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Estimating Flow Efficiency From Afterflow.. Distorted
Pressure Buildup Data

Since publishing the type-curve analysis method skin pressure drop, I::i.Pskin, is equal to this pressure
given in Ref. 1 for afterflow-distorated pressur~. recovery less the pressure drop across an equivalently
buildup data, I have received numerous queries on sized zone with the formation permeability, k f ; that is,
estimating the flow efficiency of a damaged well di-
rectly from th.e type-curve match. This note describes
a method that gives a rough estimate of flow efficiency
for wells with localized damage.
Fig. 1 shows pressure buildup data computed dur-
ing the afterflow period for a well producing at 60
percent flow efficiency. In this figure, T = kh de-
I.t 100 1'"="-_-_---=l-==%=---=-A-=F=-=TE=-=R=-=F:-:-LO-:=:-:-7-::-+-----Jp--+------I
W
· ·b·l··
notes transmlSSI - - , an d F·IS th e
· 0 f md-ft
Ilty In unIts
cp
wellbore storage capacity in cu ft/psi, as defined be-
low Eq. 5 in Ref. 1. If one assumes that this storage
factor remains reasonably constant during the after-
flow period, then the breakaway character of the type-
w...
curve match in Fig. 1 denotes localized wellbore dam-
age with at least a 5: 1 permeability reduction around ~
I- 10r-----------tl~t----------l
the well. The departure, of the data points in Fig. 1 Z
from the T /F = 5,000 curve after a buildup of 80 ....
I

to 100 psi denotes a transition from a state in which ::>
::I:
flow into the wellbore is determined bY·damage-zone VOl
resistance to a state in which formation resistance
controls the flow. Conversely, pressure buildup before
the departure represents pressure recovery across the
damage zone. This is obviously a true statement for
the two limiting cases of (1) no wellbore damage at
100 1000
all, an,d (2) infinitely large formation permeability PRESSURE BUILDUP ABOVE
beyond the damaged zone. Statement validity for FLOWING PRESSURE, PSI
. intermediate cases can be shown from the unit re~ Fig. l-Afterflow-distorted pressure buildup data
sponse formulation given in Ref. 1. The so-called c,omputed for a well with a 60-percent flow efficiency.

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696 JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

.000 curve on Fig. t~ 0.are responsible for th. ) 1971) .rwb Esso Production Research Co. breakout 'during buildup or the E =.863-872. In general.( k f ~f kWh ) exp Reference 1.2 RWB as ~p* ~ 180 psi.6 Z RA = 10 APskin = ( 1. I.4· RWB 50 One can also estimate the total buildup from Fig.003 0. . 1 is somewhat subjective. k. in fact. 1. factors other than changes are computed numerically from Eqs. 50 shown on Fig. Tex. . 1 ~ NOTE: ~ =2000 9 u..72 = 060 . ~~h ) APd. SPE-AIME ( 1 _ r .2. one needs independent assurance that the indicated rameter range 10 :::. w ~ u. APskin = ( 1." J. These efficiencies -I. Fig. be within to the formation permeability.10 percent. fa .1 E = ~p* -ilPskin PERMEABILITY RATIO. ' SPE 4922 JUNE. E = 180180 .' (July r . wb permeability reduction can. R.. account for the According to Fig. McKinley.01 0. 2-Flow efficiencies for wells with damage given by Eq. w For the data in Fig.. rra :::. r'lvb Houston. the agreement tion of' th'e ratio of permeability at the wellbore. as follows: 0'0. 0. Pet. otherwise.rWh.rwb (3) R. 3.8 kWbis the permeability of the damaged zone. Since the selection of initial point of departure bore so that localized damage should fall in the pa- from the 5. KWB ~p* ' KF Fig. 2 = 0. . kwb . 1974 697 .2) should indeed reduce the flow effi- (k wb / kf shows two curves for stable flow efficiency as a func. 251. wellbore In(~) effects such as gas. 3' concentrates most of the damage near the well.re dr ' · (2) change from a partially liquid-filled well to a com- pletely liquid-filled well during buildup can give j rwb k r kf indications of damage that· are inconsistent by the two methods described above. Eq. ciency to about 60 percent. • (1) where ~Pd is the pressure buildup at departure and 0. AIME.: "Wellbore Transmissibility From' After- flow-Dominated Pressure Buildup Data. These values give a flow efficiency. ~ = '1 . between the two flow efficiencies should. Trans. is) (90) = 72 psi. E. For this purpose. M. w 0.' For' example.f.e behavior of the buildup data in Fig. a 5:1 permeability reduction decreased flow efficiency. McKinley. 2 and 3~ in permeability .r a . M. TeclJ.. 2.