COMMENTS AND QUEIUES The Psychological Record, 1969, 19. 645-648.

27
26

the boundaries of occurring evenq _~~__~I~a!.Iy._th~ fallacy of reducing
CO~Il\IENTS
"onefacet()fdualis!!Ll<!Jb~Lol~r __whe!L~_t!t" are fabulous constructions. AND QUERIES:

2. ..Evid~tJQQL isJ~e fact that reductionists are influenced. by THE BASIS FALLACY IN PSYCHOLOGY
an undue glorification of their 0~1l_ type oJ work. We are not surprised
.',vlientnose-\vho-specialize in electrically recording organic changes One of the most deeply rooted fallacies in the psychological domain
(EKC's, CSR's, EEC's) look upon electrical and physiological data as is the widespread tenet !~th~_subj~~t matterof psychology requires _
the ultimate realities of psychological behavior. They, then, advocate the s!!pl!.q!"~ e>J a I?joIQg!~a:1 !Jasis for its existence and operation. This basis
the reduction of emotions (feelings) to energy mobilization, while the doctrine is a cultural institution which has-taken on various complex-
great mass of adustmental behavior including thinking, rmisoning, ions with changes in psychological circumstances. We shall consider
perceiving, learning. speaking, remembering, composing, painting~ ?anc- two of its aspects, an earlier essentially mentalistic one, and a later
ing are converted to such physiological states as hormonal, nutrttional, behavioristic version. These are closely interrelated and currently viable,
temperature, and respiratory conditions. ,lLmay__also _be_~id" of such III all of its guises, however, t1~~~~ctrine constitutes a perverse
theorists that they are frequently. ,?,:eril}l~s~e4J~Y_I!hY5icala,nd cherni- '!1~_lllis.l~adiDg_d9gma, the i~!.eRl'!l~ss of \vhicll is glaring: To -examine
-ail a~~ratus- ilild- 50- i_l!.clJ!!~.J~~vard__ tecl.1.n~~gical e~()~~~~cy rather it critically soon prompts a complete rejection with a consequent im-
than to the elucidation of confronted ev~nts. provement in the understanding and description of psychological events.
--~-,

~
3. There are good reasons for admiring physics, for its achieve- ~~.l}PP9:s~Jion ..that -one sort ..Q{. d~t.~nLr.eqtljr.t:~" a J9!mc!!J:~9!L.i~
ments are outstanding and it has the great advantage of profiting directly aUQtllet: _~.ugges!s t"~a.t tI.le . ~asiS. .. QQ.l;q~~~,.!~~~c}~!tv.ativ~~Jlf~:t:l£h met-
".b.

and immediately from advances in technology. Aside from its con- Jili¥sical-phantasies .as J~~ I~OI~~og(}J.,~ity _o/..pJum.ome.na.. symbollZeo 'by
quests in its own domain it supplies instruments for many other sciences the expressions "unity" or "hierarchy" of the sciences. However, our in-
including psychology. And ye~~.~~mJ)_tphysi~s to sovereignt>: oy~r_ crest is in a special institution belonging to the localized domain of
psvchology or any other science cannot be sustained. The behavior of psychology. ~listoticall~ dates from the.p~rioc:j...Q{mt~a]g;;tJion_that.the
~ dYnamos, catboae1Ubes, moving particles, and so on is certa~nly im- so~1 or IJ.lind cannot. be_~~.!'ted s~p.a.~~tely fr~IJ1_.the body_which sus-
tains !t.. Latertlie biological supports for transcendental entities as-
I portant, interesting, and useful, but are not the same values attributable
. to the behavior of human and other organisms? Mo.r.g~y'~r) as _an ._~~~
" vanced modern .cJi~J.E1.i!1e... npjly~~~. does not lack d.eficiencies. ~h~re
sumed an autonomy of their own and influenced writers to regard them
as caryatids holding up either psychical or behavioral superstructures.
are manv difficulties of observation and explanation. Uncertainties 'Vc consider the basts dogma briefly as it operates under mentalistic
abound in physics, ~y-~!!cisl'!!-!s__r.aQ].p'mJ..~he~ we .consider the and behavioristic auspices.
jP"/""'t ..
doctrines of such wrlte!.5.,as J~U$, llobr, ~<!dlt~,:g~~n,_ Br~dgman, and
--many others. Here looms up a great paradox, psychologists look for
amo*deIOf science in physics, while physicists seek a rock of a~es
THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF AHND OR CONSCIOUSNESS" r';.v <> •.,

in the transcendentalism of spiritistic sensations, and the solipsism
.:rf.1i~jrpI!rQpableJgrm oLthc basis tenet stems from the belief th~tL ('~" 'r-~
!he data of psychology ar~_ps)'chlceiJiphenomena ·or experiences which,.:'7(....
of the individual psyche. C'!~lJ10(~~~t. in their own right, ·_b~LQ!lly_by sufferance of other kinds ;;-..I".!:~:
OBSERVER of entities which sustain them. It is represented in the literature of - .'.~"-~ -,
psychologyvy'such 'familiar expressions as "the brain (or nervous sys- .,..;: 0:.'- &'

tcm) is the organ of mind" and the "physical (or neural) dimensions of ... :.: ~/
consciousness." The latter expression symbolizes the notion that some ."~;:,.~.-':'".
aspects of the psychic elements called "sensations" are associated with ; ~7""
actual and putative functioning of the nervous system.

v Is it not clear that the mentalistic version of the basis doctrine exists
only-6yYrifueoftlie animism tliat stilloo]orsthe-tlltiildng of psyeholo-
g~~lg Cannot psr~liOl~&!cal~~!i.!--like~~.i~k!~1_I>~rc~iving, remember-
il!g. feeling, and so on be describeaexclusively in naturalistic· terms?
UriJesSffiey'cnn-,-thcre is 'no-sCience of psychology, for theessentlal thing

.: including the presence and flammability of the exploding materials. '-rL'11.~i_~~~~~I~. r...i-·r~sident1ri-t he organism.~~lolog1cal~ltuatlon. ~e_. This situation is excellently ' illustrated "by the' enormous variations of speech behavior performed ':' tulare that psychological events require nonps}'chologlcal su.1' The role of biological factors in psychological fields is greatly H- BASIS VEnSUS PIUOR EVOLUTION .'.QEs. Every ad./...... \/1. data and ~s­ tion of a biological guarantee for some unobservable apparition.' ~ / \Vhat role does the biology of the organ~sm pla~ in. them. thcn Iook upon . determining ~r creating pq~er that (-~ .Cau~ !~_~su.te!. conditio~s:-. - mittedly factual grounds. . But. psychic process \ '?r::: i S .!!lppeiiing of an event.I }J.holo~~! _sI!~a_bon.. and fccling--ns-'parfiCij.. pS~~lOloglStS who l1~lent!On­ all complex human behavior it is the cultural rather than the biolo. This is the c. J!t. follows embryological interactions and depend upon the attainment Biological responses are tlius eqUivalent to the molecular processes of a particular stage of organismic maturity...f'. ~---' THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR jccts. the ..::>f slh~abon ~he other f~atur~_s.:/~" psyc)iO)ogicat~1!a.-biol<)gi(:alevents.'-'-'--_.!.~v~ l>" .is -th~.~ --_..r-.'~ to the same objections.tl}~_d~li~telJ~ psychological level there is evident a more Fortunately there is no difficulty in specifying the nature and oper. ~_!hJ!~Isi~lcin&."t.~.trrJs!tiye .well as the relations between vation and description. The most obvIOUS of the.r..?_ !.£riticism of mismte~prl'tmg both behavior is a flagrant vivisection of events and a traduction of obser. :lfC biological.~·~ course. (l~'p~n~ent upon biological (par!lcularl}.. noti.Si~I. .c?mpbsh b.. eral.9)lLpsy.Qlta£j.~~.cbk interpr~ta!io~~~~ to_~~<?id t~_I!ce~_(or bIolQg~c::a. an? hence ~s sub~ect by organisms equipped with similar biological tissues and organs. In_.~Ltne.t~tl~_Y.m!ly. c" determinative 'notion of 'cause contrasts Y. \ Insofar as the behavior version of the basis tenet r:sts on the po~­ lively independent of its tissues and organs. COMMENTS AND QUERIES I .!9. om.' ' them:-Bilt since the behavioral version IS after all presumed to ~e ex...\ ollvimls)y -co-operotc in a complex field With many other factors.I!!ed h:!J).sccret~ons. The biological com- or conditions existing in their surroundings.{'.J t ~J' .}_' -I ~onaUions in which-tlmy interact with ~he organism. / psydlol~g~c~'!'jata consist of the _behavio~r ~f ~r~ams~s'.espollSe-.~iy?ly ..Q!!SlLVi(i ~~~-. ora word..!se i~ both biological and psy.. In.1S .( . Until a ccrtain stage of . The immediate ~ata of ps}'c1~ology . H~at _~!~~s_ q~l~~tl~ m~ph~s. as ._--_.. The guiding question IS.! / " acts with stimulus objects. ~-. ~nvironI11en~a~. ! CO~IMENTS AND QUERIES 29 28 about a science is that it investigates some confrontable happeni?g.IS the ~·Underlying this fa.t.. regard p~ycholo. ly-illovelnents. ~ense we ~ay look _~l?on the anatomical and physiological factors '.~the basi~_ior psyc~~]ogical_~vents? .ustmental interaction !."\ something else call~~ ~~~~~lor. .re~<?~~!l~.~( than its biological a~tiv!ty.. 9-1!-. both types. and so on..~ase p~~~e of an interaction is misin.!!LQl:. howsoever such data arc subsequently interpr:ted. Most of thc human organism's behavior is \ bases.~~£r_lie. ' .Jp~~.. The blolo~lcal features of the orgat~m M is intangible and invisible tlie-Dialogical-factors are presumed to be the I It. When the '-" biological is assumed to bring about the .' • have to take account of are the stnnulatmg objects.. talking. ~ I more plausible version of the basis dogm~ we must mq. /' .. . they originate I tion of the cellular or tissue organization of a particular organism 111 and mature in definite cvolutional ways.!tl.(01' POWC!_ or calisa~Lt?!. .. . .~_31.~: .the org.lsifi. as bases turns out to be onlyanarllitraryusage.. Thus the response .~~. mentioned.Ulre lIlto. melltaLac~.1L\ . The flame of a match in no wise ~e~~r~itd..mental there is the added no- ~ \ devolveS\lpon us to define psychological and biological. ally ignore:.. ~f cause.~tion elaborate interaction of the organism with a complex spectrum of ob- of psychological events.i:'lrifs in the" adjust.thc behavior of the organism as rela. Cr.prett:cl_as r_~uirI~g ~~ j~o~~e~ '.:.. t~lis.J.s .lOloglcral fa:- tors --a.. neural) slriicturcs an<t'tunctiolls still invite . ~ i ~I : \ cal behavior? A.t~.pport~ It surely is only a variant of the mentalistic version. lion ord~eripti'.. BASIS VEHSUS CO-PHESENCE IN A FIELD syncrasy 0 e m IVI ua actors necessary or a certain event to occur.~~ .~r_ reiecJ_t_he__mental and sir~pW..f .. .§!~£.e~~~.glcal be- alomf-ana-pnysiology of organisms into supports for psychological t' "('l~ 7 havior··'as inevitably. jects ~ and conditiOns' so that theresponses cannot be described as simp- Iy the behavior or adjustments of orgal1~sms to ~peclfi~ objects. On the biological levet behavior is obviously the functioning or oper?.~.!.i~ly"jpat ('ring the two following contrasting views.us..!~!:?~~. ~. Its ad...the .ere~orc ..:!!!!:!~on_s ~(--. . In gen- pecially the relations between.To pattern displayed by the the total structure of the organism as it Inter- .. To regard biological componcnts of behavior 'l' ..on . ponents-'ora~psychological response comprise a specific adjustmcntal tion and acti~n. its ~sychologi. Psychological events nrc essentially developmental... or 10 their own orgamza. Cr:eati'y~causal interpretations mask the fact that psychological events are field events and invariably involve interactions with stimulus • c r: ~~ I chologlcal situations.~<. co..'. conductions.ab. Since ilie --mental aspect ' / '. _b.. which conbi6utft. clusively concerned with confrontable behavior om? th. eve?ts.ca. I (1 detcrmining or at least the sustaining factors. .~tructin&. and the settmg objects as well as numerous additional components.y ns1d .-. Now It anteuates _a~(t ongmares-some type of behavior or vice versa.'fe inevitably parts of __~\.:> l:.se IS t~at ~Pl~~ all p~()(!u~~~_~_mct~~~ other than itself. of ~£l!.) luminatcd by a comparison of biological and psychological situations.!!~m a IJas..dr Ir:afes-":-i'ii--explOSi1nbut on~y completes the (. This we can a<..erroneo.' TliCliCliilvior of an organism as response IS III no sens~ so~cthmg-other Ii..faetOl~oU~ oLth: !ptal_~~. ~)}~it11e_r. conditioned mainly by the characteristics or properties of stimulus ob.Q1QgicaL str~c~u!./~I i '~(V.~§~:2Ci'giii!ib. ~ 7 gicarfeaturestllat assume the domiminf role. On the other hand.e_~Qi.r~ILfr. .J:. . . so !hat some .:~!y_psyc. Certainly to make' the an.~t:. '..!!!~P_Y_~_~.are obvious.

e on .n of that organ from the rest of the biological orgamsm Of\mlCll it is a single integral part.~te.~f Q\!f nation. and the imbalance of its. '¥ I.ltjs. a professor in a highly prestigious university t publicly proclaimed his acceptance of the faI. to _be noted.'3£].rather because its sure to invoke the specter of supernaturalism.·ptf· {":Jh~l/.t~. l'ttl/~{ ". nurture. . ANOTHER GENETIC AVATAR .Jl. Planck _ co-p~scnce-or»~ycnologlc~~. but also among students of ~ components from/descriptions of complex human psychological events society. This is as true of behavioristic interpretations..!. Again.. t..• . 1969) and still more by t J. Of course Planck was thinking of ""f' "-'~.~pl)_tI~l:l~s~ 19!1g . l ) .~! [planck.-C.the.nsities. To assert that biological -:t"tobwgra..t~:~ ~hf~ ~!~~k aI!crwlilte_citizemy.ntimw The recent upsurge of racial problems has again revived C.. .·?..r~h~!_t~~ey _l~~. not .~~e~~~~.~_. ThIs escalatIon of intestmal diSliarmony has beco. ~. . talking.-ilnfil-Uiel)iological development of the organism is com.QD). p~chol0rr.2. INNATE INTELLIGENCE: creasingly accurate manipulatory behavior.~ emphasis of the brain which makes it into a surrogate for the soul. whic?.Qt1>~h~yiQr..!. \ t·" J. trle general stability and precision of that behavior Vltonment and nature VB. r~1 . .~~cJ~eJig~tt OlJt. determiners. 1949. and especially psychology.)\ ~~ ( ~'Ulrsm ltleads to the development of analoglca! .'t~~'771t-: .' as wen as the doctrine that are conditioned by the hygiene and intactness of the organism's all. ~ _new SCientific _~~l:ltb_ 4~es _D. t ###BOT_TEXT###lt;. walking. COl\llvlENTS AND QUERIES plete there is a unique evolutional parallelism of biological and psycho- logical development." . transmitted.' 30.. 1.states.haviorlstic ones.~tj~Jhihjtory.c:: :l ! (.that the_ p~cI!Qlogi.~~ " invalid but it also has_serious consequences.~~n~:nci. t ( l ' t: . c.\.0. Again.. ~-t. Par.~~.!!L. ~(~. .l\ccordingly.. In psychology" ~~. the stress of bodily factors usually result in the g~~~!~!.~n. 1iiltn-fliC'demise of the organism. 7" / ~. This melancholy reflection upon the psychological situation is stimulated by the fact that recently there has flared up again the prob- lem of innate racial intelligence (Comment... it is apparent that an unavoidable eonse Why have these unmitigated errors now come to life again.1 (fJ out.. .~o~-­ ~ longed period .u_ally:o!e.. and P?litics~ as well as laymen? ~Qoubtless./ G.. 3. '23.''-0:3.cou~se:t~uift~e stress o~ t~e biological factors of III psychology clashes of opinion do not usually relate to scientific truths but to int~n~ctua~ fallacies. molecular. is hereditarily .. since in__most psychological issues f psychological events mevItably JtnRhes mC~ltahst1c proccsses that they I i s~rt.}-. ~al1acies do not die with the demise of ~.. :.E-_!?J?l~gi~~I .physiological psychology supports the dogma of the fact that an accomplished experimental psychologist. . A pri~ary one.t: t. and in. I z. quenceor the basil dogma is its influence in precluding anthropologica only among some technical psychologists...!£.k.and variO~SI ~ ~~: innate propC]./-.d... · logical traits. arid-cilcoiiiigesth~_bcH~f. __~. suggestionqt men- ell . .1"C'~ JA'L-. .I9nsJ' . tn fact q~l~j!lg . ' that this variability correlates with skin pigmentation and other bio- ~.~ .f..'IJ\J '... the La~enting the difficulties of propagating a novel theory. 30 COMMENTS AND QUERIES The Psychological Record. .m:~~~ ..l'". behavior and its qualities can be generationally transmitted.!:-. 1970."Also.afte!" the <So prol~icaL~YQlut!. Th~J_o~s_nLorganst.e quantum Movement wrote in his Scientific notion of tllClatter as-a -basis for the former.status may inter- "l'~-\vitlrlhc'p~ydl~~~~i?~rP~~i~. debates concerning mental inheritance.~y_ peri~~!c _r~~~recp:~_n.t~~L9rg~lli~m: Ho\vever. i_~ is_l?_a~t~~~h:_Ewing_ • . a biological basis for experience andliehavior. however.a~~ !1~m~~h~~l~ _~£ ~0~. 31 ___biological development _~_~acjl~!J_t11~r~-is ~IO opsychol()gical behavior at "all. ~n}~. not ' ~~~.Y c. "4. In the first place. ..I.}l.<?f !l!~ qrganisln'~_l~O!m'!L deterio~!!. . ?~~o~~nt~.v generation grows up that is famil.~~LI!la. • '. ~ even when the brain is glorified ~ith~~! _~n hll!l:lf!di. en. 20. atomy.L J '4"'" .~~PP'!?rt ar:tY the e~ment fou~der of th..netne occasion lor resurrecting the argument that some souls are inferior to others and I{ rt.. .J!ly. his chosen field.?"s~s~pa!ali". d.~ lar. a few of which we point ~ions are in other fields..1.. Finally.. associations) and other invented .. ' ''L.{:f!'J.pathology of cells and tissues...~~onent~~ ~l1a~in~_theIll.!v~n.)--?"te: '"t[.-. triumph by convincing.. Little did he know how much worse eondi. Such models make of the bram a storagebin ~-tape for ideas..Q!LQot!I!~_ C!~~ga~!i~!~!s~p}llpl~. !_. ~ 'lli-excn~~~~_. and that IQs arc mainly genetically determined. .. should expunge the dogmas of "heredity vs.OBSERVER -r I I to ~e mc~easlmJ .~E~tQ~<?~Qg~~_~l. But fallacies only oecome quiescent until some new occasion arises to quicken them.brai!l models which en- .. or qualities of behavior.£~L cYQlution_. IJassu with the development of biological co- ordinations the organism develops crawling. .- May we conclude otherwise than that the basis doctrine leads to the falsification of psychological data? Not only is the doctrine totally phys~cs.'. and a ne.. \.iJd~e~~.Y.f..as~orllrin-be~ there . In the present Comments consideration is given to the teachings of genetics and objective Psycholog!c~l !>!!u~iQ~. .).? .~~~~hes be.-.' ~4t .. physiology.. drives. of.'j? .../ ~ Gi' powers and processe nother not too incidental consequence is the well- nigh universal view that. and chemistry.lacies that intelligence. e\~cil1Sdcterriiine psychological-events-excepf as interacting stimuli is l_t~_~. The latest revival of the historical polarizations of hered- ((C.-.?' it t" .' .o.~rcetlie erron".