = 32468 = 32.000 lb/h nozzle capacity 12. Note: for closed-circuit cooling water of mill bearings.000.156 If this height is not available. because losses are too high and also the quantity is too large.450 lb/h pond capacity 154 lb/sq ft/h number of nozzles = 5. Modern towers have louvres made of aluminum or stainless steel. pumps. because the quantity of condensate must be added to it.000/12450 = 400 (nozzles mounted in stars of 5) number of stars = 400/5 = 80 pond area = 5. towers are used but water for this application is treated. They foul up easily because of contamination and algae formation. .000. In Venezuela. crystallizers.

12. REFERENCES 1.816. Cooling pond with nozzle arrangement and star details. . p. Heat Exchange Institute. 5.11. 47. 9th edn. 1957. Hugot. 157 Windward x—x—x—x—x—x—x—x—x—x—x—x—x- Area = 32000 sq ft Fig. New York. p. Wiley. Ibid. Amsterdam.8. E. 2..647.. Spencer-Meade. Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering. Cane Sugar Handbook. I960. Standards for Direct Contact Barometric and Low Level Condensers. p. 4th edn.. Elsevier. Heat Exchange Institute. New York. p. 3.. p. 4. Ibid. 1963.

It is therefore essential to the beet-sugar industry to produce and conserve steam in the most economical way. the cane raw-sugar industry produces just about the right amount of bagasse needed to produce the necessary quantity of steam. The cane mill produces nearly all of its required fuel for the boilers in the form of bagasse. . cannot be utilized as a fuel. Of course. economizers. and all variations of vapor cells or pre-evaporators are applied with vapor bleeding of up to the third vessel of a 4-effect evaporator. air pre-heaters. In such cases. to increase the steam economy to its maximum. because no refinements are necessary. while the beet-sugar house has to produce steam from imported fuels. there is a need for a higher pressure. Here the by-product pulp (cosette). such as water-walls. and many more conveniences. automatic blow-off. it is often possible to install cheaper boilers. All are factors to help remove excess bagasse. to save on fuel expenses. In the cane industry in high-fiber regions. There the boiler-steam pressure is not lower than 350 psig and about 150 °F superheat or more. and 300 psig is normally considered to be the upper limit. If such mills are modernized. The evaporators are either quadruples or quintuples. mainly depending on the fiber content of the cane. soot blowers. It is therefore quite possible that in certain countries. the use and production of steam is deliberately less efficient. the equivalent of the bagasse of the cane factory. all this is taboo in the beet industry. The steam pressure usually used is 250 psig. In many countries more bagasse is produced than is needed. continuous ash removal. which is expensive to move and dangerous (accidental fires). 159 CHAPTER 28 STEAM There is a basic difference between the production of steam for a cane-sugar mill and for a beet-sugar house. Normally speaking. In many old mills still using reciprocating steam engines. the pressure cannot exceed 125 psig. where there is high fiber content. there are various ways to reduce efficiency: (1) the use of medium-pressure steam instead of more efficient higher pressures (2) the use of saturated or slightly superheated steam instead of real superheated steam (3) the use of triple-effect evaporator instead of a quadruple-effect (4) the use of only exhaust steam rather than vapors. travelling grates. for the juice heaters and the vacuum pans. Here the boiler design itself is also important in reaching the highest possible efficiency. but the 125 psig must be maintained as long as these engines are used. In many cases there are two working pressures: 125 and the more modern 200 or 250 psig. This is because it is easier to deal with steam than with an excess of bagasse volume.

if exhaust pressure is 8 psi or higher. this set-up resembles a condenser action: the water spray partly condenses the exhaust steam and the washing action takes place at about 212 °F. If the pan diameter is very large. because of pressure difference from about 10 psi to 26" vacuum. Steam of higher pressure is difficult to condense. 48. steam-out live steam must be reduced to about 80-100 psi. because a small leak through one valve (if there were only one) is not acceptable. high-pressure steam leaves immediately through the open foot valve. together with a hot-water atomizer in the top of the pan. the pan has to be washed. Some live steam is also used for steam-out of massecuite piping. There is enough steam left to replace most of the air in the pan. Condensation of the steam is needed. together with just a little "push" to reach all hidden corners. but for this application it should be used below 100 psi (80 psi is better still). The pump required to supply water to the nozzles can be mounted on the pan floor and must only be started during a steam-out. magma. it would take a long time before the vacuum reaches 26".160 From the point of view of the process itself. It can ruin the strike. molasses pumps. 10. it may be necessary to install two or three atomizers. etc. To clear this out. is the fastest and most efficient cleaning action. 6 inches is recommended. as illustrated in Fig. Also. enough to supplement possible shortage of exhaust steam. The steam-out exhaust-steam line should be provided with double valves. In fact.. so that when the foot valve is closed after finishing steam-out and the vacuum is turned on. After each strike it is mandatory to clean the pan thoroughly so that no grain stays behind when the new strike is started. and dry steam does not wash. valves. However. Below that. The hot-water atomizer required can be purchased with the necessary spray angle to match the pan diameter. 15 or 20 psi). steaming-out of vacuum pans requires a more detailed explanation. only the cheaper fittings are required for 125 psi maximum. in which case the spray cones overlap. the steam used is mainly exhaust and only a certain amount of live steam. .. After the pan has been discharged. without even participating in the cleaning process. as the contents are non-condensable and must be eliminated by pump or jets. remnants of massecuite stay behind in blind corners and on the flat surface of the tube sheet. If the volume of the pan were occupied by air. Using exhaust steam at the pressure used in this particular mill (8. Steam-out As already indicated before. Pump capacity of 75 gpm is more than enough and suction head is positive. This means that no high-pressure steam should ever be used. because of the high temperature difference. At this pressure. as water comes from the elevated hot-water tank. This part of the live steam must be reduced to the exhaust steam pressure. A line size of 4 inches for steam-out is adequate. the steam condenses immediately because of decreasing temperature and vacuum is formed in a very short time.

they would be "psi" or kg/cm 2 . In this example. as is quantity. t/h or kg/h. Hot water i-75gpmljHf Exhaust steam Fig. This answer is inaccurate. but of quantity. not the pressure. Suppose the exhaust-steam pressure is 10 psi and there is not enough steam. enough steam enters. the requirement is larger than the supply. because in most countries such equipment must be tested according to the requirements for higher pressure. or atmosphere/or bar for pressure. Regardless of the procedure of generation of steam. Many of these figures can be used for preliminary estimates for a new mill design. etc. however. where no fabrication and cane data are yet available. the use of live steam connected to evaporators or pans should be avoided. Wherever possible. If questioned about this. "We have only two pounds pressure". and lb/h. there are excellent books about the sugar industry that deal with this subject in detail. . This misunderstanding comes from misrepresenting both conditions. especially on the pan- floor. Besides. because if there is no steam. If. the pressure can almost be maintained: in the very beginning it might drop slightly. this concerns the quantity. 48. Vacuum pan steam-out arrangement using water and steam. If correct units were used. but it will come back after a few minutes. as it does not relate to the fabrication itself. where three atomizers are required because of large pan diameter. steam condenses in the calandria and the pressure drops from 10 psi to almost nothing. These requirements can be such that the construction cost of evaporators and pans would be much higher. they may reply. for quantity. since pressure is routinely expressed as "pounds". there is no shortage of pressure. that there is insufficient steam. 161 Quantity and pressure of steam We often hear complaints from fabrication personnel. Generation of steam and its properties will not be discussed here. then as soon as a new strike starts and steam is admitted. it is nevertheless convenient to know some easy-to-remember basic numbers relating to the overall steam requirements of a mill.

A small make-up is required (about 10%). juice heaters use vapor II for first-stage and vapor I for second-stage heating. instead of being used directly for this purpose.66 lb/h per lb of solids in diluted juice. Live steam of 300 psi is reduced in two steps: (a) from 300 to 120 psi (b) from 120 to 18 psi as make-up of exhaust steam. it can be used for the juice heaters or one or more vacuum pans or both. vout . 8 psi = 955 btu. The reduction is done in two steps for two reasons: (1) the need to use steam of intermediate pressure (120 psi) (2) the reduction in one step from 300 to 18 would cause very high velocity of the steam through the reducing valve. If cane is used instead of diluted juice.557 X cane or about 55% on cane. then: required steam = 4.5 X water content of syrup. Later. . including dilution of molasses).5% on cane = 1215 lb/tch. All data given are in lb/h and include the heat liberated by flash of the juice and the condensates of the evaporators.Hn) latent heat weight of juice = diluted juice + filter juice specific heat of juice = 0.13 X 0. filters and A and B molasses reheating. for instance: 10 psi = 952 btu. when quantities of massecuite are calculated. For steam consumption Hugot1 gives 52. Figure 49 shows a typical steam and condensate balance of an actual new mill designed for a capacity of 3500 ted.5 psi vapor II to the first-stage heaters. x .92 X cane in lb/h = 0. sugar dryer. Steam to pans = 1. is first used to . Use of vapor from evaporators If vapor is used for more efficient steam economy. (3) Steam to heaters in lb/h = weight of juice X specific heat .66 X 0. and exhaust steam of 18 psi can pass through a reducer to make-up the 0. evaporation for each of the components can be determined. The 120 psi is exclusively used for the centrifugals. In this case. and taking an average value for the brix of the juice and the juice extraction: 13 brix and 92 extraction.162 Steam requirements (1) Live steam generation = 4. giving together the total evaporation of the pan -floor and the steam requirement.9 latent heat = belonging to exhaust steam (or vapor) at existing pressure. (2) Steam consumption of vacuum pans using a normal three-boiling system (magma as seed for A and B. because of the high pressure drop resulting in increased specific volume of the steam. The boiler-feed water in this case comes from vessels I and II of the evaporator and the vacuum pans.2 Note. This would give a very-high-frequency whistling sound and cause "wire-drawing wear" on the valve. The economy obtained is obvious: the exhaust steam.

5pei i'5650O 'S 6750 8750 4 «. ->.1^1 4-J 15Ö00" I |V120 ' 5026 ' r 79300 Γ turbo 1 79800 1 psi A ^ i i o r J .0 35672 375 U38U1 18861 A 6030 B 7389 C 2 3 It 26" Hg 8 pei 0.32J8Q_ L££5_0_kv| ] 1 I reducer 1 | boiler joadeaeatef.3750 ^0672 TOtt.000 l b / h I 163 Fig.Hg 18 p s i 8 psi 0.000 lb/h I l60lU0 1 1 . pure condensate.ΓΐΓΪΠ Ί T pl»7U. 5 ^ conta-l minatedj. : 1 18861 6030 7889 ΓΐίΐΐΐΓΤΊ 0750 1 1 56500 'Ί • 506721 >0375' 6750 _ΠΓΓ7].s e a l tank 8750 hinatedf 8750 10U0 26750 1 "ν Γ \ 28000 . All quantities in . 49.5p»i ♦ i*7198|g l.lb/h. Typical steam and condensate balance for a mill of grinding capacity of 3500 ted. II1703 γ 18 8750 psi 1 « .5psi 15~ Hg AAAfi exhaust header V LJ15. 15152 make-up water L_pun>P 1 1 J110. hot vater fidi feed storage storage 127216 ^stand-by i 300 1 1 I t psi 3520 ireedwatei 3520 1 boiler J I I . cooler/dryer Ϊ3&Γ ΊΙΕΓ1 centrifugals 3068 3000 f i l t e r + A/B a o l 3182 6750 losses »♦5U6 7000 LOOOO [total L2160 26750 15000 32780 lo.10. boiler II832O h.

strike duration increases. where it is essential to economize on fuel. A level control is vital in such a case. It is also clear that once the set is designed to provide vapor to heaters or pans. the extra vapor produced must be drawn off. Another reason for not having pans on vapor is that the vapor pressure is lower than the exhaust steam used to produce this vapor. This is not the case with vacuum pans.000 lb/h steam. The fluctuations can be somewhat evened out. the evaporation suffers and cannot be efficient. by make-up of the vapor if the pressure is low. If it does fluctuate. a pre-evaporator or a vapor-cell. as circulation is directly related to the difference in temperature of the heating medium and the material in the pan. gradually reducing to practically zero. because as the mill starts up. a nearly constant flow of juice has to be heated from a constant starting temperature to a constant end temperature. If water of second vessel is also used. it is not good practice to have vacuum pans working on vapor. the heaters function before the evaporators do. it is important to prevent carry-over of vapor I. Boiler feed water is mainly condensate and has to be corrected for acidity (pH) and checked for sugar contents (leaking evaporator tubes). this is not the case in the beet industry. as the operation is batch and not continuous. it goes to the calandria of vessel 2 and ends up in the condensate. If vapor must be used on the pan-floor. The boiler- feed make-up water must be treated to make it suitable for feed-water use. This vessel has a larger heating surface than the second. and after 10 minutes its requirement may be only 3000 lb/h. The exhaust steam works twice instead of just once. The vapor generally comes from a larger first vessel. and no vapor is yet available.164 evaporate and the vapor produced is used for heating instead. to keep consumption as smooth as possible. one of which operates on vapor and can be alternated with the second. to provide evaporating capacity to produce the required excess of vapor. because of the ever-present fluctuations. If there is less circulation. Note: If the heaters work on vapor. The lower pressure also produces less circulation in the pans. Of course. It requires very able and skilled operators to keep the steam demand as even as possible. Normally speaking. an exhaust-steam connection must also be available. by switching from one pan to the other and keeping a sound sequence going. then only two pans should be connected. and blowing-off to atmosphere if it exceeds a pre-set value. otherwise the evaporator cannot function correctly and economically. It is of course easier on the operation if the vapor consumption drawn off remains constant and does not fluctuate. Most . the heaters alone on vapor bleed-off provide enough economy for a standard raw-sugar operation. The steam (or vapor) consumption of juice heaters is a continuous and smooth operation: if grinding is constant. A pan can start off using 20. In general. If this vapor has carry-over of juice particles. to prevent accidental high juice levels. This means that the evaporation is done "free".

I960. I960. Hugot. 2. Hugot. Treated water tanks are mostly in the range of 200.000 gal or larger. to ensure ample supply of good quality water. 75 5. a rather small demineralizer (ion-exchanger) is used and the water is stored in quite a large tank. . Amsterdam. p. 165 often. p. Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering. E.498. Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering. It can also be kept for the beginning of the next season to initiate boiler operation before fresh condensate is produced by the evaporators. E. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Elsevier. REFERENCES 1.

It is used for injection of the condensers. wood chips. and leaking is always in the direction of the condensate. small fish. 167 CHAPTER 29 WATER SUPPLY FOR FABRICATION PURPOSES Both hot and cold water are required. etc. If cane is washed. because the pressure of the juice is normally higher than the pressure of the heating medium. The only requirement for its use in condensers is that it must be free from insoluble solids. which contains treated water. it is used to transport mud to the cane field. In order not to lose treatment chemicals and to keep the quality high. and crystallizer cooling elements. intolerable in feed water. it can also be done with raw water. for pump seals. pumps and storage tanks. Raw water This can be river water. its origin can be from the boiler-feed storage tank. not of the juice. Most efficient screens for this purpose are travelling screens. well-water. ( 9) vacuum pan operation (10) miscellaneous occasional uses. etc. As already explained. condensate of heaters should never be considered to be uncontaminated. Hot water Its origin is from third and last evaporator vessels and juice heaters. general cleaning and sometimes for fire hoses. presents no problems in the processes for which it is used: ( 1) imbibition ( 2) lime preparation ( 3) mill sanitation ( 4) molasses dilution ( 5) crystallizer reheating ( 6) C massecuite reheating (Stevens coil) ( 7) centrifugal wash ( 8) remelting of lumps. This water is chemically treated to keep it free from algae and other contaminants. sugar. Therefore it must pass through screens before it is delivered to the plant. which includes a cooling tower. A slight sucrose contamination. as well as raw water for condenser injection. Cold water Cold water is used for cooling mill bearings. such as leaves. even sea-water. As the amount of make-up required due to losses through leaking and evaporation is only small. . it is applied through a closed-circuit system. In some cases. as they barely require any manpower.

000 t mud cake pol before precautions 2% = 200 t sucrose pol after precautions 1% = 100 t sucrose available sugar in t pol 50% = 50 t available. Cold water simply does not mix readily with the molasses. plus the booster for correct water pressure. steam is preferred to water. it might provoke chokes in the mill. It is obvious that this water should have a temperature equal to or higher than the strike temperature. Water used in vacuum pans is for dissolving false grain or preventing formation of false grain by reducing supersaturation and extending the time factor. guarantee the lowest possible sucrose losses in mud. In some places. Hot water is better for breaking up the particle size of the lime. Lower pressure causes the water from the nozzle to form a spout. Dilution of A and B molasses (and sometimes syrup if the brix is too high) can only be done with hot water. The juice picks up part of the heat of the water — the juice has to be heated later anyway. In many mills this detail is overlooked. As it is mixed with the juice. equivalent to about 850 lb/tch or 36 lb/tcd about 45% of all condensate. In the steam-and-condensate-balance graph. the temperature limit of imbibition water is about 70°C (158°F). because of its slightly acid condition and low mineral content. Lime should always be prepared using condensate. In order not to lose heat in this case. Each mill should have a spare nozzle pipe with nozzles. It is such a simple detail.168 Hot water used for imbibition has to be cooled slightly. wash water of rotary vacuum filters. consider the following averages: cane ground in season = 500. Condensate for this purpose keeps the inside of the heating surface clean. without any physical contact between the water and the materials to be heated. otherwise if it is too hot. the water can be pumped through a heat exchanger. the minimum pressure required for efficiently atomizing water from the spray nozzles. the hot water for the process is 127216 lb/h. This latter application requires a booster pump to bring its pressure to 35-40 psi. and correction pays for itself in the form of lower sucrose loss in mud. Miscellaneous uses are. Crystallizer and C massecuite reheating use hot water as a heating medium in heat-exchange equipment. together with high quality water. This precaution.000 t cane mud % cane 2% = 10. to alternate every cleaning stop. will benefit optimum clarification conditions. . for instance. because of dilution of the juice by water. where cold diluted juice is applied as a cooling medium. In this case. To illustrate its importance. equivalent to 105 gal/tch and 4Vi gal/ted. In practice. Using high quality lime. using exhaust steam and hot water. introduction of soluble as well as non-soluble solids should be avoided. which cuts the mud cake and does not wash. which does not form part of the process (as does imbibition water). the use of water is unavoidable. Mill sanitation consists of cleaning unreachable corners periodically. it stays on the surface or goes to the bottom of the tank. periodical wash-out of syrup and molasses supply tanks.

the commonest are: (a) gear pumps (b) screw pumps (Moino type) (c) Rota pumps (Vane type) The gear and screw pumps are mainly used for high density material such as A and B molasses and final molasses. There are many types of level controls. magma. If bigger units are used for general vacuum systems. because it requires a motor-reducer and/or V-belt transmission. Elmo. The suction half is separated from the delivery compartment by a vane resting on the elliptical body and is held closed by a spring action or an external counterweight. for easier handling by the pan operator. as it can in the latter. No stray metal should be allowed to enter the pump housing. The only attention required by the pump is a steaming out when pumping is interrupted. Above this figure. etc. such as Nash. all are crystal-containing material. the tank runs dry and the pump will suck air. Gear and screw pumps have a lower efficiency than centrifugal pumps and the outlet cannot be closed. Latterly.p. the Vane-type pump is the only one that does not destroy the grain. the old-fashioned float-operated "open and close" valve is a very reliable and simple way of maintaining a liquid level in the tank. The circuit breaker is mounted on the pan panel. There are various types of displacement pumps. but we shall consider a few details. type (differential pressure). This pump requires positive suction head. delivery capacity can be varied slightly by a slight change in rpm. In the sugar industry. 169 CHAPTER 30 PUMPS We do not intend to deal with the mechanics of pumps in this book. a screen is placed in front of the pump. In general. otherwise. They are uneconomical steam consumers and require high maintenance. are mostly of the rotary type. There are a few materials in the sugar mill that are not suitable for pumping by a centrifugal pump. As the capacity of a pump is often somewhat larger than required (there is a safety factor for peak loads). while the Rota type is used for massecuite. The individual rotary type can be conveniently mounted behind each pan. the highest brix that can be dealt with by a centrifugal pump is about 65. either steam-driven or with an electric motor. The once common reciprocating steam-driven pumps are no longer used. Air pumps. . they are often the reciprocating type. This type of pump is rather expensive. Usually. Their use is limited to grain-containing materials. Although the rotor turns at about 40 rpm. if they are individual for each pan. the use of centrifugal pumps has become almost universal. it is nearly always necessary to have a level control on the pump supply tank. For massecuite. most of those in use now are the d. To avoid this. However. positive displacement pumps are used. If the level is high. materials of high brix and high viscosity fall in this category. It consists of an elliptical body rotating in a round housing.

75 220-1400 6 5000-35000 30 6-50 1 400-2200 8 8000-50000 36 12-75 1V4 650-4000 10 10000-70000 42 16-100 IVi 900-6000 12 16000-90000 48 25-160 2 1000-7000 14 18000-120000 54 35-240 2Vi 1400-9000 16 20000-140000 60 Table 10. When the pump has to be repaired.375 100-600 4 2000-14000 20 2-16 0.50 160-1000 5 3000-19000 24 4-28 0. which is forced to rotate in the reverse direction by the pressure of the liquid column on the impeller. In this way a preset level is maintained in the tank. Another requirement is a check valve at each pump outlet. which prevents liquid already pumped from returning to the tank. It is good practice to have a manometer on the outlet of each pump. delivery is interrupted and the pump must be primed to restart.5-10 0. the float lowers and opens the bypass. which is held back by the check valve. Thus. Liquid already pumped will return to the tank. If the level is low. Table 9.170 the float rises and closes the bypass.25 50-350 3 1800-11000 18 1. it prevents material in the delivery line from running back into the pump. If air reaches the pump. all liquid is delivered to its destination. Normal velocities in pipes material density average fps 6 esse 0-20 brix juice 5 syrup 40-65 brix 3 molasses 70-90 brix 2 massecuite 90-99 brix 1 (or 1( . If the pump has to be stopped. Pipe-size capacity range in gpm for schedule 40 steel pipe Cap (gpm) Size (in) Cap (gpm) ' Size (in) Cap (gpm) Size (in) 0-5 0. it can be taken apart without losing the liquid in the delivery line.

171 Table 11. material fps Superheated steam 200 Saturated steam 100 Exhaust steam 130 Vapor 120 Vapor under vacuum 180 Vapor to condenser 200 (or more) Compressed air 80 Air under vacuum 50 Sulfur dioxide gas SO2 75 Carbon dioxide gas CO2 75 Milk of lime 6 .

I960. in the case of handling final molasses. I960. which makes the use of butterfly valves adequate. In general. As a general rule. vapor lines are of a larger diameter and normal gate valves would be both too costly and also too heavy for the purpose. E. As regards vapor piping from one evaporator vessel to the next. A butterfly valve is chosen for various reasons: (1) In general. p. see Hugot. 832 (Table 212). the delivery velocity is always higher than the suction velocity. 2 p. the delivery line has a much larger diameter than the calculated value. 2. Amsterdam. Amsterdam. This is to prevent high loss or head (or pressure drop). REFERENCES 1. Hugot. 173 CHAPTER 31 PIPING It is sufficient for the purpose of this book to give the allowed velocities of materials present in a sugar mill. it is essential that each vapor connection from vapor space to the calandria of the following vessel is provided with a butterfly valve. a less positive closing of a butterfly valve is sufficient. Hugot1 gives both limits for materials in sugar mills in fps (Table 211. the following velocities can be used: live steam 120 fps exhaust steam 150 fps vapor 120 fps vapor under vacuum 200 fps water 6 fps For more detail. which demands excessive power of the pump. (2) As the principal function is to prevent soda and acid vapors from entering the next calandria during cleaning. the exhaust steam admitted to each calandria during boiling out would flow back through the line to the vapor space of the preceding vessel and would impede proper boiling. (4) The butterfly valves for this purpose can be easily produced locally. E. the higher the viscosity of the material. If no valve were mounted in the vapor line. . Hugot. Elsevier. Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering.831. As a second general rule. For instance. there is hardly any pressure in the vapor lines. Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering. the lower the velocity must be.832. p.831). Allowed steam and vapor velocities are important for calculating vapor piping between evaporators and to condensers. Elsevier. p. (3) As each vessel has a chimney to the atmosphere for the purpose of boiling cleaning chemicals.

unlike the export quotas. In this category are firstly native. It quite often happens that after production and meeting of the sugar quotas. One product produced in rather large quantities is raw sugar. While the quotas can fluctuate. the hot and liquid concentrate was poured into molds. etc. Each country had its own shape and size of mold. as it takes some years to change acreage. raw sugar production for export is limited by a pre- determined quota.. As in the case in almost all industries. Clarification of the juice was purely mechanical. and steam is often used as a heating medium for evaporation. Production of this native "raw sugar" is a home industry. price politics. which can be used to produce other sugar-containing products without breaching quota restrictions. Juice separation takes place after the cane for the daily production has been accumulated. In most countries. political changes in governments. Native sugars Many other products are made. the cane planted to produce the alloted quota cannot be changed on a short term basis. by means of a ladle. but they were usually brick-sized. these molds were halves of coconut shells. bullock. 175 CHAPTER 32 PRODUCTS OTHER THAN SUGAR In nearly all countries. horse. The milling plant of the original process was a small vertical mill driven by a mule. primitively made sugars. because of old stocks. In Indonesia for instance. the local consumption quotas determined by the government do not fluctuate much on short term. Now. The cane is cut in the morning and brought to the plant. there is still cane available. etc. Columbia chancaca Peru rapadou Haiti gur India gula djawa Indondesia muscovado The Philippines. which have different names in each country. Santo Domingo panela Venezuela. even this production method has been subject to progress. When the right degree of concentration was reached. hence the name "gula mangkok" — "cup sugar". almost everywhere. for instance: raspadura Cuba. . This is sold as cattle feed at a reduced price. a small steamboiler is used to produce steam to move the still primitive mills. The evaporation took place in large hemispherical cast iron kettles over an open log fire. treated with a vegetable dye to distinguish it from consumption sugar. and also used as sweeteners.

Inverted molasses A second important product is inverted molasses. The normal composition of high-test molasses (mieles invertidas) is: solids about 85 pol about 27 invert about 50 total sugars about 77 ash about 2-2 After reaching final density. The quantity of yeast required is determined by the speed required to invert the sucrose. a small amount of hydrochloric acid can be added with the yeast. there is no special equipment available for this purpose. the reaction is slow. If necessary. . If a certain pol is required. every hour the laboratory determines the pol of each tank and maintains a chart of the hourly pol reduction for each tank (or cyrstallizer). To check progress of the inversion reaction. No steam is turned on. The rising scum is ladled off. The pH of the juice is low and the juice is cold. The diluted juice is produced just as for sugar. air leaks can be maintained just to aid the cooling process. Normally. Holes are then made in the bottom for molasses drainage. Evaporators do not require cleaning. In the beginning of the inversion cycle. but later it proceeds more quickly because of the infection already present. before or after the production quota is reached. the molasses has to be cooled to arrest further reactions. Here the freshly prepared paste made of dry yeast is added to invert the sugar in the syrup. For instance. the inverted syrup can be mixed with an amount of untreated syrup to constitute a mixture of correct sugar contents. cooling can be achieved using a normal vacuum pan under vacuum as high as possible. Gur In the fabrication of gur.5" is feasible.28. To assist initial inversion. then further concentration takes place to about 93 brix. as no scale is formed in acid juice (no lime). or a seed funnel can be kept open. Therefore. this speed being obtained according to the available capacity of deposit for inversion. the foot valve can be cracked open to let z small quantity of air in. Pan supply tanks or crystallizers are used to store the syrup of about 55 brix. as the process takes place in a regular raw sugar mill. The remaining sugar has a pol from 71 to 82. As soon as the pol approaches zero it can be discharged to be concentrated further to the required brix. the juice is heated and clarified with an extract of Dula roots (Hibiscus). which is made from cane instead of sugar.176 Muscovado process — the Phillipines The massecuite is charged in 5 gallon (oil) cans and left for several days. also called high-test molasses. but clarification is done with or without only a small amount of lime. A vacuum of about 28" .

Principles of Sugar Technology. which are used as kitchen syrups. syrup for the South of the U. the dyes used are of vegetable or synthetic origin. p. It is used as an additive in producing the so-called N. yellow-colored sugar was traditionally used during times of mourning. Amsterdam. while in the South a distinctive cane-molasses taste sells better. Elsevier. The color can also be custom-made for a particular market. The dye can be added in the last stage of the centrifugal cycle or blended with the white sugar in a screw conveyor before drying. It makes the sugar seem whiter. there are many variations of edible syrups. If colored sugars are required. Furthermore.498. Ill. where a lighter color is preferred. the latter of course being acceptable as food additives. Production of caramel has already been described in this manual. In Indonesia. For instance. and as a means of increasing color and reducing pol for import duty purposes. of which only 5 mg per ton sugar adheres to the grain surface. Honig. . In Honig1. is normally darker than that sent to the north-east of the country. and can be blended with all kind of syrups made from sources other than sugar cane or beet. Use of blue as a complementary color for slightly yellowish plantation white sugar has also been mentioned.S. P. 177 Discharge from the cooling pan can be made continuous by opening the cut-over valve slightly. the quantity of indanthren used for this purpose is given as 50 g per ton sugar. Vol. to allow enough liquid to escape to maintain the pan level. REFERENCES 1. (new assortment) sugar for England. There a maple taste is quite popular. A.A. 1963.

The lower wage level is also the reason why no instrument mechanics are available. In more details. The cane scales are also used for the purchase of cane from independent growers. juice. much attention is given to factors that form part of accurate weight control. Handbooks are available for this purpose. trucks. The reduction of instrumentation to a practical minimum depends on the country concerned and factors such as obtainability of spare parts from a reasonably near source. . 179 CHAPTER 33 INSTRUMENTATION IN RAW SUGAR MILLS We do not intend to detail all instruments in this chapter. in the off-season. repair if necessary (d) make check weighings with pre-determined check weights. in somewhat exaggerated form. water. sugar. lubricate joints.. As a general rule. The scale weighs the car or cars standing on it. because there are many mills where cars are pulled by tractor. etc. However. (b) check level of approaches to the platform (c) clean scale pit. The sketch shows. trucks. and in some countries some companies also offer this kind of service. such as: (a) determine tare of cane cars. There. have been completely overhauled. Cane scale The most necessary and widely used control instruments are scales for cane. etc. we will clarify the most effective and least complicated controls to be used in sugar mills in the developing countries. The tare weight should be painted on the equipment together with its number of sequence. in countries where wages are high. these factors are: (a) tare weight of loading equipment can only be done after all cars. how this can introduce an error. since skilled maintenance personnel is simply not available in many countries. as they are highly skilled and expensive compared with the average wage level. and subsequently cars are pulled on by a tractor and weighed. These requirements alone complicate the simplicity. They must be exact and fraud-proof. and this plays its part in the final selection. but are not sophisticated. because the instruments must be provided with ticket-printing devices and accuracy falls under the jurisdiction of a government control. We have seen in some countries that a group of mills in the same area jointly employ a qualified repair man for instrument maintenance. etc. (b) The slope to and from the weighing platform is important. See sketch on page 180. more instrumentation is used than in countries where wages are low (usually the developing countries). (c) This does not need further explanation. without uncoupling the train. Therefore. controls should be such that they really assist operators.

A special flow- meter. Juice scale Juice scales are nearly always automatic and are provided with printing devices. but the problem is that it measures everything passing through. there must be a reduced diameter to increase the velocity. such as Maxwell- Boulogne. which requires increased power from the pump. including air. The weight checked must be the average of the five checks. and if the scale is for other kinds (trucks. The sensing device is outside the pipe- line. cars) it should be placed at all four corners as well as the middle of the weighing platform. called the mass-flow-meter is made by one manufacturer. The only requirement is that it demands a reasonably high velocity of liquid in the pipe. because measuring requires average brix (specific gravity) and temperature corrections to compute the weight. Magnetic flow-meter The third kind is a magnetic flow-meter. and it needs a level control on the supply tank. An orifice plate clogs up and errors are unacceptably large. because if the mill stops and air passes through. the volume being restored by addition of a measured quantity of water. The weight must be painted on the platform. Automatic scales come in many variations. The International Commission of Uniform Methods (ICUMSA) states that "Juice must be weighed not measured". Volumetric determination of juice requires correction for occluded air and foam. In other words. .180 ^aS3i^ ^Qya^- (d) As a check weight. the check weight should be in the middle of the rails. It is basically a rota- meter (has a float). because of insoluble solids and air in the juice. Juice scales are for weighing diluted juice (also called mixed juice or raw juice). each mill must have platforms on wheels with one or more old mill rollers on it. and there is no obstruction. which is done by leaving a tank for some time. it will be measured as though it were juice. If the scale is for railroad cars. etc. Normal flow-meters cannot be used here. Foxboro.

The electrodes need great attention. where the cooling medium is diluted juice from the mill tandem. because then the sucrose lost in bagasse is also more reliable. this is done to render the fundamental equation as exact as possible. A temperature control can be used to open or close the cooling juice valve. and this renders the control valve expensive. then it is inferior to manual regulation. This gives the best results as far as extraction and mechnical requirements are concerned (minimal slip or chokes). It must be emphasized here that automatic pH control is preferable. the weight of bagasse (cane + water — juice) can be fairly reliable. it is possible to control the flow with a much smaller valve. Another common system uses hot condensate. the pH control is not used. mounted in a by-pass. With the weight of cane. as is done in juice heaters on the steam flow. A temperature of about 70 °C is preferred. This is a simple control and should be present in all mills. It consists of a sensing bulb in the juice line leaving the heaters. although most mills use scales. The simplest way to produce water of the required temperature is by mixing hot and cold water in the correct proportions. juice and imbibition water as exact as possible. Undoubtedly. milk of lime dosification can be maintained rather satisfactorily manually with one of the many available control-indicator devices and a laboratory-type pH meter. In many mills in developing countries. For this purpose a three-way mixing valve is quite convenient. Again. Lime One of the most widely used controls is the automatic pH control for the addition of lime to the juice. but this is convenient. normally more than 10" diameter. Although this chapter concerns instrumentation. Heater temperature The next step in the fabrication process is control of the final juice-heater temperature. The steam valves on juice heaters are rather large. This is important. The instrument is electronic and that fact alone makes skilled supervision a necessity. since it requires a skillful instrument maintenance to keep it in good condition. but if it cannot be maintained properly. since a little later it must be heated (in the juice heaters). it is necessary here to explain the temperature control normally applied to imbibition water. . The quantity of cold juice which passes through the exchanger determines the final temperature of the cooled water. This signal opens or closes the steam valve (heating medium). ICUMSA says that weighing is preferable. However. Although pH control doubtlessly enhances clarification. 181 Imbibition water For this a flow-meter can be used. The juice here becomes slightly heated. similar to those used in bathrooms (but of a larger capacity). because they are fragile. cooled in a heat exchanger. and a spare unit should be available.

steam c o n t r o l valve bulb ^ ^ice Fig. totalizer) (3) condensate flow recorders. As this air reaches the last vessel. The 10" valve can be opened just enough to limit steam slightly and the shortage can be controled through the 6 " valve (see Fig. a 10" valve is used plus a 6" valve in the by-pass. its specific volume increases so much that even a small amount occupies a large part of the calandria. Then.182 Suppose the normal steam valve would have been 12 " diameter. Juice heater temperature control mounted in by-pass for reduced control valve size. . instead of 12". Further considerations on those under (a) are the following: (1) The level control on the clarified juice tank is important to ensure that no air is pumped into the vessel. in which case the withdrawal pipes of the incondensable gases are unable to handle such large volumes. Evaporators Evaporator controls can be divided into two categories: (a) indispensable controls (b) convenience controls The controls in category (a) are: (1) level control on clarified juice tank (2) make-up and blow-off on exhaust steam to first vessel (3) level control on all vessels. 50. 50). In category (b) they are: (1) brix control on syrup produced (including recorder) (2) flow-meter on steam to first vessel (including recorder.

provided that the purity does not vary from one strike to another. There are many patents based on supersaturation determination. evaporators and vacuum pans. Maintaining such levels manually is almost impossible. but rather complicated. (3) To complement steam recording. and that of Ditmar-Jansse based on vapor pressure in the pan compared with vapor pressure of water in closed container in the pan. such as Holven's patent. there is the refractometer. Other factors cause level fluctuations. there are many instruments based on different principles. In Chapter 12. Its application as a pan-mounted instrument is somewhat delicate. etc. (2) A flow-meter on the steam consumption of the first vessel is convenient but forms part of a complete record on steam consumption and production. the operational conditions fluctuate too much and results are poor. condensate flow is useful. such as variations in steam supply. Steam consumption recording of evaporators alone does not serve the purpose. because of its prism being exposed to temperature changes due to boiling. 183 (2) For continuous and correct operation of the evaporator station. Here rotameters can serve the purpose. . used for crystallization of seed for C massecuite. For measurement of supersaturation. A complete control records production of boilers as a function of consumption of mills. power plant. steaming out and water circulation for cleaning. Without a constant pressure of exhaust steam. (3) It is known that optimum evaporation takes place when the juice level in the tubes is maintained at about one third of the tube height (see Hugot 1 ). by supplementing with live steam if the pressure is too low. an automatic level control is mandatory. worked out by Honeywell. in vacuum. because if all controls mentioned under (a) are in perfect working conditions. mounted on the pan which shows the density directly proportional to supersaturation. Vacuum pans The most important control instrumentation is of course the supersaturation control. Furthermore. make-up to exhaust steam to heaters. and by blowing-off to the atmosphere if too high. The temperature rise gives the supersaturation. in condensate level. (1) Brix control of syrup produced is rather a luxury. and the heating surfaces of the evaporators are well proportioned for the mill capacity. the recording of condensate of the last vessel of the evaporators is mentioned as part of the determination of heat transfer. For these reasons. The levels indicated in the level glasses cannot be trusted because of violent variations and the time lag before these variations show up in the level glass. On the points mentioned under (b)f we have the following considerations. unless the evaporator is scaled and has to be cleaned. then the brix of the syrup is bound to be good. as regards instrumentation. comparing the boiling temperature of the liquid with the boiling temperature of water under the same vacuum. it is necessary to keep the exhaust-steam pressure constant. Inclusion of level controls on all vessels is one of the best financial investments.

and the set-point indicator is on the number at which seed powder is always injected. say 40. but. It indicates the conductivity of the liquid in the pan. the meter is turned on. The only attention the meter needs is periodic cleaning of the electrodes. The temperature of the water leaving the condenser through the tailpipe acts as a control for the water to be admitted to the system. The conductivity is inversely proportional to the density (and to the supersaturation). When the seed point is reached. The temperature is almost constant. The two controls together guarantee optimum efficiency of this station. Vacuum control In addition to cuitometers on all pans.). whereas a refinery operates like clockwork and quality conditions are extremely uniform. Concentration starts and the reading falls. particularly when a cuitometer is used. Shortly before reaching the seeding point. the seed suspended in alcohol is transferred to the funnel and kept in suspension by means of a laboratory blender. Fisher and Porter. The only variable is the purity. purity. etc. The factors influencing the reading are massecuite temperature. etc. The procedure of using a cuitometer is as follows. they can also be cleaned using fine sandpaper. the electrode distance is constant. a conductivity control. Used on the A or B pan. The scale has a range of 0-100. pan operations are subjected to constant fluctuations (irregular grinding. the footing for a C massecuite seed must be kept unchanged at 70 purity.184 The instrument most widely used is the cuitometer. the feed can be maintained continuously by maintaining a constant instrument reading and by opening or closing the feed valve. . The only remaining variable then is density (or supersaturation). 106. In other words. and electrode distance. There are vacuum pans provided with completely automated operation (Honeywell. Its popularity is due to its simplicity and low price. At the same time.injected and the crystallization is executed further as explained earlier in the description of seeding technique on p. The use of the cuitometer is simple enough to allow use of one on each pan. voltage. as explained earlier. Hugot is of the same opinion (Hugot2).). a temperature-sensing bulb gives a signal to the water valve to open or close. The tips are silver-plated. which means that a higher density gives a lower reading. each pan should also have a vacuum control. the seed is. As soon as the pan starts concentrating the original feed of 70 purity. which become encrusted. The reason is that in a raw sugar mill. it admits just the amount of water required to keep the vacuum at that point. and that is the one we want to measure. ensuring that the potentiometer is on the reading regularly used. The conductivity of the crystals is negligible. voltage is kept constant by means of a built- in regulator. stoppages. If so desired. to maintain a constant pre-set vacuum in the pan. but their use is mainly restricted to refineries. They can be cleaned in the laboratory with a warm hydrochloric acid solution. changing cane quality.

manometers and thermometers should be mounted wherever necessary. The size of the plant depends on the number of instruments installed. Amsterdam. the temperature in the cyrstallizer is indicated instantly. Amsterdam. Boilers. Vacuum-pan supply tanks They should all have a dial thermometer. in combination with a cooling water-separator. with a dial large enough to be easily visible from the pan front. rather than the more sophisticated electronic equipment. p. Hugot. Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering. less water is required and the valve closes slightly. Both oil and water in the compressed air are the only threat to instrument reliability. E. repaired). compressed air direct from the plant air compressor cannot be used for pneumatic instruments. These gauges should be removed and stored in the laboratory. an oil-free air compressor should be used and the air should be dried (refrigerator/cooling). By pushing a button on the indicator. 386. which requires more skilled maintenance. To supply the air for pneumatic instruments. whilst if the temperature falls at night. to be cleaned and tested (if necessary. more water passes automatically through the condenser.517. Elsevier. 185 If water temperature rises at noon. Hugot. centrifugals and turbo-generators are supplied complete with their own controls and instrumentation. p. I960. . REFERENCES 1. Handbook of Cane Sugar Engineering. Elsevier. during the off-season. If more sophisticated instrumentation can be afforded. Thus. indicators or controls should be pneumatic. a multi-point temperature indicator in the laboratory can be connected to each crystallizer by means of thermocouple extension wire (copper/constantan) and a thermo-couple probe in the crystallizer (also copper/constantan). I960. The temperature should be maintained manually some degrees higher than the vacuum-pan temperature (about 150°F or 65 °C). In general Throughout the plant. Crystallizers Each C massecuite crystallizer should be provided with a thermometer of the large-dial type. The best solution is to have a separate instrument air compressor. All recorders. 2. E.

Further. An "intercom" system is better than a telephone. in order to determine the expenses involved in purchasing cane from independent growers. sugar warehouse and workshop. regardless of how carefully it is done. before discharging strikes. unfortunately. also sugarbags. its quanity and quality and its subdivision into export and local consumption. the analysis cannot improve on it and is worthless. in stock and consumed. mill house. because of the high noise level in the mill: a loudspeaker can be heard better. the quantities of sugar and molasses sold and the available stock to hand. to indicate the whereabouts and quantity of sugar lost. . 187 CHAPTER 34 LABORATORY The task performed by the laboratory is really twofold. lost time. the so-called cyclones (2) advice to the laboratory of discharging strikes (3) advice to the laboratory of breakdowns and mill stops (lost time records) (4) advice to boilers on feed-water quality or abnormality or requesting a laboratory analysis (5) advice to laboratory about sugar or molasses shipment (truck weighing in and out) (6) advice to laboratory of cane ground in last 24 hours at the moment of closing the day. (1) Record must be made of the following assets. not instantaneously. (2) The laboratory is responsible for analysis. and its quality. To ensure that the analyses are valid. to call the attention of responsible personnel should there be any abnormalities. boilers and office. they must originate from representative samples. A well equipped and well-staffed laboratory is a lost investment if sampling devices are defective or absent. as a guideline for the process. to represent an average of all conditions under which the material is produced or received. and also with evaporators. its quantity and quality. (a) The cane received and ground. The equipment manufacturers are not at fault. are made. which should connect the laboratory primarily with the boiling house. this is the case in many mills throughout the world. material warehouse. (c) The molasses produced. since most sampling devices are home-made and in many cases home-invented. Information which can be conveyed to advantage is: (1) rapid analysis made for the pan floor. A representative sample must be taken continuously. (b) The sugar produced. sugar balances. (d) The consumption of chemicals. Another generally overlooked convenience in the laboratory is a communication system "intercom". An organized account and totalization of results and intermediate product quantities and "sugar in process" are maintained. etc. periodic fabrication reports of results. If the sampling is defective. Here the informational rapid analysis also appears.

although located in the air-conditioned laboratory. (b) a photo-copying machine to produce the required copies of daily and bi-weekly reports. Other necessities are: (a) an electric typewriter for daily and bi-weekly* reports. Such a machine is an expensive item and it is recommended that there is a permanent operator. can be used for other general office work (accounting. three electronic calculators with print-out and memory. etc.e. . Such an arrangement has the advantage that a full-time operator can be employed just to handle the copying machine. the standard temperature for polarization. but a necessity. purchasing. once every two weeks Sampling The samples can be divided into two categories: (a) the continuous samples and (b) the intermittent or occasional samples.). The continuous samples are: first expressed juice (primary juice) diluted juice (mixed-raw) limed juice clarified juice (clear juice) filter juice syrup A molasses B molasses final molasses The occasional ones are: massecuites magma commercial sugar (can also be continuous) C sugar boiler feed water boiler water mud milk of lime bagasse last mill juice The continuous samples are collected every hour and brought to the laboratory.188 These are only a few reasons for recommending installation of an "intercom". (d) an air-conditioner of adequate capacity to maintain a temperature of 70 °F (20 °C). *i. This machine. It is not a luxury. The sample containers are replaced and provided with the correct amount of disinfectant to preserve the sample quality between the hourly collections.

which keeps juice good for several days. The screen on the spoon is interchangeable and prevents bagacillo from entering with the juice. Many makes of juice scales carry their own sampling device. This sucrose assessment is used to make accurate payment for cane from independent growers. It is very important that the sample of diluted juice is representative. The Java sampler for mill juice. Movement is derived from an eccentric point of the mill roller by means of a nylon cord. 51. sampled simultaneously with the bagasse specimen. The simplest is the Java sampler pictured here (Fig. 189 According to Spencer/Meade1. The arm of the spoon is a VA " copper tube. or 0. In most. Its weight multiplied by its polarization represents the sucrose entering the process. The containers should be cleaned well. the best preservative is mercuric chloride 200 ppm of juice. The brix is too low for the sample to be conserved: this is because of the low density and a higher temperature. For juices there are many automatic devices of local construction available. Another preservative is Home's dry lead (lead subacetate) at 20 g/liter. 51). because it is on this juice that the accuracy of the accounting is based. which collects a constant amount of sample from each weighing operation.5 ml of saturated alcoholic solution per liter of juice. using the rotary movement of the rollers as a driving force. through which the juice flows to the container. disinfected thoroughly (using steam) and completely dried before re-use. the primary juice (first expressed juice) is used as the basis for cane payment and is also required where normal juice is calculated for laboratory control. . Fig. In other systems. which gives the required concentration. Last mill juice (residual juice-last expressed) is a hand-taken specimen. The trough from which the sample is taken leads the juice from the mill pan to the outside tank under the cush-cush (or before the pump). applying the brix factor. both ideal conditions for micro-organisms to develop and to multiply. a sample is taken and transferred to the container. as well as to calculate the expected sugar output.

after opening the foot valve. for instance. because it is difficult to ensure that the collector really does sample it this way. It is taken from the pan discharge after about half has flowed out. B and C massecuites.201). . are easier to collect: a small nozzle and valve are mounted in the delivery line from the pump. Samples of limed. and connected to piping returning to the tank in front of the pump. This is done by the pan-floor assistant and announced by the pan foreman by intercom to the laboratory. More about these samples can be found in a later chapter under "Laboratory Reports and Bookkeeping" (see p. but two samples are separated: one is just a sample similar to the other juices. Sampling from the pump delivery line. 52. A and B molasses. and another accumulated for the bi-weekly special analysis. Not only must the sample be larger. This is quite a problem. since the sample line itself gives only a small amount of molasses because of the high viscosity. taken hourly for 24 hours. clarified and filtered juice as well as syrup. which is suspended above the tank so that any overflow drips back into the tank (Fig. 52). This piping can be VA " or V (for higher-density liquid). This aspect will be discussed later.190 The sample must be taken over the entire width of the mill. From the outflow of the pipe. Fig. The sampling of final molasses does not require a copper wire. as A. a copper wire guides a small drip into a container. The occasional samples Massecuite is sampled individually each strike.

A rather satisfactory way of sampling is to make a tube-formed outlet in the middle of a conical side of the scale funnel. The problem with sampling raw sugar is that it sticks together and plugs up holes or fills the sample spoon. 191 Magma is taken once per shift. 54. 54). above the bag filler. for instance a particular quantity for every ten bags. and pol and weight per sq ft of mudcake are determined. Mud sampler. Sugar sampler. Mud from rotary vacuum filters should be sampled using a square of galvanized plate 6" X 6" with a l " high border fitted on a file handle (see Fig. it needs constant attention and cleaning to keep it functioning. Boiler water is boiler feed water after chemicals have been added to control pH and hardness. whatever the sampling device might be. A C-sugar sample can be taken once per shift in batch form. This is the same as boiler-feed-water sampling. Boiler feed water. Fig. instantaneously. is sampled intermittently. which should be checked at least once per hour for sugar traces. . Fig. Whatever continuous system is applied. The sample is checked for moisture by drying. Sugar can be sampled continuously but is usually a periodic sample. 53.

The bagasse sample is one of the most unreliable samples in the sugar mill. 5). bagasse is drier at the extremes and wetter in the middle of the roller. the chute discharging bagasse from the last mill onto the carrier should have an opening about 3 " wide covered by a 4 "-wide hinged lid. 55. it is difficult to know if it is representative. The lid is then placed on the box. Fig. To take the sample. it should be taken over the entire roll width. The sample falls in a wooden box as wide as the roller and must be enclosed to prevent evaporation during transporation to the laboratory (imbibition water is hot and evaporation is high). and both depend on: (a) imbibition water variations (b) matt-thickness variations (c) temperaure variations Furthermore. Wear of the roller reduces the diameter more in the middle than at the sides. In this respect. Bagasse sampling device in bottom plate of last mill chute. 55).192 Milk of lime samples are taken only occasionally when the density has to be checked. as extraction of moisture is not constant throughout. To take the sample. To secure a sample of the entire width. . It is analyzed on pol and moisture. As it can only be taken instantaneously. the counter-weight is lifted manually and a osed by counter-weights and an arm at both sides (see Fig. kept closed by counter-weights and an arm at both sides (see Fig. the counter-weight is lifted manually and a curtain of bagasse falls out into the sample box.

clerget. Suppose one shift starts at 6 a. In the day shift. It is clear that the sample shift differs from the personnel shift (see Fig. and calculation of target purity (obtainable) against obtained purity. there are. cane weight and field productions. and finishes at 2 p. fabrication chief or chief engineer of the results and any abnormalities. solids. he informs the canefield surveyor about results. glucose. they are thoroughly stirred before removing any samples. then the 8-hour samples are analyzed at 10 a. He also makes bi-weekly: (e) complete analysis of accumulated molasses samples: brix. In this case. ash. The samples brought to the laboratory are transferred to one-gallon bottles and the collective hour samples analyzed once per shift as an average 8-hour sample. . pol. As regards cane analysis. This should be done before the chief chemist starts his daily report at close of day. 193 Personnel required in a well equipped laboratory There is one chief chemist responsible for all laboratory operations and accounting. photocopying) 1 messenger boy (distribution of reports. to allow calculation of the basic price plus premiums minus penalties.m. 56). who reports directly to the management on all accounting matters. After preparation of all samples for analysis in the middle of the shift (in this example at 10 a. syrup and final molasses (b) determine ash of final molasses and sugar (c) do precision analysis of pol of sugar (d) take readings and monitor charts of all instruments. The daily job of this chemist is to: (a) determine glucose in juices. These analyses should be made in the middle of the shift.) 1 chemist for special analysis. abnormalities. As regards his laboratory guideline obligations. as used by the laboratory of the country receiving the exported sugar. The 24-hour day is normally divided into three shifts. in addition: 1 office attendant (typing. The last shift of the day finishes by calculating the average for the day from the three analyses made. (f) complete sugar analysis.).m. there are also 3 shift chemists 3 helpers 3 sample boys 3 feed-water attendants.m.. he informs the superintendent. Preparation for analysis The continuous samples are collected every hour and containers replaced. one per shift. reporting the difference in loss of available sugar in money by incomplete exhaustion of final molasses. etc.m.

The total number of revolutions is known from the 24-hour reading of the counter. and do not require explanation here. the bi-weekly sample must be well mixed. the whole sample is weighed. a certain quantity (e. The dripping time must be constant to ensure quantity uniformity for all sample components. If mud is transported in dump-trucks. in the same sequence as the brix cylinders. Pol of mud is never corrected for bagacillo content. Before analysis. Mud sample treatment After the 6 " X 6 " cake sample has been taken once per shift. On one table. the density is too low to guarantee the preservability required for continuous sampling. as each new addition to it stays on top forming separate layers. From this.194 personnel shifts samples shifts am ΌΠΊ am . all brix cylinders are filled (and marked). Last mill juice.g. 100 ml) is transferred to a one-gallon bottle to form the bi-weekly accumulating sample used by the special-analysis chemist. each truck load could be weighed "in and out". and this multiplied by drum area gives the weight of cake per revolution. Timing of analyses of cumulative samples and its relation to the time of the personnel shifts. After it has been weighed. on another all filtrations for polarization are prepared. but this is seldom done since it is too messy. As explained before. the sample is used to determine the pol and the solids by drying a known quantity in an oven. Spencer/Meade). All analyses are made as prescribed in laboratory-procedures handbooks (e.g. Its weight multiplied by four gives the weight per square foot of cake. Only sampling procedures that differ from routine sampling need further explanation.2 ' 4 ' 6 time Fig. 56. which each filter must have. 6 7 8 9 10 11 * ί 3 5 7 ' 9 " 12 '. The 100-ml sampler is left dripping for a reasonably long time above the container. the total weight of filter cake in 24 hours is known. also named residual juice or last expressed juice. . Final molasses bi-weekly sample From the same hourly sample for shift average. Note.

Use a small sugar sample bottle. calculate the weight of the bottle plus milk of lime at 10° Be. . there are three different resulting counter-weights for 5 °. as will be seen in Fig. Fill it complete with water and determine the weight of the bottle and bottle plus water in the laboratory. the sampling of bagasse must also be done this way. Although it is usually done this way. It is thus possible to take a reading of 10° or 15 ° Be in the same sample. and free from complications. this juice is not physically separate and cannot be sampled individually. not last mill juice. in many mills occasional sampling is preferred. Milk of lime In general practice. 10° and 15 ° Be (or any other set of densities required). The man in charge of preparation needs to have an easy control method that is fast. The difference is that the latter is all the liquid from the three-roller mill. This is acceptable provided that the sample is collected from the complete width of the mill — for the same reason. Flow of juice from front and back roller of a three-roller mill. and prepare a counter- weight for this weight. Fig. The bottle can be filled using a piece of glass on the top and including its weight in the tare of the bottle. 57. because it is possible to insert the spindle at any point. This can be repeated for 5° and 15° Be. A better method is the following. It must be remembered that the juice lost in bagasse actually is the last expressed juice. since it does not float freely. this method is not at all reliable. However. 57. Use a simple balance at the lime station. 195 For this reason. Knowing the volume. such as those found in grocery stores. This is a crude type of picnometer but accurate enough for the purpose. the density of the milk of lime is measured with a Beaume spindle. reasonably accurate. while "last expressed" means the liquid expressed by the top roller and the last (bagasse) roller.

he needs to know if the purity is correct. The addition could be B molasses. The analysis is only approximate and is not intended to be exact. Brix and pol of this solution are determined as if it were a juice. used as an operator guideline for composition of seed strikes and massecuites.196 Massecuite and seed cyclones The word "cyclon" in this sense is derived from the Spanish. Before injecting the seed. the pan is stopped (steam closed). It counteracts optimum exhaustion. REFERENCES 1. or even syrup. 1963. The preparation is as follows. p. and means a rapidly made purity determination. When the pan is 95% full. he might have made purity corrections (feeding syrup or A molasses alone) and must know the end results. to make a solution of about 10-25 brix. Wiley. . 9th edn. without being weighed. A small quantity of massecuite (or mixture) is mixed. only a small amount is needed to prevent extremely low end purities in C massecuite. Spencer-Meade. also undetermined. the pan operator mixes syrup and A molasses to obtain a mixture of 70 purity for crystallization for C massecuite. While the results are awaited. In the above case. if so indicated: B molasses is added in the case of too high a cyclone. After seeding and completing the pan..532. information is needed instantaneously. The cyclone system is also important to the final purity of C massecuite. the last 5% can be applied correctively to reach a desired end purity. high-purity material should not be fed to the pan at the final stage. according to the results. the cyclone is made and. Note. A cyclone analysis in the laboratory should always have preference above routine work. New York. Cane Sugar Handbook. and A molasses or syrup in the case of low results. A molasses. The results should be conveyed by "intercom" to the pan-floor personnel. with a quantity of water. As a rule. For instance.

.5$ f i b e r 2 9 1 3 tons i m b i b i t i o n w a t e r 30 . p u r i t y d i l u t e d Juice : 100 35 i b r i x bagasse ..brix__ . 3 ._ _ 8 1 cane ground ..cane) . _ 71 . : _ 7 2 8 1 ton3 cane ground 8i ! 78 reduced e x t r a c t i o n a t 12. . 68 J. 70 ' "A" __ ..Juice . _ 20 1 8 ' t o n s d i l u t e d Juice . t o n s cane ground p e r . 11 t i n s f i b e r ground p e r hour 63 521 52 t o n s f i b e r 12 ! reading i m b i b i t i o n f l o w * factor _ _ — 61* i m b i b i t i o n '. - 9 5 2 t o n s f i b e r i n cane(tons f i b e r i n bagasse) 61 f i b e r % cane 1 0 2 hours g r i n d i n g 62 13 t o n s i m b i b i t i o n water_ 100. . 88 86 • b r i x n o r m a l J u i c e 36 m o i s t u r e * bagasse 89 ι p o l normal Juice 37' s o l u b l e s % bagasse 90 21 tons b r i x i n d i l u t e d * 1 0 0 _ 33: .LJOO _ 72 : 61 f i b e r % cane 73 : . . 1 0 0 1*9 '• t o n s m o i s t u r e .. .. „ . 97 l j t o n s cane 1*5 32 t o n s bagasse_^JLQO 98 I d i l u t e d Juice e x t r a c t i o n 1*6' t o n s p o l i n bagasse___ 99 8 6 b r i x normal j u i c e 1*7 36 m o i s t u r e % bagasse 100 ! 19 b r i x d i l u t e d Juice 1*8 3 2 t o n s bagasse.. — 55 t o n s p o l i n cane . 71» 70 "A" p o l d i l u t e d J u i c e :_10O 23 l S t o n s d i l u t e d J u i c e . _JLQ. 16 i m b i b i t i o n % caae 69 67 p o l extraction 17 g a l d i l u t e d j u i c e X weight of l ... p u r i t y l a s t m i l l Juice 87 ... b r i x primary j u i c e 85 brix factor 33 p o l bagasse X100 86 b r i x normal Juice_ . — - 57 1 t o n s cane 5 J t o t a l hours 6 ' l o s t time % t o t a l time 53 p o l % cane.> cane 25 (l*l» U 0 / p u r ) X p o l = a v a i l a b l e sugar_in Juice—i-100— i 61 73 a b s o l u t e J u i c e l o s t f! f i b e r .. w a t e r _ _ _ — l U 1 cane ground 66 55 t o n s p o l i n cane 67 p o l e x t r a c t e d % p o l . JLQJL0J1 19 b r i x d i l u t e d Juice.00 27 tons a v a i l a b l e sugar i n d i l u t e d . 3h. 65 2k t o n s p o l i n d i l u t e d J u i c e 2k' 13 tons i m b i b i t i o n .'_3" 21 tons b r i x i n diluted-Juice. 19 No. . . 75 • 77 f i b e r .00^00. — . hour • — 1 56 55 t o n s p o l i n cane X* 100 1* hours l o s t time — . f i b e r . 1 3 t o n s i m b i b i t i o n water._. Table 12 continued 5 3 ! 2k tons p o l i n d i l u t e d J u i c e _ 1 jcane ground 5 1 *! U6 t o n s p o l i n bagasse 2 'hours g r i n d i n g . i n cane_ 1 5 .O.2205 18 tons d i l u t e d Juice . 59 52 t o n s f i b e r * 10D_ 7 6 l •% f i b e r i n cane χ 1 0 0 _ 60 1 t o n s cane . . 0 0 91 85 b r i x normal J u i c e 39 37 s o l ü b l e s % bagasse _ 92 tons normal juice: 1*0 j f i b e r % bagasse _ 93 9 2 [ t o n s normal J u i c e X l O O 1*1!35 b r i x bagasse 1*2· 32 t o n s bagasse : 100.1—100 101 ] j d i f f e r e n c e >. 1 of 3 Table 12 CALCULATING SHEET FOR DAILY REPORT 2 of 3 yd i i Date .. bagasse ~ 102 i 8 6 ' b r i x normal J u i c e 5 0 1*0' f i b e r % bagasse 5 1 3 2 i t o n s bagasse : 1 0 0 103 I I dilution % juice 52j itons f i b e r bagasse (or. 75 • 73 " B " 2l* tons p o l i n d i l u t e d J u i c e . — . — . 79 100. .. g a l at_. _.QQ 1*1**33 ροΐ bagasse. . 26 l 8 tons d i l u t e d Juice . 80 absolute j u i c e l o s t % f i b e r . 9U 1 t o n s cane 95 I normal j u i c e e x t r a c t i o n 1*3: tons b r i x bagasse 96 1 8 1 t o n s d i l u t e d J u i c e * J.- 32 33 31 l 8 tons d i l u t e d ^ u i c e _ — — 32 t o n s bagasse — 81* .

_ h dilution !ί cone XinaJ.. hours grinding nonjal Juice hours lost diluted Juice 107 58 p o l i n cane X 10.· fiber firevood used 1 2 li l b s o l i d s per g a l at brix__ fuel o i l used 125 lb solids i n molasses.__ 151 100 — p o l o f sugar 152 safety factor . m o l a s s e s produced a t b r i x . t · · •— . . sal i n stock lUl b o i l i n g house e f f i c i e n c y (bhe. Juice Java r a t i o tons ground f i l t e r Juice 109 tons burnt 110 lt6 t o n s p o l baeass^e. nroiu^tion ^ata pii clar. 3 massecuite 112 p o l % f i b e r i n bagasse ( m i l l i n g . . . 5U._.X_10_0_ tons ground/hour A massecuite —: 111 52 tons f i b e r .Q lost tine !ί t o t a l last n i l l „ 108 p o l i n p r i m a r y _ui__e c l a r i f . 5 fiber lb lirae/t can< pol .. Ζ aasaecuite fiber ground/hour -~— Λ molasses^ 1 113 f i l t e r revolutions/day area ii__q__t_-— 3 molasses 111* w e i g h t o f 1 s q f t mudcake i n . 130 shipped 131 -9_-OQ lost ti^ie 132 reason fron to hours 133 t o n s sugar produced : 100_ ash 13U t o n s raw v a l u e ( s u g a r o f 9 6 p o l ) safety factor t o n s a v a i l a b l e sugar equivalent j6° Μ + Ξ 135 27 lb 96 /ton cane 136 tons equivalent 96°(5pencer . l 3 ..8 Q _ b x i _ _ pH f i n oolasses 128 p o l sugar — 9 2 •ode (M) pH b o i l e r feed 129 ΐ·Τ5 e s t i „ t e d i n process (E] intreduced outside tem>.J_3. l o s s _ _ L . • — 19 .Juice 106 tons d i l u t i o n ( N o . return ten" 123 g a l .5 -2205.: _ v 9 2 l . • 126 l b s o l i d s a t b r i x 80_ ( t a b l e j _9.) __—. y i e l d 96" 137 131* t o n s e q u i v a l e n t 96~'made (raw v a l u e ) . _ _ : - l b mud i n 2l+ h o u r s — d i l u t i o n S norcal J . crop days prim. diluted Juice brix pol purity clerg glue t o t . 103-i_HQ.water tern 122 % m o i s t u r e i n mud. observations : ll»2 Λ39 t o n s e q u i v a l e n t 9δ°Μ ancL_ 1U3 1 t o n s cane Ikk t o n s e q u i v a l e n t 9 6 ° M and Ξ / t o n o f c a n e - 11. today 1 t o date 119 t o n s p o l i n mud 120 J__„Q_ nud pol bagasse r. ρ°ι inj. _i*6 lb equivalent 96°per ton_f_ca_£_ 11*7 139 tons e q u i v a l e n t 96°M._ -. _ 10*1 103 d i l u t i o n % cane (No.28-)_ today analysis " i l l i n p dat-i to d u e brix pur <iluc ratio 105 1 t o n s cane.100 . 3 of 3 __________ 198 Table 12 continued no Mill Date .ud lb/ton cane 121 % s o l i d s i n mud . 115 extraction ~inal nolasse3 116 : 2 2 0 5 = t o n s mud/day. y i e l d commercial 138 t o n s e q u i v a l e n t 9 6 3e s t i m a t e d i n p r o c e s s — f i n ^ I -olasses Sal aide 139 t o n s e q u i v a l e n t 9 6 3M and Ε . ." 117 p o l mud - pol ί pol in caae — ~— 118 116 t o n s mud : . Juice surar 127 e q u i v a l e n t g a l molasses o f . acidity prim. _ d _ _ _] ll*8 1 t o n s cane : 100 ll*9 yield 96° 1 150 m o i s t u r e o f sugar . gal shipped lUo tons equivalent 96°recovered ( t a b l e j .table). t o t a l today — _ Superintendent Chief Chenist .

cane.3oda a s h / t . . . 9 6 S cane . p o l ? pol i n cane . c a u s t i c soda. pol in cane .. J g r i n d i n g r a t e / c r o p day t_. cane purchased . . | j ! run t o date ... .. . _ 1 — —1 A molasses run . ~———* 1 » . \ . _ 1 ___ _ cane ground t sugar l b 96?t cane . . . cu| f t / t cane . J j . . ' ~ t o date . a o d a / t cane. . . . . t ( analysis of brix pol p u r i t y g l u c o s e 1 g l u c o s e pH I a c i d i t y ash moist c l e r g ' t o t a l j ratio ι .Uli from to __ .. -—— = J —Η . . 1 J d i l u t i o n j! cane | 1 f i n a l c i o l . . —~— j = 1 ~ •— • j to date} ^ j . _ f i n a l molasses Μ and u j J .. „ |. % fiber.. . . Java r a t i o „ .*— • • r t o date S—=J = j — -----— mud run —— . _ L„ . ..^ " ^ . _ j _ __—. . 1- t o date .O_.— •— • -• — . _ soda ash. 1 100. 1 sugaj..j. .. e x t r a c t i o n : d i l u t e d Juice . t o t_a l : t o date = j— ' — . sucrose balance „ l .. _J bagasse. J reduced 1 2 .. 199 Table U . _ . | „ pol in Juice/cane j • j_ . ——^-solids.V _ n : i Y ΓΛΠΓ?ΐΟΛ?ΙΟ-'ί RKPOPT . 5 f i b e r . .. —~— -——j-— normal Juice run j ______ * — + ~ — t o date j — 1 1 ~—— d i l u t e d Juice run •}— . . | ζ ] . l o s t in bagasse _ i . J — 1 — — t o datej j .. | run pol inoist \ fiberföcane i ? f i b e r p o _ _ b e r _ j . . 1 mud tons made.1_. ~ . • chokes 1 — -1 " . . prod. L . ' I 3ugai* primary j u i c e run J . j . sugar e q u i v a l e n t 96 . j : j . . J 1 j ~ f i n a l molasses run 1 _ _ _—__—.. \ _. .stock molasses g a l - l o s t i n mud [ . .. _! pol f.. . _ _ _J_ _ . . p o l i n cane . : . " holidays 1 f •• -I ------— — rain — _ — J j j ' general ncchanical . . . = to date! _ _ _ _ _ . l _ — l i o e / t cane "lb | r e c o v e r e d in sugarj.— .._.. j 1 " 1 j \ •••!•___— I 1 1 1 ' analysis of l o s 1t time j — — " hours I % t o t a l time 1 { — run ' t o date run t o date. * p o l e x t r a c t e d .19 "ίο. m i s c e l l a n e o u s data _ _. - __a~cia run ..-. . g a l . . 3ugor Μ and C .j — to datt+ . . .acid . j c l a r i f i e d juice run j ______ i · ~ 1 t o date] j i 1 . f i n a l molasses in process 4__ __j imbibition % cane . 1 1 ~ i j j j—= —~—\ C massecuite run 1 — — 1 j j i t o date 1 _ -..j . _ t _ I _.m a t e r i a l s lime . •• — -—· l s u g a r e s t i m a t e d in p r o c e s s . e ^ ^ .. .T = 1 J___J ί ~ -j j =—1 = 1 sugar run . e q _ v _ D _ b r _ .f i n « l molasses g a l . j . -— * j οϊ-'^ί^^^'^ —~ tii-ccllancous _ j _ . I I 1 mud tons s o l i d s „ ."^Λ " " — cleaning j • — i ^ V ^ " ' no s t e a a / e l e c t r . grinding rate/hour ... . l b _ ... ~~ _ I to date. c u l l i n g data j run t o date production d a t a : run t o date crop days ! sugar made. _ . — _—__—.. f i b e r ground/hour t ^ b o i l i n g house e f f i c i e n c y . _ . g a l 8 0 b x / t cane ._< . L — ..—__—) j 1 ~ r e s i d u a l Juice run [_. . . . _ --}_=—! 1—~ = = t o date _. _. _ ! . I j .. j — —j—— 1 ι——1—= —. l o s t $ t o t a l time .0__QQ. .. _ .—. 1 ._ . 1 [. .— hour3 l o 3 t . fuel 1 total per t of cane t I I i run I t o date run 1 to date — ι 1 i ! I • f__ l _ i c a l d a t a . —.... a c i d / t cane ]_. _. „ . hours g r i n d i n g . .. I '. . . . . _ — i J — ——5 . ! nnir. . Β molasses run ! — ·> 4 — —— ~ —~^—1 ~ t o date I ._ . __| t o t a l losses [ . _ „ _ . : y i e l d commercial . f i n a l mol.—=—[ \ syrup run ' _J • ... y i e l d e q u i v .. 1 .. _ _ ! .T 1 Ζ to date..._ _ l o s t in molas3es_J j i _ _ J . ί-.of cane __ . .. . . ——— — . J l o s t undetermined | _. — .. j sugar. 3 I . run t o date' j shipped molasses . t o date . _sugar p o l a r i z a t i o n . . _"_ . • I ' • ' ' aunerintendent chief chemist total [——-—*—— 1 —• .-| Β massecuite run -***. . ~ cane. ._ norraal Juice p o l % pol i n Juice . . t_ . • | .. A massecuite run . .. _.

201 CHAPTER 35 LABORATORY REPORTS AND BOOKKEEPING The laboratory produces daily and bi-weekly reports.O. kilograms.J. on which all analyses are collected and averaged for the day. (1) The daily analysis sheet. This makes direct comparison of results easier and enables the reports to be understood more easily by everyone concerned. was responsible for uniform reporting and issued standard report forms for all mills (about 160). Only Peru has a standard report form for all mills. Some years ago. the form is changed from year to year. Of course.) The bi-weekly report gives the same information. etc. and even worse. there is uniformity in sugar analysis and calculations. Uniformity of reporting should be the concern of the local sugar authorities of all countries. In some countries weekly reports are preferred. including an account of the causes. including yield of sugar and molasses (4) analysis (5) fuel and material use (6) lost-time account (7) miscellaneous (pH. such as pounds. But if these are as detailed as they ought to be. the task of producing them every week will prove too arduous and the quality of reliability will suffer. but a state of chaos as regards report forms. in which not only is down-time recorded. In short. (2) A lost-time book. the Experimental Station. the laboratory maintains a bookkeeping in which all supporting data for its daily reports are collected. This accounting can prove valuable later when replacement of equipment is being considered (diagnositic information). short tons. but also equipment down-time. rain. but in addition contains: (a) a sucrose balance (losses and recovery) (b) all analyses of "run" and "to date" (c) an estimate of products in "process" Daily and bi-weekly reports should be standard in form for all mills in the same country. a daily and bi-weekly report form is shown. each mill has its own type of report form. etc. As part of this chapter. metric tons. It consists of the following. The advantage is that nothing has to be "invented" again or re-investigated if reports are fully written up. This might serve as a model suitable for adoption. not responsible for stoppage of grinding. temperature. P.. in Java. quintals. In Central and South American countries and the Caribbean. The possible variation should be the local units in use in certain countries. . A daily report should give the following information: (1) grinding and time data (2) extraction data (3) production data.

were noted. etc. In reality it is 22 " X 17 ". which should never be ignored. as each country has its own government control on cane purchasing from independent growers. the daily worksheet is given on a reduced scale. it is always necessary to have a cane book. formaldehyde. In Java. (4) A massecuite accounting based on report tickets from the pan-floor. it must be adapted for local conditions. Here analyses are added if required for financial liquidation. soda ash. or the use of absolute instead of normal juice. At one side of the file card. number of crystallizer.g. Whatever the requirements. (1) The daily analysis worksheet (Spanish "hoja diaria") contains all analysis results for each shift. (6) A sugar-in-procress accounting.) of strike volume. it is necessary to add (or omit) local features.202 (3) A cane book. Of course. consecutive number. muriatic acid. The accounting of A and B massecuites is rather simple. in perhaps 90% of all mills. The purpose of this account is to show at the end of the season where equipment failed and where there are bottlenecks. If there are four boilers. Each stop should be clearly logged and its causes indicated. caustic soda. This is particularly useful when the person employed to calculate the reports is absent. but does not have the routine. The same information on harvesting was written in black ink. Also shown is a complete data-calculation sheet. (9) A warehouse inventory of chemical products used in the process. analysis. time started and finished. The cane weight and analysis account of the cane should be subject to local requirements. It contains cu ft (hi. name of section of origin. in which all weighings are reported and classified according to independent growers. Again. (5) A sugar-storage accounting in cooperation with the sugar warehouse supervisor. and someone else has to do this work. date. . car (truck) number. Even so. The dates of planting were entered in red ink. (8) Cumulative data from day to day. which lists date. to control optimum exhaustion of the final molasses. for instance. such as fuel-oil consumption and stock. irrigation and fertilizer data. e. quantity of cane and if analysis available. m3. (4) Massecuite accounting gives important information. such as having a different system for juice weighing (or measuring). average date 4/15. it should have space for four boilers. name of grower. such as lime. Each strike sample is accompanied by a ticket (three different colors for three different strike types). cane age. while the C massecuite account should provide data before and after cooling. so that the necessary action can be taken to avoid these problems. (2) The lost-time account must be maintained by the fabrication supervisor and/or the technical supervisor of each shift. The last shift of the day makes the additions and averages of each intermediate product. In Table 15. etc. (7) Miscellaneous items. 4/10-4/21. for calculating averages. it is omitted or at least very incomplete. etc. etc. There are only a few mills where all the cane is owned by the factory. there was an alphabetical file with small outline maps of each field together with this cane account.

. Table 15. ouantitico imblbj p n e ulimem l acc i ur cc. ave clarified juice I l_l I vacuui.1 p a u s I I I ave heaters evaporators I I massecuite C 1 2 1 j 2 ι ' T ^ ~ ~ ' j ~ r ~ T ~ ~ 1 I 2 I ' 5 I 4 ' Ρ I I l ^ T~^~ ave syrup . mud if* hour moiatj ρ ο Γ Ί h o u r j m o i s t l p o l jhourl m o i s t [ p o l l b jmils-t| p o l ave ave t o t a l hours 203 203 . c i e r d t o f o u H a'sh j s o l i d s l p i F mm l g ü g ? left i n yard sugai. D a i l y worksheet o f analyses.pur lost time [from I t ö 7 j h o u r s j 5 n l i t | b r i x | p o l pur s h i f t hriiiipol _ ' pur cane entered cane i n yard ave total today ave I [ ave fJLnaJ ηοΊπρπίί cane ground shii-d b r i d p o l pur h l u c .T" ave Λ molasses" I I Β molasses mafjria cane w e i g h t s shirt brixTpöT .juice T o i l e r _"" ave ave I last mill juice massecuite Β steam produced mills lb/24h • lb/:: m a k e .u p _ lb/24h _ lb/] turbo-gen lb/24h • lb/h total lb/. abli] separ'. sodaps. primary juice mao3ecuite Λ bagasse B o i l e r feed water hour brix p o l j pur Igluc [ r a t i o l a c l d i pH hour I _ t _ l VP ° T sugar I p H riiardnessl r t l c ä l i n J h y d r " ] c h l o r i d c l phoaph [ s u l f i t e ] TD3ppm hour j cu f t j b r l x j p o l I pur ave boiler 1 ~ I diluted .

For A and B massecuites the same data are transferred to the massecuite book in the laboratory. and the system contains 10. but in addition it should show the crystal yield at the moment of pan discharge and also at the moment of crystallizer discharge (after the cooling period). panman's name. Later. It can be assumed in this case that the strike remains in the system 60 hours. for instance white for A.purity . compared with the total volume of the crystallizer system.molasses sugar . together with the sample of each strike. at crystallizer discharge. Crystal yield in % of weight per 100 brix is: purity irity massecuite . and delivered to the laboratory. then the average retention is 2 Vi days or 60 hours.). strike number. provided that crystallizers are used in batch form. number of crystallizer. In this way. a laboratory centrifugal is required. each line gives results of one strike before and after cooling. The C massecuite account should have the same information. it shows the efficiency of the crystallizer station. where it is kept in a file.purity X brix mc. l l . m3. the laboratory chemist write the brix. the results of the factory centrifugals are used. strike volume (hi. This is simple. but in the case of continuous operation it is impossible to know exactly when purging of a certain strike begins or ends.73% (laboratory centrifugal) 90 . . hour discharged. For instance: C massecuite purity =58 C sugar purity = 90 C molasses at discharge =45 C molasses at purging =32 brix massecuite = % Yield at pan discharge (left-hand side of book) X 96 = 27. orange for C. pol and purity on it and returns it to the pan floor. the left-hand side of the book is for pan discharge. After analysis. cu ft.000 cu ft. and that analysis made at crystallizer discharge occurs 60 hours after pan discharge. To be able to calculate crystal yield. For C massecuite. Tickets should have a different color for each kind of strike. For instance. Strike volumes are totaled and analysis averaged for the next bi-weekly report. They should indicate date.204 Control starts with blocknote-type tickets. hour started. In other words.purity molasses mc . etc. and on the same line at the right-hand side the results after cooling are noted. yellow for B. to separate grain and molasses of the sample at pan discharge.45 . The only guideline is the massecuite volume of the 24-hour day. filled out by the pan boilers. if today's production was 4000 cu ft.

32 The difference is 15. although in fact it does not. It is best recorded in a book. and batches. 15 % of its total weight is extracted from the molasses and deposited as sugar on the existing crystals. etc. since it could reach the point where it causes shutdown of the mill. Crystallizers. analysis of all intermediate products can be averaged from actual data obtained. evaporators. (6) Sugar "in process" should be determined daily at the close. juice heaters. The sugar estimated "in process" comes from the following: (a) Equipment which in working condition always contains the same quantity of materials. such as juice-weighing error. If a crystallizer is defective (e. during retention in the crystallizers. It is important that inventory checks should always be done by the same person. This is good enough because quantities are also only roughly estimated. it is not so much the quantity that matters. Such an error might falsely indicate that more sugar entered the process than actually was the case. After all. "etc. etc. weight of pol. If this happens.03% (factory centrifugal) 90 . An error in quantity has much more influence than an error in the averaged purity.. such as vacuum pans. pans. sugar on the floor. one can be quite sure that the variations from day to day are true. to ensure as far as possible a constant estimating error. Making a daily inventory of sugar "in process" is a "watchdog" operation. For this purpose. each page for a bi-weekly period with totals carried over. the yield increase is lower or can even be negative. supply tanks. 205 Yield at crystallizer discharge (right-hand side) 58 — 32 — x 96 = 45. However. all tanks and pans can have a scale calibrated directly in available sugar. it sould be made as simple as possible. . which might add up to an appreciable deficit at the end of the crop (see Table 16). which means that. If the mill is grinding. Only average analysis should be calculated and added from day to day. (8) Cumulative data for the bi-weekly report is best maintained in totals of weight: weight material.g. accounting mistakes will be revealed. all the fixed quantities mentioned under (a) can be added and the available sugar calculated. It is an estimate and need not be too meticulous. such as clarifiers. (5) Sugar storage accounting requires no explanation. but rather the increase or decrease from day to day. Also. weight of solids (brix). As estimating sugar "in process" is a daily routine. In the first place. according to the quantity produced. supply tanks. It is therefore logical to design a printed form for sugar "in process". water leaking from the cooling elements into the massecuite). should be estimated. It is very important to know when "sugar in process" increases. "sugar in process" will appear to increase from day to day. to prevent accumulation of daily errors. as a constant quantity. by assuming averaged purities.3%. as the content of each tank or pan is also estimated by sight. some assumptions must be made. In so doing. (b) Equipment working under variable conditions.

■ *■< ··-- B m1. ._ .206 Table 16.) "i ! ...molasses tanks I A pans(+magma).sugar in process ί t 1 : today I 1 Avail. f~.sugar in process yesterday. . : JM L. 1 I B pans(+grain). . ..3cer [ .heater I Evaporators J 1 VARIABLE 1 Symp tar\Va I A molasses ta-nVs 1 B.. B oe-ntri fngp._. ..< ί B crystallizers+grain !· j ] C crystallizers J | j A mixer . I π ni^er ' \ ί 1 Λ cent_i_ugal_L 1 __._ -. I — 1 I Juice heaters. t A crystallizers+magma .tank [- I Pre ._ ] Filter I Clarified juice . ESTIMATED SUGAR IN PROCESS Mill Date.-1 !'< i 1 ) 1 DIFFERENCE ( + or .l s i 1 π centrifugal« I ! · 1 Sugar on flnnr I Sugar in bin j j Avail. I C pans . 19_ bhe = 1whenlbfull j 1 i 1* % full Available sugar Available sugar 1 when full estimated | FIXED Liming tank raw juice 1 I Limed juice tank Scale rav/ juice . . ...raw juice I Clarifier raw juice .

in many countries cane is purchased this way. especially in countries of heavily developed "small farm owners". the frequency of sampling and the system is controled by the Department of Agriculture and is subject to rigid rules. The buyer should always have the right to reject cane because of unacceptable quality. discount for trash is very unpopular. etc. the legal protection of a cane grower is much more developed than the legal position of the mill owner. excessive time lapse between cutting and delivery (acidity test). etc. If any quality factors are to be applied in the purchasing of cane. There is a great advantage in buying cane on a quality basis. with no compensation for quality.A. This incentive does not exist when weight is the only criterion. one or two samples per day are adequate for one grower.S. but in the latter case.A. If all these factors are under strict control. It is clear of course that price determination on weight alone. trash. there is no problem in applying a weight correction for trash. it is obvious that reliable samples must be taken and analyses made. sampling is much simpler than for mills serving hundreds of small growers.). most sampling has been done by core drilling in the middle of a cane load. Recently. This is also the case with the weight determination. there is a possibility of bias or even fraud. In cases where factories buy cane from a few growers owning large cane fields. In the first case. Department of Agriculture for cane purchase in Florida1: . For this reason. In the U. Even so. as long as it falls under the same honest rules. because each country has its own standards and governmental regulations. It is also usually purchased "as is" with no discount for foreign matter. The grower is also prompted not to leave cut cane stockpiled in the field. each small load must be sampled and analyzed. it is applied. Jamaica.S. It is probably a matter of numbers: there are many more growers than mill owners. stones. Undoubtedly. the cane grower is made aware of the sales value of good cane as opposed to poor cane. The biggest problem is the sampling of the cane. on the other hand. In many countries (e. some cheating occurs in cane weighing from the buyer's side. tops..g. 207 CHAPTER 36 THE PURCHASE OF CANE There are no set rules for cane purchasing. excessive trash. such as stones. the U.S. Barbados and even Mexico. as heavy losses occur rather soon after cutting. and both gross cane and net cane are reported. It is not exceptional that one sugar mill should be served with cane from 100-800 growers. burned cane. The following are some of the rules set by the U. If done by hand. such as frozen cane. but then. cannot be correct. such as Haiti. It is no myth that cane growers put stones under the cane load to increase weight.

85 78. It must be rechecked at the beginning and once during the season.89 77.2 11. the purity of the juice decreases.48* 11480 81. Table 17.87 10870 81.00 13 3.08 11080 81.00 15 3.83 79. because the sugar retained comes from the sugar in juice.78 80.00 11 2.2 10. but at least once by the Department of Agriculture and then regularly by an authorized testing crew.7 11. as do bagasse and mud.29 11290 81.05 10050 81.6 9.2 ofJuly 1966 show a range of juice purities (see Table 17). If the trash content increases. * undiluted juice is normal juice.208 (a) The scale should be checked periodically. but if cane is delivered by semi- trailer it should be weighed in and out. The table shows that discount for trash is a very reasonable measure. and its consequences It can be safely assumed that reasonably clean cane contains about 3% trash. (g) Acidity and turbidity must be determined once daily.6 10.00 3 0. Influence of trash on sugar losses Tons sugar Basic % Extraneous Purity Yield 96 pol in purity matter drop Purity 96 pol 100. Trash in cane. (c) Samples of first expressed juice must be analyzed every hour. losses also increase.65 9650 * assumed yield . (f) Tests must be related to every 60 tons of cane.00 7 1.37 77.65 10650 81.34 78.000 t cane 81. (d) The sample mill factor is brix sample mill divided by brix undiluted juice. Tests published in the I. (e) Samples must consist of ten stalks for each normal juice sample. These are just some requirements illustrating the extent of government involvement.2 11.00 9 2.1 10.41 76. because the extraneous matter retains sugar. By retention of sugar in extraneous matter.7 10.42 10420 81.J.30 79.00 17 4. (b) Side-dump cars can be tared once a week.00 5 1.* All brixes to two decimal places. approximately the weight of a truck.S. There must be a test wagon.

8. About ten years ago. where biased selection of stalks is completely eliminated. expressed as a correction factor: higher than 1 for premiums. which is now also used in Louisiana and Florida.013 X 1. which means using fertilizer. it was not intended to be a foolproof system.3 brix) where pol = pol primary juice brix = brix primary juice. By taking the previous year's yield obtained. as well as tons of cane ground. in addition to a basic cane-weight price. the yield is commercial yield and if sugar is "sugar % °" it is equivalent 96° yield. Yield = factor (pol .2. 209 In countries where cane is purchased by weight alone. which relate to Costa Rica.173 tons. where no quality compensation had been known. The production of sugar is also known. The advantage of the system is that it is an incentive for the grower to improve quality.053. the country where the most sophisticated systems were developed. there is a factor for purity.053 = 13. In Australia. In Tables 18 and 19. because of its simplicity. Suppose a sample has purity 86. In that country there are three cane regions of distinctly different production levels. premium-corrected weight = 12. The latest improvement in this respect is the core drill. Average purity for the zone is 85 and the pol is 13. One of the simplest formulae is the Puerto Rico formula devised by Valle. which is the theoretical weight for payment of this cane truck-load. which has to be multiplied by the factor for pol. being the year's average. It is only logical that such a system should work in both directions: an increase in price for better than normal quality and a penalty for sub-normal quality.510 X 1. it was open to improvement. After an introductory period. One table was for pol.040 = 1. Then the correction factor is: 1. together with average brix and purity of the juice.3 and pol 14. Tables were prepared with higher and lower available sugar figures. and lower than 1 for penalties. Of course. it is quite understandable that both buyers and growers are trying to develop a system that takes cane quality into account. irrigation and careful handling as regards time delays in harvesting. The most sensitive point is the method of cane sampling. the factor can be calculated and applied for future yield calculations. pol and brix of primary juice. a start was made in a simple way and improvements were gradually introduced. another one for purity. If weight of truck-load is 12. . The average yield for each region was calculated. Determination of factor Pol and brix of primary juice are taken from the previous year's report. such a simple system was designed for use in Costa Rica. just a prototype to try to improve the purchasing system.0. If sugar has average pol.510 tons. Yield calculations There are different formulae and ways of calculating yields expected from a sample of cane.

In the shade and under moist conditions. Department of Agriculture. Purity is never above 60. then the brix and pol factors of this mill must be applied to convert the results to the expected results of the mill's tandem itself. as the sugar content and purity of tops and sprouts ruin the quality premium and increase penalties. If the Valle formula is used for a new mill. Fresh cane versus stale cane Although already mentioned in Chapter 1. From the point of view of the cane grower. as they represent weight. which has no precedents. Graphs show that leaving the cane in the open exposed to sun guarantees rapid deterioration. a hollow center and a wooden appearance. molds are easily formed and acid formation increases (smell of vinegar). London. July 1966. If the cane remains exposed to heat and sun for a considerable time. Yields of sprouts and tops are never more than 6% and most often around 3%. the loss of juice is so high that the stalk dehydrates and forms a tube. before grinding. the loss is only slightly less. 1962. the juice evaporates fast and the increased temperatures accelerates inversion of sucrose. In the shade. all juices with purities lower than the purity of the last expressed juice should be rejected and the cane should not be accepted even after grinding it. then the factor is temporarily taken as unity. who wants to buy impurities? REFERENCES 1.e. since in the hot sun (tropical countries). The deterioration is accelerated still more if the cane was burnt before harvesting. there is a tendency to include tops and water sprouts with the cane. As a rule. but after that losses increase rapidly. Damage by burning is very slight provided that the cane is ground within a safe time- limit. Florida. . until results can be used for later correction.210 If a sample mill is used. This is another good reason for incorporating a quality correction to the cane value. purity is low and juice content is virtually nil. i. This is not surprising. International Sugar Journal. it must be emphasized again that the largest losses that can occur in a sugar industry are those due to leaving cane for an extended period of time after cutting. 2. After all. Weight loss is very high. Personal communication.

680 1.520 0.390 1.410 18 1 .640 0.620 1.655 0.460 1.970 0.650 1.400 1.715 12 0.360 1.745 0.270 1 .640 1.925 0/940 0.570 1.460 0.020 1.730 0.820 0.180 1.760 0.500 1.230 1 . Decimals of pol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.070 1 .350 1.340 1.450 1.040 1.440 1.150 1 .200 1.330 1.470 1.490 1.895 0. average production 160 lb/t cane.130 1.565 11 0.510 19 1 .050 1.240 1.505 0.595 0.250 1.550 1.610 0.850 0.910 0.280 1.835 0.260 1.480 1.630 1.865 13 0.420 1.090 1.160 1.080 1.170 1.535 0.625 0.985 1.010 14 1 . Table 18.100 1.380 1.590 1 .700 1.320 1 . COSTA RICA CANE QUALITY.805 0.560 1.580 1.300 1.000 1.955 0.700 0.030 1.475 0.790 0.220 1.310 17 1 .490 0.110 pol 15 1 .550 0.290 1.540 1.660 1.370 1.140 1.190 1.120 1.880 0.775 0.530 1.430 1.690 1.430 0. Lou Atlantic coast elope.686 0.210 % 16 1 .520 1.445 0.670 1.610 20 1 .500 0.670 0. Table of compensation factors of primary juice pol.710 211 .600 1.060 1.

089 94 1.072 1.080 1.964 0.007 0.044 1.009 86 1 .035 1.104 1.945 0.036 1.930 0.059 91 1 .957 0.099 95 1 .867 0.066 1.881 0.103 1.913 0.058 1.967 0.927 0.069 92 1.985 0.062 1.010 1.095 1.060 1.050 1.995 0.030 1.042 1.053 1.085 1 .008 1.074 1.049 90 1 .987 0.001 1 .871 0.108 1.052 1.926 0.883 70 0.039 juice purity 09 1 .023 1.033 1.837 0.973 0. average production 160 lb/t cane.081 1 .325 0.015 1 .911 0.937 0.831 0.893 0.972 0.955 0.899 0.051 1.070 1 .029 80 1 .097 1.003 1.909 0.847 0.038 1.863 77 0.043 1.905 0.919 0.843 76 0.903 79 0.895 0.026 1 .076 1.994 0.930 01 0.087 1.041 1.004 1.069 0.105 1.020 1 .019 87 1 .921 0.091 1.979 0.100 1.917 0.992 0.965 0.107 1 .861 0.975 0.851 0.960 0.968 83 0.998 85 11.064 1 .825 0.032 1.109 .971 0.990 0.088 1.101 1 . 212 Table 1 9 .011 1.970 0.106 1.046 1.094 1.857 0.841 0.915 0.907 0.879 0.953 02 0.040 1 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 75 0.952 0.839 0.084 1.037 1.048 1.940 0.092 1.075 1.956 0.045 1.034 1 .067 1 .942 0.897 0.025 1 .891 0.027 0.853 0.805 0.031 1.901 0.096 1.002 1 .005 1.875 0.859 0.889 0.054 1. Lov/ Atlantic coast slope.079 93 1 .098 1.057 1.013 1.093 1.029 0.855 0.000! 1 .061 1.845 0.055 1. Decimals of purity.958 0.014 1.012 1. COSTA RICA CANE QUALITY.877 0.997 0.934 0.063 1.017 1 .982 0.018 1.102 1.007 1.986 0.947 0.941 0.928 0.962 0.065 1.950 0.028 1.086 1.943 0.068 1.932 0.873 0.073 1.865 0.021 1 .090 1.833 0.002 1.026 1.949 0.047 1 .077 1 .983 04 0.977 0.027 1 .006 1 . Table of compensation factors of primary juice purity.980 0.988 0.022 1 .935 0.078 1.923 80 0.024 1.056 1.083 1.849 0.835 0.071 1 .

steam green with red bands . After application. Unpainted structural steel must be cleaned of grease and dirt before primer painting. Hot surfaces. should be painted with an aluminum paint of the Hi-Heat silicone alkyd type (Sherwin Williams). etc. The code is shown as follows: Juice brown Clarified juice brown Clarified muddy juice green with white Filtered juice brown with green bands Syrup yellow Massecuite. It should comply with Federal (or local) specifications. and therefore the code is not easily memorized. prior to the finishing coat. because it is based on one color with bands of a different color. New equipment that leaves the manufacturer's workshop is normally painted with primer. Zinc-chromate primer is used between contacting steel surfaces. Surfaces of steel which are in contact with concrete should be painted with bituminous paint. usually red oxide zinc chromate. magma brown with white bands A molasses brown with blue bands B molasses brown with blue bands C molasses brown with blue bands Caustic soda white with orange bands Milk of lime white with red bands H. before applying the finishing coat. Structural steel has only a primer and is not given a second or finishing coat. Carter. A finishing coat could be any paint of a well known manufacturer. Dupont. such as smoke- stacks. The official color-coding schedule for pipes and tanks in a sugar mill is. Uninsulated pipe lines are painted after removing grease and dust. too complicated. Neither color is related to the material flowing through it.P. steam red Blow down red Boiler feed red L. insulated piping and vessels are not normally painted. stainless steel. 213 CHAPTER 37 PAINT AND COLOR SPECIFICATIONS Surfaces of galvanized metal. reaching 700 °F. such as Sherwin Williams. The primer coat is an and-corrosive paint. with a primer and a finishing coat. In case of damage to the primer coat it should be touched up. in our opinion. non-ferrous surfaces. the primer coat should be left to harden for at least the time recommended by the manufacturer. The primer is anti-corrosive (red oxide zinc chromate) coat and the finishing a commercial gloss finish (Alkyd base enamel).P.

Peru and Florida.P.214 Vapor gray Condensate dark blue Hot water light blue Plant air red with blue bands Cold water white Injection water black with white bands Instrument air blue with white bands The author believes that the color of the paint should imitate as far as possible the color of the material that is handled or be linked with the name of the material. as used in some mills in Cuba. Raw juice very light green Clarified juice yellow Clarified muddy juice gray Filtered juice light green/gray bands Syrup light brown A massecuite. exhaust steam is gray. Here follow the author's recommendations. magma light brown B massecuite somewhat darker brown C massecuite dark brown A molasses light green B molasses darker green C molasses black Caustic soda orange (caution) Milk of lime white Live steam white Exhaust steam light gray Vapor darker gray Hot water (also condensates) light blue Cold water darker blue River water (crude) darker blue/white bands Air aluminum Instrument panels and valves light green Steam valves hi-heat aluminum Electrical equipment (all devices) 110/220 V light blue Electrical equipment (all devices) 440 V or more dark blue All machinery (not hi-heat) light gray Insulated pans and vessels not painted Danger: all top rungs of handrails yellow (unless made of brass) . For instance: H. steam is white.

but stays soft and moist. sugar-containing liquid can even "corrode" old concrete. and sanitary facilities on all floors. If steel floor plates are used. . massecuite does not mix well with orange peels. as many ash containers as necessary. most floors in the mill-houses in Java were covered with tiles. not in crystallizers or centrifugal mixers! Also. Cigarette-butts belong in an ashtray. It also stimulates factory cleaning! Each floor should have at least two aluminum-painted garbage cans (oil drums). does not set or cure. It should be remembered that sugar and concrete are enemies. etc. In particular.. and therefore over-all cleanliness is mandatory. dirty floors can even be the cause of infection and can also cause sugar losses. In a sugar factory. these should go into the garbage cans instead! Leaking material from pipes and any sort of dirt is usually more visible on clean floors. tanks. whether concrete or steel plates. a white or cream color to reflect light and improve the over-all light effect. around the mill tandem. Through lack of cleanliness around the mills. 215 Rotating devices or shaft ends orange Fire equipment and piping red (signal red) Beams and columns gray (lower 4 ft of column black) Cement (if required) brick color White sugar contact areas white epoxy Inside tanks aluminum (or primer) It is recommended to paint undersides of floors. Painting floor plates provides worthwhile protection of the metal and it improves over-all cleanliness of the factory. where they form a ceiling for the lower floors. For this reason. they can be painted either a light gray or green. Concrete mix contaminated with even a small amount of sugar-containing liquid. an edible product is processed.

a thorough overhaul and repair is required of the filter station. irrigation systems. such as: optimum fertilizer tests. For (2). tools and their names. For (1). they were delegated to the general warehouse for a period of 2-3 months. the off-season is longer than the grinding season and there is more time than necessary available for above jobs. We always liked the system followed in Java for keeping the junior fabrication staff busy in the off-season period. just to become acquainted with these departments. issuing and collecting borrowed tools. under the direct supervision of the chief engineer. control of weight. but just to give them some understanding of the problems in the other departments. They were also put in charge of the tool-house. where all kind of testing was done. In the third year. cleaning and calibration of gauges (pressure. they spent some time in bookkeeping and general accounting. the most important are: (1) shipping of sugar from warehouse (2) cleaning and adjusting of instruments and gauges (3) inventory of chemicals and spare parts in warehouse (4) preparation of orders for chemcials. sampling and analyzing are the requirements. For fabrication personnel. In some countries. The next year. and to increase their general over-all sugar mill knowledge and experience. It requires a minimum of tools and testing equipment. Therefore one or two of the regular fabrication staff are assigned to full-time supervision of this job instead. plants and harvests its own cane. The technical maintenance staff has no time to devote to this extra job. temperature) are important. vacuum. etc. . variety tests. In the first year. This work gained them a knowledge of spare parts. etc. In this way. as the price of this kind of instrumentation increases constantly. All these auxiliary off-season jobs were not intended to make new accountants. one station can be given special attention each year. 217 CHAPTER 38 OFF-SEASON WORK FOR REGULAR STAFF PERSONNEL There are certain jobs to be done in the off-season. For instance. plant systems. only the land is rented. All this work was done under the supervision of the general field manager. In Java each mill grows. they worked in the field doing maintenance and tending the test fields. field surveyors or warehouse managers of the junior fabrication staff.

. so that they can interpret the results with more authority and confidence. It is therefore customary to send a message. 219 CHAPTER 39 INTERPRETATION OF INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE LABORATORY REPORTS The daily and bi-weekly laboratory reports have to provide data. In most mills. In order to be able to judge the results. To do this. the "advance" contains all the information the management ever requests. This message is called the "Advance daily report". In many mills. 198). the general manager usually has an agricultural background and possibly some education in accounting or business administration. The purpose of this section is to explain simply the meaning and values of the figures for management and main office staff. but he is seldom an engineer. final molasses lost time and causes and any further information that the management might require. because in most cases the other information contained in the report is only of marginal interest to them. let us consider a sample report such as the one shown in Table 13 (p. the company's main office or the owner(s) of the factory. and should contain information such as: cane ground cane in yard sugar produced (made) sugar in process (estimated) pol in cane pol of sugar molasses produced molasses shipped molasses in stock (in tanks) sugar shipped sugar in warehouse purities of mixed juice. management and officers should be able to distinguish between good and bad results in any set of figures presented in a report. It is obviously necessary to provide the management with certain pertinent daily data. before the daily report is completed. not only to the technical departments. to enable the manager to inform his main office (or owner) of the most important data. but also to the general mill management.

m. Cane and juice weight are known as is imbibition water weight (all on scales). and the grinding started at 2 p.weight bagasse. & x 1 0 o = % fiber in cane weight of cane . cane ground divided by hours grinding (effective hourly rate).. between the time the grinding starts and finishes. "t ground/h" is grinding rate.e. Weight pol in juice plus weight pol in bagasse give weight pol in cane (above). therefore % fiber in cane is known: weight fiber in bagasse Λ ΛΛ Λ/ ~. and higher purity means that a larger portion of the solids (brix) is made up of sucrose. "Hours lost" are all hours when mill operation is discontinued. " % fiber" in cane contains the same weight of fiber present in the bagasse. " % pol" in cane is weight of pol in juice plus weight of pol in bagasse. higher proportions of solids in juice also mean higher pol. 2—. % water and % brix. t net cane should also figure. Factors that influence this figure are the juice purity and its brix.m. Weight bagasse forms the difference.220 Milling data "Crop days" are all days of 24 hours. If the day is from 6 a. burnt cane lasts about one week at the end of the week during which this cane was processed. for instance. Now. i. "t burnt" is included to explain an abnormal juice purity. If trash is discounted. weight of fiber in bagasse is known and this same weight of fiber in bagasse is also weight fiber in cane. % fiber in bagasse is a laboratory calculation from % pol. "Hours grinding" is what is left of 24 hours after discounting lost time. divided by weight of cane X 100. the better the cane quality.67 day long. "Total time" is hours grinding plus hours lost. The basic formula is: weight cane + weight water = weight juice -I. The higher this figure. juice purity is bound to decrease. it must equal "Crop days".. then the first crop day is only 0. to 6 a. If. Divided by 24.m. Cane " t cane ground" are the tons cane received "as is". % pol in juice and % pol in bagasse are laboratory results and multiplied by the weight.

It can be so high that there is a large excess not required by the boilers for producing steam. it is reclaimed from storage and taken to the boilers. "imbibition % cane. to produce steam. A fiber content of below 12. There is a second detail to consider regarding low or high fiber. On the other hand. additional fuel such as fuel oil. while in the case of high fiber content it is often easier to deal with an excess of steam rather than an excess of bagasse. In these cases. because it forms part of the basic weight formula mentioned before. if the figure is 200% or more. the grinding will be slower than the required rate. Λ/ imbibition % r-i fiber = imbibition % cane X „100 ΛΛ fiber % cane Imbibition % cane is an essential figure. In the latter case. Steam excess can be blown off.5%. The more water used for imbibition. all ways of improving steam economy should be considered. The mill rollers deal mainly with fiber and fiber loads. The above explanation of imbibition % fiber implies that. A low-% fiber produces less steam than a high-% fiber. such as prolonged mill stops. a cane area of high fiber. . some mills have extra boiler capacity installed to deal with a large amount of excess bagasse. leaving bagasse (fiber). then this is the limit as regards imbibition. But there is an economical limit. this figure is only the average for that day. which is a better figure on which to judge mill performance than "cane ground/h". In this case. firewood or natural gas must be used. i . the more sugar is leached out of the bagasse. Grinding cane shows many fluctuations resulting from short stops. For the reason mentioned above. This is where the role of the fiber comes in. The mill setting (adjustment of roll openings) is done for a specified local fiber content and grinding rate. All mills use triple-effect evaporation instead of quadruple-effect. this figure is less accurate than imbibition % fiber. but bagasse requires bulldozers. if fiber is high. variation in resistance and . because they can afford to be less economical in steam consumption. This excess has to be stored for times of low production. Even more water eliminates a very small amount of sugar. A mill tandem grinds cane to separate juice from it. manpower or both. Therefore. Further explanation is required: if on a particular day imbibition % cane is 25%. 221 What does % fiber in cane tell us? Fiber in cane is the main source of fuel for the boilers. If fiber is higher than that for which the mill is set. different varieties of cane. less cane can be passed through a mill. we now require "fiber ground/h". The standard fiber content of cane is taken as 12.5% is low. which has less value than the cost of later evaporation of the extra water added.1 · . Imbibition has the purpose of diluting the juice left in bagasse before the last mill. it can be so low that it cannot produce the steam requirement. The practical limit of imbibition is 180-200% imbibition % fiber. This figure cannot be made use of if fiber ground/h or % fiber in cane are not reported. In Louisiana. Therefore. one above that percentage is considered high.

which is 180-200%. Normal juice (undiluted juice) is no longer used. irregular feeding of cane to the carrier. the better is the juice extraction of the mill. Imbibition should be reduced if evaporators are scaled: it can no longer cope with large quantities of water and steam consumption becomes prohibitive. Juice weight is determined by the scale. which is why a sample cannot be maintained. However. In its place. while at 50% it might leak through the bagasse layer without effect. if a mill grinds 3000 tc today. because the Department of Agriculture still uses it. raw juice). Extraction "Diluted juice extraction" (same as mixed. this condition is well known. Normal juice extraction = diluted juice extraction minus dilution % cane. Extraction can exceed 100%. The nearer it approaches imbibition. absolute juice is used. At moments of 10%. Because of the low brix. etc. The best approach is to measure the density (brix) of the last mill juice and let the control valve regulate the flow of water (by throttling). it is not very stable. It is also called diluted juice % cane. Last mill juice has a brix of 4-6 and a rather ideal temperature for the cultivation of micro-organisms. depending on fiber % cane (more if fiber is higher). It is also called undiluted juice. "dilution % cane" is that part of the imbibition % cane that goes to the juice.60 = 130 + 30 or 100 + 20 = 90 + 30 in which the examples 130 and 90 are percentages of "diluted juice extraction". assuming the mill is operated without imbibition water. . it might momentarily have a rate of 4000 and at other times 2000.bagasse. but the average is 3000.222 hardness of cane. Assume: cane = 1 0 0 bagasse = 3 0 then juice is proportional to water 100 -I. It should therefore be 20-35%. with the exception of mills in Louisiana and Florida. The remainder stays in the bagasse. It fluctuates in accordance with the dilution % cane. Of course. For instance: cane + water = juice -I. or the amount of water from imbibition mixed with it.. The average value for "diluted juice extraction" is 90-105%. "normal juice extraction". "imbibition % cane" should correlate with imbibition % fiber. all of which cause fluctuation. normal juice has the advantage of being easy to calculate. It is therefore smaller than imbibition. The 25% of water on the weight of cane inevitably cannot always be 25% and could fluctuate say from 10 to 50%. In other words. the quantity of water is inadequate. but it is not easy to remedy. Normal juice is juice in the cane.

Example: Mill A has 17% fiber and pol extraction 92% Mill B has 11% fiber and pol extraction 94% What is the reduced extraction in both cases? Calculation for 17% fiber: 100 . "Pol extracted % pol in cane". If juice quantities are known. A good average extraction. dilution can be calculated from brix differences. the "reduced pol extraction'' is calculated on a theoretical fiber % cane of 12.97). Absolute juice = cane — fiber. correct settings and optimum imbibition together secure a good extraction.extraction =100-92 8 (a) 100 . Good mill conditions. etc.% fiber 100 . for instance is from 94% upwards. Weight pol in mixed juice + weight pol in bagasse = weight pol in cane. The extraction results of a mill A having 17. A tandem of 5 mills gives a higher pol extraction than one of 4 mills. calculation of brix and pol is a little more complex. after pol in bagasse is lost. Therefore..42% 7 . Its purity is the purity of diluted juice. over 95% is excellent.06 reduced extraction = 100 X —— = 94.5%.17 83 b) (a) X (b) = 8 X 23 664 665 divided by % fiber 664/17 39. The difference is that cane contains both juice and water. is a figure which allows comparison between mills of different fiber % cane. It depends mainly on the mechanical condition of the mill tandem and the composition of the mills. Although the quantity of absolute juice is simple to find. above 96% is outstanding.5% fiber is not comparable with mill B having only 11%. Higher hydraulic pressure on top rolls means higher extraction. Because of these conditions there is no definite figure for extraction. 223 Brix normal juice = brix first expressed juice X milling factor (normally about 0. A tandem with worn-out rollers gives a lower pol extraction than one with newer rollers. or "pol extraction" for short. is the pol in mixed juice % pol in cane. "Reduced pol extraction. because adding water to juice does not change its purity.

it is better to use pol lost in bagasse % of cane. it should decrease to about 78. If the mill extracts very well. If the Java ratio is always 80 and new rollers are installed. If it exceeds 1. This is pol in cane divided by pol in first expressed juice. Again. which is the juice coming from the last two rollers of the mill. because pol in bagasse is a direct loss. as pol in cane is a constant. % fiber = 100 . there is an economical limit to the amount of imbibition water that should be added before the last mill to reduce pol in bagasse.06% 7 'Java ratio". Its value can only be quoted for a given mill.55 49 55 reduced extraction = 100 X — — = 93. the value of pol in bagasse depends mainly on number of mills in the tandem.8 for this loss indicates good grinding conditions. However. % pol and % moisture. it is less efficient and less acceptable. Bagasse " % p o P \ This figure is derived directly from analysis. Therefore the purity is assumed to be that of the last mill juice. In other countries. . as explained earlier. Bagasse has the composition of moisture. a normal figure is 47-50%. It should actually be the last expressed juice. instead of giving an acceptable value of pol. This might be due to soil type.0. as for example in Florida.224 Calculation for 11 % fiber: 100 — extraction 100 94 = 6 (a) 100 . the lower the better. Therefore. A figure of 0.% fiber =100-11 = 89 b) (a) X (b) 6 X 89 = 534 5 3 4 / % fiber 534/11 = 48. It is related to good pressures in the mill. mill setting. where % rrioisture in bagasse never falls below 52-54% without application of special treatment (presses). The soluble solids are assumed to have the same composition as those in the juice left in the bagasse. The meaning of purity is explained in the section on analysis (see below). " % moisture" is also a direct-analysis figure. multiplied by 100. This is not quite true. which has the same weight as the fiber in cane. but it is not possible to sample it. are required for calculating % fiber in bagasse. top roller pressure. Dividing % pol by last mill purity gives % soluble solids. etc.(% moisture + % soluble solids). soluble solids (including sugar) and fiber. Obviously. Therefore it is replaced by last mill juice. although in some countries it is higher than in others. It is understood that its value is usually around 80%. pol in first expressed juice should increase and the "Java ratio'' should decrease. available driving power. These two data.

225

Sample calculation
Assume % pol =2.8 % moisture = 4 8 . 2
purity last mill juice = 70
2 8
% soluble solids = — — X 100 = 4.0
70
% fiber 100 - (48.2 + 4) = 47.8%
The quantity of bagasse is known from
cane -I- imbibition water = juice -I- bagasse
Then 47 8
veight bagasse X '■— = weight fiber (also in cane)
100

weight fiber ^ΛΛ ft/ ΓΜ
—f 100 = % fiber in cane.
weight cane
This explanation is treated in detail because it leads to % fiber in cane, which is a
very important figure for judging variations in grinding rate, availability of fuel and
consumption of fuel oil, imbibition water requirements, etc.

Analysis
The routine figures produced by the laboratory are brix, pol, purity. As these
names are common notations, it is logical that they are well understood.

"Brix" is one of the many indications of soluble solids present in a juice (or liquid).
It is actually the name of the person who determined soluble solids in a sugar solution
by a simple method. A spindle hydrometer is used, which floats partly in the
solution. It measure from 0-100 brix, subdivided in hydrometers, each for a step of
about 10° brix. The degrees are based on pure sugar solutions at a standard
temperature (recently 20°C has been used).
Liquids in the sugar mill are not pure but contain impurities. Therefore, the
degrees brix measured do not indicate the real soluble solids in the impure solutions.
Provided that the concentration of impurities forms a small part of the sugar
concentration, the error is small. The concentration of impurities becomes higher as
the process of fabrication advances, and is highest in final molasses, where they are
eliminated from the process. It shows that the error in juices is very small.
One may ask "Why are brix spindles used if they incorporate errors?" The answer
is "They are so simple to use and using them is so quick. Besides, the errors are
always in the same direction, thus making the results comparable. In other words: a
brix of 20 today exceeds the brix of 19 yesterday by one, for the same solutions,
regardless of errors''.

226

We must not forget that a process laboratory is not a place for research, although
part may be used as such. It has to function at the same speed as the process itself and
cannot afford to lag behind, as it has to supply the results and process information
when needed.
Of course, there are other systems for determining soluble solids more precisely
then the brix spindle (hydrometer). Many are used when process velocity allows more
time, and when greater accuracy is required. One such is the refractometer. The
problem is that if one mill uses it, and others do not, then results are no longer
comparable. Therefore, all mills which use a refractometer for measuring soluble
solids are required to report the brix as "refr. brix".
Why do so few mills use refractometers? There are two reasons. Firstly, the
refractometer is a rather expensive and delicate optical instrument, and it is hard to
arrange for maintenance locally. Moreover, although it is rather simple to use, it takes
longer than the hydrometer brix spindle. A decision to switch over to refractometer
use should be taken jointly by a group of mills to maintain comparative reporting.
True solids are determined by drying a sample of determined weight, and re-
weighing the remainder. True solids are also called "dry matter". It is obvious that
this system cannot be applied in an industrial laboratory. It requires a dry container,
weighing the sample, drying it in an oven, cooling, re-weighing and calculating the
percentage. It can only be done on final molasses (largest error) bi-weekly by a
special-analysis chemist, who specializes in this sort of precise investigation.

"pol" is the determination of sucrose in a solution, determined in a polarimeter. If
26 grams of pure sucrose are dissolved in distilled water at 20 °C and made up to 100
ml, then its pol equals 100°S (International Sugar Scale). Before 1920, the standard
was 26.048 g of sucrose dissolved in distilled water at 17.5 °C and made up to 100 cc,
which gave a pol of 100 °V (Ventzke).
Again, this is an easy short-cut, because polarization is a rotation of an optical
field, caused by many carbohydrates, not only sucrose, but also dextrose, levulose,
etc., the components of the so-called R.S. (reducing sugars). Rotation of sucrose is to
the right (positive), as is dextrose, but levulose rotates to the left (negative). As long
as the R.S. is very low, the error is small, but towards the end of the process, the error
increases.
Final molasses of cane sugar has about 28% sucrose and 15-22% R.S., so the
"pol" here does not mean a great deal. The same considerations hold as those on
brix. It is simple, and the error is approximately constant. It is a good comparison
basis for daily reports.
For the true sucrose, a double polarization has to be made, as first applied by
Clerget. It is a regular "pol", followed by a complete inversion of all sucrose into
R.S. From the two results and the Clerget constant, the true pol (sucrose) can be
calculated. The Clerget constant is a factor found by the double pol of pure sucrose
(in the absence of original R.S.). Again, this Clerget method can only be done for
final molasses bi-weekly by the special-analysis chemist.

227

"purity" is the pol divided by the brix multiplied by 100. It indicates which part of
the solids is composed of sugar. From the above descriptions of brix and pol, it is clear
that there are many variations of the various brixes and pols used. In the daily and bi-
weekly reports, when purity is mentioned, "apparent purity" is implied. It is derived
from brix measure by hydrometer spindle and pol as a single polarization. Therefore:

pol ,ΛΛ
apparent purity = — — X 100
brix
It is clear that the difference between brix and pol is equal to "non-sugars"
(impurities).
non-sugars = brix — pol
H 5 _ — x loo = refr. purity
refr. brix

clerget
2 _ — x 100 = true purity
true solids

Glucose (R.S., invert)
In the reports, the glucose of a few juices are mentioned. These analyses are made
by the special-analysis chemist, as they required skill and time. They cannot be
incorporated in the daily routine of the processing information the laboratory
provides.
Glucose is determined from primary juice, diluted juice, clarified juice and syrup.
In the primary juice, it indicates whether or not the cane is approximately at
optimum maturity or stale, resulting from a long delay after being cut when
inversion can occur. If this is the case, glucose is relatively high and, together with
acidity determination, it can indicate staleness of the cane.
The reason why glucose is determined in the other juices mentioned is for
calculating the glucose ratio or R.S. ratio of these juices. The ratio indicates whether
or not inversion of sucrose has occurred during the process.
The R.S. ratio is: % R S ' X 100
pol
This ratio should remain more or less constant from diluted juice up to syrup. If it
increases, then inversion has taken place, and if it decreases, then decomposition of
R.S. has occurred. The latter can be caused by high alkalinity in the juice. The
glucose forms organic acids, and the acids attack the steel of tanks and pipelines, and
dark iron salts are formed. R.S. of clarified juice should be 0.80-1.10, with a ratio of
about 7.00. This ratio should be maintained in syrup. Therefore the determination
of the R.S. ratio is justified. It is good practice and provides positive information.

228

Another figure found in the "Analysis" section of the reports is the so-called
"purity drop" of massecuites. This is the difference in purity between the
massecuites and its molasses. It is a positive indication of massecuite quality as
produced in the boiling house. If it is too low, this can be due to a low massecuite
brix (low massecuite brix indicates low supersaturation and poor grain formation).
Normal ranges of purity drops are, for instance:
A massecuite to A molasses 17-20
B massecuite to B molasses 20-23
C massecuite to final molasses 25-30
For A and B massecuite, there are three main reasons for inadequate purity drop:
(1) low final brix of massecuite on leaving the pan,
(2) insufficient grain in massecuite
(3) purging too hot; not enough cooling between leaving the pan and purging.
For C massecuite, it is more complicated, since for this massecuite seed is crystallized,
while for A and B, magma is used as seed.
Here are the reasons:
(1) not enough grain formed
(2) crystallizer capacity too low
(3) final brix too low
(4) holes in centrifugal screens
(5) massecuite purity too high.
Final molasses data should include the special analysis made by the chemist, such as:
Clerget, R.S., total sugars, ash.
These data make it possible to calculate the exhaustion obtained and theoretically
obtainable, or "the target purity". A low final-molasses purity is, for instance, 28,
but to guarantee it the ratio R.S./ash should be high, say 2-2.5. If it is less, the purity
is bound to be higher. To obtain 2-2.5, R.S. should be 20-25 and ash about 10. In
factories where R.S. is 15 and ash, say, 12 (a ratio of 1.25), the purity obtainable is
much higher than 28, probably nearer 35-36. For more information on this, see
Chapter 23, Final Molasses Exhaustion.

Production data
Besides the normal data, such as sugar made, shipped, in warehouse, etc., an
important factor is sugar equivalent %°M and E (made and estimated).
"Estimated" is the amount of sugar one can expect to be produced from the
materials in stock, if grinding were discontinued from this instant. It is expressed in
equivalent 96° pol, because its future pol is not as yet known. Equivalent 96° pol
(also raw value) is used, because it is on this basis that the raw sugar is sold in the
export market. Analytically, the information on sugar is:
(a) pol
(b) moisture

250. The safety factor shows whether or not sugar can be expected to stay good in storage. It may be necessary to pass the sugar through a dryer. Because of exclusion of impurities the weight is less. and therefore a premium is a must. say. Molasses storage To measure stock of molasses in tanks. rather robust and easy to operate. This is an external mercury level. For this reason. as the tank diameter is often 40 or 60 ft. If the safety factor exceeds 0. because a high ash is the cause of high carbon consumption later in the refinery. . It should be below 0. As we have to deal here with small quantities of moisture and 100 — pol. moisture balances have tended to be of the Ohaus type. 229 (c) ash (d) safety factor (e) sometimes color and crystal size. which are very accurate. because a small error in height represents many gallons.250: r c moisture safety factor = < 0. Of late. then it is likely that micro-organisms will develop.3% moisture (it also depends on the sugar purity). Modern centrifugals are capable of producing a sugar of about 0. If there were no premiums. indicating the equivalent height in mercury of the tank height in molasses. 100 — pol is small and moisture should be reduced. while for sugar moisture an accurate instrument is required. This is logical. All sugar contracts have a basic raw-value price.250. nobody would bother to improve the sugar quality above % pol. It is important. reducing the keeping qualities during storage.e. accuracy in the determination of pol and sugar moisture are essential. it is not correct to use floats which an outside indicator. because if the pol is 98 instead of 96. then it means the buyer receives more sucrose and fewer impurities (non-sugars). It is acceptable to determine % ash in sugar bi-weekly and keep that figure for 14 days. They cannot be relied upon because of foam in tanks. the 98 pol requires more sugar to complete the contract. The only correct way is by using a so-called pneumercator. 100 . The pol should be determined daily by the special chemist from the accumulative sample. corrected by premiums and penalties for quality in excess of or below the accepted norm. Tank volume is important. i.pol This shows that if the pol is high. penalties for high ash are high.

mud. with the exception of the "sucrose balance".762 lost in mud 0.189 0. a few actual mill results (Table 20) will serve better than an explanation. it shows the way the form is printed.433 0. . A filter of 8 ' X 16 ' (400 sq ft area) is normally used for mills up to 2800-3000 ted. it should add up to the pol in cane. Pol of mud of rotary vacuum filters (such as Dorr Oliver or Eimco) should be below 1%. It gives all sucrose (pol) lost in bagasse. then: (1) filter capacity installed is for lower capacity (2) water sprays used to sweeten off mud cake on the drum are not atomizing correctly.00 14. TABLE 20.025 lost (undetermined) 1. POL BALANCE* Mill A (Cuba 1958) EXCELLENT % pol extracted % of cane Pol balance run to date run to date lost in bagasse 0.673 0.458 pol in juice/cane 100.230 Miscellaneous data "Moisture and pol" of mud (filter-cake).295 1. The bi-weekly report contains basically the same information as a daily report. Together with the pol recovered in sugar.050 *The "run" column is not used. also known as the "pol balance".193 total losses 7. because it is a definite loss. Here the pol is important.612 lost in final molasses 5. or water pressure is not correct (it should be 30-40 psi).705 12. and undetermined. If it is higher. The balance gives these losses in two ways: % of cane and % of pol extracted.592 recovered in sugar 92. As an illustration of what the figures should be. final molasses.

000 14.299 lost in mud 0.641 lost in mud 0.076 lost in final molasses 16. 231 Mill B (Peru I960) GOOD % pol extracted % of cane Pol balance run to date run to date lost in bagasse 0.075 lost (undetermined) 10.452 total losses 24.113 1.357 1.462 0.156 pol in juice/cane 100.258 Mill D (Nicaragua 1977) MEDIOCRE % pol extracted % of cane Pol balance run to date run to date lost in bagasse 0.148 pol in juice /cane 100.952 lost in final molasses 9.090 total losses 10.504 0.332 recovered in sugar 89.087 Mill C (Guatemala 1977) MEDIOCRE % pol extracted % of cane Pol balance run to date run to date lost in bagasse 1.000 11.755 pol in juice/cane 100.904 3.817 lost in final molasses 13.096 8.686 0.625 1.000 14.495 11.505 2.334 .558 0.102 recovered in sugar 80.287 0.842 lost in mud 0.076 10.061 lost (undetermined) 0.186 recovered in sugar 75.924 4.741 1.356 total losses 19.029 lost (undetermined) 3.

692 0. say.372 total losses 16. pol in cane — wt. Errors can be made in either weight or analysis. for instance. total losses.418 pol in juice/cane 100.417 recovered in sugar 85. final molasses or mud.715 1. pol bagasse was probably higher.232 Mill E (Venezuela 1971) GOOD % pol extracted % of cane Pol balance run to date run to date lost in bagasse 0.164 total losses 15. If errors are made in losses in bagasse. total losses — wt.874 pol in juice/cane 100. namely. Undetermined losses should not be higher than those in mill B.847 lost in final molasses 11. In mill D.722 2. Individual losses are also known: in bagasse. . because only then are undetermined losses really what they are supposed to be.000 11.289 2.265 recovered in sugar 83. losses (bagasse + final molasses + mud) = wt.096 1.278 8. The pol balance shows how important it is to be sure that all losses are as accurate as possible. leaking tanks or valves. in which case the undetermined amount would decrease. undetermined losses.364 0.000 10. as well as weight recovered in sugar: wt.835 Note: Undetermined losses are found by difference.711 8.282 lost in mud 0.073 lost (undetermined) 3. recovered in sugar = wt.501 0. wt.236 lost (undetermined) 1. Weight of pol in cane is known. or even fraudulence.100% pol in cane.643 0. the undetermined losses are incorrect. a maximum of 0.538 lost in final molasses 12. final molasses. in mud. an indication of entrainment in evaporators or pans.170 lost in mud 2.139 Mill F (Florida 1975) GOOD % pol extracted % of cane Pol balance run to date run to date lost in bagasse 0.

The U.8 td pol extraction (1% more) 93% = 362. sugar quota. Treasurey Department states: "All taxes shall be imposed and all quotas established in terms of raw values. Examples: (1) Let us assume that the contract is 1000 t. 233 Often the reliability of quantities suffers because a cause of error is simply overlooked — for example. Raw value = [(pol — 92) 1. Raw value sugar equivalent. Let us assume the following mill conditions: daily grinding capacity 3000 ted % pol in cane 13% daily weight of pol in cane 3000 X 0. Assume juice purity 84. the available sugar from juice of 84 purity is 1. required to produce 100° pol sugar." The definition is as follows.97 According to the formula of Winter and Carp. or the level of the molasses in the tank is wrong.9 td This quantity has to go through the process and is not the final quantity in the sugar warehouse. First.4 . for instance.38 X 0.75 + 93].97 = 89. Once this is known.S. It is not calculated exactly as most mills calculate "equivalent 96° pol".9 td (1% more extraction): 3.495 td = 7706 lb/day. the weight of the sugar scale can be off.75 + 93] lb physical raw sugar.9 td.7 td 1 % more extraction = 3. each degree of pol over 96° represents 7/4 = 1.S. Frequently. This means that of the 7 lb extra of 96° sugar required to produce 100° pol sugar. Raw value is important because it is the form on which the price is based for the U.40/purity = 92.13 = 390 td pol extraction 92% = 358.75 lb less.2 Raw value [(98. by simply multiplying sugar weight by its pol and dividing by 96. because the normal losses have to be discounted from the 3. It is based on the fact that 107 lb of 96° pol raw sugar are required to yield 100 lb refined sugar.8961 = 3.9 X 0. one must be sure of the authenticity of the determined losses. (2) Sugar produced has pol = 98. 1% more pol extraction in the mill tandem.61% Sugar available from 3. there are queries about the sugar production equivalent of. and for the purposes of quota and tax measurements all sugars shall be translated into terms of raw value.38 and 92. 1000 = ^ ^ { 100 . the boiling-house efficiency (BHE) takes care of further discount.00 bhe 0.92) 1. Before seeking undetermined losses.2 . the theoretical retention has to be calculated.

Note: This is a correction for pol only. the BHE is under 100%. for example. So if 1000 t of pol 95. it has a shortage of 7 t. If it produces less. and another amount represents the losses. (2) Same contract (1000 t). and if more goes into the bags. In other words. a certain amount ends up in the product.6 sugar is shipped. the liquidation of the contract will be for 1038. and has nothing to do with correction for weight. but pol 95. It does not matter.6 . If the plant produces this calculated amount of pol as going to the product. but also between different run reports of the same mill. then the BHE = 100%. If 1000 t of sugar of 98. if the losses really produced are less than those calculated.5 t.92) 1. . because the brixes are not the same and therefore the weight per gallon is different. according to the weight of pol present in the juice entering the factory.75 + 93] χ 1000 = 993 t 100 The interpretation is as follows. The boiling-house efficiency is a number indicating the percentage of theoretically available sugar that the factory produces. This density is 80 in some countries and in others 88 or 85 brix. For purposes of comparison. Each factory produces final molasses of different brix. This latter case can also occur.234 If it were calculated as follows: 1000 X 98 2 · = 1022. Final molasses. Rawvalue [(95.6. BHE. not only between different mills. the quantity should be corrected to a standard brix. Equivalent 80 brix (or 88 brix).917 t 96 a difference of about 16 t less sugar would result. This figure is not comparable with a similar figure from another factory. provided that it is always the same density for the mill and same country.2 pol is shipped. Many factories also report "gal molasses produced per t of cane". the BHE exceeds 100%.

27 brix = 11. To prevent errors.311.10 gal/t. This last number indicates only the storage capacity required. Suppose cane ground was 162000 t (to date). What are the equivalent gallons produced at 88 brix? Solids in 1 gal of 91. . etc. Miscellaneous Under the miscellaneous data in the bi-weekly report. For the purpose of ordering the necessary quantities: quick lime contains 95% CaO and hydrated lime contains 70% CaO. but must be specified in the report.3505 lb.06 gal/t. quick lime or hydrated lime. 235 Example: Assume that 820325 gal molasses are produced at 91. the figures indicating chemicals used per t of cane are required for future purchase orders. it should be reported as CaO. such as lime. Busan. Solids in 1 gal of 88 brix = 10. The products involved are those for which the quantities are rather large.418 lb.086 lb solids. gal physical molasses 91. 9311086 : 10. gal molasses equivalent 80 brix per t cane = 6. If not specified. then gal molasses equivalent 88 brix per t cane = 5. They can be extended at will with soda ash. muriatic acid.34 gal/t. caustic soda.27 brix per t cane = 5.418 = 988648 gal of 80 brix equivalent.759 lb. Solids in 1 gal of 80 brix = 9. lime in this column is lime as ordered.27 brix.759 = 865423 gal of 88 brix equivalent.3505 = 9. 820325 X 11. Separan. 9311086 : 9.

It is important to keep track of the flow of the solids as they enter the factory. For the calculations of boiling-house solids. etc. such a balance gives information on the losses of sucrose (inversion. Finally. all solids enter in the syrup. In most cases. the physical quantities of the components are calculated from the brixes as supplied by the laboratory. In a newly-designed mill. water is usually either added or removed. such as quantities of massecuites produced. all quantities are also given in cu ft per hour (cfh) and gal/min (for pumping). with respect to the solids in syrup. likely averages obtainable in this plant had to be assumed. The second example (Table 22) is of a 2664 ted normal raw-sugar mill. also in relation to the basic solids in syrup entering the boiling house. and then the results can be compared with theoretical ones based on solids entering the process and the juice quality. as shown here. The theoretical balance. destruction of R. In the boiling house. the required laboratory data are given in table form at the very beginning of the calculations. In existing sugar mills. 58) as well as in table form (Table 21). Then all components of the three types of massecuites are calculated.S. For control purposes. served as a control on the actual balance. a solid balance is required to facilitate sizing of equipment by showing the quantities it must handle. During all manipulations in the process. . which provided insufficient data. with the exception of the above-mentioned reasons. etc. massecuite analysis. For the purpose of sizing new equipment or checking capacities of existing equipment. It was obtained by using all laboratory data. etc. The balance is presented as a type of flow diagram. The product is a combination of A and B sugar. (Fig. 237 CHAPTER 40 SOLIDS BALANCE This is also called material balance. They are followed by the calculations of solids that go to the sugar and to the final molasses. or disappearance of solids through leaks or for other reasons. In this case the laboratory data were quite complete.). These calculations are followed by a solid balance in table form. One is a theoretical solid balance of a 2300 ted factory using the two-boiling system (product exclusively A sugar). It originated from an existing mill. and their routes through the different stages of the process. together with other data (such as molasses and sugar purity. and end up in sugar and molasses. Two examples have been evaluated. as provided by the laboratory.). The steam required to evaporate is also mentioned. Here C magma is used as seed for both A and B massecuite. but the solids should show a virtually constant quantity after accounting for the losses in by- products and the recovery in the sugar. in an existing factory a solid balance can be based on actual analytical data. which uses the three-boiling system.

Once the theoretical balance is made and compared with the practical. It should be remembered that a solids balance composed of laboratory data will never balance exactly. such test results are already available. juice purity. This is especially important when rather small quantities have to be pumped. . to obtain at least an indication of cane per acre (ha). (b) The brixes (solids) used are not true dry matter figures: the error increases when the impurities increase. (d) Massecuite quantities are only approximate: the pan level differs when read under vacuum and atmospheric pressure. etc. a certain correction factor can be applied. (through leaks or otherwise) even though they may be small. (c) In all mills. the syrup pumps might sometimes be required to displace a syrup of a lower density (more diluted) than the one for which it is calculated. In such cases. The reasons are: (a) The sampling is not fully representative. a test planting has to be made of a few cane varieties. such as imbibition % cane. because cane + imbibition water = juice + bagasse This in turn increases the pump size of diluted juice. A and B molasses have peaks at the beginning of the centrifugal cycle. In many cases. the data normally available are those of cane from the immediate neighborhood. if the quantities of massecuites are consistently higher than the calculated figures. to represent the real case more accurately. if they have formed part of a feasibility study. As far as a newly designed mill is concerned. sugar yield. enough margin should be taken for data. A and B molasses. For instance. Magma pumps have a low efficiency. magma. The theoretical solids balance therefore indicates the minimum safety level. But often even these are not available. Also.238 In the case of a new design of a mill. to allow increase in the percentage of diluted-juice extraction. such as milk of lime. if the cane-sugar industry is completely new to a given territory. etc. Milk of lime is overdosed to maintain re-circulation. being of the vane type. there are always mechanically lost solids. the errors can be corrected as far as possible. which can be as high as 200% of the average capacity. fiber contents.

A molasses 10.2606 lb/h VACUUM PANS A massecuite l9.26 19426 lb/h pur 8 0 solids 38757 l b / h pur 60 solids 18734 l b / h CRYSTALLIZERS STRIKE RECEIVER CENTRIFUGALS CRYSTALLIZERS CENTRIFUGALS A sugar 9. f i l t e r juice 16.234 m e t r i c t o n s / d a y final molasses 3.51 32760 Lb/h solids 5736 l b / h cake 3 % 6340 Lb/h 1902 sol.52° 5326 l b / h *J warehouse 220. 5 d i l .8 % EVAPORATORS 151761 l b / h syrup 23 °/o bx 57.94% magma 7.07°/0 pur.31 pur 80 48619 l b / h solids 27893lb/h 4542 lb/h lsol.8 % bx 13.5 e/o bx 11. 98.00 34857 lb/h solids 3834 l b / h c l a r i f i e d j u i c e 94.0 8 % 169 l b / h ~T CLARIFIER RIF 10 Be' m i l k o f l i m e 1940 l b / h JL mud t o f i l t e r 15.92 200337 l b / h solids 27893 l b / h w a t e r 71.3 °/0 bx 15.72°/o C massecuite 9.53% bx 85.60 26606 lb/h soLids 20133 lb/h solids 18624 l b / h SCALE w a t e r 2.575% .26 41674 l b / h bx 96.53 20234 lb/h pur.11 197155 l b / h solids 29795 l b / h Ϊ SCALE ^ ATf HEATERS hydrated lime 0 . 239 m i x e d juice 93.57 % b x 9 9 .34 bx 93.7 15913 lb/h solids 7760 Lb/h solids 13580 lb/h storage 15958 g a l / d a y Entering in A massecuite 1 5 9 1 3 + 4 4 0 7 7 = 5 9 9 9 0 Lb/h C massecuite 26606 Lb/h leaving 41674 l b / h 19514 Lb/h evaporation 18316 l b / h 7092 lb/h s t e a m r e q u i r e d (about l25°/o) 23000 l b / h 9000 Lb/h commercial y i e l d = 220.5 °/o bx 17.21 % bx 93.234 / 2 3 0 0 = 9.17 8329 Lb/h pur. 85.

90 80 .92 11.12 19462 4 9 1 5 cfd 18734 96.25 21280 233 29 18624 87.30 66.73 32760 491 61 5736 17.04 26606 317 40 18624 70 42 60 Β masssecuite Β sugar Β molasses Β molasses diluted C massecuite 9.52 52.72 93.37 75.17 29. 2-boiling system 240 Q/.14 85.08 197155 2984 372 29795 15.03 98.11 11.25 4542 57 7 2606 57.92 67. L C I l d .75 2 0 0 3 3 7 3047 380 27893 13. — n o per hour solids analysis 1V1 α.81 Mud to filter 15.34 73.59 84.51 Filter cake 3 35 6340 181 23 1902 30 1.81 65.31 65.91 165480 2511 313 24059 14.53 A molasses 10.21 95.94 93.50 66.31 159132 176 22 13580 85.10 1940 29 4 169 Limed juice 94.686 Bagasse 31.22 66.27 Evaporator juice 94.06 199095 3014 376 29964 15.81 32 C magma 7.15 79. Table 2 1 .00 Clarified juice 78.26 74.05 11.50 85.26 74.54 11.53 90.l o /O _„11_ lb/ft3 to.90 80 Evaporation 71.70 8329 89 15958 gpd 7760 93.80 62 151718 2442 304 A massecuite 19.75 60 C sugar 5.!/ 0"„1 / 1 1m1 1 i1 1n lb cu ft lb/h brix pol purity Cane 100 25 2 1 1 3 1 2 8452 11.70 5 6 6 9 8 6 13397 3.24 Milk o f lime 0.61 80 A sugar 9.50 65 34857 536 67 3834 11.57 53 20234 382 20133 99.70 Syrup to magma 2. Material balance o f a raw sugar mill o f 2 3 0 0 tc_ .37 45.48 Filter wash water 4 62 8457 136 17 Filter juice 16.09 76.77 4 1 6 7 4 10667 cfd 38867 93.25 48619 613 76 27893 57.26 57.70 87 Final molasses 3.07 91.37 45.51 60 A molasses diluted 12.50 98.14 80 Syrup 23 79.40 Imbibition water 25 62 52828 852 106 Diluted juice 93.27 55 11141 203 10974 98.

MOLASSES AND MASSECUITES Quantity Solids Brix Purity lb/h lb/h Laboratory data cane 244755 syrup 63902 38993 61. 241 TABLE 22 PRODUCTION OF SUGAR.11 gal/t cane 31714 commercial yield = x 100 = 12.80.73 final molasses 90.28 .48 A massecuite 92. diluted 71.55 solids in sugar % sol.02 84.396 = 15934 gal/day 5.28 8 4 :.04 49.396 lb molasses in gal per day = 8230 x 24/12.87 30.9087 = 8230 lb/h weight/gal molasses 90.82% 97.55 C massecuite 96. x 100 =80.55 C footing (A molasses + syrup) 89-28 72. 4 8 - : 30.46 58.31 63.30.55 solids in final molasses % sol in syrup = 100 .48 B molasses.16 73.8082 x 38993 = 31514 lb/h sugar = 31514/0.24 84.82 = 19-18% solids in sugar = 0.00 C sugar 99 commercial sugar 99-37 97. diluted 71.20 B massecuite 94.975 % 244755 .1918 x 38993 = 7479 lb/h final molasses = 7479/0. in syrup = .20 A molasses.9937 = 31714 lb/h solids in final molasses = 0.87 brix = 12.

55 in footing 40. 49. 58.28 . 63.00 in A molasses of footing 16.170 .985 34.615) 54.00 .48 .55 C massecuite 19.20 in syrup of footing 16. 30.250 26.20 A massecuite (9633 + 24.19.633 6. 49.48 .633 + 24.28 .63.618 23.73 .793 2649 in C sugar 40.744 9258 84.003 8970 84.(9.20 in A molasses 47.18 40.426 23.9.233 .48 .633 3756 84. 72.23.49.248 13355 .003 24.426 6405 72.990 + 5.240 10232 in final molasses 19.615 9598 97.28 .48 .233 .20 in footing 47.54.615) 89.618 .874 9309 73.48 .20 in A sugar 89.17 16.990 8185 syrup to magma (25% on C sugar) 5.17 -■ 16.233 34795 97.63. 242 % solids solids in syrup lb/ h 84.744 47.55 B massecuite 23.170 15663 84.48 .426 9.618 18568 97.55 in B molasses 40.250 2047 magma 20.744 23.180 20.426 .63.180 7479 97.48 in B sugar 47.28 .985 21440 in A molasses 89.618 .73.73 58.84.23.

9224 37722 9702 A sugar 21440/0.6102 4341 C sugar 8185/0. 243 solids lb/h quantity cu ft/day brix lb/h C massecuite 15663/0.9646 16238 4093 diluted B molasses 9258/0.9937 21576 A molasses 9598 -I.7104 13032 diluted A molasses in footing 3736/0.8928 10605 remelted magma 10232 .6102 3355 gal /day input : 13032 + 5267 + 4341 22640 output : 16238 evaporation 6402 steam required (125% of evaporation) 8000 B massecuite 18568/0.7104 13032 input : 13460 + 10047 23507 ouput: 19720 evaporation 3787 steam required 5000 syrup: for C footing 2649 lb/h solids for C magma 2047 lb/h solids for B footing 8970 lb/h solids 13666 lb/h solids to A massecuite 25327 lb/h solids in syrup 38993 lb/h solids A massecuite 34795/0.7131 13460 footing 8970/0.9416 19720 5026 diluted A molasses 9598/0.25327 9468/0.6012 42127 used magma 34795 .99 8268 final molasses 7479/0.9468 764/0.9087 8230 15934 syrup to prepare magma 2047/0.7131 18728 syrup 25327/0.8928 10047 B sugar 9309/0.8928 856 input : (syrup + magma) 53588 (A massecuite) 37722 evaporation 15866 steam required 20000 .7131 5267 syrup in footing 2649/0.3756 13355/0.9937 9368 B molasses 9258/0.

000 lb/h Check on steam consumption: steam consumed by vacuum pans = 1.000 lb/h C massecuite 8. .38993 = 24909 lb/h steam consumption = 24909 X 1.5 X water in syrup (lb/h) water in syrup = 63902 .89 cu ft/t cane per day C massecuite = 4093 cu ft/day = 1. 244 STEAM CONSUMED IN VACUUM PANS For:A massecuite 20.000 lb/h B massecuite 5.54 cu ft/t cane per day total massecuite 7 07 c u ft/t c a n e p e r day *cane = 2664 ted.5 = 37.64 cu ft/t cane per day* B massecuite = 5026 cu ft/day = 1.000 lb/h total 35.363 lb/h A massecuite = 9701 cu ft/day = 3.

Table 2 3 . Material balance o f mill E . P . in 1 9 5 9 , 2664 ted 3-boiling system.
per hour solids analysis
Materials % cane l b / f t 3 σ ο I / m ι η
fLAll 111111
lb cu ft lb/h brix pol purity
Cane 100 25 244755 9790 14.112
Bagasse 23.96 5 58643 11729 2.60
Imbibition water 21.67 62 53038 855 107
Diluted juice 67.71 66.53 2 3 9 1 5 0 3595 448 40047 16.74 13.805 82.51
Milk o f lime 0.60 67.10 1469 3 175
Limed juice 98.31 66.48 2 4 0 6 1 9 3619 451 39872 16.59 13.70 82.68
Mud to filter 15.50 67.41 37937 563 70 7573 19.96 14.08 70.55
Filter cake 2.50 35 6119 175 1224 1.20
Wash water to filter 3.73 62 9133 309 38
Filter juice 16.73 66.19 40951 619 77. 6349 15.50 12.87 83.00
Clarified juice 82.84 66.35 2 0 2 7 5 5 3256 381 32644 16.10 13.52 84.77
Evaporator juice 99.57 66.32 2 4 3 7 0 6 3675 458 38993 16.00 13.52 84.48
Syrup 26.11 80.32 63902 796 99 38993 60.12 51.55 84.48
Evaporation 73.46 62 179804 2 9 0 0 362
A massecuite 15.41 93.32 37722 9 7 0 2 cfd 34795 92.24 77.67 94.20
A sugar 8.82 53 21576 407 21440 99.37 96.67 97.28
A molasses 6.60 89.19 16146 181 23 13355 82.71 52.27 63.20
A molasses diluted 7.66 84.55 18728 222 28 13355 71.31 45.07 63.20
Β massecuite 8.06 94.17 19720 5026 cfd 18568 94.16 69.19 73.48
Β sugar 3.83 53 9368 177 9309 99.37 96.67 97.28
Β molasses 4.23 92.07 10352 112 14 9258 89.43 44.31 49.55
Β molasses diluted 5.32 84.43 13032 154 19 9258 71.04 35.20 49.55
C massecuite 6.63 95.20 16238 4 0 9 3 cfd 15663 96.46 56.65 58.73
C sugar 3.36 55 8218 149 8185 99.60 87.65 88.00
Final molasses 3.36 92.72 8230 89 11 7479 90.87 27.76 30.55
C magma 4.75 91.46 11623 127 16 10232 88.03 76.55 86.96
245

Syrup to magma 1.39 80.32 3405 42 5 2047 60.12 50.79 84.48

247

SUBJECT INDEX
Absolute juice, 223, Brix
Advance daily report, 219 of bagasse, 9, 225
Air compressor, 25 of C massecuite, 123
Air quantity for sulphur, 27 definition of, 225
Alcohol, quantity required, 106 hydrometer, 225
Algo (scale-softener), 76 of normal juice, 222
Analysis sample mill, 208
date, 228 Bulk warehouse, 141
per shift, 193 Busan, 6
preparation for, 193 Butterfly valves, 173
special, 193, 228
Available sugar, 233
Calandria pans, types of, 92, 93
Calculating sheet for daily reports, 197,
Bagasse 198, 203
bagacillo, 9, 224 Cane book, 201, 202
baling of, 9 Cane
percentage moisture, 224 burnt, 207
pol lost % cane, 224 car tare, 208
sampling of, 192 compensation factors, 211, 212
use of, 9 cutters, 1
weighing of, 11 data, 220, 221
Bagacillo, use of, 9 deterioration of, 2
Bags for storage of sugar, 140, 142 fresh versus stale, 207
Balance frozen, 4
obtained solids, 237, 238 handcut, 1
theoretical solids, 237, 238 mechanically cut, 1
Ball mills, 104 payment, 11
Barometric low level condenser, 152 purchase, 207, 208, 209
Bauxite, 40, 41 on the basis or quality, 208,
Bi-weekly report, 199, 201 209
Blankit, 41 purchase rules in Florida, 207
Bleed-off, 64, 85 purchase sampling, 207, 208, 209,
Boiler water, feedwater, 164, 165 210
Boiling as an art, 118 scale, 208
Boiling House Efficiency (B.H.E.) stockpile in field, 1
233, 234 weighing of, 11
Boiling systems, 109 Caramel, 42, 43

248
Carbonatation Conglomeration, 103
deHaan, 33, 37 Continuous crystallizer, 123, 125, 126
double, 33, 36, 37 Controls
history of, 31, 32, 33 evaporators, 182
process, 31 heater temperature, 182
single, 33, 35 vacuum pans, 183, 184
Caustic soda regeneration, 48, 74, Cooling of sugar, 139, 140
87 Cooling pond/tower, 153, 154, 155,
Centrifugals 156, 157
continuous, 133 Cooling times, 124
history of, 129 Cooling water for crystallizers, 125, 126
improvement of, 131 Crystal dimension (Thieme), 100
old versus new, 132 factors, 103, 104
purpose of, 129 procedure, 106
Charcoal/carbon, 41 practice, 105
Chemical cleaning, 74 Crystallizers
Circulator, advantages of, 96 history, 124
Clarification, 19, 22 purpose, 124
agents, 19, 39 Cumulative data, 202, 205
Classification of massecuite, 92 Curing of C massecuite, 101
Classification of molasses, 92 Cut-over, 99, 117, 119
Clay, KWK Volclay, 40 Cyclone analysis of massecuite, 196
Cleaning Daily fabrication report, 197, 198
shutdown, 85 Damage by machine handling of
steam side, 80 cane, 1
technique of, 76, 77, 78 Defecation
vacuum pan, 80 as in Java for P.OJ. 2878, 19
variations of, 76 double heating, 19, 20
Cleanliness in sugar factories, 215 flow diagram, 21
Clerget method, 226 sequence, 19
Closed circuit cooling water, 126 Density of syrup, 86
Coil pans, 93 Dessin formula, 61, 62
Coloids precipitation of, 24 Deterioration of cane, 1
Color code in sugar mills, 213, Determination
214, 215 of pol and moisture of sugars, 228, 229
Color of floors in sugar mills, 215 Diatomaceous earth, 41
Comparative reports from all mills, kieselguhr, 41
199, 201 Diffuser
Condensers disadvantages, 5
counter flow, 149 full function, 6
jet, 150 high extraction, 7
parallel flow, 150, 151 part function, 6
properties, 149 Dilution, 117
Conductivity indicator, 104 A and B molasses, 118

249
% cane, 222 False grain, 101
Disinfectants for mills, 6, 7, 8 Fiber in bagasse, 224, 225
Disposal of bagasse excess, 158 Filter juice recirculation, 17
Double magma, 132, 133, 134 Filter juice treatment, 17
Downtime, 73 Filter presses, various, 17
Dryer/cooler, 23 Final molasses, 188, 192
Drying of sugar, 139, 140 Final molasses
Dye colors, 42 equivalents, 234
80 brix, 235
calculation, 235
Eimcobelt, 17 weight of, 138
Ejectors Flow diagram, sulfitation, 28, 29
airpumps, 153 Flouride (diamante 72), 76
steam, 153 Footing purity calculation, 104
water, 153 Formaldehyde, 6
Electrolytes Formation of grain, 91
coagulants, 15 Formulae
Separant, 15 Douwes Dekker, 136-137
Entrainment, 57 Honig, for purity, 137
Equivalent 96° pol, 228 Sylmans, for solids, 135, 136
Evaporation Funnel for powdered sugar, 105
boiling-bubbling, 57
coefficient, 60 Glucose-pol ratio, 227
history, 51 Glucose, RS ratio, 227
object, 51 Grain irregularity, 101
technique, 53 Graining, 101
Evaporator let it come by itself method, 101
cleaning, 73 Grinding
controls, 85 American school, 6
design, 64 European school, 6
steam efficiency, 159, 160 in rainy season, 4
Excess bagasse, 220
Excess magma dissolved, 119, 120 Hammer mills, 103
Excess steam, 220, 221 Heat balance for design, 63
Exhaustion of final molasses, 135 Heat transfer coefficient, measuring
Exhaustion of cane/beet, 135 of, 81, 82, 83, 84
Exhaustion of important points, Heaters
137, 138 cleaning of, 16
Explanation of seeding, 99 horizontal and vertical, 16
Extraction Heating surface, definition, 55, 56, 62
of juice, 7, 222 Height of floors for gravity, 123, 124
of normal juice, 222 Height of tail pipe, 152
pol, 222 History of vacuum pans, 92, 93, 94, 95
reduced pol, 223

64 238. 5 task and purpose of. 99. 85 Miscellaneous data (chemicals/ton Lime of cane). 20 materials. 14. 78. 30. 99. 142. 145 Live steam thickness. 196 level of. 117 purity increase. 201 Milling data. 190 Massecuite. 37 bookkeeping. 235 consumption of. reheating of. 68. general. 181 Limekiln. 204 normal. 68 Intercondenser. 181 Mixer for powdered sugar. 13. 101 Juice quality C sugar as. 47 Magma. 226 Low-head pans. 79 Laboratory Middle juice carbonatation. 13. 13. 69 Mechanical cleaning. 95. 17 Magnesia compounds. 34. 14 losses. 194. 196. 9. 50 controls. 224 as seed. 6 Level control. 33 Mixed bed unit. 220 personnel. 20 optimum quantity. 55 scale. 79 Mechanical cleaning time. (ISS). 194. Injection water 13. 49. 101 heating of. 152. 78. 9. 35. 215 % CaO.250 Imbibition water Lime average. 104. 37 of equipment. 20 cooling. 1 Mechanical circulation. 39 last extracted. 68 Material flow in a mill in 1914. 6 hydrated % CaO. 45. 162 188 Long-tube evaporators. 234 Java ratio. 202. 147 quick lime components. 187. 46. 194 Infection in mill house. 96 Kestner. 193 Mills. 145 reduced. 179. 108 feeding of. 203. 187 Mill sanitation. 190 Maturity and irrigation. 147 saccharate. 53. 15 Instrumentation. 235 Inhibitor. 105 . communication. 221 density of milk of lime. 72 Material balance in two-boiling system reheating of. 36. 110 milk of lime. 143 Liming. 159. 16. 100. 14. 85 accounting of. 13. 39 last mill. 58. 67 Magma receiver. 164. 235 water weighing. 20. 239 sampling of. 94-95 Ion exchange. 4 weighing of. 100. 75 preparation of milk of lime. 153 Lost-time book. 120 Intercom. reduction of. 224 Magox. 5. 11 Maturity tests. 202-203 International sugar scale. 190 dilution.

110. 16 Quantity formula. 233 primers. 41 for juice. 233 Sampling definition. 193. 15. 122 Pre-evaporator. 139. 109. 231. 225 extraction. 109 Pan discharge valves. 108. 103 in sugar. 60 Mounted grain. 235 sampling of. 228 balance. characteristics of. 227. 233 Phosphate tri-sodium. 228 Non-sugar removal. 140 as seed. 11 Quarez system. 149. 233 continuous. 125. required for ciculator. pol. 15 Retention. 139. 25 Paint color specifications. 55 Rodine. 229 Powdered sugar in bagasse. 228. increase in sugar. 75 flow velocity in. 189 intermittent. 66. 227. 152. 92 Premiums and penalties of raw sugar handling A and B molasses. 66 true. 171 size. 170. 74. 226 Phosphate tri-calcium. 1 Overliming. 132 Native sugars. 229 118 Pressure evaporators. 69 High test. 227 elimination of. 251 Moisture Power. 6. 30 drop by infection. 73. 225 sizes for A/B molasses. 224. 213. 236 Muriatic acid. 103 centrifugation. 17 Pumps Mud general. 43 exhaustion. 91. 69. 175. 75. 87 Purging mechanics. 31 Sample collection of juices and Pol molasses. 176. 214. 232. 169. 227 Optimum maturity of cane. 177 Pressure drops for design. 176. 17 heat resistant. 24. 228 Mud filtercake. 225. 170. capacities of. etc. 54. 95. 153 apparent. 65 dilution for delivery. 6. 171 pol-moisture. 188 . 124 Rectifier. 117. 67 drop of. 53. 23. 230. 138 Pre-liming. 140 Plantation white carbonatation. 102 Production data. 39 Pipes Rillieux principles. ash. 5 application of.. 235. 170 Safety factor. 177 Purity Noncondensable gas. 102 Molasses. 96 balance Claus. 65 Refractometer. 7 drop by retention. 217 refractometer. 194 sizes for magma. 59. 213 (inhibitor). 189 Poly-electrolytes. 226 Operational criteria evaporators. 72 Pauly pre-evaporator. 76 preparation of. 7 Off-season work. 121. 215 Rapifloc. 213 Raw value. 213 Recirculation of molasses. sucrose lost. 228. 191.

142 liming of.252 Scale. 86 Steaming-out mechanics. 23. 205 Screen capacity. 241. 23 Solids syrup. 87 Three-boiling diagram. 88 Sulfitation. 104 Special-analysis chemist. 1 Scales. 208 for heating. 238. 58 blow off. 85. 242. 3 Screen and lining. 228 balance. 24. weighing (see weighing scales) Sucrose balance. 67. 105 Specific rotation. 56 Tubes. 25. 76 Sensible heat of condensate. 164 Temperature differences Claassen. 231. 23 plantation white. 226 103. 161 Two-pass unit for clarified juice. 242 for regeneration. 4 of cane. 101. sizes of pans. 232 179. 1 cracking. 96 pressure used. 243 Three-boiling system. 92 dioxide. 232. 160 Two-boiling system. 159 diagram of. 243 consumption of. 78 influence of in yield. soluble. 23 Semi-refined sulfitation sugar. 239 production of. 91. 82 Steam Target purity of molasses. 163. 202. 36 Supersaturation measurement of. 233 Stepwise crystallization. 48 in massecuites. 131 in process. 24. 27 in final molasses. 181 Sugar. Chapman. 239 formation of. 227 . length of. 195 Schutte-Koerting noiseless heater. 1 of molasses. 91. 78 Trash in cane. 25 in molasses. 244 consumed in boiling house. 80 Storage time of cane. 117 in cane stalk. 92 Untrue purity of frozen or burnt Storage cane. 24. 208 for cleaning. 133 storage of. 180. 92. 227 Syrup Specific volume of air. 242. 102 sequence. 192 Suspension of powdered sugar. 55. 22. 137. 14 Spoelstra formula. 141. 68 Sulfamic acid. 202 Sealed downtake. 23. 50 to vessel No. 87. 204. 160 Undetermined losses. 35 Shock graining. 225. 25 in syrup. 1. 1. 177 Specific weight of raw sugar. 243 Sulphur. 193. 113. 67 edible. 151. 27 in sugar. 65 double purge. 58 for make-up Tubes. 226. 243 furnace air pressure. 115. 113. in cane/beet. prevention of. 114 quantity/pressure. 230. 24 balance of. 115 consumption. 237 Sulfuric acid in boiling house. 24 Semi-Kestner pre-evaporator. 24. 162 Time lapse. 26 proportioning of. storage of cane.

163. details of. 167 Viscosity/temperature of molasses. 168 Ventzke scale. 127 required. 168 Versene (EDTA). 124 Valle yield formula. 164 for molasses dilution. where required. 93 cold. 92. 168 use of vapor for pans. 65 for lime. 162 Yield calculations. 167. available sugar. 86. 76 raw. 181 inventory. 226 hot. 147 boiler feed. 142 Winter and Carp. 181 for vacuum pans for mill washing. 233 Water Atomizers in pans. 253 Vacuum. 87 Warehouse Weighing scales. 162. 210 . 124 for vacuum pans. 162 for miscellaneous. 164 Vacuum pans. 142 for imbibition water. 168 cell. 179. 180 instrumentation. 153 to condensers. 161. atmosphere in. 66 for cane. 167 Vaccum test. 168 Velocity of rotation of crystallizers. 209. 66 cooled. 180 scales. 202 for juice. 168 use of. 65. 209 for crystallizers. 123. 65. 168 Vapor for filter.

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