Journal of Materials Processing Technology 103 (2000) 14 22

State-of-the-art of simulation of sheet metal forming
A. Erman Tekkaya
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey

Abstract

The paper starts with a brief historical overview to the attempts of numerical simulation of sheet metal forming. Comparison between
bulk and sheet metal forming processes from the simulation point of view is given. Basic requirements of the applier to the simulation tools
are summarized. Various possible methodologies are brie¯y discussed. Special emphasis is given to the static explicit and dynamic implicit
®nite element procedures. Also different element types are overviewed. Available important commercial ®nite element packages are given.
The current state of the application of the simulation tools is discussed. Some typical industrial applications are reviewed to demonstrate the
current abilities of analysis. Finally, an attempt to prognosticate some future developments is made. # 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All
rights reserved.

Keywords: Forming; Sheet metal; Numerical simulation

1. Introduction forming process is given in Fig. 1 [25]. Here, a comparison
with experimental results shows quite good agreement up to
As a forming expert in one of the leading car manufactur- the increment of failure due to fracture of the sheet. These
ing companies, Schacher [22] summarized the current pres- methods are, however, restricted to axisymmetrical pro-
sure on this industry as: ``In the past we introduced 3 new blems. Although there were attempts in the 1990s to apply
models every 10 years, now we introduce 10 new models this method to general 3D deep-drawing problems replacing
every 3 years''. This drastic reduction of development the ®nite element method [19], they could not establish
periods as well as the trend to reduce weight of the cars themselves due to the serious drawback of not applying
in order to reduce the fuel consumption leads especially in boundary conditions in a general manner as it could be done
the car manufacturing industry to a rebuilding of the con- elegantly in the ®nite element method.The real break-
ventional design and manufacturing procedures. Sheet metal through of the numerical approximation of sheet metal
forming as an important production process (see for instance processes was possible through the application of the ®nite
[14]) is heavily experience based and involves trial-and- element method. Pioneering studies are made by Gotoh and
error loops. These loops are repeated the more the less the Ishise [8] and Wang and Budiansky [27] and Wi® [30]. The
experience on the part geometry and material is. In the ®rst two studies were utilizing an elasto-plastic material law,
innovative process design procedure, however, the trial-and- whereas the latter one used a rigid plastic law. Furthermore,
error loops are reduced by means of modern numerical the element types were membrane [27] and continuum,
approximation analysis, which is named ironically also as respectively. The ®rst 3D applications are known by Tang
virtual production. The aim of this paper is to discuss the et al. [24] and Toh and Kobayashi [26]. All the mentioned
current state of numerical simulations in sheet metal forming studies are of static implicit, or respectively, static explicit
industry and possible future developments. type. The dynamic explicit methods have their roots in the
Attempts of numerical approximate solution of sheet study of Belytschko and Mullen [3]. Application to defor-
metal forming root back to the 1960s. The very ®rst numer- mation mechanics is given in the work of Benson and
ical solutions of sheet forming processes have been obtained Hallquist [4]. The replacement of draw beads by arti®cial
by ®nite difference methods [31]. A typical example utiliz- forces is, for instance, used by Massoni et al. [15]. The
ing the ®nite difference method for the solution of the stretch incorporation of viscous effects has been ®rstly considered
by Wang and Wenner [28]. Thermomechanically coupled
E mail address: tekkaya@metu.edu.tr (A.E. Tekkaya) modeling has been performed by Xing and Makinouchi [32].

0924 0136/00/$ see front matter # 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 9 2 4 0 1 3 6 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 4 1 3 1

the draw change of the deformation zone in time. this is the general real-life complicate the numerical treatment substantially. Then push a button and the computer spits out metal forming. V: volume. This is due to the basic expected future developments in the simulation tools will differences between these processes as depicted in Table be prognosticated before drawing some conclusions in 1. an extremely accurate computation in the elasto-plastic part of the deformation is required since the equilibrium state after unloading depends on the differences in the plastic strains which are in the order of elastic strains.E. On the other hand. Finally. An Developments in the sheet metal forming simulation by overview to the capabilities of the currently available com- the ®nite element method started roughly 5 6 years later mercial simulation tools is given in Section 4. All these facts lead to the later start of the industrial application of sheet metal simulation. Material behavior in sheet metal forming is characterized through an initial anisotropy due The industrial requirements to the numerical simulation to the manufacturing process (usually rolling) of the blanks. ®nite difference method [25]. this 2. Industrial requirements to simulation of sheet metal allows also the ef®cient utilization of explicit methods forming (see also Section 3). of sheet metal forming processes are highly expressed by Compared to bulk metal forming. expectation of any sheet metal forming engineer from the ures are on behalf of the workpiece rather than the tools as in ®nite element simulation of sheet metal forming processes. in sheet metal forming Budiansky's dream (Harvard) of the mid-1970s: ``I imagined pure strains are of moderate magnitudes (say up to 0. t1 Balanced S/V / 1/a. Thickness strains in stretch forming as computed by a rigid plastic the simulation techniques will be discussed in Section 2. Various different approaches of the ®nite element simulation in sheet metal forming will be covered in Section 3. t<1 resp. fail. today. t: thickness. These phenomena are due to elastic unloading after elasto-plastic deformation. This requires special precautions in the analysis. Geometrically. spring-back and residual stresses are rather critical issues. remeshing is necessary due to the the die shape. Also. The requirements and expectations of the industry from Fig. powerful and into which we could feed a mathematical This leads to the fact that in sheet metal forming remeshing description of what the stylists envisioned for a certain sheet due to excessive element distortions is not the case as in bulk metal shape. a1 Material behavior Normal (planar) anisotropy Bauschinger effect Deformation kinematics (Very) large displacements but moderate strains Large displacements and (very) large strain Instabilities (necking. The deformation beads and their orientation and con®guration. in sheet metal forming the workpiece has a Section 5. larger surface to volume ratio than in bulk metal forming. A. 1. Table 1 Comparison of sheet and bulk metal forming features (S: surface. Process-wise. Furthermore. the blank con®guration needed.7) but a black box a black computation box that was incredibly displacements can be even larger than in bulk metal forming. etc. a: characteristic dimension) Sheet metal forming Bulk metal forming Workpiece geometry Plane structured S/V / 1/t. wrinkling. This is the basic reason for utilizing membrane or shell elements in ®nite element simulation. than bulk forming simulation. Therefore. possible. Tekkaya / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 103 (2000) 14 22 15 bulk metal forming. it tells us that too!'' scopic instabilities leading to necking and wrinkling which Although not openly admitted. Instead. sheet metal forming simulation is about 5 years ahead of the industrial 3D bulk metal forming simulation. If it is not kinematics in sheet metal forming is exhibiting also macro.) Almost no instability mode Process features Cold Cold/warm/hot Workpiece failure Die (and workpiece) failure Spring back critical Spring back uncritical Residual stresses critical Residual stresses critical Finite element simulation Always elasto plastic Rigid/visco rigid/elasto plastic Shell (membrane) elements Continuum elements Isothermal Thermomechanically coupled Basically explicit Implicit Remeshing due to inhomogeneous deformation and Remeshing due to large elemental distortions geometric description accuracy .

due simulation tool is able to model various processes and to the increase in the desired accuracy. low spots. Material behavior.  Trimming operation. be available there where it is needed. The next section response times less than 1 h are required in the discusses brie¯y the different element types used in sheet preliminary design stages. It is expected that the model required for sheet metal simulation. Various approaches of approximate analysis ®nite element simulation process can be transferred back to the CAD model and from there to the CAM In this section.  Cheaper products. increasing because of the aim to optimize the process. CAD FEM CAD interface. rabbit ears. Furthermore. 3. that the CAD model of the tools can be easily transferred to the ®nite element code and that any geometrical modi®cations performed during the 3. The requirements corresponding to these goals are  Punch loads. is being such simple. (also using for instance forming limit diagrams). fracture.  Residual stresses in the finished product.  Reduction of die costs.16 A. Depending on the design and approximation methods based on the ®nite difference and development stage at which the simulation tool is used upper bound technique as well as the slip-line ®eld solution different computational times are desired.  Failure indicators for wrinkling. 5. Numerical 4. It is interest- 2. Simulation output.  Quick response to modification wishes. it must be usable in the design of®ce and not only in the In the next section.  Lubrication conditions. Whereas techniques will remain hence untouched. that is. Specially high accuracy is expected for failure determi-  Flanging operation. Ef®ciency of simulation. only the various ®nite element methodol- system. Recently.  Process repeatability.  Time tracing of certain material zones such as the  Reduction of the try-out-times. Cost reduction: zones.).  Strain and thickness distribution in the sheet. Processes and operations. the simulation tool should the numerical approximation. orange skin. wrinkles. flow figures. Generally the accuracy requirements have  Stretch forming processes.  Optimal selection of the workpiece material. aluminum based materials is looked for.  Hydroforming process. However. Accuracy.  Stiffness and/or pressure of the blank-holder (position  Optimization by variants. Furthermore. Tekkaya / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 103 (2000) 14 22 Currently.  Know-how accumulation for new materials.  Optimum shape of the blank. dependent).E. nation (better than 20%) and spring-back. etc. This is a critical issue for the ing to notice that even the Young's modulus change with application of the simulation tool in industry. The ideal requirement is be discussed. the basic approaches such as static tolerated in the main design stage or problem solving implicit. dynamic explicit and inverse (one-step) methods stages. The industrial engineer want to 1.  Spring-back value (especially after trimming and flan-  Production of more complicated parts. Increase of product quality:  Location and position of the draw beads or draw stops. even in the main design stages the will be summarized. the available methodologies for computational department of the company. 6. the industrial goals of the forming simulation pressure to have response times less than 2 h is can be summarized in three main groups. 7. ging operations). that there is no need for an extra ®nite considered seriously by some industrial companies in element expert. diverse. welding seams in tailored blanks. Initial anisotropy due to the rolling process of the sheet is a standard feature of the material 1. which is in the order of roughly 3% for each industry expects that the usage of the code should be 10% strain for aluminum alloys for instance. . numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes will 3.  Deep-drawing process (with draw beads. The straining.  Reduction of the development times. but also in numerical solution techniques. These require  Restrike operations. nonquadratic ¯ow loci for  Binder closure. over-night responses are forming modeling. loose metal 2. increased with the usage of the simulation tool. Then.  Increase of reliability. ogies will be brie¯y reviewed and discussed. an increased precision in material and friction modeling. User-friendliness. induced operations of sheet metal forming one by one or even in anisotropy in form of kinematic hardening models is combination: required. Time reduction: evaluate the following results computed numerically:  Early checking of producibility of workpieces. etc.  Post-failure data such as number and amplitude of  Press down sizing.

In sheet metal forming processes for which bend- Dkl the rate of deformation tensor. which were the very which can (thick) and cannot (thin) consider a transverse ®rst methods used in simulation of metal forming processes. (5) Z Z V A V ‰dTij ÿ Tkj dui. Quasi-static implicit approach ments are also high. On the other hand. This method enables a full static shall be considered accurately.k Šdui. The Euler equations of this statement are simply the static equilibrium equations.k ‡ Tij duk. if deep-drawing ‰K…u†Šfug ˆ fFg: (4) type of deformation dominates. however. An Therefore.j dV ˆ ti dui dA ÿ rui dui dV. (2) ing occurs over a bending radius which is larger than roughly yields a stiffness equation of the type. Another disadvantage of the implicit methods is the where Tij is the Cauchy stress tensor. Eq. experience has shown that This equation is nonlinear in the displacements and can be membrane elements are not appropriate for modeling. the Jaumann derivative of the for the analysis of sheet metal forming processes (see also Cauchy stress.2. Discretization of Eq. (1) V A the feedback that the solution is wrong is a real drawback or not. Theoretically the increment sizes can be very large. This is basically initiated due to the large number can be written as of contact nodes which can overload many implicit contact Z Z algorithms. operator. T ij is. In classical sheet metal forming processes the work done by body (dynamic) 3. the natural equations The virtual work equation (1) can be modi®ed by an of analysis are the static equilibrium equations. there are four different types of elements available  Here.j dV ˆ ti dui dA. Hence. however. T ij ˆ Cijkl Dkl : (3) Hence. These so-called static explicit methods [29]. Transverse pressure is essential if static equilibrium is satis®ed in the unknown ®nal con®g- blank holder actions on the general deformation behavior uration of a time increment.1. Dynamic explicit approach forces is roughly four orders of magnitude less than the plastic deformation energy. for instance. membrane elements can be used for modeling. ti the traction vector and d the variational as instabilities at wrinkling initiation. the most common element used for deep-drawing Euler type solution of this system of equations leads to the dominated forming processes is the shell element. The corresponding constitutive equation is then also of The high surface to volume ratio of the workpiece in sheet rate type. Element types This equation can be divided by a virtual time yielding a rate form. it is questionable whether to receive Tij dui. in sheet forming processes such practically. ten times the sheet thickness [20]. pressure appropriately. Because of the matrix inversion step and accurate integration schemes.j dV ˆ ti duj dA: (2) V A where r is the density and uÈi the acceleration of material . elements can be divided into two groups: shell elements Hence. Of course.3. it is limited by the contact conditions. continuum elements can be Computational times increase almost quadratically with appropriate. [9]).j the gradient of the singularity of the stiffness matrix at bifurcation points. Cijkl the fourth-order constitutive tensor and Table 2). in the static implicit methods. metal forming gives the opportunity of using structural  elements which make use of the plane shape of the sheet. increasing element number.E. Generally. as hydroforming or blanking. Continuum elements are solution of the deformation problem with convergence seldom used for sheet metal modeling (see for instance control. Another disadvantage of the implicit methods is said to be the problem of divergence of the The principle of virtual work after neglecting body forces solution. (1) inertia term to can be linearized about a known con®guration in time Z Z Z yielding Tij dui. memory require- 3. ui. A. solved with one of the standard numerical methods [20]. such displacements. Tekkaya / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 103 (2000) 14 22 17 Table 2 Different element types used in sheet metal simulations Element type Membrane stiffness Bending stiffness Transverse shear stiffness Transverse strain variation Kirchhoff Mindlin Membrane Yes No No No No Plate No Yes No Yes No Shell (thin) Yes Yes No Yes No Shell (thick) Yes Yes No Yes (Yes) Continuum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 3.

etc. Further- L 2 L more. the accuracy of the results is in second treatment is used. A ®nal advantage is the simpleness of programming. Basic simpli®cations number of increments. {F} the ratio. which deliver rather poor where L is a characteristic length of the element.E. for possible. Increasing the density by a factor of 100 reduces the 4. On the other hand. neglecting the explicit methods unfeasible. Finally. There is no check of unbalanced forces and hence no convergency control. Dividing the total process time by the minimum time step yields the number The essence of one-step methods is the simpli®cation of of time increments as 3106. but the the structure to [23]. since in deep-drawing most of the workpiece is ‰MŠ ut ˆ fF t g ÿ fI t g: (6) supported by the dies thanks to the high surface to volume In this equation [M] is the lumped mass matrix. Besides.e. reduction of the speed of sound in the material and hence an increase in the allowable time increment. The damping matrix is taken proportional to the two other methods) [2].5 m/s and the punch leads a reduction of the time step. The punch speed is increased as compared to the real starting from the ®nal deformed con®guration to the initial process speed. It is claimed that the error speed of sound in the workpiece material. two different history of contact. the time step has to be less than explicit character of the numerical scheme is ful®lled if and only if the mass matrix is lumped. Increasing the density of the material leads to a cases the accuracy is in an acceptable range. In this case. time (usually one order less than the previously described duced. instance. The Therefore. This is demonstrated. Also.18 A. is diagonal. This is maintained by using single-quadrature elements. the numerical procedure can be easily parallelized resulting Dtt‡Dt ‡ Dtt t even bigger speed advantages.6 s. there are several disadvantages. Usually. traveling distance is roughly 300 mm. introducing numerical arti®cial damping is not explicit methods can be observed. In such cases the process. L is in the order of mm's. The wrinkles Eq.4. Inverse approach (one-step methods) by the above equation as 210 7 s. A by-product of the explicit u_ t‡Dt=2 ˆ u_ t Dt=2 ‡  u: (8) 2 scheme is the determination of the wrinkles. the punch speed is about 0. remeshing mesh!). which would make the dynamic are the assumption of a linear strain path. these work if the material is strain rate sensitive. the speed advantages can be hold only if the element Dt   p (10) Cd o E=r computations are as few as possible. The time for deep- drawing can found as 0. Therefore. certain cases quite low. time t. if methods may supply valuable information about the feasi- thermomechanical phenomena is involved. However. Currently a clear tendency to the application of dynamic however. In order to reduce the undesired effects of undeformed con®guration by a single step in a very short the arti®cial mass forces numerical damping is intro. i. Therefore. the dynamic explicit method can be applied external force and {I} the internal force vector at a given successfully in sheet metal forming from this point of view. For this reason. the ut‡Dt ˆ ut ‡ Dtt‡Dt u_ t‡Dt=2 (7) computational speed is higher and the memory requirement with is less than the static implicit methods. This precaution. Tekkaya / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 103 (2000) 14 22 particles. increasing bility of the concept at the very ®rst stages of the design the process speed is not allowed. The minimum time step is given 3. Utilizing these numerical tricks are applied: assumptions it is possible to perform the computations 1. On the other hand. o the largest introduced by a lumped mass matrix is compensated by eigenvalue of the system and E the Young's modulus of the the reduced integration schemes of the elements. however. Current state speed of sound by a factor of 10 and so increasing the time increment by a factor of 10. does not CAD software and an automatic meshing ability. This is an unacceptable high the physics of the forming operation. Consider a typical deep-drawing operation for this leads to the disadvantages that local stresses and spring- which Cd is 5000 m/s for steel. Currently. ignoring friction. the order to compensate for possible density manipulations in region of the wrinkles is quite accurately determined. an explicit central difference scheme for the The most important advantage of the dynamic explicit time marching [18] is utilized in form of method is its robustness. by the increased use of dynamic explicit codes in . The problem is to identify for which 2. Now. Cd the stress and strain accuracy. the absence of say 1 mm (this corresponds to the smallest element in the convergence control is a critical issue. (6) must be modi®ed by an arti®cial damping term in are initiated through numerical inaccuracies. material. Furthermore. back is not reliably computed. The central difference algorithm is conditionally stable. Discretization of this equation yields The additional arti®cial body forces are taken over by the rigid dies. in conjunction with a mass matrix usually. number of wrinkles and the amplitude of the wrinkles may be inaccurate due to the numerically driven initiation pro- ‰MŠ ut ‡ ‰CŠu_ t ˆ fF t g ÿ fI t g (9) cess.

2. but also in the simulation of certain hydroforming possible. The user-friendliness of the codes is good to very good and improves drastically through specialization of the programmes steadily. whereas static implicit codes may diverge for some problems under certain conditions. i.21]). can be be also handled more or less. USA under contact conditions. Software Origin and company Code type Less accurate outputs are obtained for tearing type and other ABAQUS Standard HKS. The evolution of the wrinkles in the free SIMEX2 SimTech. unloading analysis reliable. deep-drawing. the regeneration of CAD models from processes. This marized as follows: The material modeling is basically requires additional multi-point-constraints for the incompa- established on an elasto-plastic material law with initial tible nodes. static implicit codes are even is a critical issue in the simulation of sheet metal forming used for the complete simulation of the sheet forming processes in several aspects. however. However. therefore. trimming. drawing forces and wrinkles in free zones. whereas for new high-strength steels as well as for alumi- num alloys available models are still unsatisfactory. etc. France zones can be seen clearly. meshes which The capabilities of today's simulation tools can be sum. 3D deep-drawing processes can be handled with element num- bers up to 100 000 on single-processor workstations with computational times of several days. however. One common the membrane and bending behaviors of deformation are method to generate new meshes with least amount of decoupled. In some cases. USA Static implicit surface related failure predictions as well as to wrinkling MARC MSC. Purely benchmarks. are used in the spring-back cit deformation analysis a static implicit unloading analysis computations in combination with the dynamic explicit is performed. However. after a dynamic expli- cit codes. which must be evaluated carefully. USA Dynamic explicit DYNA3D LSTC. The simulation has been OPTRIS Dynamic Software. increase the anisotropy incorporated by the classical Hill's model [11] stiffness of the solution and may introduce numerical inac- for steel and the modi®ed Hill's model [12] or Barlat's curacies. France the deep-drawing of a wheel cover. Element removal for cutting handled macroscopically with kinematic hardening models operations is a standard utility of all commercial codes. Static impli. USA To demonstrate the effectiveness of the available com- Autoform. But also one-step codes ®nd an explicit codes are. consisting of and is described in [16]. USA be given. The output of a ®nite element Table 3 Various commercial code for sheet metal simulations analysis includes suf®ciently accurate strain and thickness distributions. Remeshing stress states are important. not able to conduct the elastic increased use in the preliminary design stages.E. the mapping of the process. through incompatible meshes. also model [1] for aluminum type materials. where the springback and residual ®nite element models is currently not realizable. binder closure. First of all. (Fig. Switzerland Inverse methods [21]. In this table. Multi-point-constraints. A. 2) [29]. can tropy which develops in the course of deformation. Multistep processes.e. are obtained through dividing existing elements. CAD representation on a ®nite element mesh (almost exclu- Table 3 lists some of the important commercial software sively linear quadrilateral elements are used) can be per- packages used by the industry in the simulation of sheet formed without dif®culties. The experimental compatible adaptive meshing techniques are offered by determination of the respective yield loci is a critical issue some software vendors. Constitutive modeling for classical instance [5]). Induced anisotropy. France performed with the dynamic explicit code OPTRIS by Roll AUTOFORM one step Autoform. France ISO PUNCH drawing operation. element mesh from an existing mesh data without introdu- Autoform has a special static implicit formulation in which cing geometric inaccuracies is a dif®cult task. in other words. on the other hand. The simulations can be per- Fig. . to rebuild the ®nite metal forming processes (see also [10. The ®rst one is the simulation of the ®rst stage of PAM STAMP ESI. the aniso. Tekkaya / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 103 (2000) 14 22 19 deep-drawing steels can be considered as satisfactory. dynamic explicit codes. Simulations of more complex problems which need many hundred thousand of elements are currently not feasible on single processor workstations. such as handled in [13] or with microstructural models such Draw beads are handled by pre-compiled models (see for as given by [6] or [17]. Switzerland Static implicit (special) AUTOFORM mercial simulation codes two examples of application will ABAQUS Explicit HKS. Proportion of the dynamic explicit codes in various benchmark formed for plastic deformation analyzes robustly with tests [29]. ¯anging. 3 shows the thickness distribution at the end of the Sollac. Fig. This allows a considerable speed-up of the geometrical inaccuracies is to re®ne existing meshes solution procedure. NIKE3D LSTC. The mesh generation from CAD models is codes. The analysis of tailored blanks is conveniently possible only in some codes. Recently.

flow  Optimization abilities (synthesis). The author error experiments. In the analysis an elasto-plastic  Increasing analysis capabilities. 3. Furthermore. With the increasing material law with initial planar anisotropy has been utilized. cover the following topics:  New visualization techniques. the development data which requires new post-processing techniques. Especially for scopic viewing is getting a standard post-processing high-strength steel and aluminum alloys better models practice. Finally. of course. 3D visualization is enabled are required.E. also the includes the spring-back calculation. This time forming presses will be included. Today's practice of figures. quality of the wrinkling prediction in contact zones will be enhanced. but in obtained with 80 increments in 12 h and 26 min on an SGI addition. utilization of the simulation by the die makers. failure utilization of virtual reality techniques such as stereo- criteria and friction models is expected. an improved bi-directional imbed- It is expected that developments in the ®eld of ®nite ding of the simulation into CAD environments will be element simulation of sheet metal forming processes will inevitable. the The computations has been conducted with the static impli. Expected future developments be achieved apparently only by parallelization of the codes. Totally 3000 shell elements with 18 666 Hence. Tekkaya / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 103 (2000) 14 22 Fig. The solution has been forming process with rigid dies will be analyzed. cit code MARC. This means however. tional speed and robustness can be increased. 4. Simulation of a wheel cover with OPTRIS [21] (Courtesy of Daimler Benz. Spring-back and resi.20 A. Here. Also the material data needed for such that allows the user to interact with the forming process sophisticated models must be supplied. must be improved for better forming simulations is that they are used as virtual utilization of the simulation tools. computa- introduced as a benchmark on the NUMISHEET'96 con. These extensions will require that the existing codes must get faster several folds. failure dynamically in a virtual environment. Stuttgart). also the deformation of the dies and even the R8000 Power Challenge with four processors. which has been get the standard tool if and only if. The and application of new constitutive equations. that only a small . etc. The increasing complexity of the analyzed problems leads to excessive amounts of  Increasing the analysis accuracy. Another example of application is given in Fig. experimentation tools replacing the physical trial-and- dual stress computations must be improved. believes that in the long-term static-implicit methods will simulation of the deep-drawing of an S-Rail. By this technique. Here. demand for more complex analysis is also increasing. orange skin. ference will be described. In this way. it is expected that in the near future not only the degrees of freedom has been used. which can 5. criteria (and respective material data) for tearing.

F. 1997).M. L. Lehrbuch der Umformtechnik. Sci. J. Tekkaya / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 103 (2000) 14 22 21 may be still not achieved. process. Development and experi by systematic numerical analyzes in the industry. draw bead positions. Springer. in: NUMIFORM'95. which requires in the part design stage the information about the producibility of that part. Int. Was erwarten Kunden von einem Dienstleister im any more an academic exercise. in a in forging. A simple rigid body algorithm for Fig. Guo. Int. Meth. in: P. in: NUMIFORM'95.O. 7 (1991) 693 712. A ®nite element analysis of rigid plastic deformation of the ¯ange in a deep drawing process based on a fourth degree yield function. Louwes. simulation can be regarded as the ®rst phase of sheet metal Haus LaÈmmerbuckel. Application of shape optimization tion for tailored blanks. 1995. Hill. 28 29 April. 681 since current mathematical methods allow optimization 685. P. Vreede. 1992. Num. Dissertation. Some decades will be necessary to reach this ®nal phase of simulation in the world of virtual reality. Huetink. Lege. [3] T. Int. Herrmann. Palo Alto.T. 35 (1993) 19 25. Engg. 672 720. Rotterdam. 1977. Band 3: Blechum production of that part. In the mental veri®cation of constitutive equations for anisotropic sheet metal. 723 749. [4] D. Bergan. Explicit integration of structural problems. USA. A 6 component yield function for anisotropic materials. . This rigorous approach enables optimization [7] L. Int. J. The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity. Now. Batoz. 1997. J. there is almost no chance of 2282. Wiesensteig. Herrmann. Trondheim. now the second phase has started. In: Workshop Umformsimulation. Norway. Num. Hill. 25 33.E. Dawson. et al. Balkema. Rotterdam. Simulating deformation induced texture Impressive examples are known from bulk metal forming in metal forming. J.). however. Benson. state metal forming processes II. 39 (1996) 51 65. Mech. Ishise. is the industrial application of the simulation techniques by [12] R. M. as pointed already by Budiansky in his dream of the seventies. The ultimate ®nal phase of sheet metal forming simulation imaginable. Chenot. R. 1995. D. Mercier. Beaudoin. The simulation of sheet metal forming processes is not [10] M. [6] P. Therefore. The inverse approach including bending effects for the analysis and design of sheet metal forming parts. Streppel. [5] B.). Brenz. the production process is developed and/or improved [13] J. Conclusions formung mit der Methode der ®niten Elemente. Balkema.H. 2271 production stage. This will require new simulation tool features obviously. pp. Beitrag zur Berechnung von VorgaÈngen der Blechum 6. the simulation tool may not be used only by ®nite element laymen but also by a metal forming laymen. Y. Ing.J. Clarendon Press. P. based on a sensitivity analysis for many parameters. etc. J. Germany. Eng. 661 667. A user friendly theory of orthotropic plasticity in sheet the die makers and process designers. Dr. Hallquist. Swansea. J. Fourment. 20 (1978) 423 435.J. Gotoh. Meth. 1975. Finite Elements in Nonlinear Mechanics. seam posi. blank-holder pressure. pp. Modelling drawbeads in 3D ®nite element simulations of the deep drawing portion of the mathematical capabilities are utilized. Rotterdam. can make this early interaction feasible. Sci. Tapir. Barlat. J. [8] M. praxis [7]. With the conventional production technology this early interaction is very dif®cult not to say impossible. A. is the utilization of this tool together with other computer based engineering tools in the of®ce of the stylist of various products. A. F. given a part metals. Balkema. F. pp. 4. changing the part geometry in case of dif®culties in the [14] K. (Eds.R. Balan. If the academic works on Bereich der Umformsimulation.C. the real optimum product formung. This leads to the new concept of production oriented part design. A. 1995. 1950. Huetink. UniversitaÈt Stuttgart. design. Lange (Ed. pp. Plast. References [1] F. Vreede. 1990. in: COMPLAS'95. Carleer.D. [9] M. Mullen.Q. 22 (1986) (Courtesy of MARC Analysis.J. T. forming simulation. [2] J. mathematically deterministic way.L. J. Mech. in: NUMIFORM'92. pp. Berlin. In this phase. The usage of the production simulation in the part design stage will be the third phase of sheet metal simulation. CA. Optimal design for non steady of the blank geometry.T. Belytschko. Pineridge Press. Int. [11] R. The ®nite element simulation of production processes. Simulation of the S Rail forming using static implicit codes structural dynamics programs. which Oxford. unfortunately.

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