Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

c Contents

Forward ...................................................................................................................................................................v
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................................vii
Step one: Understanding basic hydraulics .........................................................................................................3
Static water pressure ....................................................................................................................................................4
Dynamic water pressure .............................................................................................................................................6
Exercises on basic hydraulics .....................................................................................................................................9

Step two: Obtaining site information .................................................................................................................13
Step three: Determining irrigation requirements ..............................................................................................19
Soil type .......................................................................................................................................................................19
Exercises on site information and irrigation requirements .................................................................................23

Step four: Determining water and power supply .............................................................................................27
Calculating water meter capacity and working pressure .....................................................................................27
Rule number one ......................................................................................................................................................................................27
Rule number two ......................................................................................................................................................................................28
Rule number three ....................................................................................................................................................................................28
Exercises on water capacity and pressure ..............................................................................................................30

Step five: Selecting sprinklers and spacing ranges .........................................................................................35
Selecting sprinklers ....................................................................................................................................................35
Spray sprinklers ........................................................................................................................................................................................35
Rotating sprinklers ....................................................................................................................................................................................35
Bubblers and drip irrigation devices ........................................................................................................................................................35
Exercises on selecting sprinklers ..............................................................................................................................40
Spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates .........................................................................................41
Exercises on spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates ..................................................................47
Locating sprinklers on the plan ...............................................................................................................................48
Exercises on locating sprinklers ...............................................................................................................................52

Step six: Lateral layout, circuiting sprinklers into valve groups .....................................................................55
Locating valves, main lines and lateral piping .......................................................................................................57
Calculating lateral operating time ...........................................................................................................................58
Sample lateral number 1 ..........................................................................................................................................................................59
Sample lateral number 2 ..........................................................................................................................................................................59

Step seven: Sizing pipe and valves and calculating system pressure requirements ...................................65
Exercises on calculating system pressure requirements ......................................................................................71

Step eight: Locating the controller and sizing the valve and power wires ...................................................75
Locating the controller ..............................................................................................................................................75
Sizing valve wires .......................................................................................................................................................75
Sizing power wires .....................................................................................................................................................78

Step nine: Preparing the final irrigation plan ....................................................................................................83
Exercises on system electrics and preparing the final irrigation plan ................................................................85
Irrigation references ..................................................................................................................................................86

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual iii

..........................................................................................................S..........................99 Friction loss characteristics polyethylene (PE) SDR-pressure-rated tube ............96 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe.................112 Friction loss characteristics polyethylene (PE) SDR-pressure-rated tube ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................118 Slope reference ................................................................................................................................................118 Friction loss characteristics of bronze gate valves .........................................................................................................105 Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss ........................................................................90 Solutions to exercises on spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates .............................................................................................................................................................................. Standard Units .....................................................................................................................110 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe .................................................................................................117 Soil characteristics ...Contents Solutions ..................................................................................................................101 Friction loss characteristics type K copper water tube .....................................................................115 Pressure loss in valves and fittings .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Climate PET ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................89 Solutions to exercises on basic hydraulics .......................94 Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe ................................................................................................................................................117 Maximum precipitation rates ....................................................................118 Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss .......................................................................................................103 Pressure loss through swing check valves ........................................94 U.............105 Friction loss characteristics of bronze gate valves .......................................................................................................................114 Friction loss characteristics type K copper water tube ......................................................................98 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................103 Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings .........................................100 Friction loss characteristics schedule 40 standard steel pipe..............................................................................................................................................................................................................91 Solutions to exercises on calculating system pressure requirements .......................................................................................................................91 Technical Data ..............109 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe ................................................................................................................89 Solutions to exercises on selecting sprinklers ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings .............................................................................................94 Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 Pressure loss in valves and fittings ........................................................................103 Estimated service line sizes .....................107 Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe ................................................................................................................104 Maximum precipitation rates .......113 Friction loss characteristics schedule 40 standard steel pipe.......................................................................121 Table of formulas .................................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Estimated service line sizes ...............................................................................................89 Solutions to exercises on water capacity and pressure ................................................................................................................................................................................................................111 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................119 Appendix............................................................................................................106 International System Units...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Pressure loss through swing check valves ........................................124 Index .............................123 Table of figures .......................................................................................................................................................129 iv Landscape Irrigation Design Manual ............................................................................................................91 Solutions to exercises on system electrics and preparing the final irrigation plan .................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Solutions to exercises on locating sprinklers ..................................................................................89 Solutions to exercises on site information and irrigation requirements ............................................................................................103 Climate PET ...........................................................................................................104 Soil characteristics ......................................................................................................................90 Solutions to exercises on circuit configuration and operating time ..........................................108 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe .........107 Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe ......................................................................................95 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe...........................................................................97 Friction loss characteristics PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe.........................................................................105 Slope reference .......................

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual v .Forward This manual was prepared at the request of numerous individuals who either wished to learn the basic techniques of landscape irrigation design or who are teachers of the subject. are found in the exercises. The editors of the Landscape Irrigation Design Manual hope such an opportunity is available to you and that the information presented here is of benefit. not covered in the previous section. hands-on experience of designing and then installing a landscape irrigation system. this manual proceeds as if the reader has no prior knowledge in the subject. be sure to review the practical exercises at the end of each section. In some cases. new information and tips. As you use this manual. Intended as a very basic text for irrigation design. The main omission from a design manual such as this is the real.

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S. All rights reserved. Some metric data has been altered to simplify examples. shall not be responsible or liable. Understanding the basic hydraulics material in the first section of the manual is very important. measurements (U. In some water short areas. or injuries should arise from or in connection with the use or application of this information. This manual is part of the effort to promote properly designed landscape irrigation systems. ©2000 Rain Bird Sprinkler Manufacturing Corporation. these could become the basis for a coordinated national policy toward water conservation. With that said. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual vii . or if there is any error herein. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. difficulties..Introduction Properly designed. please turn the page to discover some facts about the nature of water. maintained and managed landscape irrigation systems greatly reduce the volume of irrigation water that is wasted every year. Today many municipalities require home or business owners to submit irrigation designs for approval prior to construction. or any agent or employee thereof. installed. typographical or otherwise. Note: Information contained in this manual is based upon generally accepted formulas.S. Even intermediate level design students may find it helpful to “brush up” on hydraulics before going on to further studies. especially to new students of irrigation design. It is our goal to present the material as simply as possible while explaining some theory behind the process. In time. Note: Metric data (International System Units) contained in this manual is not always a one-to-one conversion from U. we have seen the beginnings of planned water conservation efforts. Corp. Standard Units). computations and trade practices. Rain Bird Sprinkler Mfg. If any problems.

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Understanding Basic Hydraulics 1 .

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The area we are concerned with is only 1 in2 (1 Water is relatively incompressible. we can easily determine the static (no flow) water 1 ft (50 cm) — the pressure (psi/bar) would equal: pressure within any pipe. the more weight. Poor P = W = . To convert feet of head to pressure in Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 3 .05 bar x 2 = 0. Water is also quite heavy cm2) at the bottom of either container. deep lake. at rest P = W = 1gm/cm3 x 50 cm3 = 50 gm = 0. and 0. Controlling the water flow P = 0. pressure of . holding velocity within proper limits.433 psi (0. One foot (50 cm) of water creates a designs and eliminate waste.05 kg/cm2 and in motion. P = W = 1 gm/cm3 x 100 cm3 = 100 gm = 0. produce efficient depth of 1 ft (50 cm).433 psi (0.433 x 2 ft of height = .3 lbs (1 kg) and water has a specific weight per cubic foot of 62.866 psi height to a column of water. The more .4 lbs (one ton per cubic meter). — one gallon (one liter) of water weighs 8. The formula for water pressure looks like this: (100 cm) P = force = F 12 in area A (50 cm) P = pressure in pounds per square inch (kilograms per square centimeter) F = force in pounds (kilograms) A = area in square inches (square centimeters) 1 in 1 in 1 in 1 in (1 cm) (1 cm) (1 cm) (1 cm) The force is created by the weight of the water above the point where it is being measured.866 psi (0. as “feet of head” (meters of head).433 lb hydraulics A 1 in x 1 in 1 in2 Hydraulics is defined as the study of fluid behavior. the height of the water. Water responds to gravity and seeks its own lowest level (responding to gravity). Hydraulic analysis Consider a 1 in2 (1 cm2) container filled with water to a is important to minimize financial risks.10 kg/cm2 or even broken pipes and flood damage.05 bar) at the base of the container.1 bar) unknown factors. When the area is constant. Properly designed piping. the pressure is doubled. The factors for converting pressure to feet of head (meters of head) and feet of head (meters of head) back to pressure are both multipliers. with sound A 1 cm x 1 cm cm2 hydraulics. Figure 1: Water towers filled at 12 in and 24 in (50 cm and 100 cm) such as 1 in2 (1 cm2). reduces wear on the system components and lengthens service life. By using this conversion A container 1 in2 (1 cm2) and filled with water to a height of factor. then the force in pounds (kilograms) is If you double the height of the water.1 bar pressure. It makes no difference if the 1 ft (50 cm) of water is held in To accomplish all these things we need to understand the this narrow container or at the bottom of a 1 ft (50 cm) nature of water. leading to stressed landscaping material.036 lb in3 x 24 in3 = 0.866 lb hydraulic design results in poor performance of the A 1 in x 1 in 1 in2 irrigation system. can greatly reduce maintenance problems over the life of an irrigation system.036 lb in3 x 12 in3 = 0. dependent on. Water exerts pressure — defined as the force of water exerted over a 24 in given area. simply. Lack of design A 1 cm x 1 cm cm2 know-how can also cost the system owner more money because the designer may over-design the system to avoid P = 0. force. a poor hydraulic design will often waste water. Water takes the shape of the container. 1 Understanding Basic Hydraulics Step one: Understanding basic P = W = .05 bar) velocity. In addition to wasting money. Pressure is expressed as pounds per square inch (kilograms per square centimeter) and abbreviated as psi This relationship between pressure and elevation is known (kg/cm2 or bar).

The supply system to this home looks like this (see Figure 86. We will be following the 200 ft complete irrigation design process for this project (100 m) throughout the manual. multiply the feet by . We will be discussing static water pressure as a starting at its base. static pressure is created. to operate a system. is (10 bar) the city water main with a fairly high static pressure of 111 Figure 2: Water tower – 200 ft (100 m) psi (7. One meter of water = 0. 1 kg/cm2 = 10 meters of water = 1 bar. Water systems may also be pressurized by a pump or a pump can be used to increase. One psi = 2.433 psi.6 psi 3): at point “A. (10 bar) would only lift the water 231 ft (100 m). By elevating water in tanks.) There are two ways to create static water pressure. The word hydrostatic refers to the properties of water at For example. multiply the pressure is an indication of the potential pressure available pressure by 2.433 One foot of water = . to where it’s 10kg/. with all it would create a pressure of 86. (To convert pressure in bar or kg/cm2 to meters of head. Static this factor we can determine that a water tower with a water pressure refers to the pressure of a closed system water surface 200 ft (100 m) above the point where we need with no water moving.) Further. water (200 m) above our water source if we had a pumping water height can create pressure. valves closed. or boost. For example. we would know have seen in our discussion regarding the relationship that we can’t pump water up into a lake that is 300 ft between pounds per square inch (bar) and elevation. divide the meters by 10. pressure available of 100 psi (10 bar). (To convert meters of head to pressure in point for hydraulic design of an irrigation system. For example. pressure. A water-filled main line. above where the water is needed. Static water To convert pressure in psi to feet of head. Pressure of 100 psi towers and reservoirs.Understanding Basic Hydraulics psi.7 bar). Here is an example of a simple system for supplying water to a house from a city main line. From the main line there is a supply pipe made of 1-1/2 in (40 mm) copper that rises 3 ft (1 m) to Figure 3: Water supply to a house 4 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .6 psi rest.31 = 231 feet of head. For example. As we Calculating with this factor in advance.” under the street at a depth of 4 ft (1.433 produces 86. 100 meters of water x 0. kg/cm2. understanding the static pressure at the water source for an irrigation system is where hydraulic calculations begin. Whether from elevation differences or by mechanical means. multiply the pressure by 10.2 m).31 ft of water. would experience full static pressure with only pressure variation due to elevation.1 kg/cm2 = Moving water. 200 ft of water height x .6 psi (10 bar). kg/cm2. 10 Static water pressure kg/cm2 = 100 meters of head.cm2 or 10 bar of pressure at its base. 100 psi x 2. using needed is the hydraulic basis of irrigation design.31. at the correct flow and pressure.1 Hydrodynamic refers to the properties of water in motion.

3 bar + 7.7 psi (7. the 1.” or “high pressure. irrigation system for the “worst case” pressure conditions.433 psi (0.6 bar – 0.5 ÷ 10 = 0.1 bar).866 psi (0. (0. the static pressure remaining at point “F”.8 psi.52 bar) at point “G. Finally. 1 Understanding Basic Hydraulics connect to the meter and is 12 ft (4 m) in length.05 bar) 109. In this case.03 bar) from the 108.) At any point along the main line. 115. all the house is a hose valve connection.” so they have the same 109. elevation change coming down to the project would have To calculate the static water pressure available to the site.299 psi (1 m ÷ 10 = 0.33 psi + 111 psi static pressure in the main line = the main line and has the same 111 psi (7. the designer will need to consider and control In most locales.6 psi (0.05 bar = 7. designer would adjust the design and equipment selection Connected to the meter is a 3/4 in (20 mm) copper service to provide a system that operates correctly even with the line that runs 35 ft (11 m) to where it enters the house low service line pressure. the curb side is an existing 3/4 in (20 mm) size water meter.55 bar) at point “F” to determine there is approximately 108.3 data or make critical assumptions about the water source. the water through the garage. so it is a To begin an irrigation system design you must have critical loss. we produced pressure gains instead of losses.6 bar) static pressure.2 bar) answer from 111 psi (7.3 m) above the point where the service line enters the If the water main was in a street higher than the site.0 bar static pressure at the valve) (0. Had the weekend days in the summer when a lot of people irrigate Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 5 . is 1 ft (0. (7. Since the supply source is from below.433 psi = 4.” A more direct way to calculate the Figure 4: Static water pressure static pressure for point “G” would be to multiply the 6 ft rise in elevation by .4 psi (7.33 psi static pressure at the valve Point “C” is 3 ft (1 m) above the main and we would calculate the pressure at point “C” as follows: 3 ft x . (The location of the tap gathering the site data could have measured the water into the service line may also be referred to as the point-of.7 bar – 0.866 psi = 108. Therefore. it is important to design the static pressure can be calculated.” the hose bib in the garage. the designer or other person main line for the irrigation system. are system design.5 m) rise in elevation that we calculate as follows to get a static pressure for point “F:” 2 x .” for which we would calculate the static pressure by subtracting .433 psi = . Static water pressure at the point-of-connection is a necessary part of the data needed to start an irrigation Points “D” and “E. the “worst case” situation will be on hot the high water pressure condition on this site.8 psi (7.5 m) from the meter location to the house.7 bar static pressure in the main line = 1.3 m) above point “F. Point “B ” in this diagram is at the same elevation as 10 ft x . a water pressure The designer may choose to cut (or tap) into the service reading or valid pressure assumption is very important.433 psi (divide the 2 m rise by 10) and A sound irrigation design cannot begin with subjective subtract the 2. the static pressure at point “C” is 111 psi – 1.1 bar) is a weight against the source pressure.36 psi (7.6 bar). Between points “E” and “F” there is a 2 ft (0.7 the static pressure at the hose bib would have been: bar).7 psi (7.” When a remainder of 108.8 bar). on the same elevation as point “C.3 psi (0. the purveyor’s estimate. or for simplification.433 psi = (3 m ÷ 10 = 0. start at point “A” where the water purveyor advises that we had the main line been located 10 ft (3 m) above the site.1 bar) for a remainder of 109. can expect a static pressure in their main line of 111 psi (7. 1. At the pressure in the city main been low. line anywhere between the meter and the house to start the In the previous example.3 psi 8. However.55 bar) Point “G.7 psi – .7 bar) pressure.5 bar) in rounded numbers. 1 ft requirements and a booster pump will be necessary. There is a small rise in elevation of 2 ft pressure is too low for typical landscape irrigation (0. psi (7.” which are on each side of the meter. gathering information at a project site.1 bar). say 40 psi (2.7 bar) for terms like “good pressure. For example. pressure with a pressure gauge rather than using the water connection or POC. In some instances.

we arrive at 10.5 m/s) as an Dynamic water pressure or “working pressure” differs from acceptable maximum velocity. By being forced through the system. size in which they are available. as well as elevation gains or losses.Understanding Basic Hydraulics their lawns. When a valve is opened. and the resistance creates a pressure loss. (By multiplying also determines how much pressure is lost. water meters and backflow of the water passing through the pipe at that flow rate. Good advice can the pressure loss at particular flows. is usually given as pounds per square inch (bar) loss per The pressures calculated in the previous example were all 100 ft (100 m) of pipe. fittings. The water purveyor probably uses a computer Large Flow Small Valve model to predict the lower summer pressures in their system. to friction losses. meters cubed per hour (m3/h) or liters per second the water purveyor. and velocity. the rate at which water moves within the turbulence on the inside surfaces of pipes and components components of the system. Friction loss is a pressure loss caused by water In addition to the pound per square inch loss per 100 ft (bar flowing through pipes.45 and then dividing that the physical size of the water path through a component answer into 10 gpm. higher the friction loss. Because of this. friction loss charts will often show the velocity system.57 m/s. Fast moving water can cause other problems in a system as well.24 x L/s 2. Velocities less than 5 ft/s static pressure because it varies throughout the system due (1. is an important factor to creates a drag or friction on the passing water. The formula is: V= gpm V = 1273. The more water Schedule 40 PVC pipe with a flow of 10 gpm ( 0. system considering a given quantity of water flowing past that point.63 L/s by 1273. The faster the water moves through a pipe. and it is good to call them even if a (L/s). Pipes.5 ft/s. you can use an equation to determine flow mathematically.24 and then dividing by the diameter equipment manufacturer’s catalog contains flow loss charts squared. the the pressure of the flowing water to decrease. In addition to checking a pipe chart to find velocity for a certain type and size of pipe at a given flow. prevention devices all offer resistance to water flowing. small valve. The loss varies with differing types of static water pressures with no water movement in the pipe.45 x dia2 dia2 A typical water path has lots of friction V = velocity in feet per second (meters per second) Figure 5: Water path with friction dia = inside diameter of pipe in inches (millimeters) The amount of water flowing through the components of One example in your manual is for 1/2 in (15 mm) the system also affects the friction loss. which causes understand. The water purveyor may also be able to predict if pressures Lower Pressure may change in the future. and the higher the pressure loss. For example. Dynamic water pressure The industry has established 5 ft/s (1. The roughness and Velocity. 6 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .5 m/s). pressure losses due to friction increase rapidly as dynamic water pressure is the pressure at any point in the velocities increase beyond 5 ft/s (1. the additional houses to be built in the future Pipe flow loss charts are available for quickly determining may cause the pressure to be lower. multiplying the product by 2. into account. and components in the loss per 100 m). we arrive at 3. so they can provide data regardless of the season. we have a new pressure situation to take hydraulically unique. This fact makes each type of pipe begins flowing.622 in. different pipes have varying dimensions and degrees system. This flow loss pressure reading is made at the site. A sprinkler 0. and water in the system of internal smoothness. lower pressure conversely. fittings. they may be planning to install a new pump to increase pressure or Figure 6: Large flow. the higher the flow squaring the inside diameter of the pipe. . in gallons per minute generally be obtained from the professionals working for (gpm). valves.) It’s much easier to get this for each piece of water-handling equipment and for each information from the pipe chart.5 m/s) are less likely to cause damaging surge pressures.63 L/s). Larger sizes are for larger flow ranges within each equipment series. through various types and sizes of pipe. The Also.

83 20 21. This is a typical chart 10 gpm (2.14 2. to the second column under the 1 in (25 mm) size.12 5.87 72.67 7.5 m/s).47 4 4.19 4.05 m/s).63 L/s) is above the shaded area for 1 in (25 mm) and is 3 3.5 (0.049 1.27 m3/h or 0.30 8.11 psi (loss per 100 m is 0.050 1.90 ID 0.37 0.27 m3/h or 0.12 0.15 10.15 2 2.14 for that type of pipe.73 3.71 2.94 m/s) rule is one factor used to size pipe in a sprinkler 7 7.23 12.133 0.55 5.63 L/s) flow flow gpm velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps psi loss velocity fps through 1/2 in (15 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe.42 0.31 or 0.44 20.20 3.07 6.49 25. on the right.59 1.63 L/s) in the leftmost column.97 1.36 2.60 9. Looking across to the 1 in showing the losses through various sizes of Schedule 40 (25 mm) size pipe. According to the 5 ft/s (1.14 would not try to force 10 gpm (2.4 per 100 ft (0.63 L/s) flow in SIZE 1⁄2 in 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 this 1/2 in (15 mm) pipe creates a velocity of more than 10 OD 0.61 ft/s (3. 30. read Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 7 .13 3. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.63 m3/h or 1.92 9.09 110.85 1.26 0.01 2.20 0.40 1.22 5.27 m3/h or 0.46 24 14.33 1. Using the same flow of 10 gpm (2. Ten gpm (2.22 m/s) is the velocity of the water for 1/2 in (15 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe when flowing 10 gpm (2.14 3.35 bar). This is the same velocity we calculated with the velocity formula.55 1.76 56.27 m3/h or 0.48 5.49 0.88 2. Standard Units) or 108 (International across to the friction loss number under the 1/2 in (15 mm) System Units) of the Technical Data section of this manual size pipe.27 m3/h or 0.33 1.12 0.89 1.85 0.01 L/s) flow.01 L/s).109 0. Read down the left-hand column for flow to 10 gpm (2.21 10.25 0.44 3.33 11.89 12.77 3.71 0.28 2. We will discuss pipe sizing later in this manual.05 0.27 8.824 1. The shaded area that runs diagonally across the face PVC SCHEDULE 40 IPS PLA of the chart shows where the flows cause velocities to (1120.21 0. Across the top of the L/s) flow.63 L/s) flow in 1/2 PVC CLASS 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE in (15 mm) Schedule 40 is deep within the shaded area.65 42.77 4.01 0.86 3.59 1.64 0. The maximum 5 ft/s (1.622 0.80 5.42 39. Read across Please see page 108 for a metric version of the chart above.73 12 12.41 10 10. at the same 10 gpm (2.27 m3/h or 0.315 1.77 26 15.63 L/s).63 PVC pipe across a wide range of flows. pipe mm) size and running across the page to 6 in (160 mm) size size can make a big difference in controlling friction loss.15 1. Two columns of data are flow velocity is under our 5 ft/s (1.40 6.07 2.80 7.70 bar x 0. the velocity in feet per second (meters per second).52 1.42 1.93 1. As you can see.90 bar) would be lost for every 100 ft and look at the friction loss characteristics chart for (100 m) of 1/2 in (15 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe at a flow of Schedule 40 PVC pipe (shown below).380 1.60 36.18 2.5 m/s) limit because it is given for each size of pipe listed.04 7.92 0.18 0.62 well below 5 ft/s (1.14 0.70 2. already know that a 10 gpm (2.27 m3/h 1 1.85 0.42 1.57 If we wanted to determine the friction loss through 50 ft (50 11 11.70 bar).66 4. 1 Understanding Basic Hydraulics Turn to page 95 (U.43 6.35 0. we would first turn to the pipe chart 18 18.39 3.89 4.63 1.07 0.02 2. Because we In the columns on the far right and left of the chart are the want to know the loss for only 50 ft (50 m) of that pipe we flows in gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters would simply multiply 3.09 Turn to the class 200 PVC chart and read down the leftmost Figure 7: Schedule 40 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) column to 16 gpm (3.96 1.86 2.840 1.5 m/s) rule.60 0.94 8.140 0.660 1.16 3.55 30.20 16 16.72 3.99 1.81 23.11 1.63 L/s).14 5.55 ft/s (3.42 1.80 0. But. The loss per 100 ft is 3.00 2.27 m3/h or 0.21 33.S.28 0.60 3.39 0.40 2.07 0.17 4.98 90.41 14.41 8.27 4.55 psi (0.10 8 8. look over at 1 in (25 mm) for the same flow.03 0.20 4.93 5.51 (3. 9 9.84 1. The first column shows not in the shaded area.24 1.46 3.43 0. We Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.11 psi x .28 1. 10. 22 13.11 0.5) and get a per second) with the lowest flow at the top and increasing total loss of about 1.03 0.33 4.44 0. the 10 gpm (2.75 1.63 m3/h or 1.78 6 6.113 0.63 L/s) and then read across to the first column under the 1/2 in (15 mm) size.51 2.5 5 5.48 0.45 8.00 7.62 45.74 0.54 psi (6.38 15. We also know that the flows as you read down the chart.01 28.08 5. There is another important indicator on the friction loss chart.27 m3/h or 0.60 2. we Wall Thk 0.64 14.25 system.5 m/s) velocity. we read a pound per square inch (bar) loss of chart find pipe sizes beginning on the left with 1/2 in (15 only 2.61 18.20 4.5 bar per 100 m).54 6.11 0.88 m) of 1 in (25 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe flowing at 16 gpm 14 14.58 9.66 1.47 2.22 0. 1220) C=150 exceed 5 ft/s (1.69 10.28 3. PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) For example.57 0.57 3. The other column under each pipe size on the chart contains the friction loss data in pounds per square inch (bar) lost per 100 ft (100 m) of pipe.

4 45 12.70 0.04 0.32 4.34 1.79 0.20 0.15 33.34 5.19 5.98 0.37 0.315 1.81 5.11 2.14 0.720 2.3 6 2.51 3.94 0.20 3.74 2.83 2.00 2 0.72 4.34 2.05 3.78 1.27 2.0 55 15.59 0.17 0.48 0.2 5 2.6 65 18.58 5.89 1.78 1.78 5.51 43.4 8 3.94 9.67 1.06 2.27 0.44 0.22 0.47 0.82 3.35 3.45 5.92 6.86 0.75 0.49 1.93 5.3 60 17.04 8.30 1.18 2.930 1.09 0.34 9.23 0.88 0.24 6.75 2.68 1.900 2.16 0.31 36.46 2.113 flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi veloc gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps 1 0.53 0.30 2.26 1.59 1.04 0.46 3.660 1.43 1.60 4.28 0. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.21 29.18 0.62 0.30 1.5 Figure 8: Class 200 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) Please see page 110 for a metric version of the chart above.97 1.189 1.32 1.32 7.02 0.27 5.96 0.42 1.22 1.02 0.70 2.1 4 1.7 50 14.13 1.42 0.95 2.50 7.65 9.25 3.3 7 3.02 0.66 9.89 0.49 12.52 1.06 0.10 0.22 0.65 7.62 3.07 0.36 0. turn to the next page in the manual and do the exercises for both static and dynamic conditions.31 2.01 0.17 0.11 0.03 0.00 7.01 0.97 0.77 11.85 2.6 11 5.08 0.70 9.97 5.15 0.23 11.87 56.050 1.66 6.18 0.26 0.03 0.61 0.56 17.98 21.32 21.65 0.43 2.35 0.07 1.47 10.01 0.6 12 5.97 1.40 8.02 3.51 1.14 0.95 6.51 2.1 40 18.89 4.27 6.61 3.26 0.502 1.22 0.44 0.13 0.46 0.00 3 1.14 8.83 1.17 1.42 25.86 1.063 0.58 1.02 10.38 18.09 4.55 2.71 3.14 0.00 2.55 10.24 2.75 41.60 8.77 2.53 0.51 0.19 3.13 6.08 0.47 0.91 10.24 0.05 4.04 8.59 1.28 1.15 3.61 1.23 2.20 4.51 2.98 5.80 0.42 3.06 0.149 Wall Thk 0.12 3.80 3.44 0.83 7.04 0.40 1.08 8.82 3.56 1.58 6.375 ID 0.72 0.68 0.88 1.4 26 12.05 0.26 0.87 30.20 3.0 20 9.3 24 11.86 1.02 0.25 1.9 18 8.78 6.06 0.30 4.Understanding Basic Hydraulics PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.07 0.090 0.53 0. Now that you know how to calculate static pressure changes due to differing elevations and how to read a pipe chart to determine friction losses.77 4.82 0.26 4.01 0.41 1.2 22 10.69 4.09 0.57 0.5 28 13.8 35 16.55 8.96 6.56 1.5 10 4.90 0.94 0.79 1.50 1.079 0.54 17.08 0.83 6.76 0.00 8. 8 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .66 2.54 0.7 14 6.93 0.27 25. When you complete the exercises you can check your work in the Solutions section on page 87.46 1.82 2.12 0.06 0.65 15.62 3.9 70 12.04 2.23 5. 1220) SDR 21 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 3⁄4 in through 6 in.26 4.24 0. SIZE 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in OD 1.55 0.19 2.43 15.64 1.75 13.12 0.30 2.06 4.29 0.36 0.37 1.30 1.20 1.8 16 7.6 30 14.85 11.85 1.58 5.73 0.03 6.44 3.09 2.93 1.72 3.02 0.36 1.41 0.060 0.4 9 4.10 0.2 75 13.41 0.87 3.10 13.65 0.65 4.37 9.30 0.17 0.

(50 m) 100 ft (30 m) C B 80 ft 50 ft (24 m) (15 m) D 75 ft (23 m) 100 ft (30 m) E A. B. E. To find the static water pressure in pounds per square inch (bar) at point B you would multiply by ______ and get an answer of ______ psi (divide by ______ and get an answer of ______ bar). answer the Using the diagram below of an elevated water tank and its following: piping system. A Point E’s dynamic pressure is ______ psi (bar). Point D’s dynamic pressure is ______ psi (bar). What is the static pressure at the following points? Point D _______ Point E _______ D.64 L/s). Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 9 . Points B and C are on the same elevation. After you subtract the friction loss caused by the above flow through 100 ft (30 m) of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe the dynamic pressure at B is ______ psi (bar). 160 ft point E’s dynamic pressure would be ______ psi (bar). Point B had a static pressure of ______ psi (bar). Keep in mind that dynamic pressure is a running total of friction losses and elevation losses or gains. All the pipe in the system is 1-1/4 in (32 mm) Class 200 PVC. Point C’s dynamic pressure is ______ psi (bar). Answer the questions below for a system flow of 26 gpm (5. fill in the blanks in the hydraulic analysis. 1 Understanding Basic Hydraulics Exercises on basic hydraulics Starting with point B’s dynamic pressure.9 m3/h or 1. How many pounds per square inch (bar) difference is there in the static pressure at these two points? C. If the 100 ft (30 m) section of pipe between points D and E angled up 75 ft (23 m) in elevation instead of down. Point B in the system is 160 ft (50 m) below the water's surface at point A.

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Obtaining Site Information 2 .

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Newer homes The hydraulic data should always be noted. If an existing drawing cannot be obtained. be sure to check with the local utility possibly impact the irrigation system. 6. Complete and accurate field cannot be tolerated. Without an accurate site Locate all trees and shrub areas and pinpoint the plant plan of the field conditions. Even if constant wind. When using a gauge. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 13 . it is irrigation system piping and. 4. Indicate where there are slopes 8. it could soil. the water source. shrubs or hedges or low trees that could hinder the One important note: before beginning any site plan sprinkler coverage. Determining water and power supply 100 ft (1 cm = 30 m). and the types of vegetation that these areas will contain. a drawing with all the the site is open. Obtaining site information is a very important step in Also make note of areas where water drift or over spray the design procedure. 30 or 40 ft (1 cm = 6. direct reading with a pressure gauge. 2 Obtaining Site Information Step two: Obtaining site appropriate measurements should be made so a scaled information drawing can be created. Lateral layout (or “circuiting” sprinklers). or be impacted by companies for the location of any buried lines on the site. A site plan is a scaled drawing of the areas that are Indications of the soil type (sandy. driveways. Sizing pipe and valves and calculating total system pressure loss Locate all buildings. there is little hope for an material on the drawing. Examples are areas of high or at the city or county planning/zoning department. provide a solid base to start the site plan. stairways. It is best to minimize the crossing of utilities with the In addition to plotting existing planting areas. Selecting sprinklers and other equipment The shape of the area should be drawn on the site plan 5. further. to avoid locating any important to note the location of any new planting areas equipment on top of utilities. areas call for smaller scales to accommodate manageable The steps are: plan sizes. The steps in this with a scale of 1 in = 10 ft (1 cm = 1 m). Indicate any particularly dense accurate irrigation plan. follow this eight-step procedure. there may be a site plan or survey on record designed or managed. or coarse sandy the plan does not have all the details necessary. If the site being designed falls within a significantly affect how the irrigation system will be city boundary. A convenient scale should be selected that best fits the area onto a plan with good To ensure the complete and proper design of an irrigation readable details. retaining walls. a scaled drawing hook it up to a hose bib or garden valve. daily shade. light or utility poles. Before going through and the wind direction are also very helpful. underground sprinkler system. A 200-acre 2. Turn the valve on on graph paper is a good alternative for small sites. especially since there are so many trades static water pressure should be ascertained. Obtaining site information all common plan sizes for commercial projects. check to see if a particularly important to note site features that will plan already exists. and any 7. preferably by a involved in the site design process. such as the water meter. A having water sprayed on it. locating valves with all sides and dimensions accurately measured and and main lines represented on the drawing. Note everything you see that could development. length and material of and lot design. 1 in = 20. Determining the irrigation requirement (81 ha) golf course might be drawn up with a scale of 1 in = 3. The location of may even have a computer-generated drawing available. Take additional measurements to assist in drawing any curves and odd angled borders. When to take the pressure reading when no other water outlet on this cannot be done at the site. Larger chances of overlooking important factors in the process. Almost all large sites have some sort of the service line should be indicated on the site plan. such as windows close to the lawn information is essential for designing an efficient areas. walkways. A residential site might fit well on a plan system. Locating controllers and sizing wire other features of the site. Take sufficient measurements little pre-planning can prevent costly problems in the field! to ensure accuracy. Preparing the final irrigation plan and in which direction and how steeply the ground slopes. heavy clay soil. 10 or 15 m) are 1. as well as the since many housing contractors now use CAD for home size of the water meter and the size. parking areas. It is the effort of creating a site plan yourself. clay like or a mixture) impacted by the irrigation system. A 100 ft (30 m) wide procedure must be taken in this order to reduce the lot would only be 10 in (30 cm) wide on the drawing. The existing site plans.

the available funds or budget of the owner may determine what type of suitable irrigation system can be designed. Some municipalities have time of day restrictions for watering. 14 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . When the drawing from the field data is finally prepared. a pressure and flow test of the pump is advisable in case the performance has changed with wear. Also. If electrical power is available.Obtaining Site Information If the water source for the project includes a pump. make note of the desired location and source of power for the pump. horsepower and electrical characteristics of the pump. The pump manufacturer will be able to provide the performance curve for the pump. Should a pond or lake serve as the water source and no pumping plant currently exists. This knowledge is necessary to begin an efficient irrigation plan specifically tailored to the property. the rating (voltage and amperage) needs to be noted. it should represent an accurate picture of the site and all the conditions concerning the project. Further. obtain the model. Any special considerations of the site should be noted.

2 Obtaining Site Information Figure 9: Basic plan drawing Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 15 .

Obtaining Site Information Figure 10: More detailed plan drawing 16 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .

Determining Irrigation Requirements 3 .

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Later in this manual. a “Hot Dry” watering.” or “Cool” that are long does the system need to run?. and by transpiration. crop coefficient to obtain the ET rate for a specific plant or We will be discussing the precipitation rate of sprinklers turf. the “worst case” condition listed at maximum average rate of water use for plants in a given the top of the ET range for that climate type.30 to . if you want to water to a depth of climate produces a requirement of . we will also consider ball park figure for your project. evaporation will be Soil type lower as compared to a climate with the same average Soil absorbs and holds water in much the same way as a temperature but drier air. At the design stage. and from inches (millimeters) of water required per day of .” “Warm.15 in (3 to 4 mm) amount of moisture it can hold. Of surface.” a number of factors listed below the PET table. silt and clay particles. Hot = over 90° F (32˚C) Humid = over 50% as average midsummer relative humidity [dry = under 50%] The simplest way to determine the soil type is to place a moistened soil sample in your hand and squeeze. will greatly affect the Cool Dry . Take the In the table. influence on water use. A given texture and volume of soil will hold a given amount of moisture. ranges that establish the “Humid” and “Dry” classifications. The combination of these is greatest water requirement. These figures are rough estimates for these irrigation requirements types of climates for an average midsummer day. and the Cool Humid . The hotter the climate.25 in (5 to 6 mm) Soil is made up of sand.10 to . The three categories of “Cool. note the factors that affect the water use rate The soil type on the project site is a factor in determining for a given climate type.45 in (8 to 11 6 in (15 cm). In other words.” how fast and how often water can be applied to the plant “Warm” and “Hot” indicate that temperature has an material. the matching the scheduling of automatic irrigation controls to designer wants to provide an irrigation system that can both the sprinkler precipitation rate and the system meet peak season (summer time) ET rates. the more water loss is expected.30 to . Because the percentage Cool = under 70° F (21˚ C) as an average midsummer high of any one of these three particles can differ. If the air is humid.20 to . Choosing sprinklers to match not geared to a specific plant.25 to . there is Warm = between 70° and 90° F (21˚ and 32˚ C) as midsummer highs virtually an unlimited number of soil types possible. 3 Determining Irrigation Requirements Step three: Determining mm) per day. dig down 6 in (15 cm) to take your soil sample. An irrigation system should always be designed to The local climate is one of the main factors that influences adequately water the project in the “worst case” condition.30 in (6 to 8 mm) percentage of each of these three particles is what Hot Dry . which is the use the highest number. which is the amount of water course. Other major factors are humidity and wind speed. The intake rate of the soil will Climate PET influence the precipitation rate and type of sprinkler that Climate Inches (millimeters) Daily can be utilized. Also listed are the humidity need to be examined. a “Cool Humid” climate has an ET range in sample from a representative part of the site.20 in (4 to 5 mm) irrigation operational schedule. the climate type for the area where your project is located. In the table. The ability of soil to hold moisture. how much water is needed to maintain good plant growth. applied to the plant material?” and “How often and how consult the notes on “Hot.20 in (4 to 5 mm) Warm Dry . sponge.15 to .15 to .10 to . At the upper end of the scale. Although it is a rough guide to water requirements and later in the design process. This is usually midsummer when the average daily The plant water requirement includes the water lost by temperature is at or near its highest for the growing season evaporation into the atmosphere from the soil and soil or when humidity is averaging its lowest percentages. The Hot Humid . When you have determined evapotranspiration (ET). as the climate. irrigation requirement.15 approximately the same depth to which you will be in (3 to 4 mm). Warm Humid .45 in (8 to 11 mm) “worst case” determines the actual soil texture. ETo stands for reference evapotranspiration. a combination of these extremes produces the used by the plant. the table below and in the the irrigation requirement is a critical consideration for the Technical Data section of this manual will help establish a designer. Reference evapotranspiration is multiplied by a requirement for your project. To answer the questions “How much water has to be To help determine in which climate your project is located. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 19 .

water (AW) water (slow drainage) Figure 12 shows the availability of water for use by plants. Hygroscopic water • Capillary water is moisture that is held in the pore (essentially no drainage) spaces of the soil and can be used by plants. One of the most significant differences between different Field capacity represents the boundary between soil types is the way in which they absorb and hold water. capacity Note: Emitters should not be used in very course soils as water will percolate downward before it can spread far Readily enough horizontally. but will not spread very far horizontally. horizontally through the soil. Both gravity and capillary Saturation action influence vertical movement of water. Because • Maximum wetting patterns show the relationship hygroscopic water is not usable by plants. gravitational water and capillary water. continuous soil between vertical and horizontal movement of water in SOIL SOIL SOIL INTAKE WATER DRAINAGE TYPE TEXTURE COMPONENTS RATE RETENTION EROSION Sandy soil Coarse texture Sand Very high Very low Low erosion Good drainage Loamy sand High Low Loamy soil Moderately coarse Sandy loam Moderately high Moderately low Low erosion Good drainage Fine loam Moderately high Moderately low Medium texture Very fine loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Silty loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Silt Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Moderately fine Clay loam Moderately low High Sandy clay loam Moderately low High Silty clay loam Moderately low High Clay soil Fine texture Sandy clay Low High Drainage Silty clay Low High Severe erosion Clay Figure 11: Soil characteristics 20 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .Determining Irrigation Requirements Figure 11 lists the general characteristics of the three main moisture levels below the Permanent Wilting Point will soil types. It is the upper limit Capillary action is the primary force in spreading water for soil moisture that is usable by plants. Gravitational In coarser soils. water is more likely to be absorbed water (rapid drainage) vertically. Micro-sprays or conventional sprinkler Available available Capillary water irrigation may be more appropriate. Figure 12: Soil/water/plant relationship • Gravitational water drains rapidly from the soil and is not readily available to be used by plants. Figure 13 shows the way water is absorbed in the three different soil types: The permanent wilting point represents the boundary between capillary water and hygroscopic water. The moisture held in soil can be classified in three ways: • Hygroscopic water is moisture that is held too tightly in Permanent wilting point the soil to be used by plants. The Field opposite is true for finer soils. result in the death of the plants.

00 (51) 1. intake rate of the soil.75 (19) 0. forming the traditional “carrot.50 (13) 0.40 (10) 0. all of which waste is downward. or how fast it absorbs water.5 in/ft will form a cast that can be easily handled. erosion or soil puddling. the soil will form a ribbon 20.9 – 1.15 (4) 0. silts and clays have a very low intake rate.60 (15) 0.30 (8) 0.40 (10) Light sandy loams over compact subsoils 1.75 (44) 1. Maximum SOIL TYPE CHARACTERISTICS Soil Wetting Wetted Available Type Pattern Diameter Water (AW) Coarse Soil particles are loose.06 (2) Figure 15: Maximum precipitation rates for slopes Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 21 .50 (13) 0.25 (32) 1.0 ft 2.40 (10) 0. sandy soil that presents a flat surface is 2. readily available for use by plants.0 ft 2. may form hard lumps or clods.3 – 0.4 in/ft is released. the soil is quite plastic and flexible.50 (38) 1.00 (25) 0.00 (25) 1.30 (8) 0.15 (4) 0.00 (25) 1.00 (51) 2.75 (19) 0. once wet. Figure 13: Soil infiltration and wetting pattern for drip irrigation When wet.10 (3) 0.80 (20) 1.20 (5) Silt loams over compact subsoil 0. The soil’s intake rate.50 (38) 1. water movement causes runoff.25 (6) 0.50 (13) 0.50 (38) 1.40 (10) Light sandy loams uniform 1.50 (13) Course sandy soils over compact subsoils 1.10 (3) Heavy clay or clay loam 0.0 in/ft (loam) Medium Has a moderate amount of fine grains of 0.60 (15) 0. types are outlined on this chart along with properties that Figure 14: Determining the soil type influence the irrigation design. and “radish” profiles.80 (20) 0. (clay loam) 0. When dry. it can be readily broken. Once the applying water faster than the soil can receive it.00 (25) 0.25 (32) 0.00 (25) 0.6 – 1.40 (10) 0.0 ft 1.75 (19) 0.00 (51) 2.0 – 3.” “onion.75 (44) 1. Squeezed in the hand when dry.9 m 12 mm/m form a cast. 3 Determining Irrigation Requirements the soil up to the maximum wetted diameter. As the angle of slope increases. Squeezed when wet. This maximum wetted diameter is reached. sandy soil absorbs water very quickly while cover and percent of slope.40 (10) 0.20 (5) 0. the intake rate decreases because of the higher potential for • Available water (AW) is the amount of water that is runoff.0 – 4.00 (25) 0. retain moisture longer than do the coarse. Agriculture’s recommendations for the maximum PR dictates how quickly water can be applied by the irrigation values for certain soil types with respect to soil plant system.25 (32) 0.60 (15) 0.00 (25) 0.8 m 21 mm/m Fine When dry.50 (13) 0. When squeezed between the thumb In the Technical Data section of this manual and on page and forefinger. Medium 2.00 (25) 1.30 (8) Uniform silt loams 1. but will crumble easily when touched.10 (3) 0.12 (3) 0.” Different soil that will not crack. The main problem we wish to avoid is coarse. The fine textured soils. it will (sandy loam) 0. the rate for grained soils.” water and can cause damage. The “Maximum Precipitation Rates for Slopes” chart Look particularly at the information in the last three (Figure 15) lists the United States Department of columns. it falls apart when pressure Coarse 1.2 m 17 mm/m sand and very little clay.75 (19) 0.08 (2) 0.30 (8) 0.0 – 6. it Fine 3.15 (4) 0. is a chart labeled “Soil characteristics.00 or 2 MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION RATES: INCHES PER HOUR (MILLIMETERS PER HOUR) 0 to 5% slope 5 to 8% slope 8 to 12% slope 12%+ slope SOIL TEXTURE cover bare cover bare cover bare cover bare Course sandy soils 2. Coarse. In the upper left section of the rate columns. Rolling terrain further complicates the problem of • Maximum wetted diameter is the greatest distance matching the application rate from the sprinklers with the water will spread horizontally from an emitter. Squeezed when moist.75 (19) 1.

the designer determines. ANGLE AND RATIO in (2 mm). he is ready to 80 38° 40 ft (12 m) go on to the next step in the design procedure. however. try the exercises 200 190 180 170 160 150 54° 28 ft (9 m) 140 52° 26 ft (8 m) 130 50° 42 ft (13 m) 120 47° 44 ft (13 m) 110 on the next page concerning irrigation requirements and 57 ft (17 m) 32 ft (10 m) 27 ft (8 m) 15 ft (5 m) 0 ft (0 m) 19 ft (6 m) obtaining site information. which is determining the water and power supply available to the 90 42° 0 ft (0 m) site. the irrigation requirement for the project. This means that irrigation equipment could % Angle Ratio easily cause run off or erosion if not specified and spaced 0 0° correctly. The answers to the exercises are in the Solutions section on page 87.5:1 70 35° 0 ft (0 m) week or millimeters per day). 100 45° 0 ft (0 m) 1:1 Before going on to this next step. 63° 62° 60° 59° 58° 56° Figure 16: Slope reference 22 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . 50 26° 34 ft (10 m) 2:1 Keeping the above factors in mind. 30 16° 42 ft (13 m) Depending on how the information has been given to the 33 18° 16 ft (5 m) 3:1 designer. 10 5° 43 ft (13 m) 10:1 The “Slope Reference” chart (Figure 16) explains the 20 11° 19 ft (6 m) 5:1 relationship of angle. 60 30° 58 ft (18 m) either in inches per week or inches per day (centimeters per 67 33° 50 ft (15 m) 1. In the other extreme. percent and ratio of slopes.06 PERCENT.Determining Irrigation Requirements in/h (51 mm/h). heavy clay soil with a SLOPE REFERENCE CHART surface slope of 12% will accept water only at or below 0. When this estimate is established. he may need to convert the data to the slope 40 21° 48 ft (15 m) reference with which he is most comfortable or familiar for drawing purposes.

H. A climate that has a midsummer average daily high temperature of 80° F (27° C) and an average relative humidity for the same period of 67% would be classified as a ________________ climate. 3 Determining Irrigation Requirements Exercises on site information and irrigation requirements A. A _______ is a scaled drawing of the site to be used in designing a system. What is the “worst case” in inches (millimeters) per day for a cool. Two factors that affect the ET are _______________ and ___________________. The _______ water pressure should be recorded with the other information obtained on the site. A school playing field or a neighborhood park would most likely only be irrigated at _______. G. F. E. Which of the soils listed below has a slower water intake rate and a longer water retention time than the other? Put an X after this soil type. C. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 23 . I. ET stands for ___________. Put an X after the following items that should be noted or sketched at the site before attempting to design the system. ETo stands for __________. Wind direction and velocity ____ Tree locations ____ Walkways and driveways ____ All buildings ____ Location of water source ____ Area measurements ____ Walls and fences ____ Slopes ____ D. Concerning steepness. Sandy soil ____ Clay soil____ K. a 100% slope has a ratio of 1:1 and an angle of _______ degrees. B. dry climate? J.

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Determining Water and Power Supply 4 .

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When we have established these three pressure (or “worst case” condition) is the number to use. The second is the line copper (20 mm) (25 mm) (32 mm) working pressure in pounds per square inch (bars). To make sure this pressure loss limit is not If you are unable to find the water meter size. As you will see in a moment. 4 Determining Water and Power Supply Step four: Determining water completely different size than the meter. 25 mm.2 cm) (11.7 cm) minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) Size of service 3 /4 in 1 in 1 1/4 in available for the irrigation system. the designer needs to connection. or obtained use three rules. meter can be a determining factor in the flow available for This chart is set up much like a pipe flow loss chart. Each of these rules will give us a result from the water purveyor. in gallons per minute (meters cubed The static water pressure should have been determined per hour or liters per second). contact your exceeded. at the point-of-connection line galvanized (20 mm) (25 mm) (32 mm) (POC) for the system. available for irrigation. right Water main next to the dials. This rule prevents heavy pressure loss from occurring early 40 mm and 50 mm). gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per The service line statistics are necessary to figure out which second) flows are listed in the right and left hand columns. look at a water meter flow loss chart. 1 in. • service line size • service line length Calculating water meter capacity • type of service line pipe and working pressure To find out the flow. • water meter size Now let’s see how all this information is used. The length of this and power supply line will be used with the appropriate pipe chart when determining the working pressure at the point-of- In the first section of this step. we either by the direct pressure gauge reading. The first number is the flow in gallons per Length of 2 3/4 in 3 1/4 in 3 1/2 in 4 in 4 3/8 in 5 in string (70 mm) (83 mm) (89 mm) (10.77 bar) somewhere on the upper half of the meter itself. values. Typical water meter nominal sizes include Figure 19: Pressure loss from water main to water meter 5/8 in . the lowest flow. The line may be a the meter sizes are listed across the top of the chart and the Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 27 . Remember that the lower pounds expressed as gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or per square inch (bar) figure for the summer. establish two points of critical information concerning the water supply. The the system. loss allowed the size is printed inside the reading lid of the meter. 20 mm. as our available flow for the system. in your system. the size of the ascertain this flow limit. 1-1/2 in and 2 in (18 mm. daylight liters per second). The needed data includes: Line Sizes” chart above and in the Technical Data section of • static water pressure this manual will show you how to wrap a string around the pipe and measure the string to determine the pipe size.7 bar) Only 11 psi The size of the water meter is usually stamped or cast (0.1 cm) (12. the “Estimated Service here. Figure 18: Estimated service line sizes The information gathered on site plays an important role If you can’t find the service line size. we restrict the flow through the meter. To water purveyor. Sometimes. 3/4 in. we will take the most restrictive value. Outside faucet Water meter 10% 111 psi Figure 17: Faucet with pressure gauge (7. Rule number one The pressure loss through the water meter should not Pressure gauge exceed 10% of the minimum static water pressure available in the city main. pipe flow loss chart to use in this step. at the Size of service 3/4 in 1 in 1 1/4 in previously determined flow.

5 46 48 12. Under the 3/4 in (20 mm) size.8 limit of 4. 5 ft/s (1. For 3/4 in (20 mm) copper water tube. the unit will eventually fall out of As an example of using this chart in applying rule number calibration and ultimately fail.2 1.3 and impractical with the metallic pipe commonly used in 4 0. read down to the psi (7.6 3.7 0.7 1.8 0.8 34 6.1 0.6 1.0 4.6 0.8 0. 6 1.5 m/s). that is the maximum safe flow for the 3/4 in (20 mm) water meter.0 1.41 ft/s (1.8 3.0 2.3 42 10.0 0.0 1.7 bar).7 4.8 2.89 1.4 8 2.25 The maximum flow through the meter for irrigation L/s). 11 psi (0.7 3.5 to 2.5 m/s) is suitable 1 0.24 m/s) is produced at a Figure 20: Pressure loss through water meters (partial) flow of 10 gpm (2. or immediately below.4 5.75 = 22.3 3.80 m3/h or 1.8 13 9 4. In this example.77 bar) is the closest Applying the second rule.2 to the highest velocity that does not enter the shaded area 26 11.80 m3/h or 1.38 L/s).1 1. If we can only accept a loss of 10% of this 111 last pound per square inch (bar) loss number listed.8 0.36 m3/h or 0.5 0. Holding the velocity at 5 ft/s (1.6 17 According to the chart.2 0.4 on the chart.64 L/s) is the flow to satisfy rule number one.1 1.1 15 8. L/s x .0 0. 9.5 gpm (6.5 Because the 3/4 in (20 mm) water meter in our example 9 3.4 17 10.77 bar). then we need to know the flow in gallons per loss corresponds to the gallons per minute (meters cubed minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) that per hour or liters per second) flow in the left hand column will produce a loss of about 11 psi (0. 28 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .5 psi (0. This psi (7. flow This is similar to the 5 f/s (1.7 20 15.9 gpm (1.89 L/s) safe flow so we are limited to 30 psi (0.1 for thermoplastic pipe.2 45 1.6 0.8 In the velocity column under that size. or just below.2 the water purveyor’s delivery system. we calculate 75% of this 30 gpm pound per square inch (bar) loss that does not exceed 11 (6.89 L/s).0 5.75 = 5.42 L/s).3 1. we can look up 11 12 4. consider the residential water supply system we analyzed previously.9 1.0 6. find the highest flow 14 7.6 3.6 10 3.7 3.7 1.75 = 1.6 0.7 bar).6 0.6 1.5 ft/s (2.3 7 1. If a system is designed with a flow that over-taxes the water meter.2 0.27 m3/h or 0. Pressure loss through water meters Rule number three AWWA standard pressure loss The velocity of flow through the service line should not Pressure loss: psi Nominal Size exceed 5 to 7-1/2 ft/s (1. we see that this is caused by a flow of 30 the water meter flow loss chart until you find the closest gpm (6.4 1.3 0. This places our velocity in the shaded area on Rule number two the chart and still only gains us 4 gpm (0.2 that creates a velocity at.0 1.9 9. designer contends with this small service line situation. This is typical of the types of problems a designer may should not exceed 75% of the maximum safe flow of the run into on a project.2 0.3 0.5 2.90 m3/h or gpm x .9 2. 24 gpm (5.4 that velocity allows. 44 11.7 has a 3/4 in (20 mm) copper service line.4 0.6 30 15.8 2.35 ft/s (2.4 0. demand. This is so restrictive that we 36 7. 18 12. We will see in a moment how the meter.34 m/s) corresponds to a flow limit of 6 32 6.5 2.9 the required flow limit in the flow loss chart for copper 13 6.10 m3/h or 1.0 38 8. We know that the site has a 3/4 in (20 Looking back to the water meter flow loss chart for the mm) water meter and the main line static pressure is 111 column under the 3/4 in (20 mm) size. Fifteen psi (1.6 1. the 28 13.5 16 9.8 0.3 1.4 0.80 m3/h x .6 1.29 m/s) as the limit and see what flow 40 9.3 0.3 m/s).6 1.2 3.63 L/s) for 3/4 in (20 mm) Please see page 119 for a metric version of the chart above.2 4.0 1.1 2. pound per square inch (bar) loss at.2 will use 7.1 1.77 bar).1 5 0.0 pipe. 7. we can read down 22 24 7. According to the chart.0 5.4 4. one.77 bar).9 0. but this criteria is overly restrictive 2 0.2 3 0.0 bar) is the last loss listed and reading Read down the column under the 3/4 in (20 mm) size in across the column.6 19 13. copper tube.5 m/s) rule we covered in gpm 5⁄8 in 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 3 in 4 in Chapter 1.4 5.9 2.Determining Water and Power Supply flow losses in pounds per square inch (bars) are listed This rule is designed to protect the water meter from excess under each size of water meter.3 1.91 m3/h or 0.

42 4. SIZE 1⁄2 in 5⁄8 in 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 i pressure.30 8 9 11. The answers are in the Solutions section.47 4.09 13.18 2 2.85 11.63 18.83 11.5 to 2.17 62.88 1.84 19.375 1.875 1.83 5.065 0.41 2.88 9. take into account any elevation TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE C=140 losses or gains and calculate the remaining working Sizes 1⁄2 in thru 3 in.22 51.57 0.46 13. we must turn our attention to Figure 21: Type K copper pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) another part of this section.652 0.41 5.44 45 18.67 3.065 0.63 1.64 0.23 11.02 follow this process through while filling in the blanks for 75 19.90 2.31 5.625 ID 0.74 5 7.34 9.04 Main 12 17.40 1.70 52. are: 24 gpm (5.95 80 14.35 2.18 1.26 4.66 2.71 14.73 6.47 0.73 5.68 2.89 8.31 0..76 6.85 32.06 0.27 m3/h or 0.68 5.80 7. restrictive to establish our system capacity.24 12.24 5. on water service system right up to where we will cut into the page 89.995 1.34 20 19.27 m3/h or for the system will be located.87 5. In completing this step in the process of determining the Our three rules-of-thumb have given us three limits: project’s water and power supply.73 3. Make sure the power location and rating are noted on the With the available flow understood.08 17.76 34.97 1.86 3.35 65.94 43.19 4.3 m/s) velocity rule for service line.37 6.81 30. the working pressure plan.99 4.34 21.78 0.05 0.33 2.10 18. service line to start the sprinkler system.41 10.52 15. This is usually not a #3: 5 to 7.11 84.81 90 16.28 3. operated and how tightly they will need to be scheduled.28 40.87 2.89 1.26 0.92 9.23 0.99 2.52 3.06 0.06 9.89 7. the next items to check #1: The 10% static pressure loss through water meter rule.52 0. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.21 2.51 gpm (2.84 0.82 1.83 2.44 7.06 6.52 12.97 7.89 17.27 the water and power supply. These are the two critical 40 16.94 3.11 7 10. OD 0.83 5.62 108. problem unless the property is in an outlying area.60 2.41 0. we will have the dynamic 24 17.15 92. In the above examples.36 26.37 1.61 9.15 1.71 11.44 m3/h or 1.55 32.21 12.91 1.745 0.24 22.46 1.21 2..95 7.71 10.51 4.072 Service line flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity Water meter gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps 1 1.88 the hydraulic calculations using the sample system we have 85 15. the most restrictive is the service line rule where These factors may determine where the automatic controls the flow capacity for the system is 10 gpm (2.46 26 28 19.23 42.37 63.94 4.20 pressure in pounds per square inch (bar) at a flow of 10 30 12.245 1.57 7.10 2. Please see page 115 for a metric version of the chart above. we take the 10 gpm (2.88 13.59 27.55 4 5.64 1.13 0.42 37.10 4.06 15.67 8.23 14 13. we will calculate the friction (or flow) loss through PSI loss per 100 feet of tube (psi/100 ft) all those components.69 77.58 35 14. or 10 gpm limit (2.40 8.46 1.53 10. water meter.79 27.33 0.82 0.88 6.53 2.41 4.21 2. you will have the opportunity to 65 70 17.35 14.84 6. Now that we’ve gone over the processes for determining To calculate working pressure.20 1.64 8.48 1.64 72.625 0.5 ft/s (1.97 Figure 22: Water main.27 m3/h or 0.09 Following these calculations.42 35.98 1. for the system can now be determined.75 10. 22.12 3. But first.65 10.5 gpm (5.66 9.16 23.18 0.27 81.54 57.02 0.75 13.527 0..72 22 16.19 99.73 0.98 4.53 4.79 5.10 m3/h or 1.95 10.53 11.48 Wall Thk 0.41 6.60 16 15.55 1.23 3.78 0.37 3 4.87 14.93 3.67 POC 10 14. From the source to Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 29 .41 10.74 49.14 7.74 been discussing.15 11.049 0.93 6 8.39 0.29 3.95 0. At 50 13.16 the end of this section.79 7.38 0.48 45.61 1.84 7.94 2. POC and service line 18 17..22 0.065 0.47 1.57 3.06 5.750 0.. The place where the designer determines to start the irrigation main line is called the point-of-connection (POC).29 26.44 2.125 1.64 3.89 9.30 55 60 14.57 10.86 11 16.63 L/s).05 0.63 L/s) uses its own generating equipment. automatic irrigation controller.51 L/s) limit • The location of the 120 V AC (230 V AC) power for the #2: 75% of meter’s safe flow rule.70 4.20 4.63 L/s) flow through all the components of the the exercises.65 1.11 6.36 0.43 51.05 2.42 L/s) limit • The stability of the power available. turn the page and complete m3/h or 0.73 0. we will choose the flow that is the most relative to those times.20 8.51 38..049 0. 4 Determining Water and Power Supply TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE the POC.59 8.70 2.02 8.47 15. what time of day they will be 0.15 5.09 0.82 20.69 23.53 14.97 2.20 0.94 1.37 numbers needed to start designing the irrigation system. • Any restrictions on the use of the power at particular Of these three rules for calculating the flow for the times of the day and any changes in the cost of power irrigation system.18 5.63 L/s).

” The loss for a 3 ft (3 m) length is ______ psi (bar) at the maximum system flow. Our pressure in the city main under the street is _______ psi (bar). (32 mm) type K copper tube when the maximum system Is this a loss or a gain in pressure? ________ gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per G. fill in the blanks in the process for 1-1/4 in (32 mm) copper tube. Using the diagram below of our sample residential water E. Component #4 is another 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 90° copper second) is flowing through it.7 bar) (3 m) (32 mm) (20 mm) (25 mm) 6 ft (6 m) 1 1/4 in copper 6 ft (32 mm) (6 m) 30 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . There is an elevation rise of 3 ft (3 m) between components #2 and #4. the loss is _____ psi (bar). two listed flows on the chart. 90° elbow. Multiply this loss by H.” dividing this number by 3. one decimal place in bar). Three rules work to establish the most restrictive flow as 1-1/4 in (32 mm). divide diagram. look up the loss for 100 ft (100 m) of 1-1/4 in 3 m by ______) and get a psi (bar) change of ________. the elbow fitting. We know the loss for a determining working pressure at maximum flow capacity. which is ________ psi (bar). We have estimated the loss for 6 ft (6 m) of tubing in “C. can be determined using the available flow. Component #3 in this system is a 3 ft (3 m) length of supply system. the loss for a 2 ft (2 m) length of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) tube at the maximum acceptable flow would be _______ psi (bar).06 to get the psi (bar) loss for only 6 ft (6 m) which there is a chart included here. which is ________ psi (bar). for 100 ft (100 m) of this tubing. B. 6 ft (6 m) length from “C. In the left column of the chart you can see the 1-1/4 in (32 mm) tube size and that the 90° elbow column is immediately to its right. The gallons per minute elbow and has the same psi (bar) friction loss as (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) is between component #2. The loss at this same flow for component #2. is ________. Component #6 is a 1-1/4 in bronze gate valve for which . Describe the rules. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 ft (3 m) 111 psi 3 ft 1 1/4 in 3/4 in 1 in (7.Determining Water and Power Supply Exercises on water capacity and pressure D. a A. To find out the change in C. the “Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings” figure in the Technical Data section of this manual. F. This chart tells you that a 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 90° elbow has the same flow loss as ______ feet (meters) of straight 1-1/4 in (32 mm) tubing. Component #5 has the same friction loss as component Rounding up to the nearest whole psi (rounding up to #3. To determine the psi (bar) loss in component #1 in the pressure we multiply 3 by ______(in metric units. That is the loss for component #2.

80 .11 .85 .00 50 .07 .010 27.001 Loss through component #8 is – ______ psi/bar.29 . 0.00 .00 .680 0.00 .034 0.00 .00 .24 .18 450 .07 .00 J.003 0.00 .03 .010 0.15 .00 .005 0.16 .00 .00 .159 0.00 .00 8 .00 .004 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .043 0.67 .02 .54 . 1/ 2 3/ 4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 Loss through component #6 is – ______ psi/bar.274 27.059 0.288 0.060 0.11 .00 .02 .00 .00 .030 0.00 . At the #9 position.268 0.00 .00 .00 .690 2.06 .124 0.02 .30 .00 .824 0.00 .00 .001 2.007 24.00 .720 0.00 .24 .016 0.03 .006 20.00 .200 0.06 .504 0.00 .015 0.00 sprinkler system submain.00 .00 .06 .00 .019 37.00 . Standard Units) Loss through component #3 is – ______ psi/bar.00 .23 Static pressure in the main is + ______ psi/bar.04 .080 0.227 0.016 34.00 .740 0.012 0.00 .01 .30 .380 0.00 .00 .001 The remaining pressure at #9 is ______ psi/bar.03 .00 .001 0.069 0.00 .00 .552 1.00 30 .021 0.00 . the designer requires that the 140 .013 0.00 .00 .028 Figure 23b: Bronze gate valves friction loss characteristics (International System Units) Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 31 .097 0.008 0.896 0.00 .00 .005 19.017 0.00 .15 .012 31.00 .017 0.05 .804 0.608 0.00 .548 54.00 .00 .00 .032 36.580 90.001 You now know the dynamic or working pressure at point 2.169 49.134 0.00 .00 installer cut into the service line and “tee off” to start his 160 .00 .00 #7.00 .00 .00 psi (bar). 0.00 .42 . Figure 23a: Bronze gate valves friction loss characteristics (U.00 .003 15. 40 .072 0.40 .048 0. This loss is ________ 5 .17 .00 .00 .23 . 1.002 0.00 .14 .00 .012 0.00 .043 0.00 .00 .08 .370 136.05 240 .00 .00 .00 .037 0.21 .00 .00 .009 0.04 ________ .00 1 in bronze gate valve? ________ psi (bar).00 .653 31.00 .00 .00 .00 .14 system.00 .001 Loss through component #7 is – ______ psi/bar.00 .07 .003 0.00 .00 .758 9.00 .448 11.685 68.00 .00 .007 0. 6.00 .00 .00 .07 L.021 0. l/s m3/h Valve Size (in inches) Loss through component #5 is – ______ psi/bar.00 .536 0. 0.00 .31 .04 .00 .034 0.021 0.003 16.00 .306 63.00 .00 . 4 Determining Water and Power Supply In the left column of the chart find the gallons per Bronze Gate Valves (loss in psi) minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) that GPM Valve Size (in inches) 1/ 3/ 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 most closely approximates the maximum allowable 2 4 1 .008 0.00 .62 .00 .019 0.216 0.00 .09 position #9 at the maximum flow allowable for the 300 .006 0.069 0.00 .00 .07 .00 .001 minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second) for 5.04 .00 . Position #9 is called the 200 . 220 .00 .814 0.40 Loss through component #2 is – ______ psi/bar.19 .00 . Fill in the following to find the working pressure at 280 .02 .144 0. 400 .360 0. 500 .02 .00 I.26 . Elevation loss is – ______ psi/bar.00 .402 0.06 260 .62 .137 13.014 4.028 0.00 . is _______ psi (bar) at the system's maximum flow.034 3.00 .00 .00 .004 0.00 .516 18.133 79.003 0. a 60 .003 0.02 .003 0.028 102.00 .00 .790 45.00 .046 0.00 .00 . What is the loss at this flow for component #8.10 .010 0.400 0.03 180 .454 0.02 . 10 .00 .00 . 550 .00 .011 0.001 the system.03 .00 .001 0.00 .00 120 .030 0.00 .05 .00 .00 .00 .00 .50 .10 350 .00 inch (bar) loss for a 1-1/4 in valve.00 .00 .00 .411 40.340 0.43 .069 6.01 .001 1.002 0.00 .00 .13 .752 0.004 17.968 0.00 .018 0.001 9.01 .00 .00 system flow and read across to the pound per square 2 .00 .290 0.005 0.379 4.85 .00 .138 0.00 100 .895 22.00 .923 124.28 .00 .00 . component 20 .345 1.11 .28 Loss through component #1 is – ______ psi/bar.008 0.09 .002 12.00 .927 58.002 8.00 .02 K.00 .17 .001 0.10 .00 .00 .00 15 .18 .00 .006 13.00 .34 600 .43 .00 .00 .432 0.475 113.00 .00 .23 .021 0.00 .S.007 #9 when flowing the maximum acceptable gallons per 3.00 .22 .022 41.00 . Bronze Gate Valves (loss in bar) Loss through component #4 is – ______ psi/bar.01 . The loss for a 3/4 in (20 mm) water meter.014 0.00 .01 .010 0.040 0.005 0.00 .01 .05 .14 .004 11.00 .

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Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges 5 .

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trees and ground that match the arc or part of a circle they cover. Windy areas may demand low-angle sprinklers design. Each type of and spacing ranges sprinkler has a performance range for proper operation and these ranges must fit within the available flow and pressure Selecting sprinklers. low PR sprinklers are usually • shrub spray sprinklers needed on slopes to reduce the potential for runoff and • pop-up spray sprinklers erosion. and precipitation precipitation rates are connected together. blown away. When sprinklers with varying temperature. matched precipitation-rate sprinklers are material to be irrigated can also dictate which type of available. One of the most important • type of sprinklers requested by the owner rules in circuiting sprinklers is to avoid mixing different types of sprinklers together on the same valve whenever • size and shape of the areas to be watered possible. Rotating sprinklers • impulse or impact sprinklers • pop-up gear drive sprinklers Bubblers and drip irrigation devices Valve Spray Head Drip Emitter Impact Bubbler • zero radius or short radius types Figure 24: Avoid mixing sprinkler heads on each valve • ultra-low volume types When selecting the proper sprinklers for a project. shrubs. We will be discussing precipitation rates of • types of plant material to be irrigated sprinklers in detail later in this section. sprinklers • water pressure and flow available with differing rates of application should be separated into • local environmental conditions such as wind. Most of the criteria for sprinkler selection is based that keep the water near the ground where it resists being on information gathered or calculated in those early steps. is premature. Each sprinkler type has a particular range of As we discussed in the Obtaining Site Information section. however. These units discharge proportional flows of water sprinkler is to be used. A full circle covers may all require different types of sprinklers. Matched precipitation allows the same Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 35 . without first researching the criteria. both of which are a function of the water supply. determine what type of sprinkler will be used. Also. Some of these laying out laterals or circuiting sprinklers into groups that factors are: will be served by the same valve. In our sample residential • compatibility of the sprinklers (which can be grouped design we asked the designer to violate this “don’t-mix-the- together) sprinklers” rule once or twice and to design his way out of The size and shape of the areas to be irrigated often the problem. Low precipitation rate sprinklers may be required to adjust the rate of water application to Spray sprinklers the intake rate of the soil. The goal is to Even the same type of sprinklers may require separate select the type of sprinklers that will cover the area properly valving to match up water application with the rest of the using the least number of sprinklers. the owner or maintenance personnel are required to over-water one area • soil type and the rate at which it can accept water to sufficiently water another. You will see later just how he did it. Excessive summer heat in arid climates may need either higher flow sprinklers or multiple irrigation Selecting sprinklers cycles with standard sprinklers to maintain the plant There are a number of types of sprinklers and irrigation material. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Step five: Selecting sprinklers designer’s criteria for equipment selection. different valve circuits. devices. Lawns. applications for which the designer would specify them. It is alarming to note that many Areas with special climatic conditions will require special would-be designers make step five the first step of their sprinklers. The type of plant sprinklers. the available water pressure and flow limit is the half circle unit does. a Sprinkler compatibility is particularly important when number of factors should be considered. the sprinkler’s application rate cannot exceed the soil’s The main types of equipment are: ability to accept water. Today. sprinkler discharges twice the flow of a half circle sprinkler As we have seen in the Understanding Basic Hydraulics and a quarter circle sprinkler discharges half of what the section. information supplied by the earlier steps in the design process.

application capability of 1 to 4 in/h (25 to 102 mm/h).” a hybrid spray nozzle intended to handle the Rotating sprinklers are available in riser-mount occasional odd-shaped. half circle. Rotating sprinklers use various means for converting a Stream sprays are another type of spray sprinkler that use portion of the flow and pressure passing through them into fixed arcs of coverage. to be Fan spray sprinklers distribute water fairly quickly. side strips and end strips are operation.45 m3/h) 0. “VAN. often used for irrigating small areas. with circuited on the same valve and deliver the same PR rate. one-third circle and walkways. In addition to the arcs. fine-grained soils. and many 36 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . This type of configuration for irrigating larger shrub and ground cover nozzle allows the designer and installer to adjust the arc of areas.0 to 2.5 cm) pop ups. stairways and sidewalks utilize these units as quarter circle.13 L/s (0. sprinklers and irrigation sprinklers and examine where Stream sprays have a more acceptable range for these they would be best used on a landscaping project.23 m3/h) use the same nozzles. applications. for areas with dense tree growth that would significantly hinder a rotating sprinkler’s coverage and for areas that have mixed sections of plantings that require differing amounts of water.25 L/s 0. But instead of emitting a sheet or “drive” energy to turn the sprinkler. Half circle Full circle 2 gpm 4 gpm (0. some shrub areas near circle.06 L/s Shrub spray sprinklers and pop-up spray sprinklers often 0. Part circle units have a reversing or shutoff across a radius of 5 to 22 ft (1.5 to 6. With the availability of 6 and 12 in The most common patterns are full circle.9 cm) 12 in (30. These patterns are usually a particular part of a circle or arc. Let’s look at some of the applications for various types of or sloping ground that may not accept water quickly. no matter what arc they cover. most part circle rotating have lower available water pressures. Also available is the “variable arc nozzle” or increasing pedestrian safety. 1-1/2 in/h (8 to 38 mm/h).2 and 30. some specialty spray pop-up shrub sprinklers. for those areas with enclosed borders requiring tightly controlled spray.91 m3/h) 11 in (27. or for projects that Instead of fixed arcs of coverage. individual fingers.45 m3/h) 0.5 cm) Figure 26: Spray sprinklers Half circle Quarter circle 2 gpm 1 gpm (0.7 m). The sprinklers pop down after patterns like center strips.13 L/s (0. but they are mounted on their Figure 25: Matched precipitation rate sprinklers respective body types. fan. in-between area. rotating sprinklers have a single nozzle or pair of Because spray sprinklers have an operating range of nozzles that revolve to distribute water over the area of approximately 15 to 30 psi (1. they distribute water in numerous. The designer must keep this in mind on tight.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges type of sprinklers. sprinklers are adjustable from about 20 to 240°. with precipitation rates from about 1/3 to Spray sprinklers are required for smaller landscaped areas. coverage from 0 to 360°. two-thirds circle. three-quarter (15. Spray sprinklers generally emit single or double sheets or fans of water in a fixed pattern. In general. and in pop-up versions for watering turfgrasses.1 bar) and throw water coverage. reducing the potential for vandalism and available. they are most mechanism to avoid watering outside their arc pattern.

Figure 28: Bubbler Bubblers and drip irrigation devices produce short throw or zero radius water distribution. most rotating sprinklers on the market today compared to spray sprinklers. Rotating sprinklers can throw from about 20 ft (6.48 m) of radius for larger units. Available in a wide trenching are definite advantages of rotating sprinklers range of sizes. operate somewhere in the 25 to 100 psi (1.68 m3/h or 0.13 to 22.11 to 0. because the water is spread out over greater areas. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges can be switched to the 360° (full circle) setting. and can be adjusted to low Despite their large water flow. rotating sprinklers usually flow so large numbers of bubblers can be mounted on one apply water much more slowly than spray sprinklers line. which throw gentle two-to-five foot (0. It should be noted that the flow demands for large radius sprinklers are much higher. advantages of bubblers and a few more. and energy and water efficient for large-area irrigation. open damage. The advantage of a bubbler is that it can irrigate a specific area without Figure 27: Rotating sprinklers overthrow onto other plants.6- the 1/4 to 2 in/h (6 to 51 mm/h) range. because of the ultra-low flows of drip devices. There is less rotor pop-ups retract after operation to be out of the way of chance of runoff or erosion. which discharges the same flow despite wide areas where slower application rates are desired.03 to 0. lawn area. fewer fittings.68 m3/h or 0.19 L/s). variations in water pressure. Discharges of 5 to 100 gpm (1.5 m) radius streams. and to provide proper above the plant material where the stream will be drainage in situations where an overflow would cause unobstructed over its long radius of throw.7 to 6. Fewer sprinklers. The most common type of bubbler delivers anywhere from 1/2 to 3 gpm (0. The water either runs down the riser supporting the sprinkler or sprays out a few inches (centimeters) in an umbrella pattern. The distance of throw is much greater than for spray sprinklers. Full circle The large radius sprinklers are usually more economical. The Some of the latest developments in bubbler systems are the precipitation rates for these large sprinklers run more in stream bubblers. This makes rotating 1. In a large.9 bar) range. and other bubbler. and very little puddling mowing equipment and foot traffic.10 m) minimum for the small units to well over 100 ft (30.31 L/s) or more span the wide variety of flows for rotating sprinklers. only units are also available. tight soils. The most easily recognized type of rotating sprinkler is the The primary concerns for a designer using a bubbler impact sprinkler. and the pressure compensating sprinklers appropriate for slopes. The emitter.32 to 6. you can mount the impact sprinkler on a riser water in a planter or tree basin. depending on the pressure available and how it is adjusted. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 37 . where their streams are uninterrupted and allowed full Higher operating pressures are common for rotating coverage. rotor pop-ups can irrigate vast areas with substantially fewer sprinklers than spray sprinkler Drip irrigation and low-flow devices have some of the irrigation would require. Bubblers can be used in very narrow or small planting areas. Like a pop-up spray sprinkler. Using a side-driving lever to create system are to avoid runoff and erosion by confining the rotation. and less sprinklers compared to spray sprinklers.

see the Rain Bird Xerigation constantly available to the plant without saturating the soil. This is a major change 1/3 in/h (8 mm/h) or lower are common. 38 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . or with threaded inlets for riser mounting. maintain a somewhat constant. near optimum level of soil For further. the performance chart for the sprinkler contains several pieces of important information. in gallons per hour (liters per hour). The operating pressure range of the unit is also noted so that the designer will know the pressure requirements for the performance desired. the desired emission point. In the example below. D39030C). Usually given in feet (meters). and 2 gph (8 L/h). For most sprinklers. Emitters are available with The answers are in the Solutions section on page 90. use distribution tubing from each outlet on the unit to page 40 and answer the questions on selecting sprinklers. The model number of the sprinkler or nozzle is called out so it can be specified. This is the water delivery rate in inches per hour (millimeters per hour) at particular sprinkler spacings. with adapters on risers or on high pop sprinkler bodies for The idea behind the application of drip irrigation is to shrub. The arc or pattern of coverage is usually diagrammed for quick reference so the designer can see if the needed pattern is available in that particular series of sprinklers or Figure 29: Emitter device nozzles. Some equipment catalogs now include the precipitation rate of the sprinkler. The discharge of the nozzle or sprinkler is given for each pressure noted in the chart. This range is usually the minimum to maximum pressures under which the sprinkler will deliver good distribution of water throughout the entire area of coverage. as we have seen in the basic hydraulics section. ground cover. detailed information on designing drip moisture in the plant’s root zone. The spacings are usually stated as a percentage of Figure 30: Multi-outlet emitter device the diameter of the sprinkler’s coverage. When looking for a particular type of sprinkler in a manufacturer’s catalog. in general. 1 gph (4 L/h). in the legend of the irrigation plan. First. almost zero. or individual tree irrigation. this is the actual distance determined by the manufacturer’s testing at the various water pressures listed. the discharge is given in gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour or liters per second). is designed to take a water barbed inlets for installation. tiny sprayers and spinners.4 bar) and reduce it to tubing. Knowing both the pressure and discharge requirements of the sprinklers is very important. using a punch on polyethylene pressure at its inlet of about 20 psi (1. In this way. the water exits the unit one drop at Newly arrived in the low flow sector of irrigation are the a time. Another important number from a sprinkler performance chart is the radius or diameter of throw. by number. These units are spaced similar The most common flow rates for emitters are 1/2 gph ( 2 to sprinklers but have very low precipitation rates. Emitters. These little from the flow rates for sprinklers. turn to the exercises on body. We will get back to Multi-outlet emitters. Design Manual (Catalog No. are rotating spinners and fixed arc sprayers can be mounted operated much longer per irrigation cycle than sprinklers. and in the case of drip emitters. PRs of L/h). you can see the type of data supplied to help you with your selection.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges the most common drip device. This moisture level is irrigation for landscape. essentially several emitters in one this concept in a moment.

04 .40 52 60 1.32 25 14 3.5 .07 2.87 30 15 3.48 1.0 3.1 4.83 15TT 15 11 1.87 30 15 1.42 41 48 2.16 .0 3.83 15H 15 11 1.58 1.5 3.5 .01 2.39 20 12 0.63 40 46 15TT 1. Precip.30 1.5 3.23 .5 3.1 4. Precip.08 .23 1.32 25 14 2.15 52 60 1.5 3. bar meter L/s m3/h mm/h mm/h 15F 1.28 41 48 2.62 1.50 2.01 2.5 .5 .5 3.21 1.83 Figure 31a: Nozzle performance (U.83 1.1 4.58 1.6 .5 3.4 .9 .10 .39 20 12 2.S.58 1.10 1.95 2.62 1.58 1.11 .15 .60 2.1 4.07 2.6 .1 4.75 2.20 52 60 1.32 25 14 2.9 .0 3.19 .15 .9 .62 1.13 .05 .11 .12 .83 15Q 15 11 0.30 52 60 1.05 .01 2.1 4.5 .84 40 46 15TQ 1.87 30 15 0.21 40 46 Figure 31b: Nozzle performance (International System Units) Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 39 .23 .0 4.58 1.07 2.0 3.25 2.28 40 46 15Q 1.16 .12 .74 2.0 4.87 30 15 2.01 2.83 15TQ 15 11 1.6 .07 2.65 1.36 47 55 2.78 1.32 25 14 0.65 2.54 47 55 2.0 4.06 . Standard Units) 15 Standard SERIES 30˚ trajectory Nozzle Pressure Radius Flow Flow Precip.06 .32 25 14 1.39 20 12 2.08 .4 .4 .93 1.5 .30 2.0 4.87 30 15 2.0 3.85 1.4 .6 .18 .45 52 60 1.01 2.62 1.56 40 46 15H 1.0 4.21 41 48 2.48 47 55 2.39 20 12 1.62 1.87 30 15 1.17 .00 2.4 .39 20 12 1.18 47 55 2.39 20 12 3.9 .0 3.9 .4 .70 1.01 2.72 47 55 2.24 47 55 2. psi feet gpm in/h in/h 15F 15 11 2.55 41 48 2.9 .07 2.83 15T 15 11 0.6 .32 25 14 1.63 41 48 2.6 .84 41 48 2.0 4.00 2.07 2.58 1.48 1.07 .62 1.87 2. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges 15 Standard SERIES 30˚ trajectory Nozzle Pressure Radius Flow Precip.01 2.42 40 46 15T 1.60 52 60 1.08 .

Put an X after the items below that can usually be found in an irrigation equipment manufacturer’s catalog. Spray sprinklers on risers ___ Bubblers on risers ___ Impact sprinklers on risers ___ High pop-up spray sprinklers ___ D. A. an impact sprinkler would be Area shape ___ a better choice than a spray sprinkler ___ Water pressure ___ In general. Rotor pop-ups usually have adjustable arcs ___ Area size ___ For large-radius coverage. Spray sprinklers on risers ___ Bubblers on risers ___ Rotor pop-ups ___ Impact sprinklers on risers ___ Pop-up spray sprinklers ___ 40 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . The model numbers for the equipment ___ Pop-up spray head ___ The flow requirement for sprinklers ___ Rotor pop-up ___ The pressure requirement for sprinklers ___ Shrub stream spray ___ The arc pattern for a sprinkler ___ Drip emitter ___ Bubblers ___ C. spray sprinklers require more water pressure Wind conditions ___ than rotating sprinklers ____ Types of plants ___ An emitter is a drip irrigation device ____ Flows available ___ F. which type of sprinklers should be used for irrigation? Put an X after the correct type. Put an X after the type of sprinkler you should specify for the center of the outfield on an automatic sprinkler The company’s profit and loss statement ___ system for a baseball field. For small patches and strips of lawn area.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Exercises on selecting sprinklers E. Put an X after each true statement listed below. Put an X after the type of sprinklers listed below that would be most economical and efficient for irrigating several acres of ground cover. Put an X after each of the factors below that affect Spray sprinklers generally have fixed arc patterns ___ sprinkler selection. Slope on site ___ The radius of coverage for a sprinkler ___ B.

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 41 . In the case of a full circle sprinkler. yellowing or brown foliage or dead plant graph would look like a cone with the sprinkler location at material. The area under the first 60% of the sprinkler’s radius is generally sufficiently irrigated to grow vegetation without DRCs can be obtained from Rain Bird or they can be the need for an overlapping sprinkler. This is the 60% of diameter that divided by the depth of water in the catch can having the was noted earlier. so its 60% of radius line meets the system. or 50% sprinkler spacing.0 and the potentially close-in coverage of the adjacent sprinkler. excellent. last 40% of each least amount of water. the green turf. where the sprinkler radius came to an water in the weak spots. The 60% of radius sprinkler is operated for a predetermined amount of time Figure 34: 60% sprinkler radius and then the water in each container is measured to determine how well the sprinkler distributed the water. an SC of 1. In cases where most efficient overlap patterns are those with the lowest very coarse soil. When the system is installed and this problem of the center and the sloping sides indicating less and less “stretched” spacing shows up. let’s take a More water look at sprinkler distribution in general. 40% may be required. The less effective. pressure and nozzle combinations to determine 60% of Diameter which combination has the potential to apply water with the greatest efficiency. and non-existent. therefore. 60% of Radius 60% of Radius SC is calculated for overlapping sprinklers. diminishing with distance. the project owner often over- water being measured as the distance increases from the waters the rest of the areas trying to make up for the lack of sprinkler. when plotted on a graph. and consequently the best SC. less and less effective and eventually will not support plants. high winds. should ideally turfgrass will exhibit dry spots within the area of the look like a 30° slope coming down from the sprinkler spacing pattern. the sprinkler is placed at a given point and containers are positioned at equal intervals along a leg of the expected radius of coverage. These weak spots may show up as lighter location — a wedge. SC is sprinkler’s throw is overlapped into the more effective one. Less water 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 (ft) 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 12 (m) Figure 32: Measuring sprinkler distribution with containers Figure 33: Sprinkler water distribution graph When a sprinkler is tested to determine its distribution rate curve (often abbreviated as DRC). Beyond this 60% line. and the need for Inches (mm) overlapping sprinkler coverage in particular. The resulting data. is the most Rain Bird can provide graphics that help ascertain the best common spacing used in landscape irrigation. Actual SCs are greater than 1.15 is considered inhibit effective irrigation. or CIT has a computer winds are a threat to good coverage. The calculation Figure 35: 60% diameter sprinkler spacing can be done on a theoretical basis or using catch can The maximum spacing recommended. SC is the average depth of water in the catch cans 60% line of its neighbor. Practically speaking. Where DRC. spacing as close as program available that can be used to compare DRCs. there would be a container far enough from the precipitation rates sprinkler to have no measurable water. California. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Spacing sprinklers and calculating end. is where measurements made on site by operating a built irrigation the sprinkler is located. Understanding the DRC also allows the comparison of sprinkler. obtained from an independent testing agency such as the the amounts of water. closer spacing is recommended. Finally. One metric used to compare DRCs is the scheduling coefficient or SC. become Center for Irrigation Technology (CIT) in Fresno. Head-to-head. When sprinkler spacing is stretched. Before talking about sprinkler spacing patterns. A perfect. low humidity or high heat SC.

less installation time head along the sides of the square pattern. Once the designer chooses the equipment he or she plans to use. enclosed areas often rule out the use of be irrigated has irregular boundaries or borders that are other patterns. Although Figure 38: Square sprinkler spacing pattern weak spot the square pattern is the weakest for proper coverage if not The triangular pattern is generally used where the area to used carefully. 70% + 50% Spacing Because the rows of sprinklers are offset from adjacent rows to establish the triangular pattern. Fewer sprinklers on the site means from each other. is used for irrigating areas that are square themselves. For sites with wind Use maximum velocities of: spacings of: 0 to 3 mph (0 to 5 km/h) 55% of diameter 50% 4 to 7 mph (6 to 11 km/h) 50% of diameter Figure 36: 50% sprinkler head spacing 8 to 12 mph (13 to 19 km/h) 45% of diameter One of the main reasons for carefully selecting the sprinklers is so they can be accurately plotted on the plan. the distance and lower maintenance costs over the life of the system. When the sprinklers are spaced head-to. the sprinklers can be spaced further using triangular spacing than with square spacing. This additional distance The weakness in square spacing coverage is caused by the between sprinklers often means fewer sprinklers will be diagonal distance between sprinklers across the pattern required on the project. with its equal sides running between four sprinkler locations. The L = S x . S L To minimize the effects of wind trouble when using the square pattern. closer spacings (which require more Figure 39: Triangular sprinkler spacing pattern 42 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . This 70% diagonal stretch across the square pattern can leave a weak spot at the center.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges sprinklers) are recommended. or have borders at 90° angles to each Weak spot other. the weak spot that could be a problem in square spacing is absent. The square pattern. The site information will usually dictate what spacing pattern makes those arcs of coverage fit into the planting areas. In most Figure 37: Square sprinkler spacing pattern cases. between sprinklers in opposite corners of the pattern is over 70% spacing. has some advantages over square spacing. where the sprinklers are spaced at equal distances from each other. The equilateral triangle pattern.866 wind may move the weak spot slightly away from the center and summer heat may make the weak spot quite large if it is a common climatic condition for the site. proper spacing is the next critical step. and that confine the design to that pattern. the spacing should be reduced as indicated below. open to over spray. There are three main types of sprinkler spacing patterns and a number of variations to adapt these patterns to special situations. depending on the severity of the wind conditions. less equipment cost for the project. or do not require part-circle sprinklers. The recommendation on the chart for low or no wind is for 55% spacing. And on projects with higher winds.

28 ft (21. Because of this factor.65 m). maintain spacing requirements along a curving border. the distance “L” (the height of the triangle) is the sprinkler spacing “S” x .28 ft (21. To adapt to a curving boundary. If the designer is laying out sprinklers for a lawn (25 m) area. and comes to a tree or row of shrubs. In an equilateral triangular spacing pattern. the designer can maintain good sprinkler coverage. gradually slide Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 43 . for instance. By sliding the pattern to is decreased to combat increasing velocities. By staggering the pattern from square or rectangular to a slightly tilted parallelogram or to triangular shape. while the distance across the wind and back again if necessary.” “S” stands for the spacing between sprinklers and “L” stands for the spacing between the rows of sprinklers or laterals. while following the outside S = 40% of diameter curve of the scalped area of the baselines.866 = 69. By closing in the spacing Figure 42: Sliding pattern across the wind and opening up the length of the pattern with the wind. the length of the pattern spacing to a parallelogram. the spacing recommendations of an equilateral triangular pattern are somewhat less restrictive for windy conditions. The designer may start with rectangular 8 to 12 mph (13 to 19 km/h) L = 60% of diameter spacing behind third base and. The chart allows greater distances between sprinklers beginning with 60% spacing and reducing down to head- to-head spacing for windier areas. the distance between rows of sprinklers would be 80 ft (25 m) x . the designer can return from the staggered the diagonal line in square spacing. a staggered spacing pattern to adjust for the obstacles can be L = 69. For sites with wind Use maximum velocities of: spacings of: 0 to 3 mph (0 to 5 km/h) 60% of diameter 4 to 7 mph (6 to 11 km/h) 55% of diameter 8 to 12 mph (12 to 19 km/h) 50% of diameter The rectangular pattern has the advantages of fighting windy site conditions and being able to fit in areas with defined straight boundaries and corners. there is no unequally stretched spacing like obstructions. the For sites with wind Use maximum designer avoids bunching up sprinklers on the inside velocities of: spacings of: curves and stretching the spacing on outside curves.866. the sliding pattern allows for a gradual change from perhaps square or rectangular In each case listed on the chart. If large rotors on a golf course were spaced at 80 ft (25 m) in an equilateral triangular pattern. After positioning the sprinklers to surround or pass through the area of the As you can see. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges The dimensions of a spacing pattern are often labeled “S” and “L. the degree of coverage can be maintained even though the Figure 40: S and L triangular sprinkler spacing pattern pattern doesn’t match the rest of the area. Figure 41: Staggered sprinkler spacing pattern Combinations of the various patterns mentioned so far may be used on the same area of a project to adapt to special S = 80 ft conditions. and then to triangular spacing remains at 60% spacing. pattern to the original spacing pattern. 0 to 3 mph (0 to 5 km/h) L = 60% of diameter S = 50% of diameter A good example for the use of the sliding pattern method is 4 to 7 mph (6 to 11 km/h) L = 60% of diameter the sprinkler spacing often designed for the outfield of a S = 45% of diameter baseball field.65 m) used.

25 m3/h) contributed by each sprinkler to area S = the spacing between S = the spacing between sprinklers sprinklers Figure 43: Square sprinkler spacing pattern with full circle sprinkler L = the spacing between L = the spacing between The formula for this example would be: rows of sprinklers rows of sprinklers PR = 96.4 (millimeters per hour). Each sprinkler has a know is the rate at which the sprinklers will apply the water. if given the pressure required. if the rate will would look like Figure 43.1 gpm (0. The formula looks like this: are added together. we multiply 1.2648 in/h The constant of 96. 44 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .1 gpm (0.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges through the parallelogram patterns to triangular behind this to gallons per hour we need to multiply by 60 minutes. apply enough water during acceptable operating times to Each full circle sprinkler delivers only 1/4 of its flow into meet the irrigation requirement (which it should).94 mm/h 12 m x 12 m 144 Question: If one gallon of water was applied to 1 ft2 how deep in inches would the water be? The above calculation tells the designer that the sprinklers at that spacing. because to the part-circle sprinklers along the outfield fence. the multipliers already are in meters cubed per hour. the next thing to for four full circle impact sprinklers. Using 144 in2/ft2 the same 40 ft x 40 ft (12 m x 12 m) spacing that we used One of the multipliers in the upper half of the equation is earlier. The diagram of the sprinkler pattern intake rate (which it shouldn’t) and. This sliding and we come up with the 96.3 = a constant which 1000 = a constant which (12 m) incorporates inches per converts meters to square foot per hour millimeters gpm = the total gpm applied m3/h = the total m3/h applied to the area by the to the area by the sprinklers sprinklers 1. PR = 96. let’s look at those same sprinklers in half circle the gallons per minute applied by the sprinklers. a discharge The precipitation rate of the sprinklers selected should be of 4.) If the designer knows how many inches (millimeters) of water per week or per day will be required to properly Let’s look at an example of a precipitation rate calculation maintain the plant material for the project. they are the equivalent of one full circle sprinkler or 4.1 gpm (0. second base.4 gpm = 423. you do not need to convert the 1000 before using it in the formula. With full circle sprinklers.4 gpm (1 m3/h) and the sprinklers are spaced at 40 ft calculated to determine first if the rate exceeds the soil’s (12 m) square spacing.9 mm) per hour.3 (1000) is derived as follows: 40 ft x 40 ft 1600 1 gal water = 231 in3 1 ft2 = 144 in2 (1000 mm = 1 m) PR = 1000 x 1 m3/h = 1000 = 6.3 x 4. To convert configuration. and continue sliding back through the To work this into the constant. A simple formula is used to calculate gpm (1 m3/h) total per sprinkler.4 gpm (1 m3/h). (In the method of spacing the sprinklers would continue right out International System Units version of the formula. radius of throw of 40 ft (12 m) at 40 psi (3 bar). sprinkler spacing and the gallons per minute (cubic meters per When four sprinklers delivering 1. The other 3/4 of each The average precipitation rate is expressed in inches per hour sprinkler’s rotation pattern is outside the area.3 x gpm (applied to the area) you can use the equivalent of one sprinkler’s discharge as SxL the gallons per minute (meters cubed per hour) for the PR = 1000 x m3/h [applied to the area] precipitation rate formula. only 1.25 m3/h) each hour) being applied to that area. will apply 231 in3/gal = 1. SxL 40 ft (12 m) Where: PR = the average precipitation PR = the average precipitation rate in inches per hour rate in millimeters per hour 40 ft 96.604 in x 60 min patterns to rectangular again behind first base.604 in deep water at slightly more that 1/4 in (6. the area between the four sprinklers.72 = . secondly. With 4.25 m3/h) precipitation rates for sprinklers using the area inside the is delivered per sprinkler into the area between them.3 for the formula.

6 gpm (0.56 m3/h) (0.67 mm/h PR = 1000 x 2 m3/h = 2000 = 13.529 in/h 11 x 12 132 40 ft x 40 ft 1600 PR = 1000 x .3 x 2.28 m3/h) One dimension in the spacing pattern is 70 ft (21 m).5 m3/h) In this example.4 gpm = 231. The main difference is calculating the height of the the area. the formula would be: sprinkler and all the sprinklers now set at half circle.4 gpm (0.4 gpm (1 m3/h) per In calculating the rate for this example. using four sprinklers instead Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 45 .33 m3/h).56 m3/h) applied to the area With the same performance specs of 4. then. the designer knows to Even though there are eight sprinklers in the diagram. only interested in the area between four adjacent sprinklers.14 m3/h) The spacing pattern might look like this: 27. was 2.866 = 60.75 in/h (47 mm/h).14 m3/h) [1/2 of its discharge] by each sprinkler to area Quarter circle sprinkler = 0.6 gpm (0.28 m3/h) (21 m) Quarter circle = .4 gpm 1. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges 40 ft S The total amount of water being applied to the area by (12 m) these matched precipitation rate spray sprinklers is: 40 ft L Full circle sprinkler = 0. the spacing between rows of sprinklers.6 gpm (0. Half circle Quarter circle 1.9 gpm each (6.9 (6.19 m).866. the spacing between sprinklers.62 ft (21 m x 18. Let’s look at a PR calculation pattern would look like this: for four spray sprinklers in the corner of a lawn area with these statistics: Spacing: S = 11 ft (3 m).8 gal (2 m3/h) was determined by adding up the part calculating the precipitation rate as square or rectangular of the discharge from each sprinkler that it contributed to spacing.56 m3/h) 70 ft Half circle = 1. we have a height calculation of 70 ft x . The dimensions to use in the PR formula (4 m) for this situation are 70 ft x 60.2 gpm (0.19 m).3 x 8.14 m3/h) [all of its discharge] Figure 44: Square sprinkler spacing pattern with part circle sprinkler Total = 2. one pattern before using it as one of the dimensions in the half of its flow was distributed into the square pattern while formula.14 m3/h) [1/2 of its discharge] 2. the other half went into the neighboring pattern.6 gpm (0. With each sprinkler in the half circle setting. Triangular spacing is just as easy to work with when The 8.28 m3/h) (0.6 gpm (0. This (3 m) height is the spacing multiplied by .4 gpm (0.5 m3/h) contributed Half circle sprinkler = 0.44 = .2 gpm (0.56 m3/h = 560 = 46.2 gpm (0. The gallons per minute (meters cubed per second) from Spray sprinklers have fixed arcs of coverage and some have each of these full circle sprinklers is 27.12 = 1.33 m 3/h) Full circle Half circle Figure 46: Calculating triangular sprinkler spacing 2.6 gpm (0.75 in/h PR = 96.7 bar) Radius of throw = 11 ft (3 m). spaced head-to-head at 70 ft (21 m) in a triangular pattern.8 gpm (2 m3/h). In this case.14 m3/h) The easiest way to calculate the PR for triangular patterns is Figure 45: PR calculation for four spray heads to treat them as parallelograms. we are expect a precipitation rate of 1.14 m3/h) [1/4 of its discharge] (12 m) Half circle sprinkler = 0. The amount of flow per sprinkler.866 = 18. regardless of pattern Discharge: Full circle = 2. and the other is the height of 11 ft the pattern.8 gpm = 847. large size rotor pop-up sprinklers are multiplied by four sprinklers for a total of 8. the formula is: PR = 96.62 ft (21 m x 12 ft .89 mm/h 3x4 12 12 m x 12 m 144 Having completed the calculation. L = 12 ft (4 m) Operating pressure at the sprinklers = 25 psi (1.2 gpm . The matched precipitation rates.2 gpm (0.

19 m 381. 46 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .4 PR = 1000 x 6.77 = . Turn the page and complete the exercises.33 m3/h = 6330 =16.9 gpm = 2686. The other two. contribute proportionally larger flows so that the total flow matches that of four sprinklers in a rectangular pattern. however.633 in/h 70 ft x 60. When examining the pattern as a parallelogram.3 x 27. you can see that two of the sprinklers are contributing less of an arc (and therefore a smaller part of their flow to the area) than the other two. see how you do on a few sample problems relating to what we have covered.99 Now that you have been exposed to calculating precipitation rates. Figure 47: Calculating the PR for triangular sprinkler spacing patterns The PR calculation for this example would be: PR = 96.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges of three. then compare your answers to those in the Solutions section on page 90.62 ft 4243.57 mm/h 21 m x 18.

Triangular pattern ____ 96. If not designed carefully. soil between rows of sprinklers on their laterals ____ type. “S” and “L” in the precipitation rate formula refer to: calculating precipitation rates Sprinkler spacing and row spacing ____ Put an X after the correct answers below. Is for full circle sprinklers only ____ 96. this manual suggests using Only the flow entering the pattern we're checking ____ _________ as the number of heads in the pattern and treating the pattern like a ____________. Distance between sprinklers on a line and between that A. heat. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Exercises on spacing sprinklers and F.3 x ? gpm = 1000 x ? m3/h = Square pattern ____ ?x? ?x? Elliptical pattern ____ H. The answer to the formula is in ________ per _________.45) Elliptical pattern ____ radius of sprinkler = 15 ft (5 m) type of sprinkler = half circle spray sprinkler D. The 96. The flow in the precipitation rate formula is: Always the equivalent of one full circle sprinkler ____ There are seven sprinklers in the diagram. close enough ____ 45 ft 45 ft (15 m) (15 m) Head-to-head spacing only 60% of the sprinkler’s diameter of throw ____ 45 ft (15 m) The outer radius of throw from one sprinkler touching the outer radius of throw of the next sprinkler ____ 45 ft 45 ft (15 m) (15 m) B. Which spacing pattern below has a wind-fighting advantage as well as being adaptable to areas with gpm (m3/h) per sprinkler = 5 (2) straight borders and 90° corners? distance of throw = 45 ft (15 m) type of sprinkler = impact (rotating sprinkler) Sliding pattern ____ sprinkler setting = full circle Rectangular pattern ____ Fill in the formula and the PR. C. Fill in the blanks of the formula for the precipitation rate Converts minutes to hours ____ of the sprinklers depicted in the above diagram. What is the maximum sprinkler spacing recommended line and the next ____ in this manual when site conditions are near optimum “S” is spacing between sprinklers. that’s diagram below.3 (1000) in the precipitation rate formula: by multiplying 15 ft (5 m)times ____________ for an Is a constant ____ answer of ____________ ft (m). Calculate the precipitation rate for the sprinklers in the If you can see one sprinkler from its neighbor. etc. which spacing pattern has the I. In the procedure for calculating the PR for equilateral Never the equivalent of one full circle sprinkler ____ triangular spacing. Answer the questions concerning the diagram below: probability of a “weak spot?” 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft (5 m) (5 m) (5 m) Sliding pattern ____ 15 ft (5 m) Rectangular pattern ____ 15 ft 15 ft (5 m) (5 m) Triangular pattern ____ spacing pattern = equilateral triangle Square pattern ____ gpm (m3/h) per sprinkler = 2 (0.) for good sprinkler coverage? G.3 x ? gpm = 1000 x ? m3/h = Converts feet-of-head (meters-of-head) to psi (bar) ____ ?x? ?x? Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 47 . The grains per million of grit in the water ____ The height of the sprinkler pattern can be determined E. “L” is for spacing (very limited irrigation interference from wind.

surround it with at least three sprinklers so it performance. Major problems are difficult to correct after a system has been installed. sprinkler spacing and calculating doesn’t affect coverage of the other plantings. For information on designing drip owner many times the money saved on initial installation. Let’s look at some typical sprinkler-locating methods for Overthrow handling various types of planting areas. A dense hedge.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Locating sprinklers on the plan watered along with the turf or ground cover without over With all that has been covered concerning sprinkler watering. For Let’s see how the designer handled planters and narrow the sprinklers spaced too near. visually open areas by using sliding or staggered spacing. If the tree or large bush can be designer’s plan. and even minor mistakes in the design or installation phases of the project Figure 49: Sprinkler pattern for hedges can be costly to correct. After locating all the sprinklers on the plan. Slightly wider planting areas can use stream The exact locations of trees on (or to be planted on) the site bubblers that can throw gentle streams out to a radius of 5 are important so the designer can provide for them in ft (1.11 m3/h or 0. Begin laying out sprinklers in trouble areas first. if not to be watered by bubblers or drip The goal in positioning the sprinklers is to make sure all irrigation.Where possible. For trees or large bushes and hedges that radius spray sprinklers with strip pattern nozzles. Remember not to stretch the spacing between flow bubbler should be used (. irrigation. precipitation rates. Over the life of the system. Narrow lawn strips can be watered by short- sprinkler spacing. Small planters and narrow planting beds can usually be adequately irrigated with drip irrigation. add or delete sprinklers and check spacing before drawing in any pipe routing. rotors will have to be valved separately from those spray “Trouble areas” are those with odd shapes. If a planter is narrow with walled or bermed borders. this larger foliage acts as a beds in the sample project (see Figure 50). confined spaces or other features that require that will require their own valve if it really is not necessary. Properly locating the sprinklers is extremely important! An irrigation system is one of the few items that is purchased and then buried in the ground. bubblers are to be used for trees or hedges. If selected the sprinkler for a particular area: the turf area on your plan is covered by all spray sprinklers except for rotor pop-ups on one slightly wider spot. From the barrier to good distribution.50 gpm [0. Try not to isolate three or four special sprinklers obstructions. This is the time to make any slight adjustments. we can see that low-flow drip irrigation has 48 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . given area. see the Rain Bird Xerigation Design Manual To make up for poor coverage. use the same types of sprinklers over a be lost in water waste. are not to be irrigated separately. check the entire system for proper spacing and good coverage.06 to sprinklers beyond their recommended ranges. flood Figure 48: Sprinkler pattern for shrubs and trees bubblers can be used to fill the reservoir area under the plants. will cost the system catch any runoff. If. special spacing considerations. areas that require irrigation have adequate sprinkler instead. After establishing the sprinkler locations in the “trouble areas.03 L/s]) or a standard flow bubbler sprinklers on the project that might be eliminated because (1 gpm [0.” move out into the 3. more water. a low coverage. the 1. Remember the next step after plotting the Here are some of the things to keep in mind after you have sprinklers is to group them into valve circuits or laterals. can often be thrown into by nearby sprinklers. flood bubblers.5 m).06 L/s] or more) using a basin to all the other rows were stretched. The row of 0.02 to 0. the sprinklers in the area should surround and throw into or under the plants. the owner will likely apply (Catalog No. much money will 2. prominent sprinklers. we are now ready to use this information to properly locate sprinklers on the plan. stream bubblers or short-radius spray sprinklers.23 m3/h or 0.25 gpm to . D39030C).

Many strips and planter three rows of spray sprinklers.13 m) wide.14 m) wide area was commonly handled by These nozzles have a “bow tie” or half-bow tie pattern and three rows of 15 ft (4. the designer is using standard arc (19 mm) of water per hour would be better than spray spray patterns. are effectively covered. nozzle can cover the area from each edge of the strip With the advent of the small turf area rotor pop-ups and instead of the center where the trees would block the spray.” the back lawn. The trees in the planting beds will susceptible to wind drift. The 30 ft (9. two rows of spray sprinklers would be stretched too far. often more appropriate for areas that have lots of curving Half circle nozzles would create overspray into other areas.5 cm) pop-up spray sprinklers. If low trees would obstruct the longer. can be used with center strip or end strip spray nozzles. For strips with of half circle sprinklers down each edge of the area. on the edge of the walkway between the Wider. that have been adapted to can be adjusted in the field using the throw adjustment 12 in (30. If low coverage. so the shown graphically by a single dashed line winding through designer has decided to irrigate the entire lawn with 4 in the planting beds. Because it is subjected to more wind. are used when the standard rotating sprinkler. and a trees in the center of the shrub or lawn area. more than 6 to 7 ft (1. then rotating sprinklers delivering less than . pop-ups for the mid-30 ft (10. In area “B.75 in In the wider lawn areas. drip emitters the plan gives the designer a visual indication that all areas and sprinklers are never mixed on the same valve. The drip irrigation pipe is Area “E. Areas “D”. can use half circle spray sprinklers throwing in for areas in the 20 ft (6. Beyond 15 ft (4.19 m). Sprinklers which exhibit over spray tiny micro-sprays. higher throw of the VAN.” the designer has selected 12 ft sprinklers delivering over 2 in (51 mm) of water per hour.13 m) in 40 ft (5.14 m) wide or less. typically measured in gallons arcs for the sprinklers. small. the designer has shown the check irrigation has very low flows.10 m) range. They also point out any areas where In the planting beds of area “I.” the designer has specified over spray may occur. The the prevailing wind is toward the house. the U-Series designer’s plan. Showing the check arcs on (meters cubed per hour or liters per second). A decision between using chances of over spraying the area. overspray is unacceptable. For of about 40 ft (12.2 cm) pop-up spray sprinklers rather than use rotor water to the plants are typically not shown on the pop-ups. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges been used for the planting beds. the side strip row of full circle sprinklers down the center. VANs are adjustable to any arc from 0° to 360°. simply switching to a larger radius may not be trajectory or flat-angle spray sprinklers to reduce the the best design answer either. light-impact sprinklers that have a range from 17 to Wider strips. such as the common areas design with rotating sprinklers. The individual emitters that provide (10. the designer chose flood bubblers mounted on than smaller more broken up areas. Because drip On the irrigation plan. the designer has a decision to make dimension.18 to 12.57 m) or from both edges. row of spray sprinklers because the installation expense of Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 49 . with four outlets open.66 m radius) spray nozzles and in the narrow part Perhaps the higher cost per unit of rotating sprinklers of the lawn in area “C.” he has switched to 10 ft radius (3. or variable arc nozzles. Check arcs represent the maximum per hour (liters per hour) as opposed to gallons per minute effective radius for the sprinkler. has very few wide areas. part of area “H”. shrubs each have two single-outlet emitters. In the one isolated capability of the head. an important consideration since use multi-outlet emitters. may be influenced by any between apartments. Spray sprinklers are unusual shape of area “G” lends itself to using VAN nozzles. more open areas are easier to design irrigation for houses. condominiums and offices where number of factors. small risers for the climbing plants. In the past. or switching to a two-row areas are bordered by walkways. Spray sprinklers were used lawns and shrub sprinklers or high-pops for shrub areas where the area to be watered was 30 ft (9.19 m) with an adjustment range down to strips that are 4 to 7 ft (1. impact sprinklers and rotor pop-up sprinklers had a radius Landscaped strips can be irrigated in several ways. The appropriate for watering the area.05 would be more than offset by elimination of the middle m radius) nozzles. precipitation rates were required for this medium-wide area. This nozzle is less individual drip laterals. or xeri-sprays. edges.57 m) radius spray sprinklers — a row are located down the center of the area. It may be difficult to avoid overthrow or gain third and quarter circle nozzles would not provide enough complete coverage with a larger radius sprinkler. radius (3.67 m) range.83 to 2. Narrow strips and confined areas often use low-angle However. perhaps the spray sprinklers are more arc configuration does not provide adequate coverage. so.22 to 2. “E” and “H” each represent nozzle was selected for the back lawn.

Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Figure 50: Plan. locating sprinklers 50 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .

lawn area. not accomplished. then check your answers in the Solutions section on page 90. golf courses and agricultural fields allow for the efficient use of large radius In the ”Alternate Back Yard” illustration (see Figure 51) you sprinklers. schools. Large lawns. who takes into account the special sprinkler. exercises on page 52. With this This particular project did not require rotor pop-ups. the designer is ready to proceed with the just because of moderate lawn width. The decision is Very large. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 51 . but also because the next step. complete the windows in the constant wind. sports fields. 5 Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Figure 51: Plan. The more common rectangular. parks. irrigation plan should show every area to be irrigated and designed with properly spaced sprinklers. parallelogram can see what the sprinkler locations would have been if the and triangular spacing patterns can be used for maximum landscape plan for our sample project had a wider. Note how few rotor pop-up sprinklers are required for the large area and how low the lateral flows At this point in the design process. cover areas. Before we proceed to that step. slopes. the drawing of the might have changed. open areas are the domain of the rotating up to the designer. more spacing and wind resistance. vast shrub or ground needs of the site along with practical experience. which is to group the sprinklers into valve high-angle throw of the rotors might drift to the back groups. open. alternate backyard trenching and installation would go down.

0 m) and the owner of the property had mistakenly Impact sprinkler ____ installed only six 15 ft (4.5 m) radius sprinklers would be required for head-to-head coverage. sprinklers.0 m x Bubbler ____ 18.5 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ Triangular ____ Rectangular ____ B. A 30 ft (9. what type of sprinkler listed below would most likely be best for a large slope application? C.0 m) radius impact sprinkler ____ H. If the area in the illustration was 30 ft x 60 ft (9.3 m) wide.6 m) radius pop-up spray sprinkler ____ could be watered efficiently by which two items below? An 8 ft (2.6 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ rotor pop-ups in question “E” be using? A 10 ft (3.Selecting Sprinklers and Spacing Ranges Exercises on locating sprinklers E. Without knowing any other information about the site. how many would be required for head-to- head coverage? A. If a tree or large bush in the center of a lawn area can and the lawn dimensions were 12 ft x 24 ft (3. Which spacing pattern would the 30 ft (9. If the original six sprinklers for the question “C” Put an X after each correct answer to the multiple choice illustration were 30 ft (9. For a shrub bed that is 14 ft (4.0 m) radius A 12 ft (3. if the area were a lawn G. plot the positions on the drawing Fan spray sprinkler ____ where additional 15 ft (4. which spray sprinkler listed below would be spaced closest to its 6 sprinklers ____ "60% stretch rule" across the shrub bed if there was a 8 sprinklers ____ row of the heads down each side? 10 sprinklers ____ 12 sprinklers ____ A 15 ft (4.0 m) radius rotor pop-up questions. D.5 m) radius spray sprinklers in Side strip ____ the positions shown. what type of sprinkler should be plotted at the locations tolerate the same amount of water as the turfgrass. What was the total number of sprinklers required for the illustration in question “C?” 8 sprinklers ____ 10 sprinklers ____ 12 sprinklers ____ 13 sprinklers ____ 14 sprinklers ____ 15 sprinklers ____ 52 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .5 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ F.6 m x 7. A single tree rose with a basin dug out around its base A 12 ft (3.4 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ Sliding ____ A 6 ft (1.4 m) radius pop-up spray sprinkler ____ A bubbler ____ An impact sprinkler ____ A rotor pop-up ____ An emitter ____ A side strip ____ I. it is shown? best to plot the sprinklers to _______________ the bush or tree to avoid blocking the sprinklers’ coverage of the A 15 ft (4.2 m). In the spacing illustration below.5 m) radius shrub sprinkler ___ lawn.0 m) radius spray sprinkler ____ Square ____ An 8 ft (2.

Lateral Layout,
Circuiting Sprinklers
into Valve Groups

6

6 Lateral Layout, Circuiting Sprinklers into Valve Groups

Step six: Lateral layout, circuiting 34 shrubs x 2 emitters per shrub = 68 emitters
sprinklers into valve groups 68 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 68 gph (272 L/h)
3 trees x 4 emitters per tree = 12 emitters
This is the designer’s first opportunity to discover the 12 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 12 gph (48 L/h)
number of valves that the project will require and what size
controller or timer will be needed. At this step in the The trees and shrub flows are added together and divided
process, the drawing of the plan should be complete to the by 60 minutes (3600 seconds) to obtain the gallons per
point where every area to be irrigated has been drawn with minute (liters per second):
properly spaced sprinklers. We know that the available flow 68 gph + 12 gph = 80 gph (272 L/h + 48 L/h = 320 L/h)
for the project was determined to be 10 gpm (2,27 m3/h or 80 gph ÷ 60 min = 1.3 gpm (320 L/h ÷ 3600 sec = 0,0888 L/s or 0,09 L/s)
0,63 L/s).
Area “F” is a full-sun lawn area that accounts for most of
We start establishing laterals by first adding up the flows of the space in the back yard. There are 45 sprinklers in the
similar sprinklers in each area. The spray sprinklers in area yard, with a total flow (when evaluated as a group) of a little
“A” are one such group. Adding up the flow for all 10 over 100 gpm (22,68 m3/h or 6,31 L/s). With our maximum
sprinklers produces a flow of 6.3 gpm (1,43 m3/h or 0,40 L/s). available flow of 10 gpm (2,27 m3/h or 0,63 L/s) this means
In the front yard, the designer has split the front lawn into that there will be a minimum of 10 or 11 valves to cover the
three valves, two in area “B” and one in area “C.. Area “C” area. The designer has tried to keep the same kind of
was placed on a separate lateral because the sprinkler sprinklers together on the valves. This means that full circle
spacing is different enough from area “B” to warrant a sprinklers are on different laterals than part circle
different zone. Also, area “B” receives full sunshine nearly sprinklers. While most pop-up sprays have matched
all day while area “C” gets a larger amount of afternoon precipitation rates, keeping fulls and parts separate allows
shade. Area “B” has a total of 10 sprinklers and a total the homeowner the ability to have more control of the
demand of about 14 gpm (3,18 m3/h or 0,88 L/s), while the irrigation system. Often areas along a wall or fence require
six sprinklers for area “C” require approximately 6 gpm less water than those in the center of the turf, because of
(1,36 m3/h or 0,38 L/s). Because 14 gpm (3,18 m3/h or 0,88 shade or screening from wind.
L/s) is greater than the 10 gpm (2,27 m3/h or 0,63 L/s) Area “G,” a semi-circular area of perennials and trees, will
available flow, it is necessary to create two valves. be irrigated by variable arc nozzles on 12 in (30,5 cm) pop-
Area “D” is a drip irrigation zone. To calculate the required ups. Total flow for the six sprinklers is 5 gpm (1,13 m3/h or
flow for the lateral, the designer completed the following 0,32 L/s).
calculations. The number of shrubs was multiplied by the Area “H” is another drip zone. There are 15 shrubs and four
number of emitters per shrub. That result was then trees in this area. Flow calculations are:
multiplied by the flow of an emitter to produce the number
15 shrubs x 2 emitters per shrub = 30 emitters
of gallons per hour (liters per hour) in the area. To convert
30 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 30 gph (120 L/h)
to the more typical gallons per minute (liters per second), 4 trees x 4 emitters per tree = 16 emitters
the flow is divided by 60 (3600). Because area “D” has 25 16 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 16 gph (64 (L/h)
shrubs with two emitters per shrub, the calculation looks 30 gph (120 L/h) + 16 gph (64 L/h) = 46 gph (184 L/h)
like this: 46 gph (184 L/h) ÷ 60 min (3600 sec) = .76 gpm (0,05 L/s)
25 shrubs x 2 emitters/shrub = 50 emitters
Area “I” has two perennial beds, one of which is near a
50 emitters x 1 gph (4 L/h) = 50 gph (200 L/h)
50 gph/60 min/h = .833 gpm or almost 1 gpm window. To minimize over spray onto the house, but still
(200 L/h/3600 s/h = 0,0555 L/s or almost 0,06 L/s) use sprays for the perennials, the designer selected micro-
sprays. Here, the low-flow spray heads are used with 12 in
Area “E” is another shrub bed with drip irrigation. The (30,5 cm) pop-up sprays. Using the high pop-ups allows
calculations for the flow are a little more complex because the sprays to be up high enough to be effective, but retract
there are trees present in this bed. Trees are irrigated with a out of the way when the irrigation is complete. Radius and
six port multi-outlet emitter which has four ports open. flow for each of the sprays can be controlled by a ball valve
The flow for the trees is calculated like the shrubs, but with that is built into the device. Maximum flow for each xeri-
four emitters instead of two. Therefore the calculations are: spray is 0.52 gpm (0,12 m3/h or 0,02 L/s), which when

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 55

Lateral Layout. Circuiting Sprinklers in Valve Groups Figure 52: Plan. lateral layout 56 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .

There are several other lateral circuit servicing. there are 21 valves. After adding up all the areas. main lines and lateral piping lateral designs. where the valve is located • Manual valves need to be located where the system in the center of the line of sprinklers.5 gpm (0. minimize The total flow for the circuit is split in half. a valve box lid on the surface of a football field performance between the sprinklers. where the valve is located at the extreme end of the line. Balanced loss reduces the same trench in some areas of the project to reduce variation in sprinkler performance because of more labor costs. the differing watering times and frequencies Figure 53: Straight line lateral valve configurations require separate valving. 6 Lateral Layout. the main line should have adequate cover. a valve should be the same size as the lateral line it serves. the portion of the pipe that feeds all the sprinklers would • Valves should be accessible for maintenance and be the largest. main lines and lateral piping is the next part of the design process. is the least optimum of all Locating valves. Risers are used here since the plants are in a very low traffic area. The designer has chosen the #1 1402 0. but advantages over the straight line lateral circuit. the main line and lateral lines can share losses throughout the circuit. the valve serving a group of sprinklers #1 should be at the center of the group to balance the flow and size of lateral pipe. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 57 . The straight line lateral circuit. Circuiting Sprinklers into Valve Groups multiplied by the 10 devices. Finally. The split-length lateral circuit.. Because #2 this is to be an automatic system. not where the sprinklers will douse the operator. over sprinkle. • Where possible. Pressure differences between the sprinklers on • The valves and/or valve boxes should be located where the extreme ends of the lateral are the greatest in this they will not interfere with normal traffic or use of the method.13 m3/h or 0. has several owner can conveniently reach them for operation.e. Even under special conditions. the project will require a controller that can handle a minimum of 21 remote control valves. • Valve and main line locations should be kept in mind when circuiting sprinklers and drawing in lateral pipe #3 routes.32 L/s). the valve #2 should not be sized more than one nominal size smaller or larger than the largest size of its lateral. sprinklers. which can often the length of the main line pipe route were possible. Here are some factors that will As we learned in the basic hydraulics section of this help guide the placement of these components: program. valve and lateral pipe configurations in relation to the rules mentioned above. Though some of the laterals are small enough (low flow) for the main line to support more than one operating #3 at a time. is unacceptable). • Normally.5 m/s) method. To minimize the possibility of damage from uniform pressure availability. Valves installed below ground should be configurations that could reduce the size of the pipe housed in valve boxes and not buried directly in the required while supplying the same number and type of ground. Figure 54: Split-length lateral configurations • Main line pipes are the most expensive pipes. Locating the valves. produces a total flow of about Here are some examples of circuiting the sprinklers into 5 gpm (1. This can cause large variations in discharge and area (i. area “J” has three climbing plants that are irrigated by flood bubblers on risers.11 m3/h or 0. when sizing pipe by the 5 ft/s (1. reduce the size of pipe required and balance the pressure • If convenient.03 L/s) bubbler.

pressure variations. Area “A. keep in mind A B C D that there are many ways to do each one. example one course over night. we determined the and pipe sizes. but the goals of the layout are the same. minimizing pipe sizes Main and size changes. Area “C” is a U-shaped pattern. 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in 3/4 in Circuit #1 (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 20 mm) Calculating lateral operating time A B C D 11/4 in 3/4 in Sometime during the stage of the design following Circuit #2 (32 mm 20 mm) sprinkler layout.4 m) (5. balance flows and reduce pipe sizes. how they are circuited and the number of 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in 3/4 in laterals that can run at the same time are critical concerns. City Main Valve Circuit #1 A B C D A B C D Circuit #2 Valve Figure 55: Two row sprinkler circuits Figure 59: Main line/lateral line configuration A deep “U” shaped circuit can often be used to reach into planter boxes or other areas without having the valve and Let’s look at a few of the piping configurations the designer main line enter the area. maximum irrigation requirement in inches per day or per Static pressure 11/2 in (40 mm) Water meter week for the type of climate influencing the project site. There is an Even with an odd number of sprinklers. Static Pressure 11/2 in (40 mm) Water Meter The process for testing the adequacy of the system is to 75 psi PVB 40. all play a part in lateral circuit design. Circuiting Sprinklers in Valve Groups Even two-row sprinkler circuits can be split to reduce There are many other possible lateral pipe configurations. 75 psi PVB 40. circuit routes and important reason for determining the average operating valve locations can be selected to minimize pressure loss time for the system.4 m) determine the daily watering time (in minutes) each circuit (5. A simple formula applied to each type of circuit will help the designer determine the daily average operating time needed. the type of sprinklers used. If the time available for irrigation is limited. used for the circuits on this project. Circuit #1 (50 mm 40 mm 11/4 in 3/4 in 32 mm 20 mm) For example. a golf superintendent’s nightmare is a golf Circuit #2 course irrigation system that cannot irrigate the entire (32 mm 20 mm) Figure 57: Odd number circuits. balancing flows. Minimizing Here are just a few: pressure changes.7 ft (12.2 bar) Now we need to know if the circuits we are designing can Main meet this requirement in the time available for irrigation.2 bar) will need to eventually satisfy the weekly irrigation Main requirement for the project. and locating the valve where it won’t be in the way. The formula looks like this: 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in 3/ in 4 (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 20 mm) OT = I x 60 Circuit #1 PR x DA Figure 58: Odd number circuits.” is basically an Main “H” pattern. Back in step two. the designer has an opportunity to Figure 56: Deep U-shape circuits calculate the lateral operating time for the various types of sprinklers to be installed on the project.Lateral Layout. example two 58 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .7 ft (12. As you look at the rest of the circuit designs on the project.

that means radius = 14 ft (4 m) it takes 25-hour day to irrigate the project! Even if it wasn’t a • Sprinkler spacing: 13 x 15 ft (4 m x 5 m) rectangular day use area. 3 day/wk PR = 96. then the night time hours are. insert all the data into the formula and calculate the room to work out a solution to the irrigation time problem. DA = Days available for irrigation per week 60 = Constant conversion factor of 60 min/h The time period available for irrigation is called the water window.8 OT =1. If this is still too much time.5 gpm (0.79 m3/h) full circle.5 mm/h x 6 day/wk Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 59 . • Days available for irrigation: 3 days PR = 96. there still are not enough hours in the day to complete a watering cycle.5 mm/h • Sprinkler performance: 4. If. 40 ft x 45 ft 12 m x 14 m radius = 40 ft (12 m) Now the water is being applied faster. PR = 96.3 or 18 min/day. most likely. let’s look at increasing .5 mm/h x 3 day/wk For the 12 circuits on the system. What happens to the • Sprinkler spacing: 40 ft x 45 ft (12 m x 14 m) rectangular time required? Circuit precipitation rate calculation: OT =1. 3 day/wk week would lessen the problem.9 min/day.2 or 19 min/day. Perhaps two circuits cannot be run at one time. 6 Lateral Layout.4 min/day.3 x 3. The 125 min (126 min—the difference is caused by rounding Sample lateral number 1 during the International System Units calculation) in the • System irrigation requirement: 1-1/2 in (38 mm) per week second operating time example.5 in/wk x 60 min/h = 39.5 mm/h x 3 day/wk Let’s look at what happens if the system will support 7 gpm Sample lateral number 2 (1. 3 day/wk hours.5 gpm (1 m3/h) full circle. if not previously calculated. the only the “worst case” season irrigation hours available since the facility is in use during PR = Circuit precipitation rate in inches (millimeters) per hour the day. First.5 gpm (1 m3/h) • System irrigation requirement: 1-1/2 in (38 mm) per week sprinklers used previously. OT = 38 mm/wk x 60 min/h = 126 min/day.79 m3/h = 39. more irrigation cycles per OT = 38 mm/wk x 60 min/h = 19. Circuiting Sprinklers into Valve Groups For this formula: system and check this total against the hours of irrigation OT = Circuit operating time in minutes per day time available each day.38 in/h PR = 1000 x 1.5 in/wk x 60 min/h = 125 min/day. circuits? If only one circuit can operate at a time. 39. then there is Next. If the system is for a ball field or I = System irrigation requirement in inches (millimeters) per week in park.5 gpm = 1. 6 day/wk 6 mm/h x 3 day/wk . 3 day/wk the hydraulics of the system would support higher flow rate 1.5 mm/h the flow. 13 ft x 15 ft 4mx5m and they are analyzed at the design stage. it now takes about 15.6 m3/h) sprinklers instead of the 4.5 in/wk x 60 min/h = 78. instead of being fixed numbers. What happens if there are 12 such • Sprinkler performance: 3.5 in/wk x 60 min/h = 17.73 in/h PR = 1000 x .5 gpm = .3 x 7 gpm = .0 min/day.6 m3/h = 9.24 in/h PR = 1000 x 1 m3/h = 6 mm/h .24 in/h x 3 day/wk the days available for watering to 6 days per week. but maybe OT =1. daily minutes of operating time for the circuit.38 in/h x 6 day/wk Once the operating time for each type of circuit is OT = 38 mm/wk x 60 min/h = 40. A number of ways to resolve this problem are implied in the formula variables. Let’s look at the formula in action on some sample circuits.73 in/h x 3 day/wk sprinklers on each circuit.38 in/h x 3 day/wk 40 ft x 45 ft 12 m x 14 m OT = 38 mm/wk x 60 min/h = 80. If 3 day/week for watering isn’t an imposed or valid restriction. determine the precipitation rate of the circuit. irrigation days and precipitation rate are flexible. 3 day/wk OT =1.0 min/day. the next step is to add up all the circuits on the 9. 6 day/wk established. equals two hours and five minutes of running time per day for each circuit on the • Days available for irrigation: 3 days project similar to that one. 3 day/wk Circuit operating time: 9.3 x 4.

need to be circuited into a total system by drawing in the main line that links them to the water source. using the guidelines on circuit design. more pressure-resistant walls. however. 60 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . sprinklers. require review when making you have learned about valve circuit design and calculating alterations of the system to match operating time to the operating time. These valve positions. we can get the job done between side of the house. The other leg could have been routed up the night time and early morning hours of 10 p. the designer to reduce the number of sprinklers per circuit or increase pipe sizes. We easily switched to higher flow was forced to nearly circle the property with the main line. if not yet connected. Circuit Configuration and Operating Time on the next page.m. let’s practice what pertaining to the project. e lin e lin al ain er lat m Figure 60: Main line and lateral line As mentioned earlier. A designer would have to check to make sure After the designer draws in the most economical route for the increased precipitation rate did not exceed the soil’s the main line. the designer would automatic irrigation controller have preferred to branch the main line. These. the trench depth should be specified to provide this protection. the main line pipe is more expensive than the lateral pipe because it needs to have stronger. In the previous step. heavier. Sufficient cover should be provided for the main to protect it from damage by overhead traffic. the mains are specified at greater depths or provided with manual drainage valves to avoid trapping water that would become expanding ice. routing one leg of the line straight to the backyard under the walkway at the If this is a day use area. 2 ft (60 cm) of cover is specified for irrigation mains. Depending on the system main line size. the designer determined how many valve circuits were going to be required on the project and. The greater flow demand could require pressure loss. Golf course mains are often specified for a minimum of 24 in (60 cm) of cover. Unnecessary runs of the main line should be avoided from a cost standpoint. The main will be under constant pressure. In large-size commercial or industrial irrigation systems. Circuiting Sprinklers in Valve Groups 40 min/station x 12 circuits = 8 hours irrigation time/cycle on the In the project we have been following.m. the right side of the property and stopped where the first This example is somewhat simplified compared to a real valve for section “E” is located. In climates that have harsh winter freezing conditions.Lateral Layout. In a residential design. and other considerations Before going to this next step. even when the system is not in use. often the sprinkler main line is about 12 in (30 cm) below the surface. step six can be started. Because the walkway on the life situation where a number of other factors would left side of the house was already installed. drew in the lateral pipe and valve positions. Test your knowledge with the Exercises on time available for irrigation. the designer require examination. to 6 a. both from the standpoint of cost and least rate of infiltration. Answers are listed in the Solutions section on page 91.

Circuiting Sprinklers into Valve Groups Figure 61: Plan. 6 Lateral Layout. valve groups Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 61 .

No watering is allowed during the day. Sprinkler precipitation rate: . What is the operating time per cycle for a circuit with the following characteristics? No watering is allowed on Wednesday evenings because of regular Little League games. each of the following sprinkler circuits to best balance Irrigation requirement per day: . Sprinkler precipitation rate for the rotors is .33 in/h (8.67 in/h (17 mm/h). What would the operating time per cycle be if all the original information concerning the circuit in question “B” was the same except for only four days per week available for irrigation? _________ min/cycle 62 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . True or false? A main line pipe will usually require thicker walls than a lateral line pipe? #3 B. ? x 60 = ? min/cycle ?x? C. G.214 in (5 mm). Circuiting Sprinklers in Valve Groups Exercises on circuit configuration E.Lateral Layout. #1 ? x 60 = ? min/cycle ?x? F.4 mm/h). Draw a small circle where the valve should be located in Days per week available for irrigation: 7. What is the operating time per cycle for a circuit with and operating time the following characteristics? A. The irrigation requirement is 2 in (50 mm) per week.75 in/h (19 mm/h)? _________ min/cycle D. Adequate _________ is required to protect a main line #2 pipe from damage from overhead traffic. What would the operating time per cycle be if the precipitation rate for the sprinklers in question “B” was . the flow to all the sprinklers.

Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements 7 .

.

This process continues.22 m3/h or 0.54 m3/h furthest sprinkler from the valve. Before sizing the lateral pipes. through the pipe at higher speeds.62 L/s). let’s start with Circuit #1 and. Valve Figure 62: Lateral pipe configuration The highest flow for 3/4 in (20 mm) Class 200 PVC pipe before going into the shaded area on the chart is 10 gpm The designer knows that the water supply must reach even (2. sizing the pipe and valves in the system and The route this sizing procedure follows along the various calculating the total system pressure requirement.5 m/s). With the type 9.8 gpm (2. If it was.7 ft/s (1. This designer uses the principles of hydraulics to size all the route is defined as the longest path in the circuit that the components in the system and to ensure adequate flow and water will have to travel. 19. supplying the and calculating system pressure last two sprinklers.22 m3/h or 0. The pipe chart shows that Pipe sizing for a sprinkler lateral is done in reverse.5 m/s). the designer needs The pipe size specified by the designer for section “D” then to select what type of pipe to specify. and chose Class 200 PVC. but 1 in pipe to be sized is the pipe reach supplying the last or (25 mm) pipe is too small also. First. In step seven. The designer has spaced of pipe selected and the critical lengths determined. the furthest sprinkler out on the line with a minimum of 55 9.62 L/s).43 m/s). the various pipe sections of each lateral have an identification letter.” The longest path for holding velocity at or below 5 ft/s (1. The circuit is not split exactly in examine two typical valve circuits that have not yet had their half.5 m/s) method. can be met by the 3/4 in psi (3. as mentioned earlier. Checking the Class 200 PVC pipe A B C D chart.5 m/s) velocity safety limit for pipe. the speed of the water in the pipe is less critical circuit length for this lateral includes all the pipe likely to cause damaging surge pressures.33 m) at 55 psi (3. Sections “C” and “D. we discussed distal sprinkler. The critical length may also be pressure to properly operate all the sprinklers on the project.5 m/s) method to size the lateral lines.26 L/s).45 m3/h or 1. For reference. the them in an equilateral triangular pattern at 50% spacing.22 m3/h or 0.8 gpm (2. make that throw 47 ft (14. In this case. the designer has split the lateral with the valve in an irrigation plan using the 5 ft/s (1.8 bar) to get the desired performance at the selected (20 mm) size with a velocity of about 4. Main with the last sprinkler on the line which is on the far right. There is a slightly longer water path from the valve down through sections “C” and “D” to Each circuit has four.62 L/s) for a total flow of ready to begin sizing the lateral pipe. section “C” is the next fairly good flow characteristics. medium-sized rotor pop-up sprinklers the furthest sprinkler.6 gpm (4.63 L/s). At nearly 20 gpm (4. the designer looks for the smallest pipe that will A B C D carry 9. The first not only is 3/4 in (20 mm) pipe out of the question.” therefore. section “A” through section “D.27 m3/h or 0. circuit as the critical path. but designer is ready to use the Class 200 PVC pipe chart and has chosen a different lateral pipe configuration for each the 5 ft/s (1. and each require up the critical circuit length for example two. First. and toward the valve. this section of the lateral requires 1-1/4 in (40 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 65 . each Turning to the Class 200 PVC pipe chart.8 gpm (2.24 L/s). pipe to be sized.8 bar). the designer is requiring 9. it’s easy to see that the 5 ft/s (1. the next reach in. The simplest way to keep these factors where they can be controlled is to size the pipe In Circuit #2.8 gpm (2. 7 Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements Step seven: Sizing pipe and valves established for that reach. To review. This sprinkler requires a flow of 9.5 m/s) is that friction from the valve to the most distal sprinkler is through all the losses increase dramatically as more water is being forced lateral pipes. described as the length between the valve and the most In the Understanding Basic Hydraulics section.62 L/s) without exceeding the Circuit #2 5 ft/s (1. the designer wanted a medium strength pipe that also had Working backward toward the valve. The flow demand for the sprinkler. the pipes in the circuit is called the critical circuit length. spacing. requirements moving backward (or upstream) from the last sprinkler. The second reason sections.22 m3/h or 0. the 5 ft/s (1. in the center of the circuit. the designer could use either side of the lateral pipe sizes specified. When the size has been or 1. should be sized.22 m3/h or 0. but the pipe supplying it cannot have a velocity of Valve Circuit #1 more than 5 ft/s (1. at Looking at Circuit #1 in the example.62 L/s). let’s say is 3/4 in (20 mm).5 m/s) limit. This section supplies two sprinklers. circuit.8 gpm (2.

77 11.720 2. length.29 0.32 the cost of the larger fittings is gone and. if all the circuits of 24 26 11.32 6.11 2.08 8.47 0.14 0.71 5.65 15.51 1. nor has a component has the same type of sprinklers and the same type of pipe.34 4.87 56.60 and feeding it from a centrally located valve position.4 gpm (6.46 0.03 0.80 2. The designer selects 1-1/4 in (40 A B C D mm) for section “C.4 m) between laterals section is sized accordingly.22 0.84 L/s).900 1.93 1.23 11.61 Now that we have sized these laterals.00 8.24 0.15 33.97 1.22 1.8 bar) at sprinklers 2 in (50 mm) pipe is required for section “A” and this last 40.68 0.34 4.30 0.19 5.27 21.30 3.56 17.98 17.” 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in 3/4 in Circuit #1 (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 20 mm) PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE A B C D 11/4 in 3/4 in (1120.43 1.18 4 5 1.02 9.79 0.17 0.86 1.57 0.18 0. Here is how the two circuits look: 66 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .68 1. With that decided for Circuit blocks the potentially contaminated water in the irrigation #2.89 2.12 2.37 0.02 0.80 0.02 3.96 0.26 0.30 4.94 10.09 5.23 8.70 9.82 3.51 3.41 0.315 1.44 0.53 0.70 0. the designer OD ID 1.51 1.24 6.34 0.13 0.82 3.62 3.89 m3/h or 2.23 2.66 0.46 1. 1220) SDR 21 C=150 Circuit #2 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) (32 mm 20 mm) Figure 64: Lateral pipe configuration PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 3⁄4 in through 6 in.17 0.30 One of the advantages of splitting a sprinkler circuit is 6 2.67 m3/h or 1.375 2.22 0.78 5.Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements mm) pipe to support two sprinklers while adhering strictly Main to the 5 f/s (1.30 0.95 1.10 0.58 5.60 8.81 5.56 1. of which there are circuit.07 1.12 0.98 2.78 5.62 3.” 1 2 0.079 0.65 4.02 0.09 0.20 0.58 8.35 3.62 L/s) each for a total of 29. the designer has completed sizing the critical circuit system from flowing back into the domestic water supply.04 2.8 gpm (2.” which supports one sprinkler. let’s have a look at 65 18.62 1.75 2. Having sized section “B” at 1-1/2 in (50 mm 40 mm 11/4 in 3/4 in 32 mm 20 mm) (40 mm).97 1.06 0.75 13.76 1.89 4.01 0.47 0.96 sizes.41 1. 47 ft (14.12 2.86 0.49 1.11 40 45 18.54 12.24 0.09 1.04 0.56 1.59 2.45 6.14 0.58 1.87 3.02 0.30 1.66 36.34 9.14 7.17 0.20 3.85 5. section “A.27 2.65 9.87 17.90 0.94 0.49 12.28 0.20 2.19 3.36 0.20 1.10 13.10 0.27 0.06 4.42 1.22 m3/h or 0.26 4.51 6.04 0. the designer knows preventer.050 0.77 6.22 the piping plan for this entire sample system. Circuit #2 The main line has not yet been sized.08 0.89 1.83 25.15 6.27 5.24 1.65 0.83 1. The chart says 55 psi (3.46 3.42 clearly evident in the above example.26 0.42 25.03 0.59 0.00 0.” supporting two sprinklers.53 0.50 0.7 ft (12.01 0. Backflow is the unwanted reverse flow of water 3/4 in (20 mm) is required for section “D” on this new in a piping system.16 0.75 3.43 2. The smallest pipe on the chart that meets the flow needs for the three sprinklers and is within the limit is 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in 3/4 in Circuit #1 1-1/2 in (40 mm) pipe. on the line just after the water meter — the backflow Therefore.19 2.08 0.60 7.73 0.43 10.01 0.91 10.07 0.61 0. 75 psi PVB 40.22 0.44 1. Similarly.21 29.92 7. 3 1.00 2.65 7.26 0.92 70 12.36 0.44 0.01 0.50 6.94 0.78 0.54 0.03 6.30 1.59 1.08 0.02 0.04 0.00 which supports both sprinklers.88 1.83 1.55 7.37 0.063 0.31 2. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.06 2.75 41.66 5.44 3.22 m3/h or 0.40 1.83 11.660 1.11 0.96 6. to support one sprinkler.41 2.71 balanced with less pressure variation between sprinklers.930 1.41 0.48 0.51 1. SIZE 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in After sizing sections “C” and “D” for Circuit #2.93 0.79 1. is 3/4 in (20 mm) and “B.189 1.55 4.35 0.06 0.04 8.502 1.36 0.47 L/s).61 3.47 10.23 0.18 2.97 0. the next section is a short one.09 0.8 gpm (2.28 1.69 4.01 55 60 15.7 ft (12.02 0.72 designer has eliminated the need for the two larger pipe 14 6.38 15.04 8.98 5.62 L/s) per sprinkler The critical path for Circuit #1 has been sized. several types.97 4.82 2.42 3.54 0.20 1.2 bar) each or 39.42 0.86 1.090 0.85 9.13 1.15 1.70 2.08 20 22 9.31 30.5 m/s) rule.13 5. 50 14.17 3.113 sections are nearly a mirror image of sections “C” and “D.74 2.64 1.44 0.2 bar) Main Section “B” supports three sprinklers at 9. 75 13.51 43.85 2.56 this size were similar.06 0.20 4. The circuit is also 35 16.18 0.78 1.52 1. In addition to saving the cost of these bigger pipes. is a valve or valve assembly that physically needs 1-1/4 in (32 mm) pipe. the 11 12 5.” Circuit #2 (32 mm 20 mm) Figure 65: Piping plan Section “A” supports all the sprinklers on the lateral line for a total of four sprinklers at 9.52 Figure 63: Class 200 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) Static pressure 11/2 in (40 mm) Water meter Please see page 110 for a metric version of the chart above.58 18.06 0.27 6.72 2.72 3.26 4.07 0.31 3.88 0.72 0. A backflow preventer.65 0.68 30 14.55 10.14 0.77 2.67 1.93 5.8 gpm (2.05 0.2 gpm (8. 18 8. section “C.95 6.84 16 7.55 0.” so flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocit gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps “A.32 12.46 2.25 1.26 0.22 m3/h or 0.61 3.05 3.36 7 3.66 2.00 21.32 1.80 materials inventory for the project.24 2.05 4.37 9.53 3.060 0.82 0.25 4.149 also knows the sizes for sections “A” and “B. By splitting Circuit #2 8 3.62 L/s) Static pressure: 75 psi (5.40 8.32 4.48 9 10 4.3 m) between sprinklers 9.30 2.4 m) (5. will be 1-1/4 in (32 mm).” Those two Wall Thk 0. the contractor could standardize the 28 13.

07 m3/h or 2. 2. Turning to that rule. will look for ways to reduce pressure loss. being one size smaller than the pipe served. then.52 L/s) at a velocity of 5 ft/s (1.2] gpm (9. along with all the pipe the pipe sizes.52 L/s). Let’s say the feed a 2 in (50 mm) pipe. At that flow.17 bar) static pressure when flowing the 40 manufacturer’s performance chart is an indicator that the gpm (9. this only has to be done once.5 psi (0. the flow justifies using that size the circuits require the same flow of 39. • The flow through the valve should not produce a loss greater than 10% of the static pressure available in the main line. The rest of or 2. so all the (0. valve should not be used at the high or low flows in question. There must be a minimum pressure loss through for each circuit we can begin our selection. when we have 75 psi (5.52 L/s) flow. we have selected the less than 7.3 psi the circuits on the plan are just like Circuit #1. In this sample rotor pop-up system. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 67 . than the largest be sized. the static pressure at the meter is 75 psi (5. selected using the same sizing less static pressure loss rule. Looking at the performance chart for the PEB series valves (see page 68).17 bar). plastic. they would gpm (9. chart in the Technical Data section. the designer would Rule number three applies to sample Circuit #2. unless a high flow (equivalent to a larger size pipe) results from a split lateral. Rule one says most types of automatic valves! The valves use this pressure we cannot create a loss through the valve of more that 10% differential to open and close. So let’s occasionally.13 bar) at 40 circuits requiring various flows on the project. however. • The valve should either be the same size as the largest pipe in the lateral it serves. high-strength walls pipe in the lateral.2 gpm (8. The next size valves on the project will be 150-PEB valves. or The main line from the meter to the last valve now needs to not more than one nominal size smaller.52 bar) when flowing 40 gpm (9. The 1-1/2 in valve satisfies this designer has chosen Schedule 40 PVC pipe. 7 Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements This backflow prevention device.64 bar). With may find the valve won’t operate once the system is a flow of 40 [39. begin with. rules. low as to be unlisted on the performance chart.9 psi (0. • The valve should not be larger than the pipes in the lateral. 1-1/2 in (40 mm). The 1-1/2 in valve will be larger than the The designer begins by sizing the lateral valves. If there were up. These units are high.07 m3/h or 2. We know too. Rule number two says the valve should be the same size. If the In your equipment catalog. a circuit using 1-1/4 in (32 mm) pipe with and electric valves on the system. Lack of data in the of the 75 psi (5. 24 volt valves available in three sizes. for Circuits #1 and #2. turn to the PEB designer selects a large size valve because the flow loss is so Series electric remote control valves. he or she pressure.07 m3/h 150-PEB. will need to be sized. which is too high for this system. what One caution about over-sizing automatic valves: size pipes the valve for each circuit will be serving. or no more than one nominal size smaller than that pipe.47 L/s). we search for a size with a loss equal to or Getting back to our sample rotor job. a designer. shows a loss of 1.52 L/s) established installed. dealing with low pressures to size the valves for this system. Sample Circuit #1 calls for the valve to because they are under constant pressure.5 m/s) or less.52 L/s). 1-1/2 in valve.07 m3/h or 2.07 m3/h the designer split the circuit to balance the flow and reduce or 2.89 m3/h or unit. flows equivalent to a neighboring circuit using 2 in (50 mm) pipe was created. under valves.17 bar) static in the main as well when no water is flowing. Main lines need good. This size fits our 10% or use differing valve sizes. If there are no elevation Figure 66: Remote control valve changes. Because look for the smallest size that will flow 40 gpm (9. A few guidelines to assist you in sizing valves are listed below. the 1 in valve has a loss of 9. Because all lateral it serves.

48 28 16.29 9.60 0. 1.23 10.622 0.76 56. — — 13.11 0.69 10.824 1.14 4 5 4.88 0.29 3.25 3.38 15.3 1.13 3.0 — — somewhere near the center of the pressure loss curve on the 10.71 6.46 2.20 0.57 2.99 4.17 9 9.15 OD 0.33 4.77 55 11.34 12.03 0.92 20.72 5.07 m3/h or 2.11 4 0.04 2.03 0.85 1.86 3.90 2.60 8.50 2.77 3.14 3.41 14.21 0. — 3.92 0.18 0. as shown.28 4.47 0.46 1.12 flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocit 1.41 0.8 the very bottom of the backflow preventer’s chart.2 1.38 0.07 m3/h or 2.01 2.89 12.113 0.80 5.97 18.2 of the high flow wear on its internal parts.4 hand. 15.52 18 18.0 — — 5.75 0.48 5.89 1.44 34 1.15 1.08 5.14 3.93 5.85 1.56 1.75 2.65 7.18 2. 2.49 0.57 0.93 1.89 9.21 L/s).01 2.61 18.35 0.15 6 6.28 1 0.3 6.25 4.92 9.5 — — chart for the size you select.17 4.25 0.140 0.14 5.11 0.35 2.05 0.85 17.87 72.94 7 0.33 12 0.38 16.12 0.02 2.24 1.21 SIZE 1⁄2 in 3⁄4in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 0.10 1 1.80 6.73 1.56 6.01 5.12 2 2.25 60 12.2 9. specified as 2 in (50 mm)Schedule 40 PVC pipe.64 14. 2.67 7.64 0.610 0.07 m3/h or 2.27 40 14.5 — will be using the top of its flow capacity (highest area on its 30.42 1.44 16 0.29 1. a somewhat larger device is selected for the 200.12 0.94 8.42 39. 5.52 L/s) flow falls at the end of the mid-range on the curve for the 1 in (25 mm) device and the lower part of the center section for the 1-1/4 in (32 mm) PVB.12 5.85 8.10 7.22 5.21 9. — 16.59 0.85 10 10.51 2.0 4.22 0.48 1.75 0.20 Figure 67: PVC Schedule 40 friction loss characteristics (partial) Please see page 108 for a metric version of the chart above.15 0.5 — 40 9.44 0. — 11.63 1.11 22 0.00 1.11 1.52 L/s) for our sample rotor system is too high for the 3/4 in (20 mm) device—the chart peaks at 35 gpm (7.9 — curve).60 7.60 0.26 20 22 21.29 * Loss values are with flow control fully open.08 1.37 0.07 4.36 0.42 0. 0. for the PVB Series pressure vacuum breakers.22 8 0.10 Wall Thk 0.59 1.02 59.89 1. — — 17.66 26 15.47 2.02 0.83 0.71 0.83 6.56 2 0.15 5.67 11.84 1.68 38.19 4.57 3.12 12.08 4.28 1.900 ID 0.77 0.15 8.04 33.28 2. we see that the flow of 40 gpm (9. specific purpose of reducing friction losses in the system.20 0.40 6.9 2.43 42.45 7.109 0.97 1. The 40 gpm (9.33 1.0 1.84 4.26 0.53 47.87 5.3 On occasion.51 0.86 3.78 14. 0.60 12.8 system owner is paying for a larger device than is needed. if you select a device size where the system flow is at 100.07 0. If you select a device size that 20.81 23.23 12. 3.18 0.03 0.14 0.20 3.39 3.33 11.12 0.09 11 12 11.21 0.07 0.99 1.40 2.59 1. therefore.Standard measure) Consider the performance data.049 1.145 0.36 2.10 40 0.44 20.5 1.54 6.00 1.28 1.89 14 0.7 * Loss values are with flow control fully open.23 0.315 1. 50 18. Figure 68a: Valve pressure loss PEB series (U.00 7.49 25.Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements PVC SCHEDULE 40 IPS PLASTIC PEB Series Valve pressure loss* (bar) (1120.52 1.27 5.42 7.25 0.09 1.42 2. 1220) C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) Flow Flow 100-PEB 150-PEB 200-PEB L/s m3/h 1 in 11/2 in 2 in PVC CLASS 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.45 9.77 4. On the other 75.28 3.44 2.95 3.52 L/s) above its shaded area on the chart is 2 in (50 mm).60 45 1.05 1.28 10.77 28 0.66 10.35 24.55 1.20 4.49 4. The main line PEB Series is.86 3. the 150.24 7.16 gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps 1.66 8 8.16 7 7.21 28.83 3 0.28 0. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.12 0. the service life of the unit will be shortened because 50.56 8.66 0.10 0. Looking at the flow loss charts.42 6.25 0.42 1.840 1.43 4.19 3 3.45 7.050 1.70 2.12 14 14.80 0.27 0.05 0. — 7.96 1.08 0.67 6 0.41 11.81 45 16.40 2.51 2.0 — — The main guideline for the optimal sizing of a backflow 0.55 5. The first pipe size that shows 40 gpm (9.23 9.94 m3/h or 2.72 Figure 68b: Valve pressure loss PEB series (International System Units) 65 13.380 1.88 2.98 90.31 0.72 3.27 10.74 0.71 1. 175.15 16 16.40 3.78 0.09 110.33 4.0 — — preventer is that the flow demanded by your system falls 1.62 45.14 3.78 10 0.41 8.60 3.76 2.5 2.01 13.07 6.24 5.42 1.71 12.46 0.660 1.20 4.89 3.33 1.02 .88 4.23 6.16 3.S.85 0.64 10.14 2.73 3.89 4.39 0.19 0.43 0.55 30.44 24 14.83 31.45 0.133 0.39 5 0.93 30 35 18. 68 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .82 52.50 9 0.71 2.65 36.58 9.57 0.27 8.20 0. Valve pressure loss* (psi) Flow 100-PEB 150-PEB 200-PEB The last component in this system to be sized is the gpm 1 in 11/2 in 2 in pressure vacuum breaker or backflow prevention device.15 0.27 10.62 0.47 2.94 0.01 0.2 125.5 3.44 8.77 1.30 0.30 8.

1 in (25 mm) PVB-100 “worst case” sprinkler is the one furthest from the lateral PRESSURE DROP 10 psi (0.26 bar) for the 1-1/4 valves.69 bar) This imaginary positioning creates an even worse-case 8 psi (0. lower flow requirements.3 psi (0. increase pipe sizes.07 13. require a hydraulic check of several laterals to determine which has the actual “worst Figure 69: Pressure vacuum breaker case” conditions. the process looks like this: Quite often. various applications.75 36. however.35 12.14 bar) other circuits will be sized the same and will be closer to 0 psi (0 bar) Flow gpm 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 the supply.78 to calculate the losses for each of these two circuits is to MODELS: 11/4 in (25 mm) PVB-125. Po = Operating pressure for “worst case” sprinkler Pls= Pressure loss throughout system main line and “worst case” lateral circuit Pr = Pressure remaining after satisfying the total system requirement The designer begins this process by finding the “worst case” lateral which is the lateral that is most distal from the POC. calculate the losses for Circuit #1 as if it were positioned 2 in (50 mm) PVB-200 where Circuit #2 is. As a simple equation. we know everything else will also work.45 9.52 3. the system design So.75 8. To make sure the system will work.78 5. At between the 1 in (25 mm) or the 1-1/4 in (32 mm) pressure that point.55 bar) circuit than actually exists.41 bar) pressure requirement shows we have the pressure to make 4 psi (0. or a high- flow lateral at a high elevation in the project. for this particular system. 8 psi (0.14 bar/L) are flowing the same amount. instead of after installation.69 bar/L) valve.34 13.61 18.31 7.52 L/s) position on the curves The designer has sized the last component in the system for the 1-1/2 in (40 mm) and 2 in (50 mm) devices show that and is now ready to determine the system’s total pressure they are larger than needed for this system.55 bar/L) 6 psi (0.54 6. All 2 psi (0.09 11. the code will require that the backflow Pr = Ps – (Po + Pls) prevention device be the same nominal size as the service Ps = Static pressure line or POC.82 45.07 m3/h or 2.28 bar) this circuit work. Always check with the appropriate authorities before specifying the device for your project. Circuit #2 is about 0 psi (0 bar) 40 ft (12.63 1.26 2. 6.62 If the resulting pressure is a very low number or a negative Figure 70: Pressure vacuum breaker flow loss number. then the “worst case” sprinkler must be determined. the designer will see how much pressure is needed to operate One thing to keep in mind is that local codes prevail on the the system at the flow demanded and subtract that type and size of backflow prevention device to use for pressure from the static pressure available. The MODELS: 3/4 in (20 mm) PVB-075. requirement. while the system is still on paper. that to work properly. Both circuits 2 psi (0.07 11. or a distant lateral with the highest flow. add the lower pressure loss of about 3.8 psi (0. or do whatever is necessary to in (32 mm) PVB was more attractive to the designer than the reduce the pressure requirements of the hydraulic design. Finding the “worst case” lateral may. Circuit #1 Flow gpm 10 20 30 40 50 60 has a longer run of lateral pipe than the split run of Circuit Flow m3/h 2. One quick way to check out the system without having Flow l/s . the designer vacuum breaker.83 10. The designer may choose either. When the “worst case” lateral is known.19 m) farther out on the main line.41 bar/L) In the case of our sample rotor system. Some irrigation systems will require a booster pump to increase pressure from the POC. the designer would know at the time. Flow m3/h 4.15 3.36 Flow l/s 1. 11/2 in (32 mm) PVB-150. Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 69 .14 22.22 31.05 6.89 2.29 40.61 #2. in fact.27 4. the “worst case” 4 psi (0.26 1.68 27. If our calculations of the system 6 psi (0. 7 Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements The 40 gpm (9. but assume could change sprinklers.52 3. But.80 9. the designer must choose requires more pressure than the project has available.43 bar) loss for the 1 in (25 mm) device.28 bar/L) circuit could be either Circuit #1 or Circuit #2. PRESSURE DROP 10 psi (0.

70 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .2 bar) Main 2 in 11/2 in 11/4 in 3/ in 4 (50 mm 40 mm 32 mm 20 mm) Circuit #1 Figure 71: Worst case circuit Calculate the system pressure requirement for this sample plan of rotor pop-ups and see if it will work.7 ft (12.4 m) (5. City Main Figure 72: Sample plan with rotor pop-ups Fill in the blanks at the end of this section as you use your calculator and the Technical Data section of this manual to follow this Total Pressure Requirement procedure.Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements Static Pressure 11/2 in (40 mm) Water Meter 75 psi PVB 40. Answers are in the Solutions section on page 91.

4 gpm (6.5 ft (7.47 L/s) through a 1-1/2 in The procedure is outlined below to work backward from (40 mm) water meter ______________+ the “worst case” sprinkler of the “worst case” lateral.45 m3/h or In looking at the residential plan we have also been 1. the designer can build a chart for flow ranges. the electric valves selected for the project have 2. 7 Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements Exercises on calculating system • for 39. • any pressure gains from elevation drop ______________+ Fill in the blanks.03 and • for 29. Assume the site is flat and has no elevation change. Instead of referring again and main line as if it was farther out where Circuit #2 is located.6 gpm (4.89 m3/h or can be set for a specific downstream pressure in the main 2.2 m) line.38 bar) to operate.3 m) added to the is often used by designers. In this way.3 m) than specifying very small pipe sizes that could cause high of 1-1/2 in (40 mm) Class 200 velocity and/or surge pressure problems. and • estimate for fittings loss: hence all the way through the system main line until we 10% of all pipe losses ______________+ determine the minimum pressure requirement (75 psi • any losses in pressure due to [5.3 m) following. before it enters the shaded area on the chart.2 gpm (8. As for the sprinkler circuits.8 ft complete pressure control into the system.89 m3/h or In addition. they are • for 39. This reduces the amount of pipe on the project that is of 2 in (50 mm) Class 200 PVC subjected to high pressure and provides for a beginning pipe ______________+ pressure that is closer to the sprinklers’ performance range. This component • for 39.47 L/s) through a PVB-125.17 bar] in front of the water meter).3 m) of 3/4 in (20 mm) If this is a positive number.89 m3/h or pressure requirements 2. The resulting 1-1/4 in (32 mm) backflow unit ______________+ chart for Class 200 PVC pipe would look like this: Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 71 .85 L/s) through 47 ft (14.79 bar) Static pressure available to Pressure loss: the site 75 psi (5.22 m3/h or Total pressure required by 0.17 bar)+ • for 9. the designer PVC pipe ______________+ called for a main line pressure regulator. For the low 1-1/2 in electric valve ______________+ application or drip watering circuits. Remember this change if. To do this. there is one quick way for sizing pipe that So far.2 gpm (8.2 gpm (8.47 L/s) through 23. Total pressure required by the system ______________+ Pressure needed at sprinkler = 55 psi (3.24 L/s) through 47 ft (14. take the pipe chart for the lateral pipe • for 39.67 m3/h or 1.47 L/s) through a 150-PEB. you wish to follow the critical length of the system we are analyzing.2 gpm (8.2 gpm (8.62 L/s) through 47 ft the system 75 psi (5. we can see the designer had a high pressure of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) Class 200 situation to deal with.” Rather 1.7 bar) at the meter PVC pipe ______________+ and sprinklers requiring between 15 and 20 psi (1.89 m3/h or the adjustable type. we elevation rise ______________+ created an imaginary “worst case” lateral by calculating losses as if Circuit #1 was farther out on the main line where Circuit #2 is.17 bar)+ (14. • for 39. after filling Subtotal ______________+ in the blanks. the above is Circuit #1 + 40. Class 200 PVC pipe ______________+ the system will work ______________+ • for 19.89 m3/h or and make a quick note of the top flow for each size of pipe 2. there was “pressure to burn. (50 m) of 2 in (50 mm) Schedule 40 PVC pipe ______________+ Before we go on.8 gpm (2. these are fixed-outlet pressure regulators. With 111 psi (7. their own individual lateral pressure regulators. In this case.47 L/s) through 162. again to a pipe chart. the designer has put 2.7 ft (14.

27 m3/h or 0. 72 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .01 L/s) 1-1/4 in (32 mm) 26 gpm (5.90 m3/h or 1.63 L/s) 1 in (25 mm) 16 gpm (3.64 L/s) and so on The designer made up such a matrix for the residential plan we have been following.38 L/s) 3/4 in (20 mm) 10 gpm (2. This expedited the designer’s sizing of all the pipe on the project.Sizing Pipe and Valves and Calculating System Pressure Requirements Size Flow limit 1/2 in (15 mm) 6 gpm (1.36 m3/h or 0.36 m3/h or 1. Let’s move on to the next section.

Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires 8 .

.

the electrical power. who Bird solenoid valves. The actual position for the controller of caution here is that this procedure was designed for Rain within the garage is left up to the installing contractor. Each size the wires large enough. this procedure may not the sprinklers there is a network of valve control wires. to bleed off down stream. 24-volt Between the controller and the electric solenoid valves that feed valves that require higher amperage. the controller locations are selected using a few key factors. when energized. So. the controller serving those valves should be centrally located near or Control Control within the valve group. lifts a plunger to where the sprinklers operated by the unit are visible from that open a control port in the valve. it’s time to turn our attention to the electrical portion of the design starting with the Controller location of the controller. especially if the designer is garage where the designer has indicated the controller specifying one valve per station on the controller. Locating the controller Sprinkler Heads On large projects. the electronics in the controller. it also keeps the user dry when sizing the valve control wires. should be located in pairs or groups to Common minimize the length of power supply lines on the project. When the control port location. Controllers designed for outdoor mounting do have This pressure. wire. which was holding back the main line water weather-resistant cabinets. Rain Bird manufactures its own 24-volt will decide where to mount the unit for the best connection solenoids and they are a highly efficient. Where possible. the static pressure at during manually initiated controller operations. a The wire sizing procedure for Rain Bird 24-volt solenoid standard 117 volts AC (or 230 volts AC). To do so is a violation of the uniform electric code and will cause controller operation problems. usually 24 volts AC. The common wire is connected to. valve’s upper portion. On our sample residential plan. during normal maintenance. less costly. One word should be installed. is available in the valves is simple and fast. the more power it control will not douse the cabinet. low power to the power and most convenient hookup for the field consuming variety. where several controllers are located in Valves various areas across the site. when reduced allows the valve to open and door is open this protection is greatly reduced. when the cabinet and pressure. We use *Controllers must not share either the valve common or the MV/PS circuit. your controllers on the site where the sprinklers they The higher the pressure at the valve. system for the installing contractor. The wire sizing procedure about to be wires to the valves. and later. For less efficient. or bonnet. all the The four-step procedure for sizing valve control wires has valves and completes the circuit back to the controller. First. Therefore. the controllers. some similarities with the procedure for sizing pipe. place operate the sprinklers. place the controller coil of copper wire that. the maintenance crew to energize the solenoid on the valve. the valve is an important factor.* Figure 73: Valve control wire network The designer should also keep in mind the convenience of the These wires carry a low voltage current. Secondly. A solenoid is simply a and the system owner. the “worst case” valve circuit for sizing our first pair of Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 75 . This not only protects takes to raise the plunger against that pressure. where convenient. We will see in a moment how the various pressures require their own wire sizing Sizing valve wires charts. Electrically efficient valves valve is hooked up to the controller with two wires. and shared by. to minimize the lengths of field wires to the automatic valves. its own mean smaller. 8 Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires Step eight: Locating the controller and sizing the valve and power wires Now that all the pipe and components for the project have been sized and a complete hydraulic analysis has proven Garage that the system will work. However. presented is for this type of valve. wires that can run greater individual power or control wire and the “common” or “ground” distances on an irrigation project. This facilitates system operational tests during opens. it allows water pressure above the diaphragm in the installation.

Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires

wires. Electrically, the “worst case” valve circuit is the one 1,000 ft (300 m) of wire to the last valve. The equivalent
requiring the heaviest current load. Later in the procedure, circuit length for this section is:
we will show you how to determine which is the “worst
1,000 ft x 1 valve = 1,000 ft
case” circuit.
(300 m x 1 valve = 300 m)
The “worst case” valve circuit will require the largest pair of
wires. Because one of those wires is the “common,” when The wire run of 2,000 ft (600 m) from the controller to the
we size the wire pair for the “worst case” circuit, we have first valve of Station #2 provides the electricity for both
sized the common wire for all the other valves. valves. This section of the circuit is calculated like this:

We will use the diagram below as a sample system for 2,000 ft x 2 valves = 4,000 ft
sizing field valve wires. For simplicity, the controller has (600 m x 2 valves = 1200 m)
only two stations. Station #1 has one valve with a 2,000 ft
(600 m) run of wire to connect it to the controller. Station Adding these two figures together we have:
#2 has two valves with a 2,000 ft (600 m) wire run to the first 1,000 ft (300 m)
valve and another 1,000 ft (300 m) of wire to the second + 4,000 ft (+1200 m)
valve. The water pressure is 150 psi (10,3 bar).
Controller Station #2 has a 5,000 ft (1500 m) equivalent circuit length.
Common
Ground
3. From the Rain Bird wire sizing chart, select the
2 1 common and control wire sizes for the circuit with the
highest equivalent circuit length (the “worst case” circuit).
Use the sizing chart that most nearly approximates the
static pressure in your system.
2000 ft 1000 ft
(600 m) (300 m)
On this “worst case” circuit, the wires should be the same
size or no more than one size apart. In our sample system,
Figure 74: Sizing field valve wires
the pressure was 150 psi (10,3 bar). So we can use that wire
1. Determine the actual wire run distance in feet (meters) chart. Though we would ideally like to use the same size
from the controller to the first valve on a circuit and wires in the pair that supports this “worst case” circuit, the
between each of the other valves on a multiple valve charts may give us two different sizes for this pair. As the
circuit. Complete this for each valve circuit (station) on the rule states, these wires have to be within one size of each
controller. In our diagram, step number one is complete. other. When the wires are not the same size, the larger one
All the wire lengths have been measured. This is fairly easy is to be used as the common for the system. In wire gauge
to accomplish using a map measure and an accurate, sizes, the higher the gauge number, the smaller the wire.
scaled, drawing of the site. #20 gauge wire is much smaller than #12 gauge wire.
2. Calculate the “equivalent circuit length” for each valve Circuit #2 in our sample system has the highest equivalent
circuit. The equivalent circuit length is calculated by circuit length which is 5,000 ft (1500 m). Looking at the 150
multiplying the actual wire run distance to the valve by the psi (10,3 bar) chart, we want to find a circuit length that is
number of valves at that location on the circuit. Station #1 at least 5,000 ft (1500 m) and is closest to the upper left
in our example has only one valve on the circuit and a wire corner of the chart. This should give us the smallest
run of 2,000 ft (600 m). Its equivalent circuit length is acceptable wire pair.
calculated like this:
Station #1 equivalent circuit length For our 5,000 ft (1500 m) circuit length, 6,200 (1889,76) is
the first number greater than or equal to 5,000 (1500).
2,000 ft x 1 valve = 2,000 ft
(600 m x 1 valve = 600 m) Reading across to the left-hand column we see this
corresponds to a #14 (2,5 mm2) ground or common wire.
Station #2, however, is calculated with a slight variation Reading up to the top of the chart, we find that a #14
because of its multiple valve situation. Working backward (2,5 mm2) control wire is sufficient also. The wires for the
as we did for sizing pipe in a valve circuit, we start with the “worst case” circuit have been sized.

76 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

8 Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires

RAIN BIRD 24 V AC SOLENOID VALVES WIRE SIZING CHART RAIN BIRD 24 V AC SOLENOID VALVES WIRE SIZING CHART
Equivalent circuit length (in feet) Equivalent circuit length (in meters)
Rain Bird 5.5 VA solenoid electric valves with 26.5 V transformers Rain Bird 5.5 VA solenoid electric valves with 26.5 V transformers
Common 80 psi water pressure at valve Common 5,5 bar water pressure at valve
wire control wire size wire control wire size
size 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 size 0,75 1,5 2,5 4,0 6,0 10,0 16,0 25,0
18 3000 3700 4300 4800 5200 5500 5200 5800 0,75 914,40 1127,76 1310,64 1463,04 1584,96 1676,40 1584,96 1767,84
16 3700 4800 5900 6900 7700 8300 8800 9100 1,5 1127,76 1463,04 1798,32 2103,12 2346,96 2529,84 2682,24 2773,68
14 4300 5900 7700 9400 11000 12300 13300 14000 2,5 1310,64 1798,32 2346,96 2865,12 3352,80 3749,04 4053,84 4267,20
12 4800 6900 9400 12200 15000 17500 19600 21100 4,0 1463,04 2103,12 2865,12 3718,56 4572,00 5334,00 5974,08 6431,28
10 5200 7700 11000 15000 19400 23900 27800 31100 6,0 1584,96 2346,96 3352,80 4572,00 5913,12 7284,72 8473,44 9479,28
8 5500 8300 12300 17500 23900 30900 38000 44300 10,0 1676,40 2529,84 3749,04 5334,00 7284,72 9418,32 11582,40 13502,64
6 5700 8800 13300 19600 27800 38000 49200 60400 16,0 1737,36 2682,24 4053,84 5974,08 8473,44 11582,40 14996,16 18409,92
4 5800 9100 14000 21100 31100 44300 60400 78200 25,0 1767,84 2773,68 4267,20 6431,28 9479,28 13502,64 18409,92 23835,36

Common 100 psi water pressure at valve Common 6,9 bar water pressure at valve
wire control wire size wire control wire size
size 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 size 0,75 1,5 2,5 4,0 6,0 10,0 16,0 25,0
18 2800 3500 4100 4500 4900 5200 5400 5500 0,75 853,44 1066,80 1249,68 1371,60 1493,52 1584,96 1645,92 1676,40
16 3500 4500 5500 6500 7300 7800 8300 8500 1,5 1066,80 1371,60 1676,40 1981,20 2225,04 2377,44 2529,84 2590,80
14 4100 5500 7200 8900 10300 11600 12500 13200 2,5 1249,68 1676,40 2194,56 2712,72 3139,44 3535,68 3810,00 4023,36
12 4500 6500 8900 11500 14100 16500 18400 19900 4,0 1371,60 1981,20 2712,72 3505,20 4297,68 5029,20 5608,32 6065,52
10 4900 7300 10300 14100 18300 22500 26200 29300 6,0 1493,52 2225,04 3139,44 4297,68 5577,84 6858,00 7985,76 8930,64
8 5200 7800 11600 16500 22500 29100 35700 41700 10,0 1584,96 2377,44 3535,68 5029,20 6858,00 8869,68 10881,36 12710,16
6 5400 8300 12500 18400 26200 35700 46300 56900 16,0 1645,92 2529,84 3810,00 5608,32 7985,76 10881,36 14112,24 17343,12
4 5500 8500 13200 19900 29300 41700 56900 73600 25,0 1676,40 2590,80 4023,36 6065,52 8930,64 12710,16 17343,12 22433,28

Common 125 psi water pressure at valve Common 8,6 bar water pressure at valve
wire control wire size wire control wire size
size 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 size 0,75 1,5 2,5 4,0 6,0 10,0 16,0 25,0
18 2600 3200 3800 4200 4600 4800 5000 5100 0,75 792,48 975,36 1158,24 1280,16 1402,08 1463,04 1524,00 1554,48
16 3200 4200 5200 6000 6700 7300 7700 7900 1,5 975,36 1280,16 1584,96 1828,80 2042,16 2225,04 2346,96 2407,92
14 3800 5200 6700 8200 9600 10800 11600 12200 2,5 1158,24 1584,96 2042,16 2499,36 2926,08 3291,84 3535,68 3718,56
12 4200 6000 8200 10700 13100 15300 17100 18500 4,0 1280,16 1828,80 2499,36 3261,36 3992,88 4663,44 5212,08 5638,80
10 4600 6700 9600 13100 17000 20900 24400 27300 6,0 1402,08 2042,16 2926,08 3992,88 5212,08 6370,32 7437,12 8321,04
8 4800 7300 10800 15300 20900 27100 33200 38800 10,0 1463,04 2225,04 3291,84 4663,44 6370,32 8260,08 10119,36 11826,24
6 5000 7700 11600 17100 24400 33200 43100 52900 16,0 1524,00 2346,96 3535,68 5212,08 7437,12 10119,36 13136,88 16123,92
4 5100 7900 12200 18500 27300 38800 52900 68500 25,0 1554,48 2407,92 3718,56 5638,90 8321,04 11826,24 16123,92 20878,80

Common 150 psi water pressure at valve Common 10,3 bar water pressure at valve
wire control wire size wire control wire size
size 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 size 0,75 1,5 2,5 4,0 6,0 10,0 16,0 25,0
18 2400 3000 3500 3900 4300 4500 4600 4700 0,75 731,52 914,40 1066,80 1188,72 1310,64 1371,60 1402,08 1432,56
16 3000 3900 4800 5600 6300 6800 7200 7400 1,5 914,40 1188,72 1463,04 1706,88 1920,24 2072,64 2194,56 2255,52
14 3500 4800 6200 7700 9000 10000 10800 11400 2,5 1066,80 1463,04 1889,76 2346,96 2743,20 3048,00 3291,84 3474,72
12 3900 5600 7700 10000 12200 14300 16000 17300 4,0 1188,72 1706,88 2346,96 3048,00 3718,56 4358,64 4876,80 5273,04
10 4300 6300 9000 12200 15900 19500 22800 25400 6,0 1310,64 1920,24 2743,20 3718,56 4846,32 5943,60 6949,44 7741,92
8 4500 6800 10000 14300 19500 25300 31000 36200 10,0 1371,60 2072,64 3048,00 4358,64 5943,60 7711,44 9448,80 11033,76
6 4600 7200 10800 16000 22800 31000 40200 49400 16,0 1402,08 2194,56 3291,84 4876,80 6949,44 9448,80 12252,96 15057,12
4 4700 7400 11400 17300 25400 36200 49400 63900 25,0 1432,56 2255,52 3474,72 5273,04 7741,92 11033,76 15057,12 19476,72
Figure 75a: Wire sizing for 24 VAC solenoid valves (U.S. Standard Units) Figure 75b: Wire sizing for 24 VAC solenoid valves (International System Units)

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 77

Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires

We could not use the 5,600 ft (1706,08 m) circuit-length As irrigation projects get bigger, with more controllers,
number on the chart because that would have given us a sizing the 120 (230) volt supply wires to their minimum can
#12 (4,0 mm2) common and a #16 (1,5 mm2) control wire become quite complicated. To simplify the process, you
pair which is more than one size apart. This “equal or only can use the five-step procedure outlined below with the
one size apart” restriction applies only for the “worst case” charts which include information on the power
wire pair. requirements for Rain Bird automatic controllers and
valves.
4. Having the common wire size established, use the wire
sizing chart to determine the control wire size for each of Let’s do one example so that you will become familiar with
the remaining valve circuits on the controller. For Station this procedure. The diagram below illustrates the situation:
#1 with its equivalent circuit length of 2,000 ft (600 m), we a 3,000 ft (900 m) wire run with two controllers at different
read across from the #14 (2,5 mm2) gauge ground wire on locations, and two solenoid valves per station on at least
the 150 psi (10,3 bar) chart to the first number equal to or one station of each controller.
greater than 2,000 ft (600 m). The 3,500 (1066,80) in the first
column satisfies this requirement, and when we read up to
the top of the chart we see that a #18 (0,75 mm2) control
wire will work for this circuit. If there were more stations
being used on the controller, we would complete this step
by sizing all the other valve circuit control wires.
The wire designed for use on automatic irrigation systems
is known as U.F. or “underground feeder” wire. These are
single, copper conductor, thickly insulated, low-voltage Figure 76: Two controllers with wire runs at different locations
wires that are direct-buried without the need for electrical
conduit. Always check the local electrical or building codes Sizing power wires
for the type of wire to use on your project. The following is the 120 (230) V AC primary wire sizing
On larger commercial projects, U.F. wire sizes smaller than procedure for Rain Bird controllers and valves.
#14 (2,5 mm2)are seldom used. Even though the smaller 1. Using figure 77, determine the power requirements for
wires can handle the load electrically (according to the the controller you have selected, as well as the
sizing chart), they lack physical strength. As the wires get requirements for the number of solenoid valves that will
smaller, the combination of smaller conductors and thick be operating at one time. (You may have only one valve
insulation can hide wire breaks. When the installer is per station. However, if you are using a master valve to shut
spooling off wires from several reels on the back of a truck, down the project’s main line between irrigation cycles, this
a smaller size conductor can break while its thick would raise the requirement to two valves.)
insulation remains intact. The result is a wire fault that will
have to be discovered and fixed. Example
Controller primary current requirements from Figure 77:
The other electrical wires that need to be sized for the
project are the controller power wires. The variable factors An ESP controller alone = .03 amps
that dictate what size wire to use for supplying power to the Two solenoid valves .12 x 2 = .24 amps +
controller are: Primary requirements for an
• available voltage at the power source ESP controller and 2 valves = .27 amps
• distance from the power source to the controllers
2. Determine the maximum allowable voltage drop along
• minimum voltage required to operate the controller the wires from the power source to the controllers. To do
• power required by the type of valve used this you find the voltage available at the power source and
• the number of valves used on any one station of the subtract from it the voltage required at the controller. The
controller result is how much can be lost. It’s like sizing pipe to
• the number of controllers operating at one time determine pressure loss.

78 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

004) #6 (16. You will see how similar this is to the way we calculated equivalent circuit lengths for valve wires.13 RC-AB 0. Example Calculate the equivalent circuit length working backwards (farthest out) from the controller: 1 controller x 1000 ft (300 m) = 1000 ft (300 m) + 2 controllers x 2000 ft (600 m) = 4000 ft (1200 m) + Total equivalent circuit length = 5000 ft (1500 m) + Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 79 . Number 12 (4. Our supply wires for the controllers would be programmed to start at the same time.0 mm2).04 (.51 (.03 . 8 Locating the Controller and Sizing Valve and Power Wires CONTROLLERS AND VALVES FOR POWER WIRE SIZING 4.011) ISC power requirement stated in catalog = 117 V AC (220 V AC) – #10 (6.5 V AC.011) • UL listed and tested which is the factor immediately less than our calculated • Sequential operation: When more than one station is 3.007) Maximum allowable voltage drop = 3 V AC (10 V AC) – #8 (10.28 (.0 mm2) 0. calculate the F factor for the circuit.012 ESP 0. Think ESP-LX+ 0.012) we have calculated.0 mm2) 1. Using the formula.53 F= 3 V = .24 (. wire and controller or controllers. Calculate the equivalent circuit length for the power process.17 A x 5 .17 A x 1524 ESP-Si 0.06 factor equal to or less than the calculated F factor.0 mm2) 3.529 or 3.002) characteristics: Figure 78: Wires size and F factor • Input required: 117 (220) V AC ± 10%.26 F = 3 V = 3.027) Maximum allowable voltage drop: #14 (2.53 (0. We want to select a ESP-MC 0.5 A equal to or less than the 3.5 mm2) 5.5 mm2) 8.13 length in thousands of feet (meters) RC-C 0.16 (.18 (.0 mm2) 0.53 (0.13 of the F factor as friction loss in a pipe.0 mm2) 2.043) Example #16 (1.003) ESP Series Dual Program Hybrid Controllers electrical #4 (25.81 (. Select a power wire size from Figure 78 that has an F ESP-LXi+ 0. those stations will size #12 (4.12 Wire size "F" factor Figure 77: Electrical current requirements of controllers and valves #18 (. Solenoid valve 0. 1.017) Power available at the source = 120 V AC (230 V AC) – #12 (4.012).75 mm2) 13. water in sequence starting from the station with the With all of the hydraulic and electrical calculations lowest number complete.06 5. the designer is ready for the last step in the 3. the formula is: or valve requirements in amps Controllers With power on F= allowable voltage drop only not in a cycle amps/control unit x equivalent RC-Bi 0.5 A Select a power wire from Figure 78 that has an F factor • Circuit breaker: 1. Electrical current requirements Example Type of controller 117 (230) volt primary current To calculate the circuit’s F factor.0 mm2) wire has an F factor of 3.02 (. 60 (50) Hz Example: • Output: 24 to 26.15 wire with an F factor for loss that is equal to or less than the Valves Current draw only when energized loss or “F” factor for the circuit.24 (0.

.

Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan 9 .

.

usable and drawn at a convenient scale. the plan should be as thorough When the final irrigation plan is complete and the designer as possible. the contractor should presents it to the client. • The plan should have a detailed legend explaining all the symbols used in the drawing. Because the installing contractor will follow the plan as the system goes in. • The plan should show any major elevation changes. after installation. Buried telephone cables. Local codes and ordinances. Figure 79: Irrigation legend Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 83 . and rules affecting the landscape preparing the final irrigation plan. Turn to page 85 and do the last set of exercises. The final irrigation plan is a from a homeowners’ association could all be part of the diagram representing what the sprinkler system should look like special instructions. system programming instructions. you have seen the last of the be shot with the blueprint of the project design. material to be covered in this manual. power lines or water mains can be very expensive to have repaired. and the contractor must know their location to avoid cutting into them. After reviewing the drawings. Detailed plans for commercial installations usually have installation drawings that show exactly how each type of Now that you have had some exposure to the procedures product is to be installed. intentions should be clearly discernible so that the system can go in as designed. The last step in the irrigation system design procedure is installation criteria. These drawings are often for sizing the electrical portion of an irrigation system and available as line drawings on transparent sheets so they can what goes into the final plan. not just those to which the contractor will need to hook up. • The plan should show all water and power utility locations. final plan are: • The plan should be readable. 9 Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan Step nine: Preparing the • The plan should contain special notes for any specific final irrigation plan requirements which must be met. The answers are in the Solutions Other points you should keep in mind when preparing the section on page 92. all the designer’s decisions and have very few questions about the designer’s intent.

Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan Figure 80: Final irrigation plan 84 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .

A. Total equivalent circuit length of ___________ ? V = an F factor of B. Number ________ wire Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 85 . what size control wire matches up with it to provide power for 10. This time. On the final irrigation plan. the common and control wires must be the 6. there is a third station on the Power Source 2 RC-1260-C 1 RC-1260-C controller. Station #3 is now the “worst case” electrical Controllers Controller circuit on the controller. Underground ________ should be noted on the plan Station #2? to avoid cutting into them during installation of the system. The allowable voltage drop if the RC-1260-C operates circuit have been determined for you. 2000 ft 1000 ft (600 m) (300 m) 3. acceptable common or ground wire size according to 7. ________ drawings included with the plan show how each major component is to be hooked up. this system is: Station #3: ________ feet for section “B” one valve x _____=_____ ________ feet for section “A” two valves x _____=_____ ________ total feet for the system three valves x _____=_____ Calculate the “F” factor for the circuit. With the new ground wire size established. the wire size with an F factor equal _________ size or within _________ size of each other. Fill in the blanks for controller power wire sizing using preparing the final irrigation plan the diagram below. It’s the system we looked at 120 (230) V AC earlier. D. Each controller has at least one The electrical system diagrammed below may look station with two valves. however. Follow the procedure for sizing valve wires as you fill in the blanks. calculate the equivalent 5. From Figure 78. According to the rule on sizing the wires for the “worst ?Ax? case” circuit. The energy draw for a Rain Bird solenoid valve is ________ amps. What control wire size is required? readable ________. To complete step number two. Number ________ wire 8. Controller Section A Section B Ground Common 2000 ft 1000 ft 3 2 1 (600 m) (300 m) Pressure at valves = 150 psi (10. the ________ should list the wire sizing chart? and identify all the symbols used in the drawing.3 bar) 1. The actual distances Total draw = ________ amps from controller to valve and any subsequent valves per 4. 9 Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan Exercises on system electrics and F. Number ________ wire 9. The primary current in amps for the RC-1260-C controller is ________? 2000 ft (600 m) 2. For Station #3’s equivalent circuit length. somewhat familiar to you. to or immediately less the calculated F factor is # C. at 117 (220)V AC is ________ volts. The equivalent circuit length for the power wires on circuit length for station #3. The final plan should be drawn to a convenient. what is the ________ wire. What is the total draw for each control unit when operating its valves? 1500 ft 1000 ft 500 ft RC-1260-C = ________ amps (450 m) (300 m) (150 m) Two solenoid valves = ________ amps Step one is complete on this diagram. E.

In this way. Inc. and Water Management. Maintenance. Pump Selection: A Consulting Engineers Manual. Michigan: The American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Walker. et al. Rodger. Keesen. Claude H. Sprinkle and Trickle Irrigation. 1997. John Wiley & Sons. 86 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers. A. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Fifth Edition. If you would like additional reading. Inc. Wastewater Reuse for Golf Course Irrigation. 1994. 1995. Pair. Ohio: Franzak & Foster. Second Edition. You Irrigation references are armed and dangerous. 1995. enlisting the assistance of an experienced ASIC’s telephone number is 925-516-1124 and their Web designer on your first effort. Bryon. Installation. United States Golf Association. PO Box 426. 1990. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. as possible. Stephen W. Pete. you will better page can be found at www.C. Irrigation. Rochester. Virginia: The Irrigation Association. so to speak! You have studied A list of professional irrigation consultants may be the theory. Larry.Preparing the Final Irrigation Plan Congratulations! You have completed this program. We suggest that you try designing a system as soon Consultants. Simplified Irrigation Design. Ron D. Smith. 1995. The Complete Irrigation Workbook: Design... Michigan: Lewis Publishers. we offer the following books for reference: Bliesner. 1983. New York.. Melby... California: Irrigation Technical Services.org. Sarsfield. and Jack Keller.asic. et al. Landscape Irrigation Design and Management. Eugene W. 1996. The ABCs of Lawn Sprinkler Systems. California 94514 USA. retain what you have learned. but have yet to practice it on an actual project obtained from the American Society of Irrigation design. Landscape Irrigation Design. 1972.

Solutions s .

.

. . – 1. ..85 psi (4. . . ..08 psi Point E dynamic pressure (0. .. The working pressure at point E would be 50. ..7 bar) .2 bar) water pressure. If the last 100 ft (30 m) of pipe went up 75 ft (23 m) from G..2 bar) . .03 psi (0. J.93 psi (6.7 bar) Elevation pressure gain C.65 (1. . . . Elevation pressure gain Rule 2: The maximum flow through the meter for of 50 ft (15 m) . F. . . . . . ..405 psi (8. .002 bar) bar) elevation pressure gain in the calculation would be I. No difference. – 1. To find the static water pressure in psi at point B. . . – . .. Point D = 90. . .. . .28 psi (To find the static water pressure in bar at point B. . a loss E..8 bar) I.. . 4 psi (0. . . Temperature and humidity C..03 bar) The valve at point E can supply 26 gpm (5... – 2.64 L/s) at 115.30 psi (0... the 32. . G. . Reference evapotranspiration B. ...30 bar) All buildings Location of water source Loss through component #4 is ...2) B. . Plot plan Loss through component #1 is . . .1 bar) . . – . – . .24 psi (0.. Solutions to exercises on water Point C dynamic pressure capacity and pressure = 64.7) A.. . .. Clay soil you subtract the friction loss caused by the above flow through 100 ft (30 m)of 1-1/4 in (32 mm)Class 200 PVC K.08 psi (0. 12 psi (0. . . Point B had a static pressure of 69. . . .03 bar) point D to point E.1) Rule 3: The velocity of flow through the service line Friction loss through should not exceed 5 to 7-1/2 ft/s (1. 5. . .8 bar). the dynamic pressure at B is 66. . . . . . .9 m3/h or 1.. + 85.47 (2. . . . .. + 32.00 psi (7. .. . .002 bar) Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 89 . +115.. . . . .. . . . .5) irrigation should not exceed 75% of the maximum safe Point D dynamic pressure flow of the meter. . . . . . .05 bar) of 75 ft (23 m) . + 21.3 bar). .27 (6. . .03 bar) Walls and fences Slopes Loss through component #6 is .299 or 1.5 to 2. . Static Loss through component #2 is ... .27 psi (6.12 psi (0. .8 bar). . .01 bar).1 bar). divide 50 by 10 =5 bar). . – .01 bar) C. E. . .20 in (5 mm) D. .. .3 m/s).. Static pressure in the main is. . ..28 psi (5 bar). . . . Point of connection (POC) Solutions to exercises on site information and irrigation requirements L.11 psi (0.28 psi (8.12 psi (0.. . . .. . F. . . . . ... . .. 111 psi (7. .05 bar) B. .23 (0.82 psi (4..61 m) of straight 1-1/4 (32 mm) in tubing.. .01 bar) Area measurements Loss through component #5 is . . . ..03 bar) Tree locations Walkways and driveways Elevation loss is . . = 85. humid Point E = 123.. ..8 psi (0.. Warm..Solutions s Solutions Solutions to exercises on basic hydraulics D... instead of down. Night A. – . . .. Evapotranspiration multiply . . – .. Wind direction and velocity Loss through component #3 is . + 111.1) pressure available in the city main. . . .008 bar) K. .5 bar) H.. .28 psi (8. 100 ft (30 m) of pipe . .. .3 H. . ..3 psi (0.08 psi (0.70 bar) A. . + 64.08 psi (0.01 bar) = 115. . . 2 ft (0. .3) D.28 (8..6 bar).. After J. . . . 45° pipe.40 bar) a loss instead. .2) E. . . . .. . ...47 psi (2.12 psi (0..433 x 160 = 69.85 (4.34 psi (3.46 (0. . ..03 psi (0. Rule 1: The pressure loss through the water meter Friction loss through should not exceed 10% of the minimum static water 50 ft of pipe (15 m) . .24 psi (0. .. . 1.433 psi (0. .

96. Only the flow entering the pattern we’re checking sprinklers to use.40 bar) Solutions to exercises on spacing sprinklers and calculating precipitation rates Loss through component #8 is .. “S” is spacing between sprinklers. Square pattern 103. which is C.98 1000 x ..57 Flows available Slope on site 15 ft x 13 ft 5 m x 4.. Pop-up spray sprinklers B. we could create severe hydraulic problems by simply designing in a F. Types of plants 96. H.238 1000 x 2 m3/h = 8.33 m). hour Solutions to exercises on selecting sprinklers I.. Impact sprinkler The arc pattern for a sprinkler 90 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . Area size Area shape The height of the sprinkler pattern can be determined Water pressure by multiplying 15 ft x .866 = Wind conditions 4. an impact sprinkler would be F.90 m3/h = 41..80 psi (0. Rotor pop-up Solutions to exercises on locating sprinklers C.12 psi (6. Inches (millimeter). Impact sprinklers on risers A.97 or 1.008 bar) A.12 psi (6.33 m B...86 bar) and the flow limit of 19 gpm (4. Sprinkler spacing and row spacing bunch of sprinklers to use up the available pressure. – 5.6-m) radius spray sprinkler D. 15 sprinklers Rotor pop-ups usually have adjustable arcs E.866 = 12. Four. However.89 or 9 time. Is a constant (7.Solutions Loss through component #7 is .99 ft or 13 ft (5m x 0.3 x 4 gpm = 1. it is best to plot the sprinklers to surround the bush or tree F.86 bar) diameter of throw Until we had determined the pressure available at the B. we could not properly select the D. Distance between sprinklers on a line and between that Particularly in a high pressure situation. If a tree or large bush in the center of a lawn area can An emitter is a drip irrigation device tolerate the same amount of water as the turfgrass. the tendency of line and the next those unfamiliar with basic hydraulics is to let the pressure force the water flow to its greatest potential. The model numbers for the equipment H.7 bar) static pressure in the city main. A bubbler The flow requirement for sprinklers An emitter The pressure requirement for sprinklers I.237 or . The radius of coverage for a sprinkler to avoid blocking the sprinklers’ coverage of the lawn.20 L/s).11 psi (0.. A 12-ft (3.6-m) pop-up spray sprinkler E.3 x 5 gpm = . Spray sprinklers generally have fixed arc patterns D. If we saw only that there was 111 psi E. Rectangular pattern point of connection for this irrigation system. – . Head-to-head spacing only 60% of the sprinkler’s The remaining pressure at #9 is. 6 sprinklers For large radius coverage. A 12-ft (3. –103.31 m3/h or 1. Square a better choice than a spray sprinkler G. “L” is for spacing This would seem to be the way to get the most out of the between rows of sprinklers on their laterals system by running large numbers of sprinklers at one G. this could cause pipes to burst from 45 ft x 45 ft 15 m x 15 m surge pressures or destroy the water meter. parallelogram A.

26 to 27 (26) minutes per cycle Estimate for fittings loss: D.049) + A. . . . . the above is Circuit #1 plus 40. . . . . . . . . . 780 (0. .876) + F. . . .8 gpm (2. .47 L/s) through a 150-PEB. .039) + E.17 (4. 1-1/2 in electric valve . .17) Solutions to exercises on calculating system pressure requirements Total pressure required by Pressure needed at sprinkler = 55 psi (3. . True Total pressure required by system . . .7 ft (12. . . . . Adequate cover is required to protect a main line pipe Pressure gains from from damage from overhead traffic. . . . .498 x 60 = 19 to 20 min/cycle 35 x 60 = 17 to 18 min/cycle to elevation rise: .2 gpm (8.026 (0.800 (0.900 (0. . . . . . .67 m3/h or One valve x 500 ft (150 m) = 500 (150 m) 1. . . .67 x 7 17 x 7 Subtotal .876) – - If this is a positive number Pressure loss: the system will work . . . . . . . . . .2 gpm (8. . . . .300 (0. . . . . . . . . . .6 gpm (4. . .17 (4. For 39. . . 75 (5. . .47 L/s) through 23. . . . .000 (0. . . . . . . . . .2 m) case” circuit. . . 70. . .33 x 6 8. . . .294)) - For 9. .83 (0.054) + Total equivalent circuit length = 7000 ft (2100 m) For 39. . .89 m3/h or B. . . .8 ft (50 m) of 2 in (50 mm)schedule 40 PVC pipe . . . . . . . . .4 gpm (6. . . . . .872 (0. . 3. . .5 to 60 min/cycle For 39. 223 (0. . . . . 1-1/4 in (32 mm)backflow unit . . . . . . . . . . .000) – G. . .4 x 6 2.. . . 1.16)+ #1 For 39. . 90 to 91 (89) minutes per cycle 10% of all pipe losses: . . . . . . . . 0. For 19. . .5 ft (7. . . . . . 2. . . . . . .139) + system was still about 5 psi (0.89 m3/h or 2. . . .262) + B. .2 gpm (8. . .2 gpm (8. . 0. . elevation drop .2 gpm (8. . . .561 (0. . . .23 m3/h or As you can see after working through this analysis.3 m) Solutions to exercises on system electrics of 1-1/4 in (32 mm) class 200 and preparing the final irrigation plan PVC pipe . .47 L/s) through a 1-1/2 in (40 mm) water meter . the PVC pipe . . the common and control wires must be the of 2 in (50 mm) class 200 PVC pipe . 3. 70. . . . . . the 0. . .228) + C. . . . . . .24 L/s) through 47 ft (14. . .62 L/s) through 47 ft (14. ..89 m3/h or #3 2. . . . .85 L/s) through 47 ft (14.3 m) Two valves x 1000 ft (300 m) = 2000 (600 m) of 1-1/2 in (40 mm)class 200 Three valves x 1500 ft (450 m) = 4500 (1350 m) PVC pipe . . . . . Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 91 .47 L/s) through a PVB-125. .89 m3/h or . . .8 bar) system . . . .000) + . 2 x 60 = 60 to 61 min/cycle 50 x 60 = 59. . . . . . . . Station #3: For 29. . .3 bar) to the good. . .47 L/s) through 162. After deducting all the losses and the of 3/4 in (20 mm) class 200 pressure required at that last “worst case” sprinkler. . . . .17 (4.000 (0. . . .3 m) system will work. . . . . .876) - Static pressure available to site .89 m3/h or configuration and operating time 2. .130) + #2 So far. s Solutions Solutions to exercises on circuit For 39. . . . . . . A. . . . . . 4. . . 709 (0. . . . Any losses in pressure due 1.41 m) added to the main line as if it was further out where circuit #2 is located. . .45 m3/h or 1. . .015) + same size or within one size of each other. . . . . . . 70. 1.. According to the rule on sizing the wires for the “worst 2. .

Underground utilities should be noted on the plan to avoid cutting into them during installation of the system.13 amps Two solenoid valves = .0 mm2) wire D. Number 12 (4. 9. RC-1260-C = .07 amps.27 A x 2133. the legend should list and identify all the symbols used in the drawing. 5.Solutions C. 10.13.58 F factor 3V = . Installation drawings included with the plan show how each major component is to be hooked up. On the final irrigation plan.27 amps 4. Number 14 (2.14 amps Total draw = . The energy draw for a Rain Bird solenoid valve is . Number 16 (1. 92 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .6 6. 3. The allowable voltage drop if the RC-1260-C operates at 117 (220) VAC is 3 (10) volts.000 total ft (2100 m) for the system Calculate the F factor for the circuit. 1. 2.005 F factor . 7. readable scale. 8. Number 8 (10 mm2) wire.27 A x 7 .5 mm2) wire F. 3 V = 1.5 mm2) wire E. The equivalent circuit length for the power wires on this system is: 1 controller x 1000 ft (300 m) = 1000 ft (300 m) for section “B” 3 controllers x 2000 ft (600 m) = 6000 ft (1800 m) for section “A” 7. The final plan should be drawn to a convenient. The primary current in amps for the RC-1260-C controller is .

Technical Data td .

82 0.47 25.45 0.93 4.23 10.36 11.05 5.16 6.761 Wall Thk 0.10 170 18.01 1.337 0.95 3.45 3.22 3.18 0.73 0.48 0.69 8.12 0.03 90 16.40 15.02 0.21 0.78 0.76 10.38 0.900 2.19 14.72 0.27 1.53 0.07 140 15.87 9.79 11.08 0.43 0.03 0.53 0.42 80.65 1.85 8.27 2.02 0.92 8.36 3.80 2.63 8.57 4.09 0.24 14.154 0.90 4.09 0.96 2.01 55 13.11 0.10 0.278 1.08 0.01 0.34 4.30 5.00 2.35 10.45 3.91 0.33 6.01 16 11.87 11.13 190 14.12 6.54 2.98 25.99 4.88 0.04 0.81 7.48 33.51 1.96 9.87 9.22 27.10 0.13 29.00 3 4.72 12.54 4.60 6.23 1.35 2.08 0.59 38.24 0.36 0.10 0.S.22 1.18 0.74 0.86 0.23 1.33 0.60 0.01 16.18 0.49 18.67 1.40 6. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.53 1.92 2.79 2.73 38.39 1.191 0.69 7.73 11.02 75 18.71 5.59 4.63 1.49 1.19 2.03 0.63 8.36 6.29 3.54 0.83 0.11 180 19.14 0.59 1.24 0.81 0.44 10. 1220) C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 80 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.66 10.71 2.61 0.36 20.64 5.00 3.63 6.94 1.01 10.26 0.97 0.60 0.97 3.32 24.31 47.49 4. Use with caution.69 18.03 0.13 5.12 8.68 5.90 2.17 0.66 0.12 0.26 0.01 9 12.05 0.33 38.900 3.90 13.75 9.47 2.03 0.53 0.25 5.04 0.31 3.60 5.660 1.78 65.24 3.02 0.02 0.06 0.04 95 17.2083 ( 100 ) 1.26 75.76 1.75 2.59 7.93 6.69 15.99 2.81 0.09 2.16 9.34 1.89 7.23 6.57 4.29 1.19 2.01 4 5.03 0.10 13.42 1.07 0.58 0.92 1.18 0.84 15.45 0.75 1.33 0.21 22.53 25.57 3.81 2.00 11 15.36 0.56 7.05 3.06 0.95 0.14 4.39 4.22 0.30 55.01 14 10.01 5 6.33 1.62 1.24 4.05 0.14 0.27 0.85 9.66 2.61 6.05 0.37 5.52 1.30 0.25 5.64 4.02 12.85 30.957 1.866 94 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .01 7 9.07 6.41 22.15 15.49 7.04 9.88 8.147 0.22 0.99 2.42 2.25 0.02 26 19.25 0.02 5.36 1.49 0.56 425 11.29 1.64 4.68 3.02 2.852 x .39 0.71 9.03 80 19.43 4.16 0. SIZE 1⁄2 in 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 21⁄2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in U.73 0.38 0.68 57.67 0.69 0.73 0.01 12 16.34 6.72 3.03 28 12.21 3.01 6.31 1.30 7.65 0.19 250 18.99 0.90 0.17 0.36 0.14 2.65 6.25 0.43 0.92 0.59 5.57 1.50 0.34 1.26 2.37 24.75 0.63 450 12.07 0.38 1.01 11.71 2.36 28.60 10.02 0.03 0.93 4.33 4.29 1.50 400 19.050 1.97 9.83 4.90 0.04 5.00 5.58 6.78 0.93 10.60 0.33 9.32 0.05 68.27 18.30 0.78 0.14 0.92 1.67 2.96 2.44 1.55 9.70 3.32 13.74 9.58 2.97 0.18 0.06 0.37 0.15 1. Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .44 6.25 1.31 4.26 0.50 1.20 0.49 7.46 1.50 0.33 0.37 1.00 6 8.20 11.96 3.64 0.47 10.852 Q 1.52 0.22 1.10 6.05 0.16 8.51 1.81 48.09 0.56 2.14 4.98 1.10 0.84 4.01 18 13.80 2.28 0.91 5.02 10.78 0.00 2 2.40 0.01 0.276 0.02 65 16.16 225 17.30 1.826 5.70 9.875 3.01 45 11.47 2.03 2.01 20 14.05 0.55 0.21 0.300 0.37 1.939 2.66 0.53 0.59 17.840 1.84 3.08 150 16.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe C d 4.02 70 17.79 3.04 2.02 22 16.77 0.70 3.73 21.179 0.16 0.84 0.59 0.87 4.95 12.23 2.08 0.68 0.91 0.42 0.34 0.41 12.23 5.19 0.38 0.218 0.34 7.19 0.75 0.99 6.546 0.24 4.07 0.98 0.61 3.29 1.44 1.18 0.22 0.315 1.05 3.33 0.97 0.22 0.500 6.17 0.68 6.43 0.86 0.63 4.51 3.26 1.35 0.39 0.70 4.82 5.28 1.19 14.26 1.40 11.98 43.34 5.09 160 17.54 0.11 0.05 0.50 19.68 0.03 85 15.90 11.83 0.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.99 0.97 5.04 0.82 1.17 0.18 6.10 0.66 0.10 4.54 5.60 1.09 8.45 0.75 3.81 2.28 300 14.01 10.61 0.08 0.10 5.99 3.89 0.53 8.01 60 14.69 0.73 2.01 0.45 3.11 1.82 46.30 0.07 0.90 0.58 9.80 16.64 9.04 110 19.95 3.34 7.742 0.97 12.19 16.24 6.06 130 14.06 8.43 3.27 8.07 2.90 1.18 3.74 0.85 1.71 1.36 1.44 0.625 Technical Data ID 0.432 flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss 1 1.48 1.48 0.15 0.41 2.500 4.99 11.49 0.15 0.34 1.76 1.94 38.74 0.45 0.76 0.38 1.93 3.63 0.38 350 16.72 0.01 600 16.61 1.33 4.79 1.55 1.25 8.76 2.40 1.99 0.16 0.59 8.09 0.12 12.81 8.01 0.81 0.29 2.36 0.36 2.35 0.94 0.06 0.44 5.72 0.90 19.49 3.77 500 13.500 1.59 1.01 50 12.44 22.96 0.22 0.90 5.21 0.02 0.04 100 18.06 0.24 0.69 7.01 0.84 4.12 0.79 1.51 13.76 7.15 0.13 5.95 0.41 3.79 0.41 8.22 6.35 0.38 2.16 0.375 2.56 3.00 35 15.64 4.15 5.99 0.47 0.10 1.14 200 15.70 475 13.29 1.84 2.67 0.67 1.20 6.20 4.22 1.02 24 17.39 0.95 10.51 7.13 0.10 0.12 6.99 1. Standard Units OD 0.06 0.81 0.85 550 15.21 2.66 0.44 5.32 7.05 120 13.12 0.23 29.51 0.24 0.62 0.61 1.47 7.74 1.93 2.96 0.01 8 10.49 0.46 12.30 0.09 3.71 2.05 2.58 8.64 0.18 5.89 4.27 3.58 29.38 3.33 325 15.18 2.42 2.44 0.40 0.23 275 13.73 3.29 0.83 0.02 0.01 0.98 5.12 0.49 2.55 0.78 13.73 3.52 7.19 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.44 375 18.94 35.10 2.67 0.05 0.04 1.11 0.47 1.63 0.26 1.89 18.58 22.01 40 17.83 3.52 2.47 1.87 0.05 0.56 3.99 3. Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe PVC SCHEDULE 80 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.36 0.49 0.88 1.09 9.36 1.01 10 13.07 5.96 7.45 0.03 30 13.72 8.81 2.22 1.49 5.200 0.17 0.91 1.88 7.51 0.96 1.51 12.323 2.13 2.

32 13.02 30 18.80 2.13 0.02 0.02 28 16.140 0.07 0.10 0.23 16.20 0.55 0.11 0.10 0.67 0.68 2.43 0.46 4.22 300 13.33 6.08 1.50 1.02 85 18.00 14 14.43 0.21 33.06 26.27 10.59 1.49 0.52 0.21 11.20 3.24 5.04 7.10 6.61 0.02 2.97 1.31 5.29 2.28 0.50 3.72 2.05 0.74 4.00 7.14 5.96 3.05 0.99 4.20 0.44 0.63 1.75 3.05 0.40 2.2083 ( 100 ) 1.83 31.71 8.39 0.67 7.38 9.64 14.34 0.01 0.15 0.74 0.29 1.380 1.29 1.95 3.94 8.32 3.852 x .46 1.18 3.42 7.04 0.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 95 .03 35 12.32 1.25 2.25 1.03 2.33 11.21 0.02 75 16.56 3.11 4.01 7 7.32 0.01 60 12.81 2.01 45 16.54 6.41 8.88 3.93 1.41 0.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.63 0.23 10.76 1.12 0.21 1.49 6.74 0.15 250 16.49 0.77 0.41 4.46 0.51 0.10 0.38 16.85 17.86 0.050 1.08 0.75 11.78 0.94 0.00 0.70 6.92 1.01 11 11.03 5.56 8.03 110 17.92 2.88 0.01 10.95 4.06 0.41 11.35 6.81 11.66 4.36 1.49 1.21 10.21 0.66 12.68 3.58 9.06 0.03 0.33 0.02 0.85 0.11 0.08 0.26 0.02 70 14.88 2.77 1.55 1.73 1.900 2.32 10.80 0.54 6.08 8.84 5.44 0.42 1.29 3.23 8.37 0.10 0.68 2.88 0.01 5 5.12 225 15.64 10.43 5.01 5.60 36.11 0.43 3.37 7.02 0.89 4.20 4.50 3.80 7.44 4.16 0.15 1.02 4.26 11.89 3.83 0.87 72.26 0.36 2.70 2.44 20.77 0.20 4.12 0.40 6.33 12.15 0.71 12.20 0.500 4.68 0.35 1.66 3.66 1.00 2.25 1.54 1.71 0.19 1.36 11.25 0.15 2.154 0.04 0.48 0.01 0.68 0.98 4.84 5.72 3.59 14.42 1.25 0.35 0.73 0.99 0.69 5.08 170 16.068 4.14 0.57 3.10 2.71 1.05 0.39 400 17.71 0.83 4.03 10.48 0.08 4.133 0.17 0.65 42.85 1.55 30.36 1.85 0.067 2.49 25.25 4.18 2.60 0.05 0.45 8.01 8 8. Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .03 100 15.25 4.73 14.08 3.38 15.90 0.58 4.04 0.07 0.88 2.69 10.12 18.660 1.01 65 13.69 12.73 2.88 0.43 2.24 7.72 0.02 12 12.216 0.63 1.29 3.19 0.01 24 14.42 1.72 6.57 0.12 5.99 1.47 0.45 0.41 1.34 2.049 1.40 1.49 450 19.89 1.72 2.90 9.57 0.75 0.00 6.81 23.16 3.56 6.36 3.80 12.26 325 14.70 8.53 47.94 0.203 0.14 0.40 17.53 0.33 1.23 3.75 1.11 0.95 0.04 0.20 1.03 0.58 4.06 0.38 0.17 1.88 0.83 5.83 0.24 1.35 0.74 3.92 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.63 4.16 17.92 0.66 1.72 12.38 0.44 8.02 0.84 2.09 0.237 0.38 8.89 9.17 4.23 6.25 0.29 0.12 0.60 0.280 flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss 1 1.88 4.41 14.92 20.81 2.06 3.18 275 18.27 8.22 5.76 56.33 4.95 0.28 2.27 0.04 7.59 1.09 0.76 2.01 2.14 20.34 0.22 1.52 1.76 0.31 0.14 0.29 6.77 1.30 1.145 0.96 6.84 4.08 7.93 5.33 0.07 160 15.315 1.39 0.74 21.83 4.45 9.66 5.46 1.07 6.51 7.01 2.02 2.03 0.29 1.70 4.78 6.20 0.43 6.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe C d 4.852 Q 1.37 3.05 0.99 23.85 0.60 0.68 1.04 120 18.67 0.60 9.13 0.14 2.11 0.23 9.16 4.89 12.01 18 18.72 13.60 1.01 0.15 0.14 1.09 1.07 0.37 11.70 0.50 3.625 Technical Data ID 0.47 2.03 0.60 0.96 1.01 0.25 10.42 13.77 4.82 52.81 1.86 0.26 1.27 8.71 2.34 375 16.65 0.065 Wall Thk 0.05 0.49 0.05 0.40 0.20 2.45 1.73 0.30 0.87 0.08 5. SIZE 1⁄2 in 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 21⁄2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in U.51 2.66 0.840 1.68 38.65 9.07 2.30 350 15.66 550 13.09 22.01 10.80 0.00 3 3.76 0.610 2.60 500 12. td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe PVC SCHEDULE 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.38 1.11 1.80 5.42 1.875 3.65 0.99 0.60 0.09 0.05 130 12.33 0.02 59.51 0.28 3.02 0.27 15.69 3.44 3.19 4.01 0.52 1.90 2.10 2.14 5.72 3.50 0. 1220) C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.07 0. Use with caution.00 40 14.93 0.75 2.27 0.824 1.84 4. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.00 7.03 0.02 0.71 0.48 1.44 0.88 0.78 0.03 0.21 33.14 3.54 0.60 0.26 0.17 8.01 28.28 10.01 0.95 0.25 0.09 180 17.47 0.113 0.92 6.11 0.38 1.07 0.53 0.55 1.06 1.78 14.34 1.20 0.60 0.38 0.13 0.42 4.16 0.36 2.62 6.77 0.03 3.30 0.48 5.10 190 18.06 150 14.16 3.11 200 19.43 0.18 2.77 0.16 0.23 12.00 6 6.45 7.42 39.33 1.84 1.34 0.22 1.90 0.20 4.87 7.21 1.03 95 14.28 0. Standard Units OD 0.93 11.69 0.22 0.57 8.66 0.46 7.33 0.87 5.026 6.51 0.13 0.37 15.02 80 17.08 0.94 6.66 1.18 18.61 18.10 0.40 5.33 0.60 3.05 140 13.22 9.81 0.73 3.47 10.07 0.12 0.54 475 11.03 0.50 7.31 25.28 2.40 1.375 2.00 4 4.27 4.40 0.01 9 9.51 2.01 20 21.01 1.75 4.00 2 2.38 0.77 6.13 3.69 2.64 0.99 0.82 8.92 9.26 0.01 1.77 3.66 0.47 0.78 0.57 0.07 0.18 0.39 3.68 1.10 0.03 0.07 5.01 50 18.88 29.20 4.33 5.47 0.46 3.41 10.37 4.72 5.98 90.93 2.60 3.05 11.30 0.04 7.45 8.62 45.62 0.21 0.109 0.S.30 0.71 8.18 3.15 10.04 3.73 0.13 0.18 0.01 55 11.622 0.29 1.25 0.02 26 15.85 8.15 5.97 14.26 0.01 16 16.55 0.86 3.02 90 19.61 2.02 0.30 8.22 0.28 1.79 600 15.30 9.88 0.50 14.43 10.469 3.26 1.66 0.02 0.42 0.00 0.04 0.28 36.52 0.52 0.16 5.51 0.10 0.01 10 10.65 4.03 6.21 0.46 0.12 0.89 2.40 2.46 8.09 110.33 10.20 0.05 7.19 2.44 425 18.89 1.55 0.02 0.35 2.86 2.52 1.59 1.59 5.18 6.74 9.17 9.56 1.500 6.35 1.55 5.34 0.97 24.76 0.13 29.60 1.95 19.65 7.26 13.04 0.39 0.60 2.01 22 13.

25 3.70 1.834 5.70 6.74 13.16 0.84 4.643 Wall Thk 0.29 4.24 0.18 2.91 9.84 0.14 4.03 0.05 8.95 16.12 0.98 0.05 11.51 4.79 4.41 1.062 0.11 0.22 0.28 1.39 0.24 2.03 0.41 1.32 45.79 1.77 9.96 0.65 8.10 5.94 22.84 6.22 0.63 2.11 170 16.19 1.72 10.03 0.89 0.76 1.48 1.24 15.00 0.24 0.22 0.02 0.59 0.618 2.00 11 8.82 3.80 3.97 4.10 5.70 29.55 0.44 0.20 1.48 2.97 10.99 6.66 0.40 0.77 6.77 0.16 200 19.16 0.52 0.27 30.04 11.07 0.93 2.50 9.38 10.66 0.88 0.85 5.74 2.42 3.31 3.59 1.59 3.35 0.01 8 6.28 0.85 1.63 0.852 x .69 7.121 1.19 5.48 2.35 6.15 0.84 3.05 0.96 11.16 0.69 0.43 1.69 9.12 0.80 18.76 8.05 10.99 0.79 11.03 9.48 1.02 60 19.76 4.22 3.03 0.29 5.62 0.55 0.51 0.12 0.08 0.48 3.51 5.06 0.75 0. 1⁄2 in 3⁄4 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 21⁄2 in U.68 12.22 0.42 1.23 3.79 0.04 0.04 0.71 3.55 1.24 8.98 1.05 0.95 9.71 2.85 500 13.716 0.14 9.96 8.02 2.95 13.74 0.79 8.62 425 19.64 0.123 0.87 0.26 1.76 0.70 2.16 7.04 3.00 15.96 1.49 0.99 0.36 0.18 15.32 0.46 2.79 8.02 0.93 1.44 0.83 11.06 0.82 5.42 1.35 1.83 0.75 6.60 4.87 2.95 3.60 0.44 0.16 3.23 13.05 0.44 1.56 0.08 140 13.31 39.259 0.S.53 4.02 75 15.60 7.72 9.01 9 7.38 5.31 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.02 0.050 1.900 2.81 10.09 0.28 20.33 8.04 5.83 0.05 0.74 1.19 0.15 0.866 96 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .33 0.62 2.94 0.49 0.08 3.42 1.35 1.08 1.55 1.44 0.02 65 13.62 0.09 8.48 375 17.68 7.08 0.77 475 13.42 3.12 600 16.18 4.414 1.38 0.66 1.93 25.17 3. Use with caution.02 0.02 24 19.00 4 3.21 0.39 9.90 0.59 0.97 12.75 12.35 13.96 1.34 2.078 0.74 0.49 6.11 0.17 0.05 1.76 2.14 24.30 1.84 14.48 4.03 3.61 28.72 0.01 18 14.48 1.02 70 14.23 34.04 1.58 6.12 7.05 2.01 16 12.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.08 0.76 4.54 10.01 45 14.30 0.42 0.95 0.84 5.27 0.35 8.64 8.15 1.40 0.840 0.47 4.97 3.56 1.96 2. Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 315 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.23 1.83 2.79 0.20 5.29 0.59 4.09 150 14.65 8.87 6.74 8.26 1.14 5.20 11.18 0.17 225 15.32 3.34 2.47 5.57 2.13 180 17.32 2.04 0.69 450 12.38 36.65 1.88 2.12 2.982 3.19 0.14 0.97 4.04 90 18.852 Q 1.34 29.05 5.91 55.96 3.07 2.10 0.449 2.01 20 15.52 0.31 6.92 9.29 35.27 1.35 0.03 85 17.56 7.09 0.01 7 5.73 0.21 0.11 0.26 17.51 1.67 0.74 2.26 2.49 0.26 3.10 0.40 0.04 0.92 1.16 7.40 3.15 4.04 1.06 7.12 4.16 12.08 0.68 0.30 0.71 4.01 0.02 0.01 12 9.20 0.64 0.50 1.03 28 14.213 0.04 0.03 3.29 1.08 0.28 2.74 4.93 0.44 1.23 1.29 4.05 1.20 0.77 0.72 3.75 18.74 4.10 1.17 4.18 5.08 0.03 0.52 5.33 6.79 0.36 325 14.43 11.40 2.07 0.98 2.78 2.01 4.14 190 18.71 0.47 6. Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .33 0.24 15.47 5. Standard Units SIZE 1 in 2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in OD 0.80 0.12 0.16 12.07 130 12.49 0.29 1.75 2.19 8.23 22.14 0.95 15.14 7.26 1.80 2.32 26.88 0.49 0. 1220) SDR 13.29 0.45 2.500 4.58 1.77 5.78 1.61 4.40 0.69 10.61 0.63 0.03 80 16.66 1.55 0.98 1.27 0.16 0.02 0.11 1.71 7.26 11.95 12.71 0.43 2.06 5.18 0.66 4.25 2.18 9.97 5.09 0.00 2 1.91 0.61 6.09 0.24 1.05 0.08 0.89 7.06 0.27 4.06 0.81 0.08 2.99 0.01 10 7.47 5.15 0.57 2.54 3.15 11.097 0.61 6.07 0.40 0.625 Technical Data ID 0.39 1.19 4.23 1.94 18.10 4.24 2.27 0.37 1.75 6.57 6.50 66.48 47.24 0.5 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 315 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in.55 1.02 0.99 0.00 3 2.660 1.94 12.06 0.15 3.71 3.38 1.10 77.22 0.894 1.00 30 15.28 0.97 3.96 2.35 5.06 2.37 7.19 0.76 0.83 0.27 0.06 120 18.30 2.01 5 3.24 1.02 2.86 6.46 1.491 flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss 1 0.54 13.21 250 17.83 0.48 3.01 35 17.67 1.30 3.19 0.89 2.02 22 17.59 0.34 0.71 3.10 0.48 1.03 0.79 5.06 2.71 5.32 0.48 5.04 0.80 0.98 22.70 17.35 1.23 10.38 0.82 0.89 0.55 21.97 3.55 400 18.10 160 15.02 17.63 2.29 6.95 14.97 0.12 2.53 0.45 1.59 0.14 6.70 3.00 6 4.40 12.94 550 15.27 0.02 0.20 12.44 0.62 5.27 4.46 13.19 0.67 2.44 10.94 20.04 0.90 1.47 0.29 0.59 7.141 0.96 6.04 100 15.31 1.58 20.84 12.50 0.78 4.38 0.24 1.58 1.29 1.04 0.05 110 17.66 0.89 0.36 0.37 0.875 3.79 0.30 14.61 0.52 0.01 0.38 3.95 9.45 0.14 6.51 0.67 1.22 0.500 6.22 10.69 5.97 0.80 0.38 0.02 0.90 10.60 9.88 6.94 3.23 2.72 0.17 1.67 11.32 0.39 0.04 95 19.24 4.14 28.91 2.57 7.01 0.315 1.42 350 16.79 0.35 0.47 2.01 40 12.70 0.49 5.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe C d 4.36 1.67 2.03 0.09 0.16 3.01 50 16.32 4.56 0.23 3.32 7.63 0.01 14 11.64 0.36 17.19 8.18 0.85 40.34 7.20 18.15 9.2083 ( 100 ) 1.67 1.12 0.023 2.43 0.72 4.84 9.36 32.37 1.14 0.13 9.10 0.30 12.54 0.92 0.56 6.61 0.58 1.22 13.26 7.60 0.36 10.21 1.17 5.96 9.94 0.78 2.86 53.46 0.29 0.43 7.41 0.36 8.68 1.70 2. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.54 1.42 11.82 2.87 1.00 2.04 0.31 0.40 0.03 0.62 10.79 4.01 55 17.09 11.03 1.81 0.54 5.375 2.06 0.53 0.05 0.79 2.87 5.09 0.24 0.10 0.01 0.39 0.20 0.62 3.50 1.50 7.44 0.77 0.42 1.02 26 13.19 0.25 26.26 275 18.48 0.73 36.333 0.45 2.51 1.15 0.89 2.49 15.176 0.05 8.48 3.31 300 13.16 9.83 4.47 5.76 0.07 2.30 23.10 7.57 0.01 0.

01 50 14.22 0.53 0.30 9.56 0.06 0.07 0.51 0.98 0.68 2.07 150 13.51 1.84 0.56 0.01 16 7.167 0.65 0.10 0.15 0.92 6.29 0.51 3.75 41.76 0.113 0.96 0.15 0.86 0.42 25.10 0.34 1.80 0.55 0.19 0.14 0.43 1.00 2.22 7.11 190 16.51 43.060 0.32 0.14 0.95 2.54 0.53 10.58 5.97 1.24 0.45 6.31 6.75 13.46 1.59 0.97 5.01 9 4.43 8.30 7.28 10.02 0.34 0.67 1.43 1.60 4.25 3.50 3.76 1.54 0.49 1.06 0.36 0.90 0.92 25.24 0.62 0.91 6.59 2.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 97 .45 5.77 5.04 0.56 1.22 2.01 0. Use with caution.68 0.17 18.07 0.13 225 19.34 2.76 13.96 0.01 55 15.67 0.15 0.90 0.94 9.601 3.27 2.74 12.35 3.20 1.55 8.51 2.87 23.05 0.89 0.03 100 18.72 4.51 1.35 0.49 12.993 Wall Thk 0.08 29.73 0.28 1.62 3.81 0.45 4.29 3.06 0.47 0.23 300 18.51 3.58 6.720 2.18 27.39 8.625 Technical Data ID 0.09 0.01 0.38 1.05 0.23 11.74 5.03 0.86 0.83 600 14.375 2.82 3.11 4.14 9.24 8.29 11.71 8.07 1.01 0.70 9.94 2.19 2.89 3.15 6.500 6.85 2.44 9.26 0.54 0.66 6.92 0.53 0.33 1.22 0.66 2.94 0.02 75 13.22 0.06 0.42 0.06 3.48 12.35 4.01 12 5.06 2.03 0.02 0.69 2.149 2.15 3.875 3.36 1.10 1.46 1.03 90 16.72 0.01 60 17.24 0.01 40 18.30 1.80 12.47 0.22 1.91 10.14 8.72 0.46 425 17.73 2.55 1.96 6.07 11.54 17.23 0.19 5.97 0.24 9.78 5.214 0.26 0.60 7.12 1.49 0.42 1.59 0.85 11.78 3.38 18.08 8.27 0.63 500 12.03 2.44 0.27 325 19.14 2.54 21.00 2 0.25 11.06 7.05 0.98 21.04 0.00 7 3.68 4.66 0.06 13.76 6.44 0.72 0.23 5.24 0.08 160 14.852 Q 1.89 4.65 9.96 0.090 0.41 12.18 0.21 6.47 1.63 0.72 11.56 17.55 2.95 0.66 9.44 0.08 0.21 3.00 3 1.69 0.S.06 2.07 0.83 2.37 0.10 11.82 0.02 11.98 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.09 0.69 3.62 0.57 2.04 0.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.01 11 5.08 0.65 2.57 10.88 4.04 110 19.93 1.25 1.36 375 15.04 0.85 4.66 18.73 0.12 0.87 3.22 1.050 1.55 5.26 9.03 10.36 3.10 0.17 4.40 8.20 3.03 95 17.41 0.39 0.01 22 10.37 1.43 15.53 5.64 1.2083 ( 100 ) 1.70 12.30 28.19 3.36 0.06 140 19.35 0.63 2.41 0.62 1.01 0.30 0.06 0.31 36.83 1.23 10.07 0.46 19.69 4.39 7.01 0.04 0.31 1.06 4.137 0.05 0.14 0. td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.72 3.78 6.36 0.25 0.70 0.60 18.01 8 3.77 2.166 4.55 0.02 26 12.47 0.44 3.11 7.33 0.83 0.22 1.26 0.36 0.09 0.36 1.02 0.12 200 17.11 0.34 5.14 0.97 0.65 0.78 1.03 0.20 4.48 8.08 0.46 3.21 1.79 2.88 0.18 0.65 15.89 35.18 0.39 4.68 0.04 8.70 2.29 1.78 1.02 10.32 2.07 0.25 0.68 11.48 0.10 0.13 0.22 1.10 13.47 10.12 3.04 8.36 9.16 11.03 0.56 9. U.74 2.96 0.11 0.21 6.53 1.02 0.93 2.79 0.68 3.50 1.46 0.46 0.87 56.02 0.09 15.80 0.82 2.316 flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss 1 0.23 1.16 250 15.46 6.15 3.99 8.19 275 16.71 6.85 6.81 0.01 65 18.15 0.44 3.24 6.65 7.52 1.27 2.82 0.05 0.01 13.03 0.60 4.50 6.41 0.00 4 1.99 2.11 0.82 1.11 2.08 0.09 4.98 0.24 0.34 0.47 10.61 0.18 7.09 0.43 2.39 11.500 4.15 33.77 11. 1220) SDR 21 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 3⁄4 in through 6 in.25 5.84 0.84 2.65 4.50 7.79 15.27 0.44 0.32 4.42 0.27 25.36 0.41 1.02 30 14.84 0.26 1.92 0.11 2.79 0.05 4.12 0.66 7.07 3.61 2.31 2.97 0.24 0.62 3.62 0.40 0.55 10.21 29.83 0.49 1.44 0.02 0.75 0.86 1.71 0.66 0.02 11.28 0.70 550 13.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe C d 4.51 0.03 6.09 180 15.05 3.78 17.39 0.13 12.32 7.42 0.36 6.77 4.03 0.34 9.04 2.53 0.02 0.80 3.95 4.45 3.44 0.52 1.16 0.17 1.48 0.48 0.08 170 15.61 1.47 0.81 0.88 1.58 5.10 13.59 0.13 1.072 5.660 1.46 2.00 7.89 0.02 3.56 1.02 85 15.38 13.02 28 13.59 1.01 18 8.69 1.930 1.42 3.01 10 4.83 7.24 2.50 15.65 0.02 80 14.93 0.02 70 12.64 4.47 0.71 3.36 9.86 0.17 0.13 0.13 0.52 1.56 0.19 5.01 45 12.28 1.23 2.13 6.45 0. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.68 0.67 0.29 0.42 6.80 2.36 3.17 0.30 1.86 1.04 120 16.38 1.03 0.60 0.87 3.23 2.06 0.26 1.73 0.00 8.68 0.16 5.42 1.42 0.85 5.57 0.502 1.20 0.41 400 16.32 1.69 0.07 0.26 4.19 1.61 0.23 0.17 0.95 6.01 24 11.91 2.12 0.30 2.12 0.85 0.30 4.09 0.21 0.20 0.04 2.58 1.82 3.06 4.05 0.32 21.44 0.70 0.45 0.33 14.31 12. Standard Units SIZE 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 21⁄2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in OD 1.05 7.01 0.39 4.68 1.37 22.81 5.60 8.21 6.57 475 19.14 0.47 7.69 4.59 1.90 15.81 11.39 0.25 13.72 2.09 2.84 3.83 6.30 4.28 0.03 0.79 1.61 3.84 3.58 5.27 6.70 0.83 5.30 1.01 20 9.315 1.44 4.03 4.44 0.85 1.54 0.91 10.12 0.04 0.93 5.02 0.47 3.76 2.59 0.40 1.52 450 18.29 1.06 3.26 4.01 6 2.01 5 2.17 1.93 0.94 0.02 0.04 0.189 1.900 2.97 1.19 1.11 0.02 0.18 2.04 4.75 2.51 2.20 3.15 1.063 0.73 0.89 1.01 0.05 8.05 130 17.18 1.38 1.37 9.18 0.88 1.27 24.08 0.64 0.02 0.17 0.58 13.84 5.00 14 6.40 0. Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .75 7.31 350 14.079 0.34 5.07 0.93 0.09 0.30 0.23 0.30 2.41 1.852 x .98 5.01 7.28 5.10 0.87 30.04 9.22 0.72 1.27 5.31 0.00 35 16.52 3.32 0.

Use with caution.04 0.16 0.54 0.06 0.225 flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss 1 0.47 5.26 13.93 0.52 0.32 0.34 1.17 1.42 4.86 1.49 6.01 0.43 5.15 3.65 2.20 1.20 1.12 10.12 4.69 9.57 0.82 4.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe C d 4.82 1.29 1.091 0.39 1.36 14.99 8.59 6.10 3.27 0.01 20 5.41 0.46 0.92 0.73 0.34 0.32 0.13 0.05 0.37 3.07 8.99 6.03 110 19.45 2.42 425 16.38 3.37 1.15 0.85 0.67 6.23 3.86 0.01 0.83 4.49 1.96 6.63 3.62 10.01 6 1.11 0.37 400 15.2083 ( 100 ) 1.11 0.064 0.29 350 13.39 0.08 0.36 0.70 6.99 12.64 1.03 100 17.07 4.45 0.96 2.56 0.01 0.22 0.375 2.21 3.21 1.22 5.25 0.08 0.63 0.53 1.30 1.754 2.06 0.35 4.63 0.09 180 15.43 10.01 11 3.44 4.27 0.07 0.47 1.68 3.15 5.76 600 14.88 4.84 0.47 1.20 0.46 10.500 6.14 0.29 12.95 6.14 35.01 0.07 0.47 1.47 0.34 1.16 0.02 10.78 0.28 0.19 13.82 0.00 5 1.24 1.20 0.17 3.69 3.073 0.16 0.86 2.04 0.77 20.35 0.60 0.01 18 5.61 3.73 0.58 1.41 0.71 1.36 0.95 0.16 5.18 0.852 x .51 7.24 14.04 120 15.32 2.61 10.03 0.85 6.45 0.24 1.52 0.70 0.25 1.91 3.33 5.82 6.85 11.00 40 11.96 0.05 0.71 4.11 200 16.03 0.30 8.45 0.20 0.69 2.04 0.03 0.63 3.49 0.86 2.48 4.42 1.28 25.73 0.67 7.27 10.36 2.56 3.230 4.62 0.89 29.38 27.92 0.07 0.53 0.66 0.97 6.99 0.68 2.82 2.02 0.04 0.02 80 13.09 0.27 9.00 2.02 75 13.57 3.35 9.23 3.04 3.38 0.34 1.62 6.42 0.00 14 3.57 9.69 7.47 450 17.72 8.27 2.36 8.21 0.56 1.23 11.44 1.57 0.72 10.91 1.02 0.69 0.23 3.24 22.23 5.50 0.28 1.29 4.33 375 14.87 4.13 4.84 1.54 0.93 7.01 0.01 4 1.31 0.39 0.51 24.35 0.02 0.16 9.63 7.10 0.79 3.06 0.59 4.53 0.07 160 13.26 0.37 0.27 14.81 16.13 0.73 5.64 22.34 0.11 7.90 17.86 0.18 275 15.51 12.32 1.57 11.29 5.60 0.03 0.18 5.18 0.01 24 6.74 5.02 35 9.63 3.87 0.09 1.57 4.39 1.59 0.193 2.25 0.03 0.38 1.28 5.12 0.56 26.93 2.71 0.76 2.72 0.90 0.59 0.02 0.12 0.54 0.39 0.27 0.52 1.71 3.10 0.44 4.53 3.63 1.02 85 14.01 22 6.14 1.00 0.51 2.45 1.68 7. Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 160 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.57 40.47 1.74 0. U.96 9.18 1.30 0.25 6.85 1.09 0.01 45 12.81 1.02 0.13 2.14 250 14.91 9.25 1.52 0.92 0.77 0.75 4.56 0.14 10.37 2.05 140 18.57 6.58 12.02 8.82 6.56 0.02 90 15.30 5.07 0.50 2.20 1.91 19.43 2.92 4.83 3.05 1.09 1.03 5.20 0.91 1.65 0.07 0.08 0.44 4.78 3.01 16 4.09 11.68 1.93 0.75 4.135 0.18 0.14 3.65 0.78 0.03 2.17 8.28 0.95 2.00 3 0.61 4.35 7.61 6.62 2.85 0.866 98 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .60 9.02 0.85 0.61 0.110 0.08 3.89 0.30 0.86 0.23 0.52 475 18.88 10.96 0.36 2.70 0.18 6.02 26 7.03 0.20 1.85 1.80 8.51 2.05 0.42 16.62 4.86 9.91 0.15 2.63 1.37 2.56 8.42 1.64 12.03 13.72 2.04 0.78 3.99 2.54 0.14 0.09 0.87 3.00 8.52 3.660 1.49 1.75 0.85 20.95 4.05 0.46 0.76 12.28 0.62 10.37 0.91 0. Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .97 1.08 0. Standard Units SIZE 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 21⁄2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in OD 1.08 0.62 0.115 Wall Thk 0.00 2 0.40 0.54 0.42 0.57 12.81 0.49 10.47 10.95 5.65 0.12 3.91 12.532 1.12 0.52 0.12 1.41 5.53 2.900 2.35 0.53 7.27 1.06 0.655 3.04 0.01 9 2.31 1.01 0.26 4.70 0.45 1.84 2.36 0.05 4.79 0.11 0.49 7.16 13.13 0.49 7.19 1.31 0.06 150 19.04 0.00 4.21 2.24 11.18 0.45 1.87 8.99 46.74 11.06 0.66 1.45 6.05 0.42 0.47 0.66 8.50 1.64 9.58 500 19.12 0.02 7.72 0.28 7.54 0.51 0.69 0.64 2.21 300 17.88 5.42 1.01 0.05 130 17.38 0.59 11.96 17.42 12.98 0.03 11.34 3.24 0.43 0.00 7 1.49 4.31 2.37 1.27 1.78 1.81 0.01 12 3.13 11.08 0.54 0.195 1.21 6.57 1.03 0.25 1.01 8 2.00 11.01 55 15.78 0.09 0.66 1.89 0.10 190 16.64 2.01 65 18.00 0.00 0.11 15.13 0.94 5.59 12.02 0.69 0.78 5.04 0.34 1.50 0.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.06 0.17 0.50 1.60 0.09 0.04 0.18 1.28 0.66 0.12 32.S.500 4.94 2.315 1.01 2.71 1.47 4.06 0.49 0.56 3.76 0.63 0.59 3.38 0.94 8.08 21.31 0.30 0.77 4. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.72 5.03 0.19 0.01 60 17.173 0.67 0.22 4. 1220) SDR 26 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 160 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1 in through 6 in.29 8.852 Q 1.625 Technical Data ID 1.04 2.69 1.33 0.59 2.01 0.93 0.12 0.95 5.09 2.02 0.36 7.01 70 19.58 16.52 3.81 0.61 9.23 0.15 0.07 0.16 1.09 0.31 0.52 1.91 0.71 29.76 0.71 1.43 0.30 2.08 1.51 1.15 0.99 8.24 1.03 95 16.01 50 14.72 2.14 0.01 10 2.15 2.19 3.86 2.52 0.91 5.86 2.01 0.08 2.02 28 7.78 2.48 3.89 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.77 3.02 30 8.72 7.55 14.00 2.28 1.39 0.02 0.96 3.18 0.71 0.93 11.76 11.16 0.23 0.15 1.17 0.86 3.154 6.42 7.56 3.83 0.12 225 19.63 550 13.08 170 14.63 6.43 0.17 0.34 0.05 0.76 0.91 2.25 325 18.875 3.94 0.03 15.92 3.33 0.

74 1.48 0.04 4.63 0.699 3.05 0.61 5.12 3.34 0.11 0.18 1.03 0.88 0.51 2.00 10.073 0.80 0.01 70 19.02 0.500 6.67 0.43 1.33 1.15 0.10 0.00 3 0.58 550 12.78 1.06 0.92 1.14 2.00 40 11.98 0.98 7.43 0.94 0.47 0.57 0.47 43.20 0.15 2.21 4.56 6.10 2.18 1. Use with caution.64 0.05 140 17.27 8.86 2.95 3.08 1.72 8.14 0.11 0.41 3.01 20 5.53 0.67 7.87 0.03 4.98 1.51 1.14 3.79 2.06 160 13.02 11.25 12.48 1.96 4.06 2.875 3.01 0.79 0.32 21.00 0.07 170 13.03 0.69 0.94 3.91 0.84 1.315 1.68 0.80 2.25 0.18 1.07 0.18 2.32 0.852 Q 1. td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 125 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.48 1.95 0.16 0.51 1.02 10.32 0.04 0.27 2.24 8.01 16 4.98 3.36 0.78 1.02 0.01 6 1.89 0.66 0.20 6.05 4.10 200 16.57 4.65 5.85 10.58 0.78 12.09 7.64 0.02 10.36 1.48 5.34 0.72 10.39 2.67 6.01 0.36 0.84 3.11 0.06 2.06 0.06 6.54 1.21 9.06 0.71 0.70 2.72 5.056 0.49 8.07 9.83 5.05 0.53 10.26 0.01 0.23 1.12 0.01 12 3.52 0.06 0.30 0.60 2.79 0.16 2.47 19.75 0.26 0.47 19.625 ID 1.211 1.40 3.03 0.65 0.12 0.62 1.41 1.33 0.78 8.67 1.80 0.64 2.43 3.433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe C d 4.55 6.85 2.32 0.53 0.34 400 15. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.86 3.45 3.14 0.25 1.08 180 14.49 7.56 2.22 0.58 0.00 0.58 1.22 1.05 4.10 6.02 0.91 13.60 1.47 0.02 90 15.99 2.21 2.52 0.900 2.548 1.95 0.02 80 13.09 0.80 3.14 0.17 11.05 0.69 32.20 6.13 0.48 0.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 99 .76 15.14 3.45 0.02 0.02 0.217 Wall Thk 0.03 11.04 1.50 0.73 0.07 0.73 8.05 1.37 0.58 1.14 0.51 0.58 3.07 0.058 0.40 4.26 1.03 5.11 0.02 0.08 9.00 3.87 7.38 0. 1220) SDR 32.10 0. U.11 225 18.45 0.37 6.02 0.59 0.16 275 15.80 0.91 23.44 0.68 0.98 3.12 6.71 2.02 0.25 3.30 12.76 3.34 1.85 6.79 4.04 0.44 3.33 0.41 8.02 75 12.00 4.34 0.06 1.19 10.79 1.43 1.30 28.01 11 3.01 10 2.07 0.00 5 1.224 6.68 0.56 0.02 0.33 1.65 14.53 6.10 15.31 0.34 9.00 1.20 15.21 0.34 0.24 1.82 0.10 1.12 0.83 0.01 2.02 0.13 5.23 325 18.29 1.28 1.01 9 2.65 9.96 11.96 4.15 1.36 8.37 0.41 0.01 0.23 3.660 1.37 9.12 5.56 0.25 3.69 0.76 2.52 4.59 0.92 1.54 0.64 5.94 24.20 5.22 2.01 65 18.14 0.04 9.33 1.39 3.86 1.65 0.13 8.28 2.07 0.10 0.50 8.05 0.36 0.68 0.46 0.41 0.32 1.08 0.31 3.60 7.62 9.68 0.13 0.41 0.67 2.03 100 17.500 4.18 7.28 0.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.64 7.56 2.01 26 7.97 0.06 1.08 2.03 0.65 8.89 2.70 600 13.31 1.2083 ( 100 ) 1.29 0.13 0.80 5.00 4.04 0.22 0.08 5.85 0.36 5.45 0.73 12.74 0.38 18.34 7.24 6.47 1.96 5.26 1.01 55 15.19 300 16.82 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s.09 0.52 0.69 12.14 11.34 5.06 0.66 5.29 3.97 0.03 110 18.05 0.92 0.60 17.06 150 19.15 11.46 1.83 0.89 0.08 0.40 11.02 95 16.229 2.60 0.90 0.02 0.27 0.138 0.67 1.31 10.10 6.27 0.40 0.76 1.00 8 2.75 0.55 0.784 2.48 1.06 9.23 0.56 4.94 0.96 0.35 0.42 15.15 4.12 15.16 0.08 0.26 4.83 4.09 0.30 2.40 1.30 0.81 4.01 0.02 0.97 6.43 1.00 9.01 24 6.64 5.37 0.80 13.09 190 15.49 13.12 2.16 0.16 0.26 350 19.108 0.49 0.01 50 13.00 0.03 0.61 7.72 0.01 60 16.46 1.30 375 14.83 0.59 6.82 0.02 28 7.57 2.70 0.23 7.088 0.91 1.03 0.33 5.57 8.13 0.89 9.20 7.18 1.01 45 12.61 0.08 38.42 1.28 0.84 0.54 3.77 2.66 2.37 12.43 0.39 0.38 9.90 0.27 1.56 3.01 22 6.39 1.43 3.41 1.69 5.44 1.80 1.28 0.01 4 1.04 0.56 2.51 0.86 5.14 5.76 2.51 0.68 4.17 4.96 3.31 6.284 4.36 0.57 5.19 1.25 8.66 20.80 0.07 0.27 0.052 0.98 0.87 2.89 0.97 5.83 11.57 2.01 7 1.65 9.52 6.41 0.00 2 0.18 0.50 0.17 0.79 0.72 30.13 7.S.71 7.19 0.64 0.96 11.39 0.07 2.57 4.25 0.40 3.53 4.32 1.22 1.84 2.87 0.74 2.45 0.72 3.60 0.05 0.37 0.78 0.13 10.03 0.21 11.89 0.20 1.27 3.16 1.94 10.04 0.73 0.93 2.00 14 3.72 2. Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .31 1.02 25.36 1.63 0.91 13.67 2.23 4.65 1.12 0.22 0.82 0.05 0.25 0.13 250 14.83 3.90 0.71 1.02 0.47 0.33 0.52 1.30 1.17 23.88 4.24 0.09 0.43 1.64 0.51 7.57 0.01 18 5.95 10.39 4.71 5.36 3.02 35 9.42 2.12 0.42 0.74 11.04 120 15.22 0.28 0.19 1.19 0.14 0.77 3.45 2.69 3.11 0.49 1.59 5.29 5.02 30 8.16 0.43 450 17.68 0.88 8.22 27.49 3.40 3.78 0.26 0.5 C=150 PSI loss per 100 feet of pipe (psi/100 ft) PVC CLASS 125 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 1 in through 6 in.02 85 14.76 0. Standard Units SIZE 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 21⁄2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in Technical Data OD 1.60 7.41 4.72 3.09 0.51 0.22 2.34 1.70 0.375 2.81 12.60 14.48 475 17.22 0.05 0.15 0.11 6.05 0.39 425 16.04 130 16.01 0.51 19.04 0.50 0.06 11.54 2.62 17.53 500 18.90 0.89 2.53 0.30 1.56 0.57 12.39 1.24 0.15 0.17 0.94 10.36 1.204 flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss 1 0.05 0.31 9.852 x .64 0.62 1.56 4.02 0.

Technical Data

Friction loss characteristics polyethylene (PE) SDR-pressure-rated tube

POLYETHYLENE (PE) SDR-PRESSURE RATED TUBE
(2306, 3206, 3306) SDR 7, 9, 11.5, 15 C=140
PSI loss per 100 feet of tube (psi/100 ft)

POLYETHYLENE (PE) SDR-PRESSURE RATED TUBE
Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.
U.S. Standard Units

SIZE 1⁄2 in 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 21⁄2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in
ID 0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469 3.068 4.026 6.065
Technical Data

flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi
gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss

1 1.05 0.49 0.60 0.12 0.37 0.04 0.21 0.01 0.15 0.00 0.09 0.00
2 2.10 1.76 1.20 0.45 0.74 0.14 0.42 0.04 0.31 0.02 0.19 0.01
3 3.16 3.73 1.80 0.95 1.11 0.29 0.64 0.08 0.47 0.04 0.28 0.01 0.20 0.00
4 4.21 6.35 2.40 1.62 1.48 0.50 0.85 0.13 0.62 0.06 0.38 0.02 0.26 0.01
5 5.27 9.60 3.00 2.44 1.85 0.76 1.07 0.20 0.78 0.09 0.47 0.03 0.33 0.01 0.21 0.00
6 6.32 13.46 3.60 3.43 2.22 1.06 1.28 0.28 0.94 0.13 0.57 0.04 0.40 0.02 0.26 0.01
7 7.38 17.91 4.20 4.56 2.59 1.41 1.49 0.37 1.10 0.18 0.66 0.05 0.46 0.02 0.30 0.01
8 8.43 22.93 4.80 5.84 2.96 1.80 1.71 0.47 1.25 0.22 0.76 0.07 0.53 0.03 0.34 0.01
9 9.49 28.52 5.40 7.26 3.33 2.24 1.92 0.59 1.41 0.28 0.85 0.08 0.60 0.03 0.39 0.01
10 10.54 34.67 6.00 8.82 3.70 2.73 2.14 0.72 1.57 0.34 0.95 0.10 0.66 0.04 0.43 0.01
11 11.60 41.36 6.00 10.53 4.07 3.25 2.35 0.86 1.73 0.40 1.05 0.12 0.73 0.05 0.47 0.02 0.27 0.00
12 12.65 48.60 7.21 12.37 4.44 3.82 2.57 1.01 1.88 0.48 1.14 0.14 0.80 0.06 0.52 0.02 0.30 0.01
14 14.76 64.65 8.41 16.46 5.19 5.08 2.99 1.34 2.20 0.63 1.33 0.19 0.93 0.08 0.60 0.03 0.35 0.01
16 16.87 82.79 9.61 21.07 5.93 6.51 3.42 1.71 2.51 0.81 1.52 0.24 1.07 0.10 0.69 0.04 0.40 0.01
18 18.98 102.97 10.81 26.21 6.67 8.10 3.85 2.13 2.83 1.01 1.71 0.30 1.20 0.13 0.78 0.04 0.45 0.01
20 12.01 31.86 7.41 9.84 4.28 2.59 3.14 1.22 1.90 0.36 1.33 0.15 0.86 0.05 0.50 0.01
22 13.21 38.01 8.15 11.74 4.71 3.09 3.46 1.46 2.10 0.43 1.47 0.18 0.95 0.06 0.55 0.02
24 14.42 44.65 8.89 13.79 5.14 3.63 3.77 1.72 2.29 0.51 1.60 0.21 1.04 0.07 0.60 0.02
26 15.62 48.15 9.64 16.00 5.57 4.21 4.09 1.99 2.48 0.59 1.74 0.25 1.12 0.09 0.65 0.02
28 16.82 59.41 10.38 18.35 5.99 4.83 4.40 2.28 2.67 0.68 1.87 0.29 1.21 0.10 0.70 0.03
30 18.02 67.50 11.12 20.85 6.42 5.49 4.72 2.59 2.86 0.77 2.00 0.32 1.30 0.11 0.75 0.03 0.33 0.00
35 12.97 27.74 7.49 7.31 5.50 3.45 3.34 1.02 2.34 0.43 1.51 0.15 0.88 0.04 0.38 0.01
40 14.83 35.53 8.56 9.36 6.29 4.42 3.81 1.31 2.67 0.55 1.73 0.19 1.00 0.05 0.44 0.01
45 16.68 44.19 9.64 11.64 7.08 5.50 4.29 1.63 3.01 0.69 1.95 0.24 1.13 0.06 0.49 0.01
50 18.53 53.71 10.71 14.14 7.87 6.68 4.77 1.98 3.34 0.83 2.16 0.29 1.25 0.08 0.55 0.01
55 11.78 16.87 8.65 7.97 5.25 2.36 3.68 1.00 2.38 0.35 1.38 0.09 0.61 0.01
60 12.85 19.82 9.44 9.36 5.72 2.78 4.01 1.17 2.60 0.41 1.51 0.11 0.66 0.01
65 13.92 22.99 10.23 10.86 6.20 3.22 4.35 1.36 2.81 0.47 1.63 0.13 0.72 0.02
70 14.99 26.37 11.01 12.46 6.68 3.69 4.68 1.56 3.03 0.54 1.76 0.14 0.77 0.02
75 16.06 29.97 11.80 14.16 7.16 4.20 5.01 1.77 3.25 0.61 1.88 0.16 0.83 0.02
80 17.13 33.77 12.59 15.95 7.63 4.73 5.35 1.99 3.46 0.69 2.01 0.18 0.88 0.03
85 18.21 37.79 13.37 17.85 8.11 5.29 5.68 2.23 3.68 0.77 2.13 0.21 0.94 0.03
90 19.28 42.01 14.16 19.84 8.59 5.88 6.02 2.48 3.90 0.86 2.26 0.23 0.99 0.03
95 14.95 21.93 9.07 6.50 6.35 2.74 4.11 0.95 2.39 0.25 1.05 0.03
100 15.74 24.12 9.54 7.15 6.69 3.01 4.33 1.05 2.51 0.28 1.10 0.04
110 17.31 28.77 10.50 8.53 7.36 3.59 4.76 1.25 2.76 0.33 1.22 0.05
120 18.88 33.80 11.45 10.02 8.03 4.22 5.20 1.47 3.02 0.39 1.33 0.05
130 12.41 11.62 8.70 4.90 5.63 1.70 3.27 0.45 1.44 0.06
140 13.36 13.33 9.37 5.62 6.06 1.95 3.52 0.52 1.55 0.07
150 14.32 15.15 10.03 6.38 6.50 2.22 3.77 0.59 1.66 0.08
160 15.27 17.08 10.70 7.19 6.93 2.50 4.02 0.67 1.77 0.09
170 16.23 19.11 11.37 8.05 7.36 2.80 4.27 0.75 1.88 0.10
180 17.18 21.24 12.04 8.95 7.80 3.11 4.53 0.83 1.99 0.11
190 18.14 23.48 12.71 9.89 8.23 3.44 4.78 0.92 2.10 0.12
200 19.09 25.81 13.38 10.87 8.66 3.78 5.03 1.01 2.21 0.14
225 15.05 13.52 9.75 4.70 5.66 1.25 2.49 0.17
250 16.73 16.44 10.83 5.71 6.29 1.52 2.77 0.21
275 18.40 19.61 11.92 6.82 6.92 1.82 3.05 0.25
300 13.00 8.01 7.55 2.13 3.32 0.29
325 14.08 9.29 8.18 2.48 3.60 0.34
350 15.17 10.65 8.81 2.84 3.88 0.39
375 16.25 12.10 9.43 3.23 4.15 0.44
400 17.33 13.64 10.06 3.64 4.43 0.50
425 18.42 15.26 10.69 4.07 4.71 0.55
450 19.50 16.97 11.32 4.52 4.99 0.62
475 11.95 5.00 5.26 0.68
500 12.58 5.50 5.54 0.75
550 13.84 6.56 6.10 0.89
600 15.10 7.70 6.65 1.05

Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s. Use with caution.
Q
Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .408
d 2
Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation:

hf = 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.852 Q 1.852 x .433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe
C
d 4.866

100 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

td Technical Data

Friction loss characteristics schedule 40 standard steel pipe

SCHEDULE 40 STANDARD STEEL PIPE
PSI loss per 100 feet of tube (psi/100 ft)

SCHEDULE 40 STANDARD STEEL PIPE
Sizes 1⁄2 in through 6 in. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.

SIZE 1⁄2 in 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 21⁄2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in
OD 0.840 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.875 3.500 4.500 6.625

U.S. Standard Units
ID 0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469 3.068 4.026 6.065

Technical Data
Wall Thk 0.109 0.113 0.133 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.203 0.216 0.237 0.280

flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi
gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss

1 1.05 0.91 0.60 0.23 0.37 0.07 0.21 0.02 0.15 0.01 0.09 0.00
2 2.10 3.28 1.20 0.84 0.74 0.26 0.42 0.07 0.31 0.03 0.19 0.01 0.13 0.00
3 3.16 6.95 1.80 1.77 1.11 0.55 0.64 0.14 0.47 0.07 0.28 0.02 0.20 0.01 0.13 0.00
4 4.21 11.85 2.40 3.02 1.48 0.93 0.85 0.25 0.62 0.12 0.38 0.03 0.26 0.01 0.17 0.01
5 5.27 17.91 3.00 4.56 1.85 1.41 1.07 0.37 0.78 0.18 0.47 0.05 0.33 0.02 0.21 0.01
6 6.32 25.10 3.60 6.39 2.22 1.97 1.28 0.52 0.94 0.25 0.57 0.07 0.40 0.03 0.26 0.01
7 7.38 33.40 4.20 8.50 2.59 2.63 1.49 0.69 1.10 0.33 0.66 0.10 0.46 0.04 0.30 0.01
8 8.43 42.77 4.80 10.89 2.96 3.36 1.71 0.89 1.25 0.42 0.76 0.12 0.53 0.05 0.34 0.02 0.20 0.00
9 9.49 53.19 5.40 13.54 3.33 4.18 1.92 1.10 1.41 0.52 0.85 0.15 0.60 0.06 0.39 0.02 0.22 0.01
10 10.54 64.65 6.00 16.46 3.70 5.08 2.14 1.34 1.57 0.63 0.95 0.19 0.66 0.08 0.43 0.03 0.25 0.01
11 11.60 77.13 6.60 19.63 4.07 6.07 2.35 1.60 1.73 0.75 1.05 0.22 0.73 0.09 0.47 0.03 0.27 0.01
12 12.65 90.62 7.21 23.07 4.44 7.13 2.57 1.88 1.88 0.89 1.14 0.26 0.80 0.11 0.52 0.04 0.30 0.01
14 14.76 20.56 8.41 30.69 5.19 9.48 2.99 2.50 2.20 1.18 1.33 0.35 0.93 0.15 0.60 0.05 0.35 0.01
16 16.87 54.39 9.61 39.30 5.93 12.14 3.42 3.20 2.51 1.51 1.52 0.45 1.07 0.19 0.69 0.07 0.40 0.02
18 18.98 92.02 10.81 48.88 6.67 15.10 3.85 3.98 2.83 1.88 1.71 0.56 1.20 0.23 0.78 0.08 0.45 0.02
20 12.01 59.41 7.41 18.35 4.28 4.83 3.14 2.28 1.90 0.68 1.33 0.29 0.86 0.10 0.50 0.03
22 13.21 70.88 8.15 21.90 4.71 5.77 3.46 2.72 2.10 0.81 1.47 0.34 0.95 0.12 0.55 0.03 0.24 0.00
24 14.42 83.27 8.89 25.72 5.14 6.77 3.77 3.20 2.29 0.95 1.60 0.40 1.04 0.14 0.60 0.04 0.26 0.01
26 15.62 96.57 9.64 29.83 5.57 7.86 4.09 3.71 2.48 1.10 1.74 0.46 1.12 0.16 0.65 0.04 0.28 0.01
28 16.82 110.8 10.38 34.22 5.99 9.01 4.40 4.26 2.67 1.26 1.87 0.53 1.21 0.18 0.70 0.05 0.31 0.01
30 18.02 125.9 11.12 38.89 6.42 10.24 4.72 4.84 2.86 1.43 2.00 0.60 1.30 0.21 0.75 0.06 0.33 0.01
35 12.97 51.74 7.49 13.62 5.50 6.44 3.34 1.91 2.34 0.80 1.51 0.28 0.88 0.07 0.38 0.01
40 14.83 66.25 8.56 17.45 6.29 8.24 3.81 2.44 2.67 1.03 1.73 0.36 1.00 0.10 0.44 0.01
45 16.68 82.40 9.64 21.70 7.08 10.25 4.29 3.04 3.01 1.28 1.95 0.44 1.13 0.12 0.49 0.02
50 18.53 100.2 10.71 26.37 7.87 12.46 4.77 3.69 3.34 1.56 2.16 0.54 1.25 0.14 0.55 0.02
55 11.78 31.47 8.65 14.86 5.25 4.41 3.68 1.86 2.38 0.65 1.38 0.17 0.61 0.02
60 12.85 36.97 9.44 17.46 5.72 5.18 4.01 2.18 2.60 0.76 1.51 0.20 0.66 0.03
65 13.92 42.88 10.23 20.25 6.20 6.00 4.35 2.53 2.81 0.88 1.63 0.23 0.72 0.03
70 14.99 49.18 11.01 23.23 6.68 6.89 4.68 2.90 3.03 1.01 1.76 0.27 0.77 0.04
75 16.06 55.89 11.80 26.40 7.16 7.83 5.01 3.30 3.25 1.15 1.88 0.31 0.83 0.04
80 17.13 62.98 12.59 29.75 7.63 8.82 5.35 3.72 3.46 1.29 2.01 0.34 0.88 0.05
85 18.21 70.47 13.37 33.29 8.11 9.87 5.68 4.16 3.68 1.44 2.13 0.39 0.94 0.05
90 19.28 78.33 14.16 37.00 8.59 10.97 6.02 4.62 3.90 1.61 2.26 0.43 0.99 0.06
95 14.95 40.90 9.07 12.13 6.35 5.11 4.11 1.78 2.39 0.47 1.05 0.06
100 15.74 44.97 9.54 13.33 6.69 5.62 4.33 1.95 2.51 0.52 1.10 0.07
110 17.31 53.66 10.50 15.91 7.36 6.70 4.76 2.33 2.76 0.62 1.22 0.08
120 18.88 63.04 11.45 18.69 8.03 7.87 5.20 2.74 3.02 0.73 1.33 0.10
130 12.41 21.68 8.70 9.13 5.63 3.17 3.27 0.85 1.44 0.12
140 13.36 24.87 9.37 10.47 6.06 3.64 3.52 0.97 1.55 0.13
150 14.32 28.26 10.03 11.90 6.50 4.14 3.77 1.10 1.66 0.15
160 15.27 31.84 10.70 13.41 6.93 4.66 4.02 1.24 1.77 0.17
170 16.23 35.63 11.37 15.01 7.36 5.22 4.27 1.39 1.88 0.19
180 17.18 39.61 12.04 16.68 7.80 5.80 4.53 1.55 1.99 0.21
190 18.14 43.78 12.71 18.44 8.23 6.41 4.78 1.71 2.10 0.23
200 19.09 48.14 13.38 20.28 8.66 7.05 5.03 1.88 2.21 0.26
225 15.05 25.22 9.75 8.76 5.66 2.34 2.49 0.32
250 16.73 30.65 10.83 10.55 6.29 2.84 2.77 0.39
275 18.40 36.57 11.92 12.71 6.92 3.39 3.05 0.46
300 13.00 14.93 7.55 3.98 3.32 0.54
325 14.08 17.32 8.18 4.62 3.60 0.63
350 15.17 19.87 8.81 5.30 3.88 0.72
375 16.25 22.57 9.43 6.02 4.15 0.82
400 17.33 25.44 10.06 6.78 4.43 0.92
425 18.42 28.46 10.69 7.59 4.71 1.03
450 19.50 31.64 11.32 8.43 4.99 1.15
475 11.95 9.32 5.26 1.27
500 12.58 10.25 5.54 1.40
550 13.84 12.23 6.10 1.67
600 15.10 14.37 6.65 1.96

Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s. Use with caution.
Q
Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .408
d 2
Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation:

hf = 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.852 Q 1.852 x .433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe
C
d 4.866

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 101

Technical Data

Friction loss characteristics type K copper water tube

TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE
PSI loss per 100 feet of tube (psi/100 ft)

TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE C=140
Sizes 1⁄2 in thru 3 in. Flow 1 through 600 gpm.

SIZE 1⁄2 in 5⁄8 in 3⁄4 in 1 in 11⁄4 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 21⁄2 in 3 in
OD 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.125 1.375 1.625 2.125 2.625 3.125
U.S. Standard Units

ID 0.527 0.652 0.745 0.995 1.245 1.481 1.959 2.435 2.907
Technical Data

Wall Thk 0.049 0.049 0.065 0.065 0.065 0.072 0.083 0.095 0.109

flow velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi velocity psi
gpm fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss fps loss

1 1.46 1.09 0.95 0.39 0.73 0.20 0.41 0.05 0.26 0.02 0.18 0.01 0.10 0.00
2 2.93 3.94 1.91 1.40 1.47 0.73 0.82 0.18 0.52 0.06 0.37 0.03 0.21 0.01
3 4.40 8.35 2.87 2.97 2.20 1.55 1.23 0.38 0.78 0.13 0.55 0.05 0.31 0.01 0.20 0.00
4 5.87 14.23 3.83 5.05 2.94 2.64 1.64 0.65 1.05 0.22 0.74 0.09 0.42 0.02 0.27 0.01 0.19 0.00
5 7.34 21.51 4.79 7.64 3.67 3.99 2.06 0.98 1.31 0.33 0.93 0.14 0.53 0.04 0.34 0.01 0.24 0.01
6 8.81 30.15 5.75 10.70 4.41 5.60 2.47 1.37 1.57 0.46 1.11 0.20 0.63 0.05 0.41 0.02 0.28 0.01
7 10.28 40.11 6.71 14.24 5.14 7.44 2.88 1.82 1.84 0.61 1.30 0.26 0.74 0.07 0.48 0.02 0.33 0.01
8 11.75 51.37 7.67 18.24 5.88 9.53 3.29 2.33 2.10 0.78 1.48 0.34 0.85 0.09 0.55 0.03 0.38 0.01
9 13.22 63.89 8.63 22.68 6.61 11.86 3.70 2.90 2.36 0.97 1.67 0.42 0.95 0.11 0.61 0.04 0.43 0.02
10 14.69 77.66 9.59 27.57 7.35 14.41 4.12 3.53 2.63 1.18 1.86 0.51 1.06 0.13 0.68 0.05 0.48 0.02
11 16.15 92.65 10.55 32.89 8.08 17.19 4.53 4.21 2.89 1.41 2.04 0.61 1.16 0.16 0.75 0.05 0.53 0.02
12 17.62 108.85 11.51 38.64 8.82 20.20 4.94 4.94 3.15 1.66 2.23 0.71 1.27 0.18 0.82 0.06 0.57 0.03
14 13.43 51.41 10.29 26.87 5.76 6.57 3.68 2.21 2.60 0.95 1.48 0.24 0.95 0.08 0.67 0.04
16 15.35 65.83 11.76 34.41 6.59 8.42 4.21 2.83 2.97 1.22 1.70 0.31 1.10 0.11 0.77 0.05
18 17.27 81.88 13.23 42.80 7.41 10.47 4.73 3.52 3.34 1.51 1.91 0.39 1.23 0.13 0.86 0.06
20 19.19 99.53 14.70 52.02 8.24 12.73 5.26 4.28 3.72 1.84 2.11 0.47 1.37 0.16 0.96 0.07
22 16.17 62.06 9.06 15.18 5.79 5.10 4.09 2.19 2.33 0.56 1.51 0.20 1.06 0.08
24 17.64 72.92 9.89 17.84 6.31 5.99 4.46 2.58 2.55 0.66 1.65 0.23 1.15 0.10
26 19.11 84.57 10.71 10.69 6.84 6.95 4.83 2.99 2.76 0.77 1.78 0.27 1.25 0.11
28 11.53 23.73 7.37 7.98 5.20 3.43 2.97 0.88 1.92 0.30 1.35 0.13
30 12.36 26.97 7.89 9.06 5.58 3.89 3.18 1.00 2.06 0.35 1.44 0.15
35 14.42 35.88 9.21 12.06 6.51 5.18 3.72 1.33 2.40 0.46 1.68 0.19
40 16.48 45.95 10.52 15.44 7.44 6.63 4.25 1.70 2.75 0.59 1.93 0.25
45 18.54 57.15 11.84 19.20 8.37 8.25 4.78 2.12 3.00 0.73 2.17 0.31
50 13.16 23.34 9.30 10.03 5.31 2.57 3.44 0.89 2.41 0.38
55 14.47 27.85 10.23 11.97 5.84 3.07 3.78 1.06 2.65 0.45
60 15.79 32.71 11.16 14.06 6.37 3.60 4.12 1.25 2.89 0.53
65 17.10 37.94 12.09 16.31 6.91 4.18 4.47 1.45 3.13 0.61
70 18.42 43.52 13.02 18.70 7.44 4.80 4.81 1.66 3.37 0.70
75 19.74 49.46 13.95 21.25 7.97 5.45 5.16 1.89 3.62 0.80
80 14.88 23.95 8.50 6.14 5.50 2.13 3.86 0.90
85 15.81 26.80 9.03 6.87 5.84 2.38 4.10 1.01
90 16.74 29.79 9.56 7.64 6.19 2.65 4.34 1.12
95 17.67 32.93 10.09 8.44 6.53 2.93 4.58 1.24
100 18.60 36.21 10.63 9.28 6.88 3.22 4.82 1.36
110 11.69 11.08 7.56 3.84 5.31 1.62
120 12.75 13.01 8.25 4.52 5.79 1.91
130 13.82 15.09 8.94 5.24 6.27 2.21
140 14.88 17.31 9.63 6.01 6.75 2.54
150 15.94 19.67 10.32 6.83 7.24 2.88
160 17.01 22.17 11.00 7.69 7.72 3.25
170 18.07 24.81 11.69 8.61 8.20 3.64
180 19.13 27.58 12.38 9.57 8.69 4.04
190 13.07 10.58 9.17 4.47
200 13.76 11.63 9.65 4.91
225 15.48 14.47 10.86 6.11
250 17.20 17.58 12.07 7.43
275 18.92 20.98 13.27 8.86
300 14.48 10.41
325 15.69 12.07
350 16.89 13.85
375 18.10 15.73
400 19.31 17.73
425
450
475
500
550
600

Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 5 ft/s. Use with caution.
Q
Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .408
d 2
Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation:

hf = 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.852 Q 1.852 x .433 for psi loss per 100 ft of pipe
C
d 4.866

102 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

45 pipe size valve valve angle valve valve std.2 12 4 6 3 2 1/2 70 35 9 1.20 in Size of service 3/4 in 1 1/4 in Warm Humid .20 in line copper 1 in Warm Dry .15 in 2 3/4 in 3 1/4 in 3 1/2 in 4 in 4 3/8 in 5 in string Cool Dry .10 to .5 5 2 3 1 1 27 15 4 0.20 to .30 to .20 to .6 6 2 3 2 1 1/4 38 18 5 0. tee elbow elbow 1/2 17 9 2 0.45 in “worst case” Cool = under 70° F as an average midsummer high Warm = between 70° and 90° F as midsummer highs Hot = over 90° F Humid = over 50% as average midsummer relative humidity [dry = under 50%] Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 103 .3 33 12 17 8 Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings Equivalent feet of straight tubing Wrought copper Cast bronze Nominal 90° 45° Tee Tee Side 90° 180° 90° 45° Tee Tee Side Compression Tube Size Elbow Elbow Run Outlet Bend Bend Elbow Elbow Run Outlet Stop 3/8 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 2 9 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1 1 1 1/2 2 13 5/8 1/2 1/2 1/2 2 1 1 2 1 1/2 3 17 3/4 1 1/2 1/2 2 1 2 2 1 1/2 3 21 1 1 1 1/2 3 2 2 4 2 1/2 5 30 11/4 2 1 1 4 2 3 5 2 1 7 — 11/2 2 2 1 5 2 4 8 3 1 9 — 2 2 2 1 7 3 8 11 5 2 12 — 21/2 2 3 2 9 4 16 14 8 2 16 — 3 3 4 — — 5 20 18 11 2 20 — 11/2 4 — — — 7 24 24 14 2 31 — 4 — — — — 8 28 28 17 2 37 — 5 — — — — 10 37 41 22 2 48 — 6 — — — — 13 47 52 28 2 61 — Climate PET Estimated service line sizes Climate Inches Daily Length of Cool Humid .25 in Size of service Hot Humid .0 10 3 5 2 Technical Data 2 58 28 7 1.8 8 3 4 2 U.S.15 to . Standard Units 1 1/2 45 22 6 1. tee std.30 in line galvanized 3 /4 in 1 in 1 1/4 in Hot Dry .4 4 1 2 1 3/4 22 12 3 0.3 23 7 11 5 6 170 85 20 3.8 18 6 8 4 4 120 60 15 2.4 14 5 7 3 3 90 45 11 1.15 to . td Technical Data Pressure loss in valves and fittings Equivalent length in feet of standard steel pipes Nominal Globe Angle Sprinkler Gate Side outlet Run of Std.

8 0.7 0.4 90 3.2 0.5 6 1.7 1.5 65 3.4 1.6 0.4 0.3 400 4.3 450 2.4 0.6 250 4.5 0.4 0.7 42 4.1 Soil characteristics SOIL SOIL SOIL INTAKE WATER DRAINAGE TYPE TEXTURE COMPONENTS RATE RETENTION EROSION Sandy soil Coarse texture Sand Very high Very low Low erosion Good drainage Loamy sand High Low Loamy soil Moderately coarse Sandy loam Moderately high Moderately low Low erosion Good drainage Fine loam Moderately high Moderately low Medium texture Very fine loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Silty loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Silt Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Moderately fine Clay loam Moderately low High Sandy clay loam Moderately low High Silty clay loam Moderately low High Clay soil Fine texture Sandy clay Low High Drainage Silty clay Low High Severe erosion Clay 104 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .3 50 2.4 3 0.3 1.5 1.1 0.6 1.2 0.5 0.6 1.7 300 6.9 1.5 2.6 1.8 350 3.5 100 4.8 14 4.6 1.7 1.6 0.0 0.6 70 4.4 1.7 36 3.1 0.9 0.9 0.2 0.7 22 3.0 80 3.6 U.1 0.3 30 2.3 0.9 1.4 140 3.8 2.1 0.0 0.5 8 1.6 20 3.8 0.3 2.9 0.1 1.4 32 2.0 0.5 0. Technical Data Pressure loss through swing check valves (in psi) Valve size Valve size Flow Flow gpm 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 gpm 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 2 0.3 2.6 120 2.6 0.5 0.7 28 2. Standard Units 10 2.9 1.8 1.4 16 2.9 1.8 1.0 1.0 1.7 2.2 46 2.5 1.9 1.7 0.3 60 3.5 160 4.8 0.5 34 3.5 18 2.5 3.7 Technical Data 12 3.6 2.0 0.2 0.4 24 4.3 1.3 40 4.7 0.1 0.5 26 4.4 1.1 1.2 0.0 0.9 75 2.7 0.8 0.9 0.2 1.9 0.9 2.1 1.5 180 5.5 48 2.2 1.6 200 6.0 38 3.8 0.2 0.S.1 0.3 0.5 0.5 55 2.7 1.

00 .00 0.54 .85 .75 1.00 . Standard Units Light sandy loams uniform 1.00 .26 .00 0.13 .03 .00 33 18° 16 ft 3:1 40 .00 .00 .00 .43 .50 0.03 .00 .00 .30 0.10 350 .75 1.00 .00 10 5° 43 ft 10:1 5 .00 .00 .15 . The values are average and may vary with respect to actual soil condition and condition of ground cover.00 .00 .00 .17 .19 .00 .00 .00 .00 80 .00 .11 .00 .75 0.60 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .15 0.00 . Friction loss characteristics of bronze gate valves Slope reference (in psi) SLOPE REFERENCE CHART Bronze Gate Valves (loss in psi) PERCENT.00 50 26° 34 ft 2:1 100 .25 0.75 0.67 .29 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.11 .25 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .40 Technical Data Light sandy loams over compact subsoils 1.50 0.00 .00 .17 .00 .01 .04 .10 .00 40 21° 48 ft 60 .80 1.00 .00 .00 .23 .30 0.14 .10 0.23 .00 .62 .00 .31 .00 .15 0.00 30 16° 42 ft 30 .00 .25 0.00 .05 240 .00 .02 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .10 .00 .16 .40 0.00 1.75 0.00 .02 .62 .00 .01 .00 .Technical Data td Technical Data Maximum precipitation rates MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION RATES: INCHES PER HOUR 0 to 5% slope 5 to 8% slope 8 to 12% slope 12%+ slope SOIL TEXTURE cover bare cover bare cover bare cover bare Course sandy soils 2.25 1.50 0.00 .02 .00 .14 400 .12 0.04 .11 .06 80 38° 40 ft 260 .00 60 30° 58 ft 160 .00 .03 .00 .02 .10 Heavy clay or clay loam 0.02 .00 50 .00 .00 .34 27 ft 15 ft 57 ft 32 ft 0 ft 19 ft 54° 28 ft 52° 26 ft 50° 42 ft 47° 44 ft 600 .00 .60 0.00 .00 .30 0.75 1.50 1.S.03 67 33° 50 ft 1.00 .07 .00 70 35° 0 ft 200 .00 .18 100 45° 0 ft 1:1 450 .00 .40 .43 .00 .00 .28 .00 2 .00 .09 90 42° 0 ft 300 .00 .00 .00 .01 .00 .04 .14 .00 .00 .00 .24 .00 .03 .00 1.30 Uniform silt loams 1.00 .60 0.00 .00 .00 .00 20 11° 19 ft 5:1 15 .10 0.00 0.00 10 .00 .00 .00 .07 .20 0.00 .00 .28 550 .00 .40 0.00 .40 63° 62° 60° 59° 58° 56° Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 105 .00 .02 .40 U.00 .00 .00 .00 1.00 20 .00 .00 .00 1.5:1 180 .00 .00 .00 .01 .05 .30 .50 .50 Course sandy soils over compact subsoils 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .15 .00 .00 .08 0.00 .24 .00 .50 1.00 .00 .20 Silt loams over compact subsoil 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 8 .30 .23 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 500 .01 .00 .02 140 .00 .00 .50 1.15 0.00 .00 .08 .00 .00 .00 .42 .50 0.00 .00 .00 .09 .00 0.00 .75 0.40 0.00 .00 .00 .04 220 .22 .00 .07 280 .00 .00 .21 .07 .00 0.00 .40 0.00 .06 .05 .80 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .06 .85 .00 .00 .00 .00 .01 .00 .05 .00 . ANGLE AND RATIO GPM Valve Size (in inches) % Angle Ratio 1/ 3/ 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 0 0° 2 4 1 .06 The maximum PR values listed above are as suggested by the United States Department of Agriculture.00 .00 .00 .00 .02 .00 .18 .07 .00 .06 .00 120 .00 .00 .00 2.

4 140 15.3 0.9 1.1 0.8 160 20.7 2.7 2.8 2.3 0.5 0.8 2.1 70 9.5 3.6 1.4 17 10.4 1.5 280 17.4 0.5 2.9 13 6.7 1.2 3 0.2 2.9 4.0 120 11.0 200 9.0 5.5 9 3.9 0.6 0.2 0.2 4.4 4.7 190 8.3 58 6.3 75 11.S.3 42 10.0 7.6 0.1 1. Technical Data Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss Pressure loss: psi Nominal Size flow 5⁄8 3⁄4 gpm in in 1 in 11⁄2 in 2 in 3 in 4 in 1 0.5 2.9 110 9.3 3.7 50 15.1 1.6 3.6 3.1 15 8.0 24 9.3 3.1 2.9 0.4 0.2 2.2 56 6.2 6 1.0 4.4 28 13.4 180 7.1 4.7 4.4 0.5 18 12.0 4.7 260 15.3 7 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.8 4.8 3.8 0.5 2.2 130 13.6 1.0 4.2 1.0 1.6 1.8 4.7 52 5.8 100 20.8 32 6.2 2.3 1.2 220 11.0 2.2 4.6 150 17.4 5.3 U.0 14 7.9 0.8 34 6.6 48 13.3 1.0 7.0 38 8.1 54 5.0 1.8 1.2 26 11.1 Technical Data 5 0.2 1.0 3.7 65 8.6 0.2 500 20.9 36 7.8 2.2 0.6 30 15.5 1.0 450 16.9 2.2 2.2 350 10.8 0.8 2.9 240 13.0 0.1 1.3 1.0 3.0 5.2 0.7 0.3 2.8 22 7.2 1.6 0.7 1.0 106 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .3 5.6 10 3.6 0.5 60 7.0 0.7 3.4 8 2.8 0.0 0.9 1.2 40 9.0 5.0 6.0 5.9 1.5 46 12.6 1.7 20 15.3 300 20.0 3.1 170 6.2 3.5 80 12.0 3.9 1.4 1.3 1.3 6.3 3.7 11 4.1 2 0.4 1.2 16 9. Standard Units 4 0.7 3.6 19 13.3 0.9 2.4 44 11.0 1.0 400 13.8 12 5.1 6.7 90 16.5 0.1 2.

002 1.442 1.616 45.752 8.416 15.003 1.774 0.237 1.000 2.617 0.975 1.093 36.208 0.725 0.579 1.546 5.172 0.354 0.650 1.088 0.968 12.249 0.208 0.131 0.073 0.170 13.350 3.002 0.985 43.208 7.010 0.106 0.644 3.897 5.096 1.369 0.932 0.677 0.06 L/s (0.920 0.411 0.581 1.335 0.106 0.963 107.502 5.082 0.868 3.249 6.370 4.149 0.283 1.151 0.814 0.066 0.189 0.637 0.145 2.640 0.266 1.938 4.002 2.728 0.947 6.526 6.165 0.296 0.991 0.377 2.597 0.005 18.088 2.329 0.027 0.229 1.175 3.621 3.875 1.086 0.454 0.115 0.401 1.852 x .841 0.740 4.822 1.219 0.660 4.216 0.165 0.030 2.899 1.487 1.050 0.066 0.072 5.920 6.023 1.312 0.588 2.497 0.494 2.396 0.174 31.139 1.000 0.835 0.007 5.957 0.154 11.661 0.673 0.168 0.442 0.142 28.814 1.512 0.198 0.267 0.643 0.155 0.228 37.953 5.609 1.847 0.545 1.278 4.009 0.328 7.014 0.552 0.978 1.228 0.430 2.618 3.591 0.660 0.002 0.059 0.536 0.5 m/s.033 0.974 1.683 0.128 0.057 0.852 Q 1.011 7.153 1.395 0.785 13.038 0.628 1.957 0.420 4.536 4.388 4.226 0.624 2.023 0.000 0.077 0.168 0.680 1.460 0.713 3.144 6.677 0.139 1.719 0.241 1.007 0.268 4.216 3.899 1.016 0.090 0. Flow 0.002 1.101 0.284 1.505 1.994 0.697 5.463 1.111 1.365 0.329 0.063 0.040 4.883 3.126 0.515 0.098 0.973 2.724 38.530 0.090 9.419 14.544 1.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.558 0.226 0.364 0.646 1.935 1.621 3.548 0.287 1.960 0.732 1.848 136.319 0.533 1.762 0.485 0.038 0.131 1.152 0.362 19.192 34.229 0.561 0.876 1.183 0.057 0.298 3.186 0.814 3.043 15.443 1.758 0. SIZE 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm OD 21 27 33 42 48 60 73 89 114 168 ID 14 19 24 32 38 49 59 74 97 146 Wall Thk 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 9 11 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.232 90.769 3.478 1.138 0.081 0.170 2.927 1.002 0.082 4.095 2.142 0.378 0.920 0.831 31.106 0.152 0.009 3.389 0.941 2.320 0.400 4.262 0.738 0.384 0.156 0.041 3.007 0.689 0.892 6.047 0.661 0.984 0.384 1.356 0.020 0.518 1.113 0.523 9.979 2.323 0.646 2.043 0.451 1.317 2.036 0.299 0.792 0.340 3.072 6.330 0.008 2.005 0.185 4.018 0.073 0.402 0.588 2.077 0.804 4.313 2.509 0.923 2.002 3.222 2.848 0.131 0.826 1.597 0.390 3.311 0.411 0.353 1.860 0.131 0.278 0.442 0.766 6.913 3.378 1.011 0.064 0.443 5.007 5.807 1.023 0.416 1.091 0.415 0.258 4.185 0.503 2.993 21.335 8.538 1.036 0.274 0.672 2.292 0.510 2.697 2.893 1.041 0.652 0.050 0.066 0.884 0.435 2.181 0.326 0.070 0.742 4.441 2.698 0.442 0.988 1.630 3.397 1.219 0.250 1.216 0.642 1.922 1.783 2.183 0.050 5.154 2.497 0.170 0.134 2.487 0.005 0.200 29.685 1.521 0.030 5.587 15.016 0.314 0.936 0.055 0.366 0.100 14.948 0.621 5.661 0.149 0.149 0.680 5.832 0.752 4.009 6.694 124.188 0.355 0.187 3.653 1.103 0.005 1.487 1.147 0.049 2.288 5.078 79.201 0.664 0. 1220) C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 80 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.527 0.007 0.338 0.598 2.210 1.765 2.091 0.092 4.655 0.807 4.002 0.213 0.235 0.002 1.256 0.075 20.787 2.612 6.721 2.014 0.009 0.216 0.002 0.363 0.974 5.23 m3/h) through 37.189 0.002 0.710 0.302 0.381 0.552 0.070 0.456 1.474 4.506 0.027 0.115 0.730 4.007 0.002 0.510 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.308 22.206 3.023 0.907 1.011 0.801 5.428 11.085 0.560 0.020 4.186 0.045 2.415 0.757 2.118 0.964 2.714 1.002 0.870 17.086 22.753 1.224 0.016 8.113 25.207 0.599 1.225 1.451 0.540 113.569 3.154 3.380 5.124 0.710 4.811 0.073 0.501 73.049 1.041 0.183 0.296 0.634 0.273 0.437 1.110 0 2.545 0.075 3.099 23.000 0.172 2.409 0.970 1.009 6.556 5.612 0.631 2.135 0.587 1.146 0.752 10.765 4.029 11.007 5.099 0.038 0.533 0.484 2.315 1.640 5.765 1.748 1.133 0.628 1.462 34.381 0.667 2.347 62.259 2.185 3.158 0.183 0.103 0.060 1.158 29.804 2.917 2.274 0.137 0.405 1.710 4.149 0.280 0.513 1.591 3.335 0.686 0.275 1.027 0.121 0.036 14.677 20.723 1.142 3.709 2. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .291 4.005 4.005 0.987 3.190 0.405 0.023 10.033 1.625 0.223 0.005 4.496 2.002 0.495 4.002 0.438 0.134 0.731 17.361 2.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.386 102.580 1.018 0.210 0.448 0.354 0.307 1.436 0.700 5.116 0.568 2.911 0.227 0.269 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.007 0.313 1.262 4.023 0.655 85.703 2.011 0.052 17.770 56.805 0.728 0.460 0.153 3.193 51.005 0.877 3.032 0.081 0.694 1.600 1.246 0.029 0.399 0.204 0.045 3.161 5.025 0.677 0.204 0.494 1.258 0.014 0.219 0.233 0.469 12.138 0.993 1.226 0.253 0.356 0.064 0.876 5.090 0.110 0.032 0.007 International System Units 1.629 3.939 24.809 96.670 1.113 3.664 2.238 0.823 1.481 0.002 0.189 0.030 0.484 3.382 0.135 4.472 1.810 1.052 0.902 0.569 2.552 0.155 2.924 0.086 0.824 5.990 4.079 0.08 m3/h).179 0.085 3.608 4.060 0.636 2.285 0.000 0.246 1.160 0.631 1.018 0.304 0.046 18. Use with caution.101 0.235 0.681 2.612 0.804 1.426 3.328 0.839 10.360 4.354 40.063 8.817 0.732 1.005 1.761 4.871 0.005 4.International System Units td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic pipe PVC SCHEDULE 80 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.924 68.543 0.933 0.909 2.607 0.032 12.402 0.674 0.466 0.046 0.052 0.253 0.722 5.011 0.134 0.265 0.477 2.329 0.424 0.771 0.078 8.005 1.005 0.704 2.02 10.325 1.036 0.203 0.122 0.527 0.609 2.972 0.162 0.007 1.961 1.014 8.761 4.524 0.729 3.037 1.747 0.386 0.067 0.85 L/s (136.805 0.050 0.570 27.807 0.183 0.020 0.265 0.011 0.241 0.363 2.011 0.607 0.097 1.018 9.959 4.177 0.495 0.005 0.025 11.777 0.517 10.113 0.698 0.047 1.761 1.010 5.002 Technical Data 2.720 5.789 3.229 0.274 0.759 0.968 2.271 0.066 1.002 3.262 0.296 0.635 3.372 0.948 6.478 0.002 0.398 3.063 0.709 8.317 0.063 0.841 0.027 0.384 0.009 5.514 5.030 0.445 1.694 2.484 4.566 5.011 0.014 0.497 0.041 0.039 2.166 3.323 0.544 3.662 1.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 107 .249 0.063 18.080 5.412 4.552 2.060 3.127 26.218 1.016 0.591 0.393 2.809 0.020 0.594 1.095 0.911 0.002 0.130 1.344 0.133 0.119 0.594 0.594 0.887 0.002 3.252 0.160 0.099 0.530 4.034 0.454 0.

077 23.523 9.304 1.517 4.116 0.863 0.033 1.102 0.326 0.486 0.094 1.108 0.354 40.640 0.014 0.283 1.594 0.034 0.912 0.399 1.097 0.427 3.618 1.326 0.009 0.451 0.128 0.000 0.099 0.092 1.649 0.172 0.057 0.226 0.041 0.122 0.658 0.610 0.570 0.020 11.616 45.439 0.002 1.143 0.042 0.072 0.883 3.740 4.002 0.168 0.057 0.453 1.066 0.143 0.122 29.259 1.128 0.841 0.484 3.075 0.137 0.249 0.462 34.614 3.527 0.173 2.149 0.005 0.997 0.720 5.386 102.653 2.425 1.497 0.799 3.029 0.550 7.624 2.460 0.389 1.030 4.879 1.077 0.192 1.059 0.136 31.005 5.136 0.203 0.390 5.161 1.972 0.564 0.723 1.090 0.050 0.018 0.183 0.856 0.116 0.303 0.113 0.366 0.086 0.785 20.149 0.629 5.091 0.716 1.493 1.5 m/s.314 2.133 0.807 1.190 0.356 2.819 5.149 34.111 0.917 3.036 0.939 24.344 0.018 10.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.272 1.009 3.009 0.361 1.443 1.474 3.100 14.694 124.007 0.521 0.924 0.756 0.876 4.059 20.814 2.088 25.259 0.425 0.005 0.515 0.567 0.599 1.088 0.020 0.002 0.835 0.824 5.908 1.837 3.454 0.730 3.259 0.370 5.563 3.002 0.118 0.081 0.924 68.029 0.183 0.742 4.276 5.009 7.094 0.960 3.027 0.872 0.249 3.025 0.938 2.200 29.280 0.785 13.856 1.163 2.770 56.362 2.661 6.497 1.06 L/s (0.160 0.648 10.506 0.670 1.068 22.142 16.874 1.045 0.536 8.935 0.868 2.350 5.278 5.428 24.421 0.002 0.796 2.310 0.025 0.765 1.847 0.007 2.859 0.893 5.444 1.162 0.789 2.002 1.116 1.381 0.243 0.892 6.341 0.683 3.005 International System Units 1.834 1.152 0.005 0.010 4.034 15.722 3.335 0.073 0.290 0.091 0.023 0.388 4.637 1.974 1.953 2.099 26.570 27.573 0.005 1.225 0.722 3.026 7.496 3.539 0.097 0.060 5.063 0.671 0.463 0.149 0.222 0.568 2.118 0.224 3.011 0.640 1.182 0.615 1.631 2.85 L/s (136.839 10.495 3.238 0.288 4.585 0.301 0.247 0.064 0.016 0.439 0.454 0.005 4.609 1.874 0.183 0.287 0.057 0.359 0.448 0.783 2.619 1.652 0.463 1.815 3.038 0.092 5.127 0.134 0.199 0.396 1.990 4.557 4.020 4.917 0.122 0.809 96.014 0.320 0.353 0.761 10.161 0.613 0.756 1.573 0.514 5.221 6.611 1.137 1.454 0.509 0.365 3.201 0.395 8.268 0.216 5.655 85.210 0.335 0.229 0.469 12.055 0.451 0.236 4.025 0.270 1.422 2.080 4.011 8.698 0.195 0.640 0.158 1.265 0.055 0.396 0.337 2.061 0.852 x .360 5.450 0.005 5.329 1.426 0.551 1.007 6.716 0.201 0.173 0.101 0.936 1.316 3.789 0.501 73.957 1.009 0.431 2.677 0.569 5.320 0.292 0.086 0.743 0.412 5.685 0.198 0.094 1.493 1.012 0.519 2.694 2.697 2. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.182 1.260 0.536 0.119 0.521 0.993 2.018 0.286 1.593 2.530 0.689 0.158 0.208 0.753 1.700 5.597 2.631 0.600 0.020 0.683 1.045 0.193 51.654 3.135 4.025 12.005 4.366 0.081 0.640 0.669 3.540 113.301 2.154 0.142 0.014 0.107 0.016 0.492 13.860 1.032 0.011 0.341 0.804 5.266 0.689 0.985 43.154 11.200 1.966 2.143 0.602 1.027 0.676 0.068 0.499 12.582 1.355 4.397 3.390 0.588 2.765 0.396 0.292 1.680 4.050 0.477 2.000 0.834 1.994 1.902 0.002 3.389 4.170 0.479 0.377 0.020 0.798 4.118 2.430 0.000 0.356 2.093 36.219 0.249 0.457 0.002 1.002 2.010 0.007 0.23 m3/h) through 37.866 108 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .233 0.759 0.362 19.442 1.911 0.295 5.527 0.122 0.082 5.882 2.724 38.174 0.015 0.079 0.320 0.917 0.565 1.587 2.841 1.993 21.002 1.305 0.759 0.347 0.002 3.007 5.165 0.280 0.713 0.783 0.356 2.201 0.608 3.000 0.710 2.826 0.149 0.005 1.2083 ( 100 ) 1.190 0.000 0.264 2.963 0.047 0.023 11.460 0.831 31.814 0.093 0.066 0.716 0.920 0.290 0.698 0.085 0.208 7. SIZE 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm OD 21 27 33 42 48 60 73 89 114 168 ID 16 21 27 35 41 53 63 78 102 154 Wall Thk 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.175 4.792 0.189 0.164 3.814 2.046 18.011 8.766 6.002 4.877 8.104 0.302 0.600 2.779 2.064 0.235 0. Flow 0.362 0.480 2.269 0.244 0.381 0.078 79.466 1.856 9. Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe PVC SCHEDULE 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.642 1.710 4.312 2.579 0.527 0.608 3.405 0.407 2.058 0.689 2.393 1.640 5.262 4.606 1.252 0.043 0.027 14.347 62.981 0.493 0.011 0.025 0.258 0.320 0.147 1.846 2.341 0.472 1.005 0.005 5.104 0.546 4.253 0.961 1.556 1.341 0.948 5.338 0.436 0.532 2.002 0.930 0.007 0.111 28.253 0.723 1.472 0.683 0.138 0.046 0.241 0.186 0.714 1.862 1.050 4.016 0.016 10.244 0.585 0.603 0.633 1.757 2.321 0.906 0.261 1.940 1.078 2.591 3.283 0.957 0.134 1.844 0.027 0.216 6.400 3.270 3.946 2.038 0.016 0.079 0.135 4.059 0.405 0.035 3.607 0.929 4.944 3.120 2.057 1.002 0.335 1.677 20.013 3.436 0.232 90.131 0.162 0.899 1.953 5.036 0.443 4.232 0.914 0.572 3.201 0.308 22.050 18.023 0.963 107.214 2.728 0.009 0.154 0.642 0.677 1.027 0. Use with caution.852 Q 1.991 0.018 0.505 1.901 3.897 4.016 0.731 17.067 2.374 3.907 1.938 3.584 1.646 1.233 2.075 3.007 0.350 0.542 0.339 0.041 17.029 0.168 0.529 4.565 1.912 3.002 1.917 0.829 1.369 0.041 2.652 0.027 0.122 0.744 1.752 4.646 0.007 0.06 0.014 9.416 15.353 0.814 0.301 1.650 1.223 0.183 0.573 4.944 2.206 5.109 0.183 0.680 1.717 3.047 0.470 1.243 4.809 1.301 0.488 0.735 1.550 2.097 0.068 0.564 1.741 0.018 0.005 0.687 1.201 0.012 2.208 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.673 2.520 7.213 0.292 0.947 3.009 0.165 0.405 0.378 1.725 0.072 4.731 0.445 0.002 0.372 0.149 0.287 0.112 0.533 0.08 m3/h).136 0.002 0.350 0.323 0.23 0.929 2.305 0.036 0.484 2.084 8.326 0.521 0.002 0.545 1.816 2.293 1.002 3.765 0.000 Technical Data 2.072 2.957 1.183 0.490 1.140 0.461 1.714 3.201 0.643 0.171 1.308 0.198 2.267 0.340 5.326 0.315 1.238 0.041 0.441 1.890 0.317 0.549 0.218 1. 1220) C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 40 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.262 0.007 6.536 6.381 0.895 5.002 0.007 0.268 0.005 0.011 0.005 0.189 0.902 1.573 0.674 0.245 3.877 1.556 4.039 0.189 0.040 3.099 3.126 0.057 0.210 0.095 0.018 0.268 3.144 5.005 0.295 1.725 0.059 0.732 0.053 1.848 136.118 0.380 4.227 0.122 0.515 0.755 6.282 2.938 3.066 0.179 37.095 0.962 1.454 0.448 0.724 3.243 0.680 0.095 1.127 11.560 2.

373 0.374 1.655 0.260 0.466 0.032 0.554 0.179 0.933 0.593 3.014 0.066 0.115 0.155 0.188 0.869 0.135 4.158 0.731 3.075 1.654 2.536 4.007 0.897 4.074 1.518 0.273 3.029 2.297 1.423 0.011 0.334 14.732 0.427 0.303 0.104 0.969 0.629 3.734 1.338 0.125 0.540 113.661 0.334 1.973 2.018 0.664 0.570 0.631 2.694 124.045 0.594 1.353 0.193 51.326 0.960 0.567 1.468 0.002 1.710 1.956 5.203 0.002 1.2083 ( 100 ) 1.476 1.771 2.445 1.241 0.041 0.098 0.521 0.536 0.044 1.166 1.829 0.443 0.757 2.506 1.036 3.5 m/s.088 2.752 4.124 0.127 0.050 0.176 1.143 0.119 0.186 0.862 3.461 1.328 0.734 5.005 0.131 0.080 5.042 0.117 3.280 0.702 4.061 0.097 0.115 0.401 3.816 1.764 3.880 8.023 0.002 0.002 2.951 0.079 0.798 2.654 1.640 5.088 0.256 0.501 73.818 1. Use with caution.489 2.607 0.994 0.067 0.137 0.485 0.002 0.853 0.988 0.000 0.034 0.005 4.082 0.496 1.399 0.558 0.140 0.061 3.014 7.134 0.326 0.151 0.047 15.066 0.415 0.005 1.557 2.030 4.007 5.495 2.047 0.969 0.748 2.088 0.655 85.109 1.206 0.701 0.670 0.612 1.091 0.011 0.710 1.228 1.002 0.930 0.210 0.005 0.176 0.902 1.000 0.322 2.303 2.079 0.938 10.014 0.084 0.513 1.289 0.435 1.018 0.231 0.070 0.124 25.582 1.009 3.005 0.549 0.007 5.252 2.081 20.296 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.165 0.005 1.661 0.057 2.423 3.195 0.117 2.744 1.170 0.462 34.762 0.213 0.390 0.168 1.957 0.018 8.244 0.497 0.007 International System Units 1.892 6.580 2.494 0.384 0.016 0.212 34.341 1.046 18.007 0.186 0.000 0.744 0.824 5.146 1.466 0.186 0.252 0.042 4.536 0.742 4.349 0.393 0.634 0.098 2.927 2.883 3.809 96.029 11.902 0.975 3.311 0.374 1.011 6.126 0.963 0.176 1.002 Technical Data 2.098 0.521 0.463 0.554 1.088 0.242 0.110 0.683 3.204 4.844 0.865 1.591 0.268 2.043 0.009 0.442 1.210 0.993 21.079 0.109 1.945 2.366 0.084 0.253 0.213 2.441 9.002 2.182 3.841 3.093 0.899 0.939 24.876 4.240 0.032 11.000 0.023 0.316 1.773 5. 1220) SDR 13.052 0.546 5.141 1.050 0.606 0.154 11.694 2.547 1.149 0.323 0.969 3.386 102.716 0.908 0.854 1.610 0.628 0.690 3.223 0.722 2.093 0.374 0.073 0.911 4.798 3.036 0.749 4.484 2.216 5.892 2.311 0.400 4.247 0.587 3.009 0.183 0.099 0.146 0.228 3.119 0.615 0.180 0.433 0.538 1.082 4.946 2.237 0.082 0.235 0.484 3.865 0.014 0.853 2.651 1.511 4. td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 315 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.172 0.522 1.005 0.720 5.966 3.366 0.500 2.472 0.485 3.158 0.505 1.770 56.290 0.063 0.063 0.963 107.890 0.321 0.020 4.175 3.420 2.253 0.08 m3/h).918 1.730 4.176 0.217 0.987 1.622 0.383 0.329 0.422 4.180 0.591 0.134 1.020 0.192 31.666 2.036 0.700 5.045 6.444 12.768 0.363 0.612 1.093 36.261 1.000 1.434 2.061 0.652 1.487 1.023 0.853 0.210 0.050 5.622 0.002 0.012 1.073 0.304 2.680 0.777 0.005 0.011 0.487 2.004 1.036 0.694 1.490 0.5 C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 315 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.038 14.109 2.002 0.558 0.186 0.523 1.116 0.759 0.054 0.041 2.277 0. Flow 0.789 0.018 0.579 0.002 3.378 0.009 0.020 9.780 0.948 5.283 0.667 4.075 5.308 22.817 1.938 5.683 0.885 2.271 0.454 0.009 0.237 0.941 3.823 0.249 2.797 1.451 0.395 6.802 0.068 0.924 68.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.170 0.131 0.356 7.005 4.390 5.454 0.041 0.332 0.127 0.859 1. SIZE 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm OD 21 1 33 42 48 60 73 89 114 168 ID 18 23 28 36 41 51 62 76 97 143 Wall Thk 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 7 8 12 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.002 0.850 1.000 0.728 0.271 0.329 0.417 1.780 0.454 1.814 1.082 0.320 2.140 26.549 0.277 0.061 0.034 0.186 0.692 0.459 0.293 0.152 0.009 0.741 0.996 2.361 1.232 90.560 2.548 1.784 1.010 4.505 1.503 2.378 1.850 0.007 0.301 1.363 0.066 0.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 109 .250 0.147 1.388 4.734 3.878 0.285 6.027 0.972 0.009 5.116 0.108 23.692 0.950 2.556 5.418 2.798 3.332 0.933 0.156 28.168 0.645 2.848 136.795 0.372 0.097 0.766 6.423 5.040 4.140 0.427 0.622 0.227 0.234 0.523 9.459 1.005 0.341 0.443 5.206 4.497 0.592 3.710 4.640 1.296 0.469 12.049 0.804 4.122 0.978 1.002 1.459 0.948 0.002 3.680 4.149 0.014 0.054 0.025 0.347 0.305 0.740 0.366 0.070 18.213 0.200 29.100 14.907 0.362 2.253 37.155 0.378 0.095 0.176 2.197 0.568 2.145 2.208 7.468 4.244 0.807 1.329 0.463 3.772 3.027 0.975 0.002 0.247 0.938 2.359 0.429 1.020 0.059 17.296 0.907 8.822 17.642 1.232 0.045 2.944 2.386 0.113 0.424 0.421 0.151 0.557 3.002 0.488 0.990 5.974 5.852 Q 1.863 1.515 0.268 0.970 1.624 1.149 0.985 43.616 45.545 2.189 0.347 3.243 2.838 0.142 0.007 0.563 3.058 0.789 0.072 0.060 3.174 0.182 2.278 5.716 1.658 0.036 12.085 2.608 5.112 0.561 0.017 1.066 0.340 4.911 0.978 0.861 1.167 0.335 0.316 0.453 6.839 10.573 2.744 1.108 0.280 0.046 0.005 4.85 L/s (136.092 5.124 0.690 1.416 15.224 5.698 0.007 0.567 2.362 19.197 0.873 1.725 0.009 5.353 4.546 0.366 1.140 0.057 3.226 0.315 1.088 0.163 4.582 0.036 1.016 0.698 1.663 5.700 4.016 8.570 27.207 0.002 0.731 17.002 0.011 0.226 0.094 0.043 0.351 0.370 5.119 0.189 0.026 1.059 0.759 0.023 10.785 13.658 0.072 3.384 0.295 3.052 0.332 0.938 0.104 0.369 0.244 0.740 4.622 0.052 0.377 0.258 2.350 4.798 3.002 0.201 1.725 0.174 29.061 0.195 0.814 1.624 1.700 6.418 0.025 10.122 2.059 0.195 0.168 0.365 10.020 0.831 31.947 7.588 1.393 0.485 0.012 3.749 0.253 0.302 0.109 4.408 1.283 0.380 4.122 0.007 0.886 1.552 3.465 2.101 0.311 0.162 1.637 0.354 40.596 7.851 2.241 0.06 L/s (0.572 1.411 1.326 2.184 3.194 1.642 1.217 0. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .043 0.005 3.487 0.290 1.005 1.027 0.396 0.134 0.585 0.474 5.268 0.844 1.015 0.676 0.201 0.546 0.347 62.780 1.504 0.981 2.170 0.007 0.731 1.852 x .235 0.372 0.817 0.237 0.389 1.927 1.677 20.506 0.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.262 1.724 38.514 5.020 0.137 1.660 3.412 5.285 0.219 0.975 0.007 0.436 0.262 4.009 6.677 0.536 0.078 79.025 0.939 2.300 1.668 0.067 1.032 0.149 0.663 2.360 6.756 0.712 1.390 0.388 1.288 4.463 0.107 0.676 4.016 0.095 22.219 3.011 0.875 1.849 12.865 0.23 m3/h) through 37.122 0.506 0.303 1.669 1.144 4.038 0.828 2.023 0.140 0.032 0.666 9.438 1.002 0.108 0.

347 0.249 0.381 2.156 0. 1220) SDR 21 C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 20 mm through 160 mm.286 0.868 1.340 4.082 0.581 3.561 0.332 1.007 5.859 0.991 0.038 0.133 3.650 2.328 2.149 2.097 0.576 0.093 36.036 0.367 1.093 0.375 0.041 2.296 0.526 2.011 8.876 3.118 0.100 0.032 9.951 0.043 0.144 3.179 0.005 4.418 0.061 20.378 1.323 0.622 0.110 0.127 0.939 24.134 0.286 0.100 0.637 0.804 4.881 0.007 0.340 1.750 0.100 14.023 4.462 34.862 2.329 0.011 0.274 0.963 107.442 1.560 0.292 0.079 0.110 1.147 0.676 1.014 0.002 0.002 3.734 0.259 0.715 9.231 1.412 4.974 4.402 0.002 0.731 17.963 1.808 2.532 1.118 28.435 0.624 0.284 4.068 0.728 0.154 11.251 0.451 2.084 0.009 0.047 0.018 0.374 0.086 0.026 3.405 0.060 5.646 0.032 0.100 0.458 2.573 0.320 0.262 4.685 4.942 0.002 0.200 29.631 2.002 1.107 0.203 3.966 0.731 1.034 0.020 0.052 18.655 3.967 1.501 73.106 0.362 0.012 1.287 0.011 0.007 0.474 4.753 0.007 0.554 1.341 0.725 1.005 0.002 Technical Data 2.189 0.009 3.875 0.328 1.652 0.977 3.616 0.899 0.963 1.362 2.098 0.060 0.824 4.524 0.007 0.766 1.002 0.177 0.497 0.286 1.481 0.063 0.027 0.619 0.517 3.383 4.448 0.848 136.072 5.411 1.256 0.439 0. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .064 1.414 0.671 0.252 0.487 0.038 0.644 1.204 1.335 0.512 0.985 1.287 0.005 1.643 0.007 5.063 0.463 1.002 0.116 0.122 0.018 0.561 0.974 1.475 0.440 3.081 0.002 3.278 4.767 2.701 0.703 0.016 0.686 0.000 2.370 5.219 0.448 0.839 10.492 1.416 15.009 0.720 4.134 0.719 0.236 6.201 0.052 0.172 0.360 5.378 0.433 0.993 21.390 0.149 0.104 0.234 1.032 0.039 2.349 1.777 0.055 0.549 0.144 4.299 0.883 6.478 1.014 0.874 3.752 5.362 19.029 1.165 0.146 0.016 0.056 5.080 4.486 3.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.514 3.744 0.018 10.125 0.055 0.043 0.032 0.007 0.563 2.009 0.984 0.415 0.680 5.296 0.819 2.137 0.356 0.162 2.119 0.378 0.433 0.204 0.661 0.176 0.756 0.907 0.041 4.016 0.588 1.000 0.020 0.070 22.002 2.186 0.007 0.680 0.934 2.400 3.723 1.241 0.002 4.755 0.189 0.270 1.838 0.604 0.582 1.185 0.809 96.040 0.052 0.388 4.698 0.207 0.183 0.616 45. Use with caution.307 1.433 0.752 12.241 0.226 0.090 0.948 3.149 0.295 0.329 0.113 0.009 0.558 0.549 0.093 25.395 5.390 5.533 1.785 13.308 22.005 0.938 1.125 0.802 0.219 0.941 1.063 0.315 1.993 3.462 5.450 4.411 0.726 4.052 0.049 0.842 2.059 0.700 4.960 1.192 0.125 4.991 0.070 0.606 3.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.014 0.274 0.608 1.640 5.171 0.454 0.270 2.129 0.005 0.050 4.691 1.743 0.568 2.999 1.380 1.685 1.443 3.163 0.200 3.030 6.749 1.710 0.085 0.838 0.866 110 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .805 0.582 0.924 0.612 0.041 1.575 3.118 0.104 0.242 0.326 0.694 124.527 0.280 0.271 0.271 0.549 0.104 0.771 0.025 11.588 0.009 7.208 7.797 1.232 1.629 2.469 0.005 International System Units 1.861 2.344 0.722 1.106 0.384 0.485 0.011 0.477 1.917 0.722 1.133 2.231 0.490 1.581 2.043 17.155 0.243 2.071 1.485 0. Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 200 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.179 0.274 0.740 4.810 0.802 1.694 2.557 1.018 0.164 4.484 5.846 3.878 0.088 0.181 0.210 0.679 0.126 0.570 27.165 0.092 5.009 0.134 0.423 0.837 6.574 2.593 2.511 6.500 0.924 68.016 0.162 0.588 0.076 0.386 102.050 0.852 x .110 0.532 3.170 0.591 0.335 0.972 0.059 0.890 0.199 1.651 1.005 1.014 8.095 0.323 0.852 Q 1.223 0.176 0.152 2.735 0.000 0.755 1.505 1.134 0.023 0.06 L/s (0.615 0.128 0.330 0.025 0.759 1.232 90.005 0.040 5.133 0.116 3.344 0.948 6.124 1.597 0.892 3.448 3.556 4.143 0.250 0.002 1.262 0.077 0.141 3.852 1.076 0.680 0.177 0.034 0.556 1.485 0.710 5.111 0.002 0.750 0.029 14.050 0.294 0.054 3.246 0.354 40.041 0.115 3.016 9.783 2.793 1.210 0.372 0.150 1.902 0.895 3.038 0.110 0.494 0.566 1.055 0.677 20.496 3.766 6.241 0.078 2.959 5.722 2.021 0.000 0.469 12.005 0.940 1.08 m3/h) SIZE 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm OD 27 33 42 48 60 73 89 114 168 ID 24 30 38 44 55 66 80 103 152 Wall Thk 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 8 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.210 0.892 6.146 0.020 0.020 0.546 5.195 0.091 0.938 5.193 51.104 26.742 5.287 0.046 18.366 0.310 1.466 1.050 0.361 0.378 0.610 2.240 0.353 0.469 0.439 0.198 0.655 0.344 1.325 0.018 10.474 2.811 2.223 0.789 0.036 15.085 0.536 0.091 0.542 0.188 37.154 0.010 4.884 0.778 2.295 0.023 0.863 0.171 0.002 1.026 6.924 3.168 0.380 0.027 0.073 0.974 0.307 2.341 0.23 m3/h) through 37.016 0.050 0.062 8.164 0.129 29.235 0.313 7.572 2.005 5.999 0.027 12.028 2.521 1.984 1.929 3.054 0.133 0.269 0.708 3.692 1.932 1.255 1.883 3.588 1.221 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.789 0.990 3.194 2.190 0.215 0.962 2.293 0.651 2.259 0.831 31.100 0.503 0.081 0.072 0.268 1.466 1.427 1.584 2.025 0.007 6.020 11.223 0.518 0.729 1.423 1.002 0.036 0.403 2.140 0.009 6.059 0.380 4.679 2.375 0.552 0.311 0.926 0.276 8.637 1.423 0.814 1.307 2.124 1.538 3.495 1.469 0.637 1.262 0.005 0.897 3.104 0.005 5.588 2.005 0.521 1.000 0.347 62.002 3.479 1.865 3.724 38.457 1.557 3.856 3.207 0.531 1.249 3.350 4.819 1.956 4.081 23.066 2.875 3.351 0.770 56.494 0.85 L/s (136.643 0.018 0.210 0.165 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.268 0.082 2.006 0.384 0.536 2.808 0.495 2.213 0.293 0.175 2.402 1.151 0.655 85.180 0.730 5.227 0.005 0.194 0.307 0.002 0.198 0.504 0.478 0.002 0.035 1.207 0.097 0.002 0.023 0.109 1.985 43.407 0.174 0. Flow 0.005 4.608 5.531 1.000 0.823 0.005 0.863 0.301 2.407 4.073 0.212 0.142 31.111 0.032 0.206 3.014 0.002 0.177 1.624 4.020 4.460 0.777 1.125 0.499 1.030 2.644 0.478 2.158 34.652 0.247 0.027 0.514 5.826 0.002 1.050 0.009 0.866 0.222 2.914 2.692 0.086 0.152 0.740 5.009 0.439 0.135 4.216 5.895 1.301 2.382 1.014 0.050 0.375 0.210 0.367 2.439 0.145 0.499 1.002 0.002 1.674 0.930 0.870 1.119 0.032 0.875 0.288 4.5 m/s.231 0.540 113.075 0.006 0.124 0.344 0.637 2.088 2.066 0.164 2.273 0.293 0.389 1.011 0.558 0.002 0.041 0.757 2.430 0.115 0.078 79.523 9.755 1.608 1.

287 0.079 0.347 62.005 5.533 0.519 2.588 0.520 3.432 3.369 0.054 0.829 0.079 0.588 0.232 90.016 0.121 1.265 0.204 0.255 0.501 3.227 1.910 3.192 0.387 0.020 11.414 1.889 2.455 1.241 0.415 0.28 0.144 4.722 1.481 0.200 29.332 0.049 0.551 1.085 0.344 0.002 0.005 2.370 4.666 2.733 2.594 0.002 2.393 0.957 0.361 2.423 1.579 1.724 38.283 0.21 0.547 2.002 0.084 0.024 0.115 0.597 0.366 0.103 1.701 0.303 1.000 0.590 1.011 0.924 68.435 2.030 1.278 4.968 1.568 2.443 2.143 0.677 20.679 0.216 0.106 0.576 0.036 0.315 1.767 2.032 0.005 5.531 1.341 0.877 2.907 0.927 1.011 0.844 1.874 2.700 4.463 0.027 0.072 3.000 0.584 3.002 1.036 0.350 2.044 1.068 0.215 0.222 0.045 0.634 0.007 0.080 4.615 0.317 0.002 4.350 1.917 4.046 18.658 1.024 3.005 International System Units 1.536 0.241 2.762 0.131 0.914 2.85 L/s (136.009 0.660 9.012 0.308 22.705 1.495 0.218 3.271 0.784 1.646 0.140 0.020 0.807 0.892 6.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.329 0.123 2.278 0.192 0.201 0.680 5.094 0.789 3.411 0.007 0.002 0.420 0.095 0.567 0.640 5.788 6.585 1.296 2.388 4.084 25.423 1.113 0.981 0.616 45.654 3.339 0.749 2.077 0.657 5.007 0.264 0.323 0.217 0.395 2.120 0.262 0.475 0.055 1.883 3.502 4.005 0.009 0.018 10.161 0.339 2.766 6.042 3.655 0.122 0.084 0.354 40.175 1.636 2.363 0.671 0.232 0.009 3.627 1.351 0.713 0.400 5.060 5.416 15.025 0.212 3.183 0.016 10.323 0.131 31.434 0.106 28.494 0.030 5.091 2.174 0.002 1.622 1.052 0.023 11.462 34.884 1.804 2.969 0.972 3.037 1.660 2.041 0.162 2. Flow 0.140 0.002 0.005 0.854 1.369 0.190 0.007 5.232 0.000 0.142 0.466 0.109 4.441 2.792 0.057 0.237 0.792 0.371 0.058 0.767 5.719 0.816 4.849 4.210 0.116 0.106 0.002 1.721 1.237 4.005 0.077 0.693 2.877 1.011 0.706 3.193 3.201 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.077 0.287 0.881 0.310 0.371 2.985 43.311 0.076 0.616 0.265 0.131 0.029 0.853 0.914 0.014 0.136 2.475 0.849 2.479 1.442 1.165 0.951 0.063 0.412 4.057 0.786 0.687 0.088 0.396 0.939 0.380 4.042 0.733 3.075 23.158 0.033 0.002 Technical Data 3.161 0.133 0.540 113.079 0.018 0.113 0.695 0.740 3.002 0.938 3.384 0.045 0.226 0.172 0.551 1.662 2.002 0.018 0.007 6.634 1.227 0.172 37.216 4.646 0.904 3.523 9. td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 160 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.430 0.728 1.190 0.679 0.390 5.326 0.029 0.869 0.002 0.102 0.102 0.437 2.158 0.023 0.608 5.296 0.222 1.247 0.260 0.386 1.128 0.045 0.852 x .607 0.000 2.283 0.890 1.104 0.171 0.154 11.828 7.564 0.381 2.730 5.072 0.142 34.731 17.551 0.062 6.353 5.038 0.101 0.463 0.170 1.361 0.063 0.564 0.164 0.005 4.699 3.384 1.095 26.238 0.344 1.093 10.948 5.824 4.247 0.115 0.612 2.118 0.347 0.000 0.814 0.914 1.481 1.107 0.007 0.497 0.118 1.260 0.016 0.514 5.963 107.340 4.362 19.045 0.002 3.962 1.993 21.128 0.299 0.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.978 0.291 3.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 111 .118 29.131 0.113 2.210 0.020 0.032 5. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .208 7.939 24.579 1.936 0.104 0.720 4.725 0.143 0.832 0.322 1.045 2.364 0.174 0.959 3.198 0.876 6.435 1.009 0.047 18.631 0.664 0.255 5.568 3.259 0.027 14.007 0.521 0.158 0.262 1.009 7.140 0.088 1.023 0.246 0.346 1.009 0.694 124.058 0.375 0.902 0.025 0.206 3.034 0.850 2.036 0.160 0.649 1.430 0.102 0.020 6.005 0.061 0.989 2.041 0.206 0.610 0.262 0.002 0.424 0.360 0.694 1.317 0.661 0.839 10.057 20.747 0.722 0.201 1.731 3.619 0.234 0.272 1.06 L/s (0.454 0.579 0.323 0.014 0.970 1.011 0.005 0.505 1.002 1.364 3.855 1.308 0.011 8.469 12.060 0.228 0.262 4.014 9.256 0.016 0.808 0.871 1.005 1.423 0. SIZE 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm OD 33 42 48 60 73 89 114 168 ID 30 39 45 56 67 82 106 155 Wall Thk 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 6 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.951 0.119 1.286 4.402 0.863 0.213 0.773 1.527 0.570 27.298 0.942 3.357 0.893 0.990 1.244 0.969 0.739 3. Use with caution.034 0.582 0.193 51.050 4.783 0.785 13.043 0.710 5.134 0.575 1.548 0.180 0.752 5.829 1.421 0.007 6.139 3.155 2.054 0.101 0.002 4.315 1.494 2.801 0.852 Q 1.392 1.260 2.23 m3/h) through 37.078 79.021 0.849 3.774 0.683 0.036 0.041 3.280 0.601 2.250 0.169 3.011 8.152 0.006 1.875 1.997 0.938 1.360 5.629 1.010 3.515 0.002 0.127 0.494 0.896 3.314 0.757 2.067 1.131 0.063 0.002 0.018 0.905 0.052 0.854 0.420 1.049 0.386 102.442 0.897 2.527 1.213 0.189 0.029 0.011 0.484 5.760 2.250 2.741 0.468 1.047 0.530 0.539 0.119 0.147 0.131 0.198 0.086 0.434 1.433 0.297 6.809 96.536 1.382 1.280 0.268 0.119 0.521 0.618 0.247 0.092 4.503 0. 1220) SDR 26 C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 160 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 25 mm through 160 mm.439 0.486 1.837 2.179 2.08 m3/h).009 0.149 0.085 0.002 0.469 0.194 0.014 0.848 136.474 4.626 3.240 0.631 2.032 0.156 0.308 0.238 1.135 4.189 0.680 0.829 0.353 0.555 3.292 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.040 0.126 0.041 17.002 3.789 1.937 1.201 0.027 0.817 0.546 5.018 2.079 0.173 1.292 0.295 0.655 85.277 1.161 0.252 0.831 31.603 0.310 0.162 0.650 2.009 0.009 0.213 0.667 0.016 0.585 0.414 0.750 2.005 1.742 5.939 0.082 0.646 0.774 0.002 1.095 0.002 0.154 0.770 56.359 1.694 2.045 0.411 0.018 0.002 0.5 m/s.025 0.070 0.481 3.626 1.120 0.009 0.160 0.740 1.025 12.186 0.066 22.527 0.067 0.485 0.501 73.066 0.005 0.688 1.014 0.052 0.887 0.066 2.312 1.556 4.082 1.018 0.402 0.378 1.020 0.224 7.618 1.007 0.088 0.847 0.877 1.457 0.169 3.410 2.093 36.146 0.567 0.288 4.430 0.411 0.585 1.502 1.005 0.067 0.163 0.685 1.085 0.070 0.149 0.444 3.452 0.424 1.993 0.194 0.497 0.005 5.100 14.360 0.875 2.454 0.772 2.880 0.000 0.070 0.996 1.192 0.111 0.163 0.822 1.396 0.231 2.332 0.165 0.673 0.704 0.504 1.152 0.005 0.032 15.040 5.

005 5.093 0.780 0.546 0.207 0.063 1.081 0.606 0.677 20.005 International System Units 1.786 0.978 0.546 0.514 2.002 0.315 1.221 0.253 0.500 0.170 0.195 0.591 0.770 56.400 5.848 136.077 25.204 1.208 0.350 2.501 73.052 0.588 0.884 0.002 2.876 5.375 0.560 0.179 0.622 0.416 0.710 5.158 37.009 0.023 0.347 62.054 0.129 0.766 6.371 2.125 0.242 0.002 3.152 0.034 0.408 2.168 0.304 0.320 0.895 1.999 0.011 0.356 0.974 1.728 0.032 0.232 0.025 0.811 1.875 0.377 0.320 0.938 2.762 0.135 4.929 5.509 1.011 8.418 0.752 2.005 0.125 0.985 43.274 0.252 1.852 Q 1.416 15.258 0.906 3.365 1.070 0.002 0.831 1.185 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.007 0.002 3.000 0.076 1.097 0.401 2.945 3.466 0.924 68.927 1.059 22.602 2.299 0.505 1.104 0.158 0.087 7.118 0.101 0.276 0.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.097 0.020 0.241 0.540 113.683 0.23 m3/h) through 37.678 3.540 1.852 x .502 0.136 0.131 34.137 0.720 4.255 2.975 0.023 12.198 0.059 0.002 1.037 0.547 3.423 3.561 0.099 0.005 0.175 1.278 0.082 3.092 4.125 0.010 3.366 0.005 0.904 2.360 5.229 0.463 1.027 0.005 0.390 0.905 0.137 0.244 0.305 0.539 1.265 0.149 0.216 4.640 1.027 0.082 1.630 2.447 1.155 0.023 0.061 0.109 0.999 2. SIZE 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm OD 33 42 48 60 73 89 114 168 ID 31 39 45 57 69 83 107 158 Wall Thk 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.110 0.186 0.768 0.143 0.5 C=150 Bar loss per 100 meter of pipe (bar/100 m) PVC CLASS 125 IPS PLASTIC PIPE Sizes 25 mm through 160 mm.174 0.929 0.080 4.311 1.207 0.014 0.542 2.454 0.898 2.002 0.000 0.009 0.340 4.136 0.108 29.936 0.444 3.707 0.200 29.002 0.85 L/s (136.018 0.321 0.007 0.201 0.993 21.842 3.153 2.448 0.695 0.002 1.294 0.011 0.863 0.240 0.488 0.523 9.015 0.104 0.262 4.082 0.344 0.443 2.429 3.271 0.043 0.280 0.009 0.746 1.805 0.002 1.377 0.985 1.195 0.011 0.108 0.002 3.179 0.622 0.646 2.076 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.050 4.518 0.014 0.032 0. Technical Data Friction loss characteristics PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe PVC CLASS 125 IPS PLASTIC PIPE (1120.271 0.479 1.104 0.063 0.244 0.040 5.007 0.310 0.002 0.041 0.298 3.072 0.002 1.243 1.824 4.325 0.694 124.014 0.831 31.755 3.698 0.875 0.183 0.016 0.518 0.524 0.011 0.125 0.033 1.052 0.381 0.972 3.469 12.06 L/s (0.045 0.597 0.451 0.807 1.319 2.610 0.634 0.990 1.361 0.183 0.399 0.147 0.752 5.155 0.694 2.402 0.725 0.347 0.430 0.002 1.152 0.149 0.036 0. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .223 0.664 1.353 0.174 0.680 5.043 18.288 4.060 5.809 96.088 2.382 1.073 0.582 1.974 1.966 2.128 0.549 1.005 2.007 6.468 5.144 4.189 0.722 1.052 20.316 1.207 0.120 31.768 0.154 11.837 2.545 1.948 2.832 1.448 0.490 1.204 0.556 4.170 3.512 0.752 1.734 1.088 0.927 4.591 0.456 1.514 5.007 0.250 0.311 0.122 0.287 0.612 0.423 3.466 0.210 0.036 17.119 0.188 2.847 0.892 6.933 0.740 0.125 0.635 3.670 4.228 0.045 0.337 0.389 3.410 4.612 1.227 0.016 0.625 0.341 0.081 0.113 0.351 0.077 0.414 1.000 0.688 4.029 0.415 0.786 1.098 0.371 2.079 0.158 0.000 0.009 0.579 1.701 0.572 1.816 1.122 0.414 0.840 1.948 5.533 1.631 1.729 2.804 2.732 3.644 0.594 1.546 4.224 0.014 9.005 5.529 3.186 0.337 2.324 1.451 0.500 0.077 0.059 0.353 1.085 0.007 0.032 0.322 1.181 0.319 1.181 2.036 0.616 45.005 0.036 0.689 0.649 0.381 2.897 2.256 0.078 79.170 0.371 1.016 0.933 0.278 4.953 4.275 2.357 1.549 0.144 2.287 0.814 0.048 0.447 3.920 0.206 3.165 0.250 0.311 2.730 1.815 1.880 0.232 90.000 2.731 0.740 3.120 2.145 0.151 3.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.378 1.016 10.570 0.311 0.152 0.175 1.347 0.633 2.442 1.273 0.020 0.814 0.197 0.939 0.495 0.745 2.104 0.041 0.354 40.149 0.140 0.709 1.844 0.252 0.016 0.451 0.723 1.244 0.002 0.151 0.503 1.002 0.386 102.073 0.253 0.594 0.253 0.049 0.194 0.214 1.438 0.443 1.188 5.106 0.050 0.568 2.802 0.208 7.030 5.706 6.865 1.091 0.162 1.007 6.370 4.362 19.835 0.482 0.963 107.014 0.043 0.502 1.384 0.029 0.914 0.412 4.527 0.750 0.929 1.631 2.608 5.002 Technical Data 2.299 3.128 0.311 0.554 0.007 0.474 2.505 2.091 0.911 2.195 0.036 0.484 0.110 0.097 28.000 0.158 0.308 22.027 0. Flow 0.630 4.005 0.557 3.305 0.750 0.091 0.974 3.902 1.005 5.057 0.112 2.014 0.009 0.858 6.002 4.509 1.680 0.223 0.005 1.521 2.005 3.878 0.785 13.072 3.829 0.960 0.907 0.448 0.963 0.009 7.742 5.050 0.088 0.497 0.934 9.093 0.188 0.866 112 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .192 0.271 0.018 11.268 0.041 0.033 1.643 0.511 8.757 2.020 11.015 0.823 1.082 0.08 m3/h).926 1. 1220) SDR 32.024 0.269 0.579 0.068 23.067 0.661 0.424 0.625 0.011 0.002 0.388 4.014 10.011 0.131 0.005 0.025 0.502 0.506 0.041 0.640 5.600 0.629 1.140 0.072 1.381 0.756 0.268 0.282 3.034 0.002 1.078 4.474 4.765 0.512 0.400 1.475 0.277 0.853 0.744 1.081 0.460 0.939 24.800 0.088 26.389 1.951 0.695 0.005 4.338 0.671 1.290 0.238 0.314 0.5 m/s.609 1.050 0.390 0.005 0.002 0.323 0.612 0.016 0.002 4.041 0.094 0.000 0.624 1.335 1.050 0.889 3.219 0.484 5.115 0.075 0.023 0. Use with caution.418 0.366 0.366 0.207 0.354 0.255 2.020 5.005 0.124 1.002 0.474 2.068 0.883 3.005 0.375 0.625 0.570 27.615 2.171 0.724 38.344 1.286 0.098 0.927 3.007 0.041 0.154 2.113 0.655 85.663 6.722 0.521 0.057 0.151 0.070 0.677 0.177 0.252 0.204 0.396 2.005 5.130 1.009 8.347 0.034 0.694 2.408 0.712 1.093 36.390 4.140 0.839 10.960 0.327 2.536 1.064 1.182 1.111 0.259 0.353 2.180 0.709 2.963 1.806 3.731 17.299 0.234 3.068 0.046 18.267 2.121 2.813 4.764 2.462 34.747 0.029 15.555 0.567 0.651 1.020 0.025 14.866 1.536 0.514 2.274 0.853 1.240 5.393 0.730 5.107 0.860 0.036 1.002 0.442 0.389 1.363 0.100 14.240 0.134 0.009 3.778 3.126 0.443 1.380 5.919 2.037 1.134 0.020 0.700 4.020 0.176 0.576 0.193 51.002 1.002 0.

938 2.102 0.189 0.454 0.890 0.546 4.009 0.130 1.993 21.018 10.287 0.841 0.585 0.938 3.002 Technical Data 3.783 0.122 0.469 12.533 0.075 4.005 0.091 0.529 5.097 0.050 4.06 L/s (0.804 5.025 11.055 0.490 2.631 0.023 2.632 3.131 0.194 0.218 1.677 20.080 4.262 0.115 1.061 0.924 0.283 1.527 0.002 3.654 3.640 0.917 0.330 0.450 1.780 1.022 1.814 2.648 12.164 4.521 0.240 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.162 0.923 2.064 0.276 6.020 4.960 3.755 7.628 1.041 0.981 0.200 2.062 1.600 0.711 2.122 0.949 1.389 0.597 3.954 1.014 0.018 0.014 0.308 22.326 1.564 0.054 0.009 3.573 0.020 0.320 0.816 2.356 2.405 0.460 0.000 0.036 0.007 5.201 0.148 0.106 0.241 0.032 0.151 0.442 1.031 0.911 0.852 x .335 0.290 0.735 2.170 0.462 34.400 3.344 0.283 1.163 0.243 0.229 0.073 0.953 2.228 0.963 0.046 18.616 2.607 0.710 3.984 2.302 0. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .386 0.506 0.674 0.844 0.907 1.066 0.016 9.265 0.848 136.078 79.009 0.570 27.252 0.5 m/s.698 1.005 1.264 3.847 0.027 0. 11.579 0.264 0.720 5.033 1.077 0.066 0.007 1.308 0.319 3.756 0.938 3.602 1.268 3.041 2.826 1.617 0.495 3.594 0.183 0.029 0.261 1.040 3.079 0.020 0.243 1.287 0.002 0.329 1.427 3.063 0.012 0.460 0.305 0.926 3.149 0.446 1.856 1.953 6.208 0.893 6.837 3.484 3.000 2.225 0.335 0.557 4.587 3.631 2.472 1.796 1.016 0.689 0.432 3.616 45.856 0.046 0.752 4.032 0.072 0.831 1.168 0.069 1. 15 C=140 Bar loss per 100 meter of tube (bar/100 m) POLYETHYLENE (PE) SDR-PRESSURE RATED TUBE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm. 3306) SDR 7.957 1.043 0.258 0.353 0.863 0.831 31.856 10.091 0.521 0.874 0.770 56.295 5.075 0.917 0.097 0.198 2.020 10.042 1.050 0.396 0.034 0.792 0.381 0.347 1.002 0.016 0.962 1.677 0.411 0.877 2.902 0.058 0.138 3.196 2.227 0.785 23.027 0.807 1.493 0.556 4.876 4.057 0.172 0.226 0.735 0.174 0.653 1.541 4.551 0.549 0.011 0.099 25.117 1.380 1.063 0.270 1.502 3.078 2.360 5.481 0.027 12.018 0.104 0.243 1.015 0.454 1.624 2.193 51.505 1.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.640 0.002 1.740 2.052 0.278 5.407 2.860 3.208 7.226 0.084 9.082 0.520 8.161 0.271 3.646 1.306 3.023 0.963 107.354 40.032 0.731 17.056 2.047 0.463 0.007 0.565 1.852 Q 1.724 38.232 90.201 0.072 4.023 0.142 0.399 1.018 0.398 0.614 3.631 2.536 9.390 5.014 0.011 0.097 0.247 0.079 0.183 0.730 1.928 2.506 0.765 0.872 0.947 4.829 2.253 0.128 0.730 3.560 1.588 2.113 26.005 0.450 1.539 0.824 5.439 0.523 9.608 4.045 0.106 0.183 0.859 0.097 0.610 0.338 0.834 1.499 14.405 0.5.113 0.009 0.002 1.255 3.102 0.011 7.436 0.450 0.305 0.835 3.068 0.384 0.064 0.194 0.789 0.948 5.301 0.000 0.369 0.055 0.149 0.085 0.395 10.023 0.883 3.201 0.484 2.716 0.259 2.930 0.018 0.377 0.882 2.057 1.740 4.689 0.142 18.326 0.126 0.484 2.680 4.083 3.362 19.765 1.243 0.268 0.154 0.143 0.066 0.231 0.092 5.066 20.002 4.011 8.228 0.570 0.372 0.765 0.917 0.186 0.386 102.939 24.100 2.361 1.479 2.196 3.235 2.005 0.633 1.213 7.823 1.618 1.326 0.510 1.296 0.585 0.370 5.081 0.034 2.002 0.991 0.237 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.728 1.057 18.002 0.115 1.283 0.093 0.703 1.451 0.405 0.834 1.244 0.228 0.057 0.710 4.492 15.054 0.118 2.026 8.319 0.213 0.917 4.002 0.259 0.775 0.611 2.301 1.023 11.243 5.332 0.280 1.833 4.365 3.671 0.232 0.183 0.972 1.119 0.237 0.113 0.390 0.582 1.188 0.316 4.501 73.608 3.092 1.441 1.997 0.200 1.009 0.027 0.000 0.039 0.094 0.23 m3/h) through 37.124 0.640 0.043 0.603 0.032 14.149 0.652 0.315 1.472 0.451 2.591 3.863 0.063 0.235 0.007 0.800 3.072 3.457 0.041 0.655 85.025 0.174 0.854 1.138 0.268 0.215 0.198 0.007 5.253 0.843 0.101 0.471 1.200 2.388 4.175 4.640 5.725 0.002 0.219 0.728 0.143 0. 9.007 6.002 1.421 0.785 13.005 5.426 0.712 1.725 0.777 1.077 22.238 0.783 2.613 0.030 4.914 0.494 4.378 1.685 0.269 2.368 0.009 6.188 0.173 0.430 0.168 0.000 0.533 1.122 0.389 4.265 2.08 m3/h).009 0.442 1.133 0.124 28.616 1.999 1.005 4.819 5.715 3.002 0.814 0.093 36.424 3.182 1.633 1.063 0.829 1.956 2.223 0.568 2.288 4.156 0.439 0.85 L/s (136.005 4.957 0.350 5.206 5.170 0.924 68.447 1.639 3.590 2.759 0.122 0.134 1.249 4.290 1.716 0.195 0.224 1.100 14. td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics polyethylene (PE) SDR-pressure-rated tube POLYETHYLENE (PE) SDR-PRESSURE RATED TUBE (2306.048 1.652 1.694 2.920 1.042 0.408 d 2 Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.116 0. 3206.009 0.341 0.550 8.158 1.036 0.642 1.034 0.118 0.381 0.002 0.116 0.676 0.629 5.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 113 .170 34.514 5.935 0.536 3.809 96.018 0.722 3.412 5.320 0.241 1.515 0.007 5.158 0.713 0.029 0.366 0.200 29.282 3.088 23. Flow 0.488 0.536 0.766 6.154 11.407 0.276 0.283 0.002 3.341 0.238 0.813 2.451 0.814 0.811 1.649 0.680 0.005 1.637 1. Use with caution.527 0.236 4.060 5.025 0.819 2.041 0.908 1.347 0.216 5.002 2.007 0.156 0.140 29.099 3.944 3.892 6.720 1.344 0.801 1.951 1.541 2.196 1.134 0.082 5.798 5.002 International System Units 2.292 2.698 0.018 0.895 6.088 0.481 1.007 0.436 0.215 0.606 2.694 124.540 113.448 0.144 5.479 0.047 17.874 2.820 1.990 4.347 62.005 0.140 0.221 7.585 0.366 0.985 43.307 0.742 4.143 0.463 1.011 0.301 0.626 2.698 0.466 1.183 0.317 0.222 0.993 1.020 0.416 15.122 0.014 0.147 1.474 3.509 0.497 0.084 0.877 9.839 10.320 0.530 0.521 0.504 1. SIZE 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm ID 16 21 27 35 41 53 63 78 102 154 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.079 0.027 0.762 1.005 1.010 4.320 0.135 4.454 0.761 10.109 0.731 0.670 2.810 2.569 5.283 0.091 2.009 0.448 0.449 3.454 0.920 0.002 0.585 0.107 0.400 0.013 2.609 2.502 1.380 4.030 2.152 0.128 0.661 7.641 1.350 0.111 0.340 5.259 0.183 0.619 1.115 0.011 0.066 0.835 1.773 3.189 0.038 15.527 0.435 0.563 3.262 4.652 1.133 0.009 0.320 0.569 5.174 0.469 1.732 0.567 0.182 0.007 0.757 2.457 2.201 37.483 1.640 0.353 0.127 13.107 1.642 1.605 2.002 0.000 0.002 0.625 2.835 0.090 0.137 0.303 0.929 4.443 4.029 0.560 1.897 4.210 0.700 5.014 8.101 0.381 0.002 1.112 0.573 0.133 0.047 0.366 0.658 0.005 0.680 1.573 0.029 0.189 0.987 2.290 0.326 0.108 0.154 31.743 0.005 0.

953 5.716 0.052 3.002 2.527 0.005 1.304 1.183 0.618 2.134 0.149 0.302 0.002 0.072 5.472 2.713 0.521 0.619 0.824 5.436 1. Flow 0.26 29.127 0.107 0.222 0.067 0.292 3.264 5.041 3.963 1.813 1.993 21.565 0.223 0.316 8.25 2.155 1.247 0.014 6.588 2.495 3.075 0.572 0.946 1.413 1.749 3.292 2.317 1.497 0.152 0.834 2.002 2.416 15.400 3.694 124.358 1.057 0.08 m3/h).615 0.18 1.047 11.540 113.514 5.785 13.052 0.356 1.079 0.461 0.229 0.649 0.326 0.189 0.055 0.214 1.031 0.685 1.206 5.233 3.816 1.390 0.616 45.014 0.018 0.569 11.32 0.010 4.710 5.792 0.381 0.007 4.253 0.101 0.734 1.893 12.09 0.032 0.856 20.219 0.611 1.142 0.002 0.374 2.268 0.04 0 0.04 0 0.225 0.5 m/s.493 1.607 0.2083 ( 100 ) 1.173 0.785 20.856 0.02 0.469 12.276 12.585 0.059 0.248 2.292 0.676 1.210 0.741 1.301 0.809 96.841 1.011 0.949 1.340 5.826 2.316 34.353 0.631 3.569 9.268 3.550 15. Technical Data Friction loss characteristics schedule 40 standard steel pipe SCHEDULE 40 STANDARD STEEL PIPE Bar loss per 100 meter of tube (bar/100 m) SCHEDULE 40 STANDARD STEEL PIPE Sizes 15 mm through 160 mm.457 0.265 3.29 0.135 4.311 1.183 0.002 0.740 4.143 0.088 17.652 2.509 1.835 1.377 1.425 0.005 0.966 2.98 1.323 0.262 4.148 0.723 0.579 0.151 3.005 Technical Data 3.776 1.426 0.060 1.499 4.847 0.238 0.895 12.936 1.46 0.142 0.412 5.112 1.564 0.116 0.232 90.593 1.364 0.208 26.563 6.158 0.164 7.243 1.011 0.658 0.063 0.059 0.267 0.052 12.085 0.052 0.779 1.347 0.451 0.099 6.106 0.594 0.192 0.002 1.631 2.018 0.102 0.319 0.766 6.007 0.783 0.905 1.366 1. SIZE 15 mm 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm 110 mm 160 mm OD 21 27 33 42 48 60 73 89 114 168 ID 16 21 27 35 41 53 63 78 102 154 Wall Thk 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.443 4.400 0.548 1.49 4.939 24.42 0.005 3.118 4.347 62.126 0.603 0.14 0.480 2.183 0.666 1.926 4.829 3.436 0.361 1.018 7.261 3.084 0.765 0.119 0.122 0.201 0.557 1.308 22.613 0.143 0.451 0.287 31.128 1.036 1.372 0.399 2.463 0.116 0.894 3.384 1.012 0.546 4.533 0.101 2.85 L/s (136.007 1.759 0.421 0.405 0.689 1.852 Q 1.05 0.007 0.081 0.571 0.249 0.611 0.295 11.389 8.425 0.862 1.063 1.372 0.162 0.020 4.243 1.278 5.253 0.914 2.147 1.637 3.927 3.196 3.814 0.831 31.462 34.128 0.335 0.027 0.041 0.731 17.431 2.783 4.002 0.009 0.016 0.007 0.761 21.743 1.990 4.935 1.027 0 0.016 0.838 0.53 0.026 16.118 0.597 5.536 0.326 1.118 0.195 0.744 1.066 1.798 10.174 0.911 0.390 5.874 4.973 2.043 0.134 1.198 0.106 1.877 3.53 1.183 0.200 29.378 1.26 0.092 5.163 2.621 2.027 8.479 0.047 2.61 0.852 x .063 0.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.142 12.952 3.072 15.661 13.259 4.997 1.041 0.127 3.031 2.084 18.752 4.396 0.077 0.079 0.085 0.454 0.700 5.029 9.527 0.583 2.655 85.243 9.640 0.591 7.002 1.674 0.005 3.016 6.529 0.094 0.536 3.463 2.944 7.924 68.226 0.14 0.907 1.075 7.144 5.064 0.011 0.765 2.493 0.268 0.335 0.549 0.201 0.238 0.730 3.305 0.198 5.43 0.002 2.94 1.219 0.57 0.985 43.042 0.527 0.189 0.444 0.757 2.259 0.287 0.7 2.491 2.732 0.104 0.577 1.474 3.199 0.099 0.231 1.449 1.64 0.35 0.092 0.122 20.057 2.009 0.819 10.078 1.645 3.859 0.724 38.88 4.095 0.044 1.082 0.258 1.45 1.678 0.863 0.013 2.814 0.17 0.573 0.759 0.515 0.165 0.622 2.025 0.016 0.043 11.856 2.362 0.034 0. Use with caution.715 1.505 1.64 1.938 4.472 0.841 0.073 0 1.691 3.221 14.819 2.014 0.228 0.027 0.206 0.405 0.488 0.825 2.147 0.091 0.742 4.501 73.929 8.061 0.92 0.698 0.484 4.362 19.386 0.005 1.902 0.046 18.101 0.053 1.629 5.698 1.066 0.315 1.539 0.019 2.720 1.789 1.921 0.882 1.283 2.038 0.728 0.097 0.045 0.402 0.172 0.722 3.814 2.443 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.078 4.341 0.436 1.877 17. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .016 0.948 5.030 4.96 2.673 1.325 0.048 0.568 2.244 0.953 11.079 0.680 4.305 1.032 0.567 1.002 0.061 0 0.154 11.072 4.285 0.689 0.723 0.924 0.171 1.341 0.014 5.198 1.232 0.917 8.12 0.725 0.167 2.720 5.104 0.677 20.917 0.009 4.023 0.770 56.208 7.455 1.181 0.009 0.640 5.654 7.570 27.032 0.872 2.233 28.077 0.282 5.551 0.365 6.405 0.039 1.432 3.137 0.002 0.044 1.624 4.344 0.360 5.23 m3/h) through 37.009 5.972 1.186 0.386 102.036 1.29 0.677 0.448 1.009 0.082 5.823 1.088 0.671 0.005 0.341 0.28 0.746 0.055 0.091 0.283 0.326 0.016 0.158 2.839 10.395 18.201 0.46 0.301 0.247 3.938 3.874 1.716 0.454 0.655 0.027 0.64 0.587 5.606 4.387 3.317 1.224 2.991 0.113 0.236 8.381 0.997 0.073 0.027 0.527 0.89 1.104 18.427 2.218 2.005 0.716 0.521 0.388 4.149 0.377 37.834 1.215 0.175 4.265 0.122 0.492 28.052 0.731 0.766 0.161 0.742 1.043 0.9 2.079 0.314 0.064 0.647 2.536 17.07 0.038 10.262 0.77 1.308 0.926 5.015 0.041 2.797 3.094 0.058 0.012 4.725 0.680 0.6 0.585 0.844 0.143 0.027 0.466 3.445 0.380 4.007 4.2 3.557 9.100 14.168 0.060 5.097 1.052 0.007 0.122 0.596 2.243 2.837 6.097 0.957 2.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.093 36.183 0.883 3.947 8.899 0.866 114 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .122 0.115 3.002 0.059 14.917 1.338 0.439 1.648 22.201 0.963 0.993 1.007 0.283 3.124 0.945 0.06 L/s (0.011 5.529 9.154 0.005 0.018 0.899 1.002 0.523 9.002 0.484 3.301 2.614 6.32 0.67 3.227 0.524 2.981 0.755 14.050 4.936 1.156 0.249 7.002 0.608 8.724 2.872 0.908 3.011 0.631 0.023 0.241 1.609 3.047 0.034 0.652 0.594 0.057 0.076 0.646 3.683 0.77 2.642 2.453 3.354 40.040 3.962 3.32 0.109 0.602 3.642 0.149 0.131 0.033 3.280 1.189 0.314 1.036 0.479 1.556 4.011 5.252 0.021 1.163 23.094 0.633 2.710 4.703 4.439 0.441 0.259 0.350 5.573 0.249 0.582 2.876 4.93 0.118 0.904 2.080 4.317 0.216 5.233 0.532 1.366 0.963 107.944 1.136 0.370 5.249 0.046 0.061 0.287 0.442 1.27 1.892 6.756 0.392 2.764 1.288 4.938 6.35 0.765 0.957 0.002 1.573 0.804 5.506 0.521 0.897 4.381 0.608 3.168 0.201 0.303 0.687 0.741 0.213 0.235 0.355 2.917 0.425 0.848 136.520 14.007 0.914 1.112 2.369 0.127 25.366 0.689 0.122 0.362 2.193 51.009 3.142 22.016 0.005 0.078 79.185 25.190 0.023 0.213 14.034 10.789 0.002 0.018 0.694 2.289 0.21 0.326 0.361 1.432 0.807 2.002 0.002 International System Units 1.693 2.023 8.320 0.182 1.353 1.454 0.514 1.356 5.448 0.183 0.

913 11.505 4.353 0.451 0.221 0.018 1.798 0.694 124.753 2.508 5.057 2.094 0.061 0.304 0.907 1.777 0.780 0.153 1.5 m/s.722 5.740 37.122 1.984 1.046 18.216 1.877 1.095 2. td Technical Data Friction loss characteristics type K copper water tube TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE Bar loss per 100 meter of tube (bar/100 m) TYPE K COPPER WATER TUBE C=140 Sizes 15 mm thru 75 mm.093 36.158 0.912 2.138 4.757 2.036 0.727 1.388 1.133 9.536 5.060 29.418 0.375 0.154 1.005 0.212 3.574 9.130 23.093 11.710 4.405 2.556 5.563 2.505 1.023 10.353 1.609 4.773 2.002 0.814 3.728 1.362 19.050 0.985 43.086 3.489 2.538 1.243 3.443 5.378 1.881 0.460 0.963 107.102 3.010 6.570 27.551 1.308 22.385 3.381 0.010 12.208 7.168 0.819 6.416 15.259 0.585 0.643 0.070 Technical Data 3.479 0.359 0.414 2.125 0.307 6.512 2.362 0.027 0.041 4.561 0.724 38.681 0.984 2.226 0.002 0.144 4.472 0.495 0.207 0.163 2.079 0.189 0.878 0.029 International System Units 1.585 0.694 1.354 1.535 5.085 1.881 0.852 Q 1.728 22.757 2.945 1.116 0.883 3.219 0.128 0.680 1.268 4.803 1.063 0.06 L/s (0.865 1.092 3.323 0.266 0.839 10.113 0.005 0.032 0.582 0.677 20.879 0.597 0.568 2.338 4.386 7.911 0.007 26.029 0.431 1.935 1.731 17.171 1.250 0.192 0.445 0.162 0.685 6.735 10.283 0.508 8.095 0.119 0.131 0.075 0.445 3.500 0.866 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 115 .694 2.506 1.023 1.616 45.726 1.785 13.237 4.478 17.011 1.339 2.184 1.007 0.097 0.267 1.451 0.109 2.215 0.718 3.106 0.041 0.267 0.680 0.259 2.823 11.700 5.902 0.662 1.546 5.655 0.045 0.765 1.032 1.603 0.588 3.792 2.583 0.085 1.480 3.408 2 d Friction pressure loss values are computed from the equation: hf = 0.676 0.375 1.540 113.831 31.134 0.041 0.903 1.701 0.268 1.923 6.181 5.240 2.136 6.250 0.176 0.400 34.350 0.025 1.146 1.045 2.861 1.262 4.733 2.892 6.207 0.098 for bar loss per 100 m of pipe C d 4.293 0.876 5.351 0.247 0.581 11.134 0.990 0.640 0.836 3.469 0.897 5.252 4.223 0.809 96.353 20.940 2.082 0.246 0.253 5.588 0.232 1.002 18.814 1.640 0.135 4.175 4.040 4.946 2.226 2.000 0.240 3.323 0.886 4.990 4.075 1.088 0.033 9.517 3.178 1.158 4.147 0.226 0.686 2.078 79.474 4.026 2.011 0.288 5. Flow 0.206 5.146 0.016 1.896 0.967 1.673 2.442 3.802 0.377 16.887 0.152 0.381 0.270 3.676 0.448 0.082 5.439 0.432 8.514 5.227 0.469 12.014 4. © Copyright 2000 Rain Bird Q Velocity of flow values are computed from the general equation V = .555 25.765 0.146 0.290 0.174 0.014 0.370 5.411 0.411 0.290 0.029 0.290 0.341 1.752 1.813 7.072 5.203 5.101 0.386 102.002 0.679 14.174 0.228 5.824 5.003 0.160 0.402 3.442 1.460 1.002 0.679 17.523 9.295 0.651 10.045 0.730 31.413 2.742 5.518 0.396 0.167 1.789 3.515 1.338 0.052 0.885 1.418 1.767 6.392 3.775 0.410 2.463 3.466 0.688 4.391 2.618 0.868 1.938 4.226 0.563 1.381 15.619 3.498 1.016 0.629 4.218 1.380 5.914 0.427 1.054 0.011 0.011 0.018 0.777 2.375 0.914 1.366 7.630 5.685 3.479 0.104 0.582 0.622 0.018 0.002 0.025 0.34 4.429 1.756 1.509 0.752 4.905 0.149 0.941 1.011 5.154 11.185 5.375 0.649 0.148 3.835 2.849 22.960 0.651 12.814 1.059 0.640 5.319 0.240 0.128 0.216 3.929 14.165 0.138 0.104 0.499 0.384 0.618 0.235 0.086 0.767 4.512 0.009 3.134 2.103 0.671 0.803 2.138 0.968 4.661 0.000 0.347 62.238 0.201 0.608 4.020 0.315 1.395 8.2083 ( 100 ) 1.942 0.574 3.118 2.127 0.741 4.113 3.030 0.034 2.433 2.655 85.049 0.045 3.499 8.859 4.553 1.077 0.110 14.029 0.115 0.808 0.591 1.079 0.116 0.878 3.177 0.097 2.907 1.193 51.710 0.007 0.600 3.301 0.916 3.057 2.246 1.043 2.125 0.628 0.328 0.061 0.085 0.780 0.162 0.350 3.831 6.000 0.104 0.199 0.275 2.939 3.481 11.923 20.371 24.825 19.543 0.005 0.068 0.036 0.283 0.599 1.905 0.015 2.320 0.738 2.720 5.766 6.002 0.890 0. Use with caution.770 56.341 0.993 21.535 3.278 4.494 4.011 0.029 14.055 0.607 3.165 0.725 1.122 0.058 0.442 0.631 2.007 0.671 0.017 11.009 1.014 1.565 1.264 18.010 3.416 2.410 6.485 1.206 3.280 6.481 1.005 0.276 0.194 2.399 0.252 0.045 0.250 0.680 5.294 3.923 1.178 4.057 0.973 3.838 0.951 0.887 0.567 1.126 0.501 73.126 2.795 1.680 1.354 40.020 4.948 3.360 4.727 1.388 4.484 4.283 0.567 0.011 0.200 29.732 0.924 68.014 0.262 0.807 2.753 0.573 0.002 0.050 5.366 1.264 2.009 0.792 0.969 0.454 0.679 1.073 0.514 5.610 2.804 3.030 4.005 0.939 24.669 8.462 34.005 0.893 0.002 0.229 0.85 L/s (136.323 0.499 0.141 0.387 0.782 2.120 4.504 2.875 0.733 2.416 0.841 0.048 1.100 14.064 0.106 0.183 3.310 0.002 0.216 7.457 0. SIZE 15 mm 18 mm 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 50 mm 63 mm 75 mm OD 16 19 22 29 35 41 54 67 79 ID 13 17 19 25 32 38 50 62 74 Wall Thk 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 flow flow velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar velocity bar l/s m3/h mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss mps loss 0.316 0.133 0.796 1.073 1.412 5.335 0.495 4.070 0.614 9.390 28.256 0.363 2.503 0.233 3.009 1.527 0.581 1.735 0.886 2.761 3.848 136.005 0.584 7.628 0.439 2.705 1.212 8.204 0.08 m3/h).358 2.354 0.065 2.022 1.719 0.344 1.168 0.231 2.102 6.954 0.020 0.852 x .080 Note: Outlined area of chart indicates velocities over 1.396 0.088 0.268 1.009 0.544 2.025 0.186 0.571 1.23 m3/h) through 37.256 0.551 2.310 1.257 1.361 2.232 90.628 2.

01 10.61 0.22 0.31 0.83 0.83 2.30 0.61 0.15 0.15 0.31 0.14 32 mm 0.28 — 130 mm — — — — — 11.63 — 160 mm — — — — — 14.43 4.30 0.15 0.18 2.61 18.61 0.67 2.91 0.15 1.31 0.15 1.42 15.13 6.27 1.52 9.1 cm 12.15 0.72 3.57 0.44 0.61 0.75 0.72 6.71 1.40 25 mm 0.92 1.61 0.61 0.52 0.15 0.59 — Climate PET Estimated service line sizes Climate Millimeters Daily Length of Cool Humid 3 to 4 mm 70 mm 83 mm 89 mm 10.57 1.31 0.66 0.91 1.71 3.45 3.91 0.15 0.24 2.37 0.55 5.92 0.59 8.30 3.13 — 40 mm 0.52 4.23 4.15 0.15 0.15 0.50 6.53 2.61 14.52 160 mm 51.76 1.58 5.61 0.32 4.70 7.49 1.15 0.15 0.35 12.22 110 mm 36.15 0. 45 pipe size valve valve angle valve valve std.61 0.22 1.30 2.23 0. tee std.53 0.61 2.61 2.15 1.66 5.18 2.10 1.61 1.35 1.59 0.52 0.12 1.44 0.22 — — — 2.00 0.01 2.18 1.91 0.22 0.13 0.91 1.61 9.30 0.61 32 mm 11.34 10.30 0.61 11.22 0.22 2.91 6.30 0.30 0.06 3.15 0.92 0.31 0.30 0.13 0.15 0.37 3.45 — 110 mm — — — — — 8.61 0.53 0.36 7.91 1.74 7.61 0.61 0.52 2.49 1.74 International System Units 15 mm 0.61 3.52 0.52 0.2 cm 11.30 2.23 2.61 50 mm 17.15 1.91 75 mm 27.85 8.61 0.30 20 mm 6.91 1.31 0.15 0.22 — — 2.61 0.30 0. Technical Data Pressure loss in valves and fittings (in bars) Equivalent length in meters of standard steel pipes Nominal Globe Angle Sprinkler Gate Side outlet Run of Std.45 0.14 5.83 0.7 cm string Cool Dry 4 to 5 mm Size of service Warm Humid 4 to 5 mm line copper 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm Warm Dry 5 to 6 mm Size of service Hot Humid 5 to 8 mm line galvanized 20 mm 25 mm 32 mm Hot Dry 8 to 11 mm “worst case” Cool = under 21˚ C as an average midsummer high Warm = between 21˚ and 32˚ C as midsummer highs Hot = over 32˚C Humid = over 50% as average midsummer relative humidity [dry = under 50%] 116 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .66 1.91 4.43 13.88 — 75 mm 0.74 — 50 mm 0.18 Technical Data 20 mm 0.44 1.61 0.61 0.61 0.15 0.10 — 90 mm 1.61 4.22 0.31 0.13 3.61 40 mm 13.91 63 mm 21.15 0.35 0.49 3.91 6.61 3.91 0.15 0.15 0.29 4.96 17 mm 0.58 18.44 Pressure loss through copper and bronze fittings (in bars) Equivalent meters of straight tubing Wrought copper Cast bronze Nominal 90° 45° Tee Tee Side 90° 180° 90° 45° Tee Tee Side Compression Tube Size Elbow Elbow Run Outlet Bend Bend Elbow Elbow Run Outlet Stop 10 mm 0.35 1.74 0.61 0.30 1.30 0.30 0.53 5.91 5.30 25 mm 8. tee elbow elbow 15 mm 5.74 0.30 2.83 0.68 8.66 — 63 mm 0.61 0.22 0.15 0.61 0.61 6.82 25.27 2.

27 0.21 0.06 0.10 0.03 — — — 4.32 0.14 4.17 0.51 5.05 18.77 6.08 0.61 0.03 — 8. td Technical Data Pressure loss through swing check valves (in bars) Valve size Valve size Flow Flow L/s m3/h 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 L/s m3/h 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 0.09 0.65 9.37 0.05 — — 1.17 0.19 0.92 68.01 — — — — — 2.35 40.14 0.06 0.28 0.10 0.72 0.39 102.64 5.18 0.12 0.34 0.74 0.14 7.14 0.10 0.03 — — 6.20 0.15 11.14 0.20 0.70 — — — 0.38 1.04 — 15.35 — — 0.22 — — 0.05 — — — 0.18 0.36 — — 0.99 — 0.14 0.01 — 0.16 — — 0.62 45.08 0.33 0.80 — — 0.32 0.53 — — 0.06 0.04 — 12.40 8.34 0.32 0.03 — 1.11 0.63 — 0.14 0.15 0.29 — — 0.68 0.21 0.68 — 0.27 0.06 — 22.08 0.50 1.31 0.13 0.09 36.03 — — 1.07 — — — 5.23 0.68 20.10 0.07 — — 0.71 — — 0.04 — — — 0.08 0.09 0.89 0.04 — — — 0.06 0.07 0.12 0.03 — 10.90 10.12 2.19 0.76 2.02 25.08 — 0.08 0.06 0.06 — — — — — 0.03 — — 5.05 2.31 22.42 15.81 0.12 0.41 — 0.23 0.47 12.04 — — 1.15 0.03 — — — 0.24 0.12 0.08 0.08 0.17 0.22 0.03 — — — — 3.08 79.10 0.88 3.08 0.89 6.03 — — — 0.04 — — — 4.09 2.63 2.02 1.02 — — — — 3.38 — — — — 0.25 0.06 — — — 4.36 0.04 — — 7.06 0.02 — — — 3.26 4.20 0.03 — 1.73 17.10 14.14 International System Units Soil characteristics Technical Data SOIL SOIL SOIL INTAKE WATER DRAINAGE TYPE TEXTURE COMPONENTS RATE RETENTION EROSION Sandy soil Coarse texture Sand Very high Very low Low erosion Good drainage Loamy sand High Low Loamy soil Moderately coarse Sandy loam Moderately high Moderately low Low erosion Good drainage Fine loam Moderately high Moderately low Medium texture Very fine loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Silty loam Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Silt Medium Moderately high Moderate drainage Moderately fine Clay loam Moderately low High Sandy clay loam Moderately low High Silty clay loam Moderately low High Clay soil Fine texture Sandy clay Low High Drainage Silty clay Low High Severe erosion Clay Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 117 .12 0.30 0.33 0.07 0.05 — 1.10 0.02 28.14 0.03 — 11.17 0.52 9.47 0.45 0.07 2.05 — 18.83 31.25 0.72 — — — — 0.75 — — 0.90 — 0.27 8.30 0.03 — — — 0.77 56.03 — — — — — 3.03 2.23 90.57 27.26 0.27 0.02 7.11 0.26 0.21 0.78 13.43 0.62 — — 0.03 10.17 0.88 0.03 2.01 3.44 — 0.46 0.03 — — 1.82 — — 0.39 4.08 0.05 0.06 — — — 0.06 0.26 — — 0.54 — 0.06 0.14 — 0.18 0.45 0.

004 0.448 11.018 0.360 0.028 63° 8 m 62° 5 m 60° 17 m 59° 10 m 58° 0 m 56° 6 m 9m 8m 50° 13 m 47° 13 m 54° 52° 118 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual .400 0.003 67 33° 15 m 1.006 0.536 0.896 0.002 0.010 0.001 6.001 50 26° 10 m 2:1 8.007 33 18° 5 m 3:1 3.034 0.008 0. International System Units Friction loss characteristics of bronze gate valves (in bars) Slope reference Technical Data Bronze Gate Valves (loss in bar) SLOPE REFERENCE CHART PERCENT.011 0.043 0.032 36.015 0.010 0.006 20.021 0.040 0.001 10 5° 13 m 10:1 0.006 0.034 3.680 0.002 0.380 0.010 90 42° 0 m 27.008 0.069 9.022 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 37.690 2.548 54.552 1.003 0.001 2.379 4.001 1.804 0.037 0.069 6.895 22.005 0.012 0.019 0.370 136.013 0.017 0.504 0. The values are average and may vary with respect to actual soil condition and condition of ground cover.012 0.923 124.001 0.046 0.009 0.216 0.005 0.002 0.288 0.003 0.001 0.340 0.021 0.144 0.016 0.003 0.001 40 21° 15 m 5.048 0.475 113.003 0.001 30 16° 13 m 2.306 63.159 0.752 0.268 0.001 20 11° 6 m 5:1 1.685 68.200 0.034 0.030 0.432 0.137 13.097 0.134 0.007 24.927 58.021 0.060 0.010 0.028 0.007 0.227 0 0° 0.124 0.008 0.345 1.003 70 35° 15 m 15.043 0.790 45.824 0.454 0.005 80 38° 12 m 19.608 0. Technical Data Maximum precipitation rates MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION RATES: MILLIMETERS PER HOUR 0 to 5% slope 5 to 8% slope 8 to 12% slope 12%+ slope SOIL TEXTURE cover bare cover bare cover bare cover bare Course sandy soils 51 51 51 38 38 25 25 13 Course sandy soils over compact subsoils 44 38 32 25 25 19 19 10 Light sandy loams uniform 44 25 32 20 25 15 19 10 Light sandy loams over compact subsoils 32 19 25 13 19 10 13 8 Uniform silt loams 25 13 20 10 15 8 10 5 Silt loams over compact subsoil 15 8 13 6 10 4 8 3 Heavy clay or clay loam 5 4 4 3 3 2 3 2 The maximum PR values listed above are as suggested by the United States Department of Agriculture.019 0.5:1 13.021 0.004 11.005 0.138 0.028 102.004 0.004 17.290 16.014 0.402 0.720 0. ANGLE AND RATIO l/s m3/h Valve Size (in inches) 1/ 3/ 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 % Angle Ratio 2 4 0.001 0.030 0.072 0.169 49.740 41.069 0.014 4.814 0.758 9.411 40.017 0.059 0.274 27.516 18.016 100 45° 0 m 1:1 34.001 0.580 90.003 0.653 31.002 60 30° 18 m 12.968 0.012 31.080 0.133 79.

1.61 0.88 0. 0.69 2.37 0.16 . .06 1.40 0.88 .14 0. .77 0.07 3.11 0. .09 36. .54 0. .10 0.03 .86 0.06 .15 0.04 .03 0.37 0.06 6. 0. 0.03 0.06 0. - 1. . .40 0.30 0. .28 0.50 22.06 0.41 0.57 0.01 .20 4.19 11.50 0.41 12. .32 0.08 .23 0. 0.81 0.11 0.38 1.12 31. .90 . .68 20. . .03 0.06 . .38 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 119 . .06 6.09 0.01 0.14 3.07 0.22 .06 0. .36 0. 0. .08 4. . 0.05 3.36 0.77 6. .22 13. . .07 0.50 . . .43 18.17 0.57 27. 0.66 13.90 0.07 . .31 22. .23 0.02 .21 0. . - 0. .11 . - 2.76 0. . . - 0. .77 0.08 0.63 2. - 3.21 0.15 0. .36 0.14 7.01 .03 . . - 3. - 0. 0.43 0.17 11.03 0.18 0.57 0.81 0.48 0.19 0.27 0. . .27 15. . 1.25 . .06 0. . 0.28 0. 1.32 16.25 0.08 79. 0.27 0. . .30 0.90 28.12 .26 0. - 0.91 0.66 0.40 0.01 3.13 0.52 9.14 .14 10. td Technical Data Pressure loss through water meters AWWA standard pressure loss Pressure loss: bar Nominal Size flow L/s m3/h 18 mm 20 mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 mm 75 mm 110 mm 0.04 .04 0.54 113. . .90 0. .40 8.09 0.07 7.12 0.74 0.38 0.08 .14 4.57 2. - 3.89 6.31 0. . 0. 0. .71 . . .35 . .23 0.11 0. - 1.54 1.88 49. - 2. .10 14.25 0. . - 1.14 54.44 1.64 5.54 0. - 0.39 4. .03 0.10 . .09 - 4. - 0.02 .95 0. 1.07 . .09 2.15 11. . .79 0.51 5. .27 8. - 1. .26 0. - International System Units 2.08 . - 0.14 0.10 2.34 0.95 3. .75 .14 0.70 . - 1. .16 .43 .49 0.13 0.19 4.19 0.05 18.12 0. 1.60 0.68 0.13 0.99 0. . 0.76 2.18 0.89 .03 10.09 .63 0.94 24.38 0. . . .44 .55 0.83 31. - 2.08 1.26 4.25 0. 0.34 1.66 63.01 .10 - 5.48 . 0.35 40.02 7.59 0. .23 0. 1. .10 .39 0.10 8.19 0.45 0.88 0.80 1. .65 0.29 0. .92 68.35 0. - 0.26 0.03 0.27 0. 0.90 10. .04 0. . .05 .17 .03 1. . .19 0.95 0. .23 90. .50 0.21 12.35 0.11 . .82 2. . . .68 0. 0.66 0.78 13.41 .40 58.21 0. .31 0.54 0.92 0.16 0.22 0. - 3.05 0. - 0.17 0.29 1.38 0.62 . .20 0.53 0.15 .43 0. . .06 2.65 9.96 0. - 0.34 0.74 0.32 1.02 0.56 .28 11.03 .15 . . . 0.06 .38 0.78 9.13 0.42 15.62 45.01 .53 12. .90 0. .66 0.62 0.07 1. .73 17.98 .50 0.43 . . - 1.05 0.82 .72 0.38 17. 0. .42 0.72 . - 0.04 0. 0.19 0.12 2. .02 1. .83 0. .01 0.46 0.04 0.97 .04 1.69 25.99 43. .45 0. . .31 0.72 38.11 0.39 102. .88 3.46 34.08 8.11 9. .32 0. .68 1.40 .78 0.50 1. 0.05 5.20 29.45 0.90 0. 0. .73 0. - Technical Data 3.12 10.

.

Appendix Appendix a .

.

a Appendix Table of formulas Calculating water pressure (area is constant): P = force = F area A Calculating water flow (speed): V= gpm V = 1273.24 x L/s 2.45 x dia2 dia2 Calculating daily average operating time: OT = I x 60 PR x DA Calculating pressure needed to operate the system: PR = PS – (Po + Pls) Calculating a circuit’s F factor: F= allowable voltage drop amps/control unit x equivalent length in thousands of feet (meters) Calculating precipitation rates: PR = 96.3 x gpm (applied to the area) PR = 1000 x m3/h [applied to the area] SxL SxL Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 123 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Figure 19: Pressure loss from water main to water meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POC and service line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Figure 29: Emitter device . . . . . .39 Figure 32: Measuring sprinkler distribution with containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Figure 37: Square sprinkler spacing pattern . . . . . .41 Figure 34: 60% sprinkler radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Figure 10: More detailed plan drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lower pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Figure 4: Static water pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Figure 35: 60% diameter sprinkler spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure 6: Large flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Figure 21: Type K copper pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Figure 9: Basic plan drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Figure 39: Triangular sprinkler spacing pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Figure 12: Soil/water/plant relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Figure 31b: Nozzle performance (International System Units) . . . . . . . .38 Figure 30: Multi-outlet emitter device . . . . . . . .27 Figure 18: Estimated service line sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Figure 20: Pressure loss through water meters (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure 7: Schedule 40 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . .41 Figure 33: Sprinkler water distribution graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Figure 13: Soil infiltration and wetting pattern for drip irrigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Figure 23b: Bronze gate valves friction loss characteristics (International System Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Figure 5: Water path with friction . . . . . . . Standard Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Figure 38: Square sprinkler spacing pattern weak spot . . . . . . . . . . .7 Figure 8: Class 200 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Figure 15: Maximum precipitation rates for slopes . . . . . . .16 Figure 11: Soil characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix Table of figures Figure 1: Water towers filled at 12 in and 24 in (50 cm and 100 cm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Figure 22: Water main. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Figure 23a: Bronze gate valves friction loss characteristics (U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Figure 36: 50% sprinkler head spacing . . . .42 Figure 40: S and L triangular sprinkler spacing pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Figure 24: Avoid mixing sprinkler heads on each valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 124 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Figure 31a: Nozzle performance (U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . water meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small valve. . .21 Figure 16: Slope reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Figure 17: Faucet with pressure gauge . . . .37 Figure 28: Bubbler . . . . . .36 Figure 27: Rotating sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Figure 26: Spray sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Figure 3: Water supply to a house . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Figure 2: Water tower – 200 ft (100 m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Figure 25: Matched precipitation rate sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . .21 Figure 14: Determining the soil type . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Units) . . . valve groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Figure 54: Split-length lateral configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Figure 51: Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Figure 59: Main line/lateral line configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Figure 79: Irrigation legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Figure 53: Straight line lateral valve configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . example two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Figure 64: Lateral pipe configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Figure 44: Square sprinkler spacing pattern with part circle sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Figure 75b: Wire sizing for 24 VAC solenoid valves (International System Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alternate backyard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . example one . . . . . . .69 Figure 70: Pressure vacuum breaker flow loss . . . . . . . . .Standard measure) . . . . . . . . .70 Figure 72: Sample plan with rotor pop-ups . . . . . . . . .45 Figure 47: Calculating the PR for triangular sprinkler spacing patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Figure 80: Final irrigation plan . . . . . . . .43 Figure 42: Sliding pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Figure 78: Wires size and F factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Figure 58: Odd number circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Figure 73: Valve control wire network . . . . . . . . .77 Figure 76: Two controllers with wire runs at different locations . . . .68 Figure 68b: Valve pressure loss PEB series (International System Units) .51 Figure 52: Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Figure 69: Pressure vacuum breaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Figure 55: Two row sprinkler circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Figure 43: Square sprinkler spacing pattern with full circle sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Figure 63: Class 200 PVC pipe friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Figure 60: Main line and lateral line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a Appendix Figure 41: Staggered sprinkler spacing pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Figure 66: Remote control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Figure 77: Electrical current requirements of controllers and valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Figure 62: Lateral pipe configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Figure 45: PR calculation for four spray heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lateral layout . . . . .69 Figure 71: Worst case circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Figure 74: Sizing field valve wires . . . . . . . .66 Figure 65: Piping plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Figure 61: Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Figure 68a: Valve pressure loss PEB series (U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Figure 57: Odd number circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Figure 46: Calculating triangular sprinkler spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Figure 49: Sprinkler pattern for hedges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Figure 50: Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . locating sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Figure 48: Sprinkler pattern for shrubs and trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Figure 67: PVC Schedule 40 friction loss characteristics (partial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Figure 75a: Wire sizing for 24 VAC solenoid valves (U. . . . . . . . . . .58 Figure 56: Deep U-shape circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

Index i .

.

. . . . . . . . definition . . . . . . . . . . . 20 American Society of Irrigation definition. 21 feet of head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 polyethylene (PE) SDR. . calculating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 AW (available water). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 B precipitation rate. . 41 type K copper water tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . definition . 60 operating time. . 55 polyethylene (PE) SDR- straight line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . .107 lines . . . . . . . . . . calculating . . 37 bronze gate valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . 6 critical circuit length. . . . . . . 58 devices. 123 backflow. . . . . . . . . . . . 85 action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 schedule 40 standard steel evapotranspiration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 deep “U” shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 I water flow (speed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 impulse sprinklers . . . . . . . . . 37 C water pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. 58 diameter of throw. . . .94 evapotranspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 F factor . 36 gpm (gallons per minute) . . . . . . . . . . . 75 PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe . . 86 angle of slope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 layout. . . . . . . . . . reference . . . . .101 type K copper water tube . . . . . . . 9 water (AW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 hydrostatic. . . . . . . . . . . . 79. . 20 head-to-head sprinkler spacing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 fan spray sprinklers . . 65 PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic lateral pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 lateral circuits DRC (distribution rate curve). . . . . . . . . . calculating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 zone . . 19 circuiting sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70. . .112 exercises . . . . . . . . . 41 pipe . . . . . . . . . characteristics irrigation plan capillary international system units exercises . . . . . . . . . . 68 system pressure requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 H field capacity . . . 20 bronze gate valves . . . . . . . . . . . available . . . . . . . .108 layout . . . . . . 3 PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe . . . 123 bubblers . . . . 35 friction loss. . . . . . 103. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 equivalent circuit length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . water meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 hygroscopic water. . . . . . 27 definition. . . 38 flow loss chart. . . . . . . sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 friction loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 climate PET chart. . . . . . . . . . . 6 E PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe . . . 37 velocity. . . . . . . . 66 table of. . . 41 PVC class 160 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 hydraulics available flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 pipe . . . . 6 pressure-rated tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 distribution rate curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 formulas exercises . . . . . . . .99 liters per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 split length . . . . . standard units odd number . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . locating . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 schedule 40 standard steel piping. . . . . . . . . . 20 backflow prevention device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 operating time . . . 37 PVC class 315 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 PVC class 125 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Index Index F G F factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 formula . . . . . 6 A feet of head gravitational water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 arc. . . . 58 drip irrigation U. . . . . . .109 L/s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 impact sprinklers . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 pipe . . . . . . . 79 gallons per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . lateral . . . . . 41 pressure-rated tube . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual 129 . . . . . 116 PVC class 200 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . definition . 4 hydrodynamic. . . . . . . . . 57 dynamic water pressure . . . . 76 PVC schedule 40 IPS plastic pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 preparing the final. .98 elevation . . . . . . definition .97 emitters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irrigation requirements Center for Irrigation Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 determining . locating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic D pipe . . . . . . . . . .95 ET (evapotranspiration) . . . .110 L controller. . 19 PVC schedule 80 IPS plastic ETo (reference evapotranspiration) . . . . . . . . 62 CIT (Center for Irrigation Technology) . .

. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 technical data . . 36 valve groups. . . . . . 20 permanent wilting point . . . . . . . . . . 27 psi (pounds per square inch). . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . 35 U maximum sprinklers . 38 formula . . 68 static water pressure. 35. . . . . . . 38 spacing . 41 static. . . . . . 6 calculating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 main line. . . 28 shrub spray sprinklers . . . . . . . . . 29 rectangular . . . sizing . 65 adjusting for wind velocities . . definition. . . . . . . . . . 65 slope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 VAN (variable arc nozzle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 maximum flow. . . . . . . . . . . 28 formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 sprinkler spacing patterns gravitational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 exercises . . . . . . 35 requirements . . 6 scaled drawing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 site information valve wires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . determining. . . . . 36 130 Landscape Irrigation Design Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105. 67 definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 triangular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 POC (point-of-connection) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 spacing ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 references . . . . . . . 118 sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 pop-up spray sprinklers . . . . . . . . . 67 rotating sprinklers . . . . . . . . 58 exercises . 106. . . . . . . 29 sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 water meter pop-up gear drive sprinklers . . . . . . 13 locating . . 30 point-of-connection . . . . 28 power supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 system pressure requirements working pressure. 28 sprinklers. . . . . . . . . 38 W spray sprinklers. 94 locating . . . . . . . . . . 60 scheduling coefficient . 86 remote control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . determining . . . . . . sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Z reference evapotranspiration . . . . . . . . 40 precipitation rates for slopes . . . . . . . . 13 remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 selecting sizing . . . . . . . . . . 38 capillary. . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ultra-low volume devices . 21 variable arc nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 sprinkler precipitation rate . . . . exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exercises . . . . . . . 30 calculating . . . circuiting sprinklers into . . . . . . . . 47 selecting . . . . . 42 hygroscopic . . . . 105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 obtaining. . . . . . exercises. . . . . . . . . . . 57 meters of head site plan . . . . . . 35 V velocity of flow . . . . . . . . . angle of . . . . . . . . 44 locating. . exercises . . . . calculating . . . . . . . . . . . 47 P percentage of the diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maximum precipitation rates . . 27. sizing . . 35 formula . . . 41 of flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . 85 water window. . . . . 119 pounds per square inch. . . . 19 zero radius devices. . . . . . . . . 36 water pattern of coverage. . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . 65 sprinkler . . . 29 R exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 103. . . . . . . . . 35 square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 staggered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 sprinklers size . 71 radius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 pipe. . . . . . 42 capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 slope reference chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . service line. . . 55 water pressure precipitation rates locating on a plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 flow. 23 valves meters cubed per hour (m3/h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 circuiting into valve groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 dynamic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . water meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 table of figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 exercises . . . . . . 19 velocity operating time solutions to exercises . . . . . selecting. . . . . . . . . . 75 wetting patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 water capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 pressure vacuum breaker . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 system electrics. . . . . . . . . . . 116 118 short radius devices . . . . . . . . 4 water supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Index M S T m3/h . . . . . 58 spacing ranges. . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 determining. . . 36 O slopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75. . . . . . . 27. . . . . . 55 wetted diameter. . . . . 27 power wires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 soil type. . . . . . . . . . . 62 spacing sprinklers. . . . . . . . definition. . . . . . . . . . 43 flow loss chart . . . . . . . . . 35. . . .

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Inc. Commercial Division Rain Bird International. www. 3/01 D38470B . ® Registered Trademark of Rain Bird Sprinkler Mfg.com Rain Bird.rainbird. Southpoint Rd. 145 North Grand Avenue (800) 247-3782 (800-BIRD-SVC) Tucson. CA 91741 USA (USA and Canada only) Tel (520) 741-6100 Tel (626) 963-9311 Fax (520) 741-6146 Fax (626) 963-4287 Specifications Hotline (800) 458-3005 (USA and Canada only) Recycled paper. AZ 85706 USA Glendora. © 2001 Rain Bird Sprinkler Mfg. Rain Bird Technical Service 6951 E. Corp. Corp.Rain Bird Corporation. Conserving more than water.