Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet.

com), downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh
ASME PALD-2009
(Revision of ASME PALD-2005)

Safety Standard
for Portable
Automotive
Lifting Devices

A N A M E R I C A N N AT I O N A L STA N DA R D

Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet.com), downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.
Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet.com), downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh
ASME PALD-2009
(Revision of ASME PALD-2005)

Safety Standard
for Portable
Automotive
Lifting Devices

A N A M E R I C A N N AT I O N A L S TA N D A R D

Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet.com), downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh
Date of Issuance: May 21, 2010

The next edition of this Standard is scheduled for publication in 2012. There will be no addenda
issued to this edition.

ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this
Standard. Interpretations are published on the ASME Web site under the Committee Pages at
http://cstools.asme.org as they are issued.

ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National
Standards. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from
competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made
available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia,
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ASME does not “approve,” “rate,” or “endorse” any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity.
ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any
items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for
infringement of any applicable letters patent, nor assume any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly
advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is
entirely their own responsibility.
Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as
government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.
ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established
ASME procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form,
in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

Copyright © 2010 by
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
All rights reserved
Printed in U.S.A.

Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4-1 Typical Vehicle Support Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Part 14 High-Reach Supplementary Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4-2 Horizontal Dimensions and Vertical Heights for Stability Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 iii Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3-3 Typical Twin-Post Engine Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Committee Roster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1-4 Typical Multiple-Stage Hydraulic Hand Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Figures 1-1 Typical Single-Stage Hydraulic Hand Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Part 13 Automotive Ramps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Part 15 Forklift Jacks . . . . Adapters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Part 7 Service Jacks. 18 4-3 Application of Load for Off-Center Load Test . . . . . . 16 Part 5 Emergency Tire Changing Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Part 6 Upright-Type Mobile Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Part 12 Auxiliary Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1-3 Typical Pneumatic/Hydraulic Hand Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Part 3 Engine Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1-2 Typical Wheeled Pneumatic/Hydraulic Hand Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Part 9 Shop Cranes . . . . . . . 5 Part 2 Transmission Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Part 16 High-Reach Fixed Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Part 11 Scissors-Type Mobile Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3-2 Typical “H”-Style Single-Post Engine Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Part 10 Swing-Type Mobile Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Summary of Changes . . . . . . . . . . . 1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Part 4 Vehicle Support Stands . . . . . . 8 2-1 Typical Hydraulic Transmission Jack . . . . . . . 10 2-2 Typical Pneumatic/Hydraulic Transmission Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .techstreet. . . . . . . . 3 Part 1 Hydraulic Hand Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Part 8 Wheel Dollies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Part 18 Attachments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3-1 Typical “T”-Style Single-Post Engine Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uncontrolled wh CONTENTS Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Part 17 Vehicle Transport Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4-4 Application of Load for Centered Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 16-2 Typical High-Reach Fixed Stand Tripod Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 iv Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 10-1 Typical Swing-Type Mobile Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 12-1 Typical Auxiliary Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 9-1 Typical Shop Cranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 15-1 Typical Forklift Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 16-3 Application of Load for Off-Center Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5-2 Typical Bumper Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6-1 Typical Upright-Type Mobile Lift . . . . . . 56 16-4 Application of Load for Centered Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 17-1 Typical Vehicle Transport Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5-5 Stability Test — Compound Slope (Down Grade) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7-2 Typical Pneumatic/Hydraulic Service Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7-3 Saddle Periphery Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uncontrolled wh 5-1 Typical Screw Jack . . . 24 5-6 Stability Test — Compound Slope (Up Grade) . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Mandatory Appendix I References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. . . . . . . . . . . 42 12-2 Application of Load for Proof Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 14-3 Proof Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 13-3 Typical Test Area for Proof Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 7-1 Typical Hydraulic Service Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8-1 Typical Wheel Dollies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5-4 Typical Frame Jack . . . . . . . 63 Nonmandatory Appendix A Metric Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . 47 14-1 Typical High-Reach Supplementary Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 14-2 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .techstreet. . . . . . 43 13-1 Typical Automotive Ramps . . . . 38 11-1 Typical Scissors-Type Mobile Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 13-2 Typical Test Area for Off-Center Load Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7-4 Saddle Periphery Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5-3 Typical Scissors Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 16-1 Typical High-Reach Fixed Stand Saw Horse Type .

and maintenance. v Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A nominating committee was appointed to recommend a proposed membership to the ASME Safety Codes and Standards Committee for approval. and instruction in the use of the equipment falling within its scope. . 2009. approved sponsorship of the committee to operate under the procedures developed by ASME and accredited by ANSI. to government and other regulatory bodies.1. The Jack Institute requested the B30 Committee either to develop a standard for automotive jacks or to include this equipment as part of the revision of B30. This allowed for greater consistency in requirements and eliminated redundancy. In September 1979. and to commercial users responsible for the inspection. and changing environmental and industry needs. would cover the different types of equipment included in the PALD scope. The 1997 edition was a further revision and consolidation of the 1993 edition and includes a Part covering automotive ramps. maintenance. Safety Standard for Portable Automotive Lifting Devices. marking. The membership was approved at the beginning of May 1980. has been developed under the procedures for ASME Codes and Standards development committees. Hoists. The inaugural meeting of the ASME Committee on Portable Automotive Lifting Devices (PALD) was held in July 1980. Uncontrolled wh FOREWORD This ASME Standard. and includes a Part covering forklift jacks. Revisions do not imply that previous editions were inadequate. identification. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. This Standard presents a coordinated set of rules that may serve as a guide to manufacturers. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. was approved by ANSI and designated as an American National Standard on September 19. operation. Revisions result from committee consideration of factors such as technological advances.com). ASME PALD-2009 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on November 13. the Jack Institute petitioned ANSI in July 1979 for the formation of a committee to promulgate safety and/or performance standards for portable automotive lifting devices. each complete as to design. to municipal authorities. Jacks. ASME’s Policy Board. Codes and Standards. Derricks. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. inspection. Cranes.techstreet. This Standard had its beginning in June 1979 when the Jack Institute addressed the B30 Committee on Cableways. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. requesting the designation of ASME as sponsor of the project. As a result. testing. The committee determined that the format of this Standard would be such that separate volumes. Jacks. which was approved by the ASME Committee on Portable Automotive Lifting Devices and by ASME. new data. and Slings. The B30 Committee declined this request. 2005. Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance public health and safety. This edition of the Standard. The 2003 edition is a revision of the 1997 edition. Hooks. In the 1993 edition the various volumes were combined into one Standard with common requirements in one place and the information that is specific to a particular type of equipment set out in succeeding Parts.

downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. Claypool. Inc. Renard. Gray Manufacturing Co. Schellens. Parker Services/Sentry Insurance S. A. Inc. J.techstreet. K. D. Shinn Fu Co. Guerra. J. of America. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Garrastacho. J. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. Joos. Inc. V. Heath & Associates R. Intertek vi Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . D. Willis. SPX Corp. S. Consumer Testing Laboratories. Blitz USA E. Kattleman. Chair R. R. General Motors – Vehicle Structure and Safety Integration F. D. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers D. Alternate. Allied International S. SPX Corp. W. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD COMMITTEE Portable Automotive Lifting Devices (The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Standard. T. Vice Chair T. Hakim. Sargent. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.com). G. Claypool.. Consumer Testing Laboratories. A. Heath. Alternate. Alexander Professional Services R. Barrios. Soos. J. Sears Holdings Corp. W. V. A. Inc. Rally Manufacturing. Fletcher. Inc. Alexander. W. A. Secretary STANDARDS COMMITTEE PERSONNEL D.) STANDARDS COMMITTEE OFFICERS D. McKee. G. Alexander. Schellens.

MANDATORY AND ADVISORY RULES Subject: Cite the applicable part or section and paragraph number. care. If a provision is of an advisory nature. tion is being requested. with the following format: ject to certain hazards that cannot be precluded by (a) cite the specific part or section and paragraph mechanical means. strength. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. The values stated in U. designation gence. These conditions have pretations can only be rendered in response to a written been considered to provide safety and flexibility in its request sent to the Secretary of the PALD Committee at use. and (c) briefly state the reason or evidence for the sug- qualified in the safe operation of the equipment and gested change its proper use when servicing motor vehicles and their (d) submit suggested changes to more than one para- components. This equipment is used Upon request. it is indicated by use of the word should and is Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the perti- a recommendation to be considered. One purpose of the Standard is to PROPOSING REVISIONS serve as a guide to governmental authorities having jurisdiction over subjects within the scope of the Comments on the Standard’s requirements and sug- Standard. NY 10016-5990. use on other than hard level surfaces.com). Three Park Avenue. and operators Committee. not as a request for approval of a customary units. The requirements given in this Standard must be the address shown above. It is therefore essential (b) indicate the suggested change (addition. Uncontrolled wh PREFACE GENERAL units are to be regarded as the standard. If adopted for governmental use. overloading. graph in the order in which the paragraphs appear in or slipping of motor vehicles or their components caused the Standard primarily by improperly securing loads. Customary proprietary design or situation. Examples of hazards are dropping. unambiguous. and using equipment for a purpose for which it was not designed. Automotive Lifting Devices.) of equipment who are careful. the Suggestions for changes to the Standard should be references to other national standards in this Standard submitted to the Secretary of the Committee on Portable may be changed to refer to the corresponding regula. however. etc. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. tions of the governmental authorities. suppliers. various subjects that have been formulated under the general auspices of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). It is further recommended that the inquirer submit any request using the following format. The SI units in the text have been directly (soft) converted from the This Standard is one of many safety standards on customary units. of the equipment. The PALD Committee fully realizes the importance INTERPRETATIONS of proper size. may be sent to the PALD to manufacturers. the advisability of nent standard for which the interpreta- which depends on the facts in each situation.techstreet. and common sense. It is expected. trained. tipping. and stability as safety factors in the design of this equipment. competent. Question: Phrase the question as a request for an interpretation of a specific requirement SI (METRIC) CONVERSIONS suitable for general understanding and This Standard contains SI (metric) units as well as use. deletion. The vii Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . that the Standard will gestions for its improvement. interpreted accordingly and judgment should be used The request for interpretation should be clear and in determining their application. The PALD Committee will consider each suggested off-centered loads. and should be in accordance The use of portable automotive lifting devices is sub. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. Inter- variable working conditions. to have personnel involved in the use and operation revision. and provide a con- Mandatory rules of this Standard are characterized cise description. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.S. the PALD Committee will render an on various motor vehicles and their components under interpretation of any requirement of the Standard. based on experience in find a major application in industry. New York. but only by the exercise of intelli. ASME. serving as a guide the application of the rules. purchasers. change in a timely manner according to its procedures. by use of the word shall.

might affect an interpretation is available. the question. per- sons aggrieved by an interpretation may appeal to the cognizant ASME committee or subcommittee.” “certify. proprietary device. or activity. . Uncontrolled wh inquirer also may include any plans or which may inadvertently change the intent of the origi- drawings that are necessary to explain nal request. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. item.” or “endorse” any in this format by the Committee before being answered. ASME Requests that are not in this format will be rewritten does not “approve. viii Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. however. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. they should not ASME procedures provide for reconsideration of any contain proprietary names or interpretation when or if additional information that information.” “rate. Further.com). construction.techstreet. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.

and after public review.1.3.3 Revised 6 Fig.4 Revised 24 Fig.7 Revised 4-3. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 SUMMARY OF CHANGES Following approval by the ASME PALD Committee and ASME.techstreet.2 Subparagraph (c) revised 22 5-2 (1) Paragraph 5-2.3 added and subsequent paragraphs redesignated (2) Newly redesignated 3-4.1. Page Location Change 1 Introduction Purpose revised 3.4 Revised 15 3-4 (1) New para.4 revised 16.6 deleted and subsequent paragraph redesignated 23 5-4. 1-1 Revised 9 2-2 (1) Paragraph 2-2. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. (09).1. 5-6 Added ix Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . ASME PALD-2009 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on November 13.2 Revised 3-2.1 (1) Subparagraph (e) revised (2) Subparagraph (g) added 4-3. 3-4. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.2 revised (2) New section 5 added (3) Old section 5 redesignated as section 6 5 1-2.com). and 2.2 Subparagraph (a) revised 4-4.6 deleted and subsequent paragraph redesignated 11 Fig.1.1 Revised 20 5-1. 2-2 Revised 13 3-2.3 Revised 3-2. 19 4-2. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.1 revised (2) Paragraph 5-2.1. ASME PALD-2009 includes the following changes identified by a margin note. 5-5 Added Fig.4 revised (2) Paragraph 2-2.1 Revised 4-4. 2. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. 2009. 4 General Requirements (1) Paragraphs 1.4 revised (3) Paragraph 5-2.

1.3 revised (2) Paragraph 6-2.2 Title revised 15-4.1.8 Revised 56 16-4. 52 15-2 (1) Paragraph 15-2.2 Revised 35 9-2.5 Revised 32 8-2.3 Revised 17-2 (1) Paragraph 17-2. Uncontrolled wh Page Location Change 25 6-2 (1) Paragraph 6-2.4 Revised 43 12-2.1. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.5 revised 27 7-2.4 deleted (2) Newly redesignated paragraph 17-2.3(a) Footnote 1 revised 31 7-4.2 Revised 57.com).1.1.1 Revised 47 13-4.5 Newly redesignated para. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.5 revised and subsequent paragraphs redesignated 60 17-4.1. 59 17-1.2 Revised 49 14-2.1.4 Revised 38 10-2.1.7 Revised 14-3 Title revised 50 14-4.1 Revised 51.techstreet.3 deleted (2) Newly redesignated 15-2. .1.4 Revised 15-4.1.1.5 Revised 12-4.3 Revised 30 7-4 Title revised 7-4.4 deleted and subsequent paragraph redesignated 6-2. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.3 Revised x Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.1.4 Revised 40 11-2.1 Revised 8-4.1.4 Revised 8-3 Title revised 34 8-4. 6-2.3 revised and subsequent paragraph redesignated 15-3.5 Revised 53 16-2. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. cation of personnel. production. maintenance. cribbing. health. or vehicle support stands. or replacement. (q) vehicle transport lifts (r) attachments. The scope of this Standard is the standardization of safety and performance requirements for portable auto- motive lifting equipment including: PURPOSE (09) (a) hydraulic hand jacks (b) transmission jacks This Standard is designed to (c) engine stands (a) guard against and mitigate injury. Operation and maintenance authorized: approved by a duly constituted administra- instructions in this Standard are intended for general tive or regulatory authority. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. main. The equipment manufacturer or supplier shall be consulted for specific operating and mainte. and otherwise (d) vehicle support stands provide for the protection of life. construction. and/or qualifi. repair. and property by (e) emergency tire changing jacks prescribing safety requirements (f) upright type mobile lifts (b) provide direction to purchasers. support preventing the vehicle from tipping over or marking. employ- (g) service jacks ers. appropriate means: the use of any device. 1 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. authorized personnel: persons who have been instructed nance instructions. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. operation. tenance. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. . construction. This Standard may include requirements for safety. and enforcement of (j) swing type mobile lifts appropriate safety directives (k) scissors type mobile lifts (l) auxiliary stands (m) automotive ramps DEFINITIONS (n) high reach supplementary stands (o) fork lift jacks adapter: a device attached to the lift platform of a PALD (p) high reach fixed stands which is used to support and/or stabilize those compo- nents for which it is especially designed. and others concerned with. limb. supervisors. in the operation and/or maintenance of the PALD and This Standard does not apply to similar lifting devices designated by the owner to use or maintain the designed and manufactured for other commercial or equipment. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 SAFETY STANDARD FOR PORTABLE AUTOMOTIVE LIFTING DEVICES Introduction SCOPE industrial use such as those within the scope of ASME B30.1. administrative or regulatory authority. Jacks. its application (h) wheel dollies (i) shop cranes (c) guide governmental and other regulatory bodies in the development. or operation of equipment. design. such as blocking. maintenance. inspection of the portable automotive lifting devices approved: accepted as satisfactory by a duly constituted listed previously. adapters. promulgation. appointed: assigned specific responsibilities by the performance. and storage. or responsi- ble for.com). application.techstreet. and accessories alteration: any change to a PALD other than maintenance. used during automotive service. which adequately APPLICATION supports a vehicle off the ground by providing a stable This Standard applies to the design. employer or the employer’s representative. and owner/operator falling down to the ground. owners.

as measured against established requirements. centrally to the lifting or attaching points of the PALD turer to mechanically increase the PALD’s height.techstreet. internal load limiting device: a device that limits the lifting capacity of the PALD. the general public. ping. support. to applying the load. when engaged with the manipulated by the operator to govern the starting. by the vehicle manufacturer. that enable them to perform a frame: see definition for each PALD. qualified personnel: individuals with characteristics or filler plug: a removable component to allow maintaining abilities gained through training or experience or both. or transport throughout its range of travel. operating: the mechanisms which must be pawl: a pivoted component that. air as the force transmitting medium. . which saddles (if any) are mounted. prevents undesired movement. direction of motion. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. speed.com). designated: selected or assigned by the employer or the portable: not permanently fixed in one location and able employer’s representative as being competent to per. PALD. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. acceleration. greater than the rated capacity. applied extender: an optional device supplied by the manufac. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 authorized service center: an independent service facility overload: a load that exceeds the rated capacity of the designated by the manufacturer to repair and test PALDs PALD. proper fluid level in the PALD. such as standards or tests. to be moved from one work place to another. teeth of a ratchet. loss of load. often on a large scale. stability: a measure of resistance to tipping while load: the total superimposed weight of force to be over. raised height: the distance from the ground to the top of tion of the PALD’s structure that results in the loss of the saddle at the full extension of the PALD. functional damage: any detrimental permanent deforma. PALD: any one of the various types of portable automo- base: see definition for each PALD. 2 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. that the PALD is designated to lift. prior to confirm the integrity of the structure. and retar. the design qualification limits established in Section 4 rated capacity: the maximum published operating load of each Part. under load. required function. come by the PALD. form specific duties. pneumatic power source: a device that utilizes compressed dation of the moving member(s) of the PALD. or failure to meet or exceed ratchet: a toothed member for engagement with the pawl. repair: the process of rehabilitation or replacement of parts that are the same as the original for the purpose of lift point: the location at which the PALD’s lifting member ensuring performance in accordance with the applicable or saddle contacts the vehicle component as designated requirements. proof load: a load. mobile: describes a lift that is readily movable from one travel: linear extending or retracting movement of the work area to another without a load. controls. saddle: the portion of the PALD which comes in contact lifting member: the moving portion of a PALD upon with and/or engages the vehicle or vehicle component. it has manufactured. sealing capability to its hydraulic and/or pneumatic components. stop. tive lifting devices listed in the scope of this Standard. supplier: a company that controls the performance speci- manufacturer: a company that produces goods by hand fication and/or design of the products distributed to or machinery.

such and attachment methods to each PALD in a location as cracked welds. or operates abnormally SHALL BE The instructions shall convey the safety markings and REMOVED FROM SERVICE UNTIL REPAIRED. The instructions shall con. methods.1 Product Instructions edge and facilities. making sure that the ing imprint. Copy conveying the intent of section 3 shall be included with the instructions.1 Rated Capacity 3. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 General Requirements 1 PRODUCT MARKING AND IDENTIFICATION 3 OPERATION. its operating characteristics.2 Maintenance PALD.1 Operation All PALDs shall have the rated capacity marked in a The owner and/or operator shall have an understand- prominent location on the PALD by casting imprint.techstreet. maintenance. device is believed to have been subjected to an abnormal load or shock. as applicable. the product and 1. and damaged. (09) 2.2 Safety Messages is found to be worn. Safety information shall be emphasized and understood. (09) 1. ing of the product. A list of authorized repair facilities is available and inspection procedures and intervals. ANSI Z535. and attachment methods. PALDs are shown in section 3 of each Part of this (c) Each PALD shall be inspected immediately if the Standard. inspection of the PALD be made by a manufacturer’s tions.4 Damaged Equipment Any PALD that appears to be damaged in any way.2 Identification safety instructions shall be read to and discussed with Each PALD shall include identification or identifying the operator in the operator’s native language by the marks of the original manufacturer or supplier by cast. repairs are permitted by the manufacturer or supplier. The instructions or supplier ’s authorized repair facility and that any shall specify the proper operating procedures and basic defective parts. but need not be verbatim or limited to ufacturer ’s or supplier ’s authorized repair facility if those listed. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. dards containing guidelines for product safety signs shall be followed. metal stamp. and metal stamp.3 Safety Markings Each PALD shall include safety signs and/or labels 3. or use of durable materials operator comprehends their contents.3 Inspection developed by the manufacturer or supplier.com). MESSAGES (d) Owners and/or operators should be aware that repair of this equipment may require specialized knowl- (09) 2. AND INSPECTION 1. It is recommended that an annual Each PALD shall be provided with operator’s instruc. or miss- visible to the operator. . leaks. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. parts. The ANSI Z535 series of stan- ing parts. (b) Other inspections shall be made per product Examples of safety markings for specific types of operating instructions. replaced with manufacturer’s or supplier’s specified tain the recommended replacement fluid. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. loose. It is recommended that this inspection be made by a manufacturer’s or supplier’s authorized 2 PRODUCT INSTRUCTIONS AND SAFETY repair facility. from the manufacturer or supplier. It is messages shown in section 3 of the applicable Part of recommended that necessary repairs be made by a man- this Standard. 3.6 shall be followed. 3 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. decals. The signs (a) Visual inspection shall be made before each use and/or labels shall be affixed by use of durable materials of the PALD by checking for abnormal conditions. or safety labels or signs be function of the components. If the operator is not fluent in English. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. The manufacturer or supplier shall be able to identify the date of manufacture of each 3. purchaser/owner or his designee. or use of durable materials and attachment safety operating instructions before operating the PALD. The PALD shall be maintained in accordance with the product instructions. MAINTENANCE.

3. Conformance to this Standard shall be demonstrated by the testing requirements set forth herein. The protection 4. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. ISO/IEC Guide 6 EFFECTIVE DATE (09) 22 “General Criteria for Supplier ’s Declaration of The effective date of this Standard shall be 12 mo after Conformance” may be used as a guide.6 Attachments and Adapters Only attachments and/or adapters supplied by the 5 DESIGN (09) manufacturer shall be used.2 Durability Assessment Because of potential hazards associated with this type In the design of all PALDs. the date of issuance. written system of policies and (c) provide a means to permit controlled lowering if procedures which will assure consistent and continuing electrical power fails conformance to the requirements of this Standard.com). No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 4 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. .1 Electrical Components All PALD’s utilizing electrical power at a minimum shall meet the following requirements: 4 QUALITY ASSURANCE (a) provide over current protection.techstreet.5 Alterations 4. 5. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 3. consideration shall be of equipment. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. and product. the cumulative effects of repeated use and other poten- tial changes in properties.1 Quality Systems shall not be automatically resetting (b) meet an applicable national standard. such as Producers of Portable Automotive Lifting Devices UL 201 or UL 2089 shall adhere to a planned. no alterations shall be made to the given to the anticipated useful life of each product.

Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner (c) Only attachments and/or adapters supplied by that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator the manufacturer shall be used. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. jack’s ability to meet this Standard. and follow all instructions before operating this device. sisting of a ram. nor shall operational characteristics be detrimentally 1-2. 1-3. self-contained jacks with or without inter. sonal injury and/or property damage. by this Part. AND 1-2. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 1 Hydraulic Hand Jacks 1-1 SCOPE. and 1-4. labeling. Each hand jack shall be provided with a positive means to prevent the load from being raised. or snagging hazards. 1-1.2 Classification 1-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES Hydraulic. 1-4. . hydraulic: a device consisting of a pump. 1-4. 1-1. CLASSIFICATION. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. (a) Study. To conform action by the operator for release to prevent accidental with this Standard.4 Definitions (b) Do not exceed rated capacity.com). 1-3.5 with a proof load of 150% of rated capacity. in para.2 Travel Limit affected. or combination thereof. sup- port the vehicle with appropriate means. jack. tively incompressible fluid.2 Safety Messages Additional safety messages include the following. The release system shall require intentional positive to design specifications shall be proof tested. A proof load as defined or moved beyond the design limit of travel. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. Multiple rated jacks shall be tested at the full extension of the first stage and last stage.3 Illustrations Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series Figures 1-1 through 1-4 show typical jacks covered by of standards.1. function.1 Operating Controls (b) No alterations shall be made to this product.4.1 Safety Markings 1-1. and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch points. (d) Lifting device only.1. This Part applies to self-contained hydraulic hand jacks designed for lifting but not sustaining loads in 1-2. This Part does not include hydraulic bumper capable of sustaining 150% of the jack’s weight.1.3 shall be applied to the saddle of the jack 5 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1-2. pump (e) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- handle. as the force trans- mitting means. (c) Use only on hard. the carrying handle shall be affixed and directions. hydraulic hand: portable self-contained device con.1 and 1-3. reservoir. such as oil. Immediately after lifting.3 Proof Load (09) ILLUSTRATIONS All hydraulic hand jacks shall be capable of per- 1-1. sharp edges. sample jacks built age. the jacks shall perform to design lowering. understand.1. Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- nal load limiting devices are the classifications covered fied in paras. lowered. The 1-4. jacks and their assorted attachments.1 Scope forming the proof load test of paras. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. pump. this Part and are not intended to be all-inclusive. The operation 1-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING of controls should be clear to the operator either by position. and utilizing a rela. 1-3. 1-4. 1-2. and hydraulic pump.1.techstreet.1 Proof Tests pump handle shall be capable of being operated to the For each design or design change that may affect the jack’s rated capacity without sustaining functional dam.4 Carrying Handle either the vertical (primary) or horizontal (secondary) If provided.1 Angular Load Test. saddle. 1-2 DESIGN (a) Lift only on areas of the vehicle as specified by the vehicle manufacturer. and release valve. specifications and no functional damage shall occur. level surfaces.2.

com). . 1-1 Typical Single-Stage Hydraulic Hand Jack Saddle Extender Ram Actuating Carrying handle handle receptacle Release valve 6 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.techstreet. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 (09) Fig.

No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. 1-2 Typical Wheeled Pneumatic/Hydraulic Hand Jack Release mechanism Handle Pneumatic operation actuator Pneumatic quick coupler Saddle Fig. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. 1-3 Typical Pneumatic/Hydraulic Hand Jack Saddle Pneumatic quick coupler Carrying handle Actuating handle Pneumatic receptacle operation actuator Release valve 7 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. .techstreet. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.com).

3 shall be applied to the saddle of equipped with internal load-limiting devices shall be the jack with the extender fully extended. if so equipped. 8 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A load equal to or (a) Hand jacks equipped with internal load-limiting greater than the rated capacity shall be applied to the devices shall be pumped against a measured load until saddle with the jack at its full extension.1. 1-4. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. 1-4 Typical Multiple-Stage Hydraulic Hand Jack Saddle Extender Second stage ram First stage ram Actuating handle receptacle Release valve with the extender fully extended.com). The release the load-limiting device is activated.0 in. 1-4.1. (4. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. at which time 10 min. . with the final stage The load shall not lower more than 0.techstreet. its rated capacity and no more than 125% of its rated capacity.4 mm) above its low height. capacity. if so equipped. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.4 Load-Sustaining Test. A proof load as (b) Hand jacks with multiple stage hydraulics defined in para. (3.18 mm) extended at least 1 in. at which time the valve shall be operated to control the rate of descent to jack must have been supporting no less than 100% of no more than 1. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.1875 in.76 mm) in until the load-limiting device is activated.2 Load-Limiting Device Test 1-4.4 mm/s). in the first minute nor a total of 0. pumped against a measured load.1. and the jack must have been supporting no less than 100% the jack at its full extension while the jack’s vertical axis of its rated capacity and no more than 125% of its rated is at a 5 deg angle relative to the axis of the applied load. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.3 Release Valve Test. 1-2./sec (25. (25.125 in.

and designed to support tive means to prevent the load from being raised or and stabilize the component during its installation or lowered beyond the design limit of travel. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. All adapters manufactured specifically for a jack shall vided by the manufacturer. directions. be capable of performing their intended function with that jack.5 Travel Limit transmission.1. cables. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 2 Transmission Jacks 2-1 SCOPE. tilt: controls provided to adjust the angular posi- when the lift platform assembly is loaded. such as levers. or snagging hazards. at any angle within the designed tilt range to a maximum of 2-1. transmission: a mobile lifting device having a lift platform assembly suited to retaining an automotive 2-2. and pawls. AND 2-2 DESIGN (09) ILLUSTRATIONS 2-2.4 Proof Load screws. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. All transmission jacks shall be capable of performing jack. load restraints and adapters and shall be capable of inclusive.2 Classification position.techstreet. 2-4.6 Adapters tacts the transmission or differential assembly and includes the brackets.com). The operation of controls should be clear to the operator either by 2-1. . mechanical transmission: a transmission jack that uti- lizes mechanical means. shall be tested to conform with this Part. CLASSIFICATION. function. medium. support with the lift platform at any angle within the mechanism. 2-2. labeling. Provision shall be made to pro- hibit separation of the jack and the lift platform assembly controls. and mechanical are the classifi. removal from a vehicle.6. adapters.4 Definitions 10 deg in all directions. vided. lift platform assembly: the portion of the PALD that con. and load restraints pro. hydraulic transmission: a device that utilizes a hydraulic pump to raise and lower an automotive trans. tilt: a device that allows the lifting member designed tilt range to a maximum of 10 deg in all to be angularly adjusted relative to the horizontal plane. ratchets. 2-2. When tilt control adjustment mechanisms are pro- mission into position for assembly and disassembly. pneumatic. each system lowering.2 Lift Platform Assembly 2-1. sharp edges. as defined in para. they shall require intentional positive action by the operator to change the angle of tilt. pneumatic transmission: a transmission jack that the proof load test of para. release system shall require intentional positive action cations for which this Part applies.3 Illustrations Figures 2-1 and 2-2 show typical transmission jacks The lift platform assembly shall be equipped with covered by this Part and are not intended to be all. 9 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. jack. 2-2.1 Scope Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner This Part applies to transmission jacks that are used that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator to remove and install transmissions and differential and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch assemblies from automobiles and trucks. jack. gears. The Hydraulic.3 with a proof load of employs compressed air as the force transmitting 150% of rated capacity. 2-2. points.1 Operating Controls 2-1. All adapters shall be capable of supporting a load restraint: a device supplied by the manufacturer to proof load of 150% of the load they are designed to retain the load on the lift platform. tion of the lift platform assembly about two principal independent axes (longitudinal and transverse). When a combination by the operator for release to prevent accidental of these force transmitting means is used. or combination thereof. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.3 Tilt Control jack. sustaining a proof load. and other driveline components such as Each transmission jack shall be provided with a posi- transfer cases and transaxles. 2-2.

understand. 2-4. specifications and no functional damage shall occur. Additional safety messages include the following: 2-4.2. and transportation in the lowered position. and follow all instructions jack’s ability to meet this Standard. 2-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING 2-3.1. nor (d) Adequately support the vehicle before starting shall operational characteristics be detrimentally repairs. A deadweight (f) Use of this product is limited to the removal.1 Loaded Operational Test.2 Safety Messages be conducted. For each design or design change that may affect the (a) Study. transfer cases. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. the jacks shall perform to design (c) Use only on hard.1 Release Mechanism Test. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig.1 Safety Markings Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series 2-4. of configured such that the entire load is above the lifting transmissions. To conform (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 2-1 Typical Hydraulic Transmission Jack Lift platform assembly Tilt controls Actuating handle 2-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES (b) Only attachments and/or adapters supplied by the manufacturer shall be used. . with this Standard.com).techstreet. instal. to design specifications shall be proof tested.1 and 2-3. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. load not less than the rated capacity of the jack and lation. and transaxles. platform shall be centrally located and restrained by the lifting platform and the following operational tests shall 2-3.1. fully extended. affected.1. Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- fied in paras. 2-3.1 Proof Tests of standards. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. (e) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- sonal injury and/or property damage. With the jack (a) No alterations shall be made to this product. level surfaces. the release mechanism shall be operated 10 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. sample jacks built before operating this device.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. .techstreet. 2-2 Typical Pneumatic/Hydraulic Transmission Jacks (09) Lift platform assembly Actuating handle Lift platform assembly Steer handle Pneumatic actuating pedal Release mechanism Hydraulic actuating pedal 11 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.com). No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.

The jack. 125% of its rated capacity. The center of gravity of the deadweight devices shall be pumped against a measured load with load shall be as listed in the table below as defined by the lifting platform within 1. (51 mm) high vertical rise 90 deg to the direction tained throughout the lifting range. (51 mm) above its low height until the load-limiting device is activated. The jack shall not lose the load or (25. with the lift load and shall not lower more than 0.18 mm) platform at maximum height with the lift arm positioned in the first minute nor a total of 0.5 (139. A proof load. any internal load limiting device may be wheels or casters in contact with the rise at the point of deactivated.1. shall be applied centrally to the lifting at 1. 2-4. The (a) Hydraulic transmission jacks with a single-stage force to move the jack shall be applied closely beneath hydraulic cylinder equipped with internal load-limiting the lift platform.1. The jack shall.5 Load-Sustaining Test. The jack shall traverse 100% of its rated capacity and no more than 125% of its the rise and drop without loss of load or tipping over.2 Tilting Test.techstreet.1.1. (25.4 mm/s). as defined in para.0 in.1.4 mm) above its the jack’s rated capacity.1.3 Proof Load Test. shall be moved in para.000 (1 814) 13 (330. tip over.1. with the lift plat- at which time the jack must have been supporting no form at the lowest possible lift height. The load shall be lifted and sus- a 2. arms and internal load-limiting devices shall be pumped (12.0 in.76 mm) in such that the horizontal distance between the center of 10 min. With the lift plat- form at its maximum height.7 mm) high. (4.3 Mobility Test.0 ft/sec (610 mm/s) across a 0.0 in. be moved at 1. low height until the load-limiting device is activated.0 ft/sec (610 mm/s) against platform of the jack. 500 (227) 5. 2-4. the pivot point and the vertical centerline of the saddle is greatest. (12.1. 2-4. 12 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. than 100% of its rated capacity and no more than 125% Capacity.5 (190. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.4 Stability Test. at an approach angle zontal position until the load-limiting device is acti- that will bring only one caster or wheel at a time in vated. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted./sec greatest instability.1. rated capacity. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 to control the rate of descent to no more than 1. The jack shall be moved forwards and back.1875 in.0) shall be pumped against a measured load with final 4. and a against a measured load with the lift arm in the hori- 0. while loaded as above. lb (kg) in.5 ft/sec (c) Hydraulic transmission jacks equipped with lift (457 mm/s) to 2.7 mm) drop to the floor. The jack shall support the 2-4. 15 deg slope rise in the floor. For purposes of this of movement at an approach angle that will bring two test.2) stage extended 1.1.5) hydraulics equipped with internal load-limiting devices 2. with the lift plat.2 Load-Limiting Device Test wards at least 1 ft (300 mm) without tipping over. 2-2. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.1. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. (25. shall be moved less than 100% of its rated capacity and no more than in any direction over the floor surface.125 in. (3. 2-4. 2-4. as defined form at the lowest possible lift height.0 in.5 in.5 in.000 (454) 7. (mm) of its rated capacity.5 ft/sec (457 mm/s) to 2.0 in. 2-4. at which time the jack must have been supporting contact with the rise and drop.com). The jack. . at which time the jack must have been supporting no less Load CG Above the Lift Platform.6. the jack shall sustain the deadweight load.7) (b) Hydraulic transmission jacks with multiple-stage 1.000 (907) 10 (254.1.4 mm) to 2.

3 Rotational Locking Device (09) inclusive.2 Proof Load (09) stands of single. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. equipped with a means to accept a mechanical they are designed to support. (d) Lock mounting plate rotating mechanism before 3-2 DESIGN applying a load. sharp edges. by the operator for release to prevent unintentional rota- tion of the load.2 Classification This Part applies to self-contained portable engine 3-2. The loaded of separate adapters or adjustable arms that fasten to a rotational locking device shall remain functional in any mounting plate.1 and 3-3. Friction-type locking devices shall be functional components and engine bolt patterns through the use in at least six equal rotational increments. and follow all instructions an automotive component. CLASSIFICATION.3 Illustrations rated capacity. movement of the mounting plates. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.4. function. The operation of controls should be clear to the operator either by 3-1. This Part applies to self-contained portable engine Stands shall be equipped with a handle or friction device stands. 3-4. equipped with suitable means to support. mechanical rotating mechanism: a device which provides 3-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES controlled rotation of the mounting plate. All special purpose attachments/adapters shall be frame: a structure consisting of at least one upright col. 13 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 3-3. before operating this device. rotate.1. and 3-2. This Part does release system shall require intentional positive action not apply to permanently mounted engine stands. Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- mounting attachments: a means to adapt to various engine fied in paras. capable of supporting a proof load of 200% of the load umn. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 3 Engine Stands 3-1 SCOPE. or snagging hazards.2. rotating mechanism.1 Scope position. . 3-4. bolt patterns through the use of separate adapters or adjustable arms that fasten to the mounting plate. engine stand: an automotive engine mounting device.4 Special Purpose Attachments/Adapters (09) lock the engine in a working position. Figures 3-1 through 3-3 show typical engine stands covered by this Part and are not intended to be all. rotational locking device: a means to prevent unintentional (b) Do not exceed rated capacity.or twin-post construction. (c) Use only on hard level surface. labeling. AND and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch ILLUSTRATIONS points. mounting: a component of the PALD lifting or rotat. Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series ing mechanism equipped with slots or holes to accept of standards. Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner (f) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator sonal injury and/or property damage. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. position provided during the test of para.1 Safety Markings plate.com).techstreet.1 Operating Controls attachments. the use of mounting attachments or direct mounting of (a) Study. The stand shall be equipped with a means to prevent 3-1. or combination thereof.4 with a proof load of 200% of 3-1.4 Definitions rotation of the mounting plate and shall require inten- tional positive action by the operator to activate the attachments: a means to adapt to various automotive device. 3-2. 3-2. (e) Assure load is centered and secured to mounting 3-2. understand. designed primarily to support an automobile to permit controlled rotation of the mounting plate.1. Engine stands shall be capable of performing the proof load test of para. 3-1. The engine while being rebuilt or repaired.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet. 3-3 Typical Twin-Post Engine Stand Mounting plate Rotational locking device Mechanical rotating mechanism Actuating handle Frame Twin Post 14 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. 3-1 Typical “T”-Style Single-Post Engine Stand Rotational locking device Actuating handle Mounting plate Mechanical rotating mechanism Frame Single Post Fig. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. 3-2 Typical “H”-Style Single-Post Engine Stand Fig.com). . No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.

shall be rotated 3-4.5 Proof Load Test. to 2. be moved at 1. shall be moved in any direction for which to the stand for 10 min. To conform with 1.1. while loaded to vertical load. This shall be per- For each design or design change that may affect the formed using the supplied actuating handle. nor shall without radial movement.0 ft/sec tion from the initially established angle of the rotational (610 mm/s) across a 0. may be applied to establish the initial condition.techstreet.0 in.1.0 ft (305 mm) off the centerline of the rotational mecha- this Standard. the stands shall perform to design specifi.0 ft/sec (610 mm/s) against a 2.5 in. from the mounting plate and as close as possible to the The load shall be applied to the rotating handle located rotational axis of the mounting plate.2 Safety Messages at an approach angle that will bring only one caster or Additional safety messages include the following: wheel at a time in contact with the rise and drop. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. (368 mm) jected to a torsional load not less than 150 lbf (667 N). The mounting plate. while fully engaged. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. The centerline of the rotational the stand was designed. and a 0. 3-4. shall be moved at 1. (12. device is released. (51 mm) high (c) No alterations shall be made to this product.5 in. into contact with the rise at the point of greatest instabil- ity. shall be sub- shall be positioned a minimum of 14. 15 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 15 deg slope axis. The device shall sustain the load cations and no functional damage shall occur. (09) 3-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING 3-4. 3-2. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. (12.3 Rotating Mechanism Test. while loaded axis shall not exceed a total of 5 deg permanent deforma- as above.com). A horizontally constrained 3-4. The stand shall. 3-4. stand’s ability to meet this Standard. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.7 mm) drop to the floor.7 mm) high. A preload of no more than 100% of rated capacity rise in the floor. The rota- to design specifications shall be proof tested. nism’s normal axis.5 ft/sec (457 mm/s) carefully. operational characteristics be detrimentally affected. as described in para. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 3-3.5 ft/sec (457 mm/s) to 2. The (a) Off-center loads may make the load and handle stand shall traverse the rise and drop without loss of rotate in either direction when the rotational locking load or tipping over.2 Stability Test.5 in. while loaded to (b) Release rotational locking devices slowly and rated capacity. The stand.1. shall be applied rated capacity.1.1 Proof Tests throughout the range of rotation. while loaded to rated capacity.2. vertical rise 90 deg to the direction of movement at an (d) Only attachments and/or adapters supplied by approach angle that will bring two wheels or casters the manufacturer shall be used.4 Rotational Locking Device Test. . sample stands built 3-4.1 Mobility Test.1. The load tional locking device. The stand shall not lose the load or tip over. The stand.

ground. or snagging hazards. AND ILLUSTRATION 4-2. Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator 4-1. the entire stand (except for the sad.techstreet. function. The operation without an adjustable column.7 Proof Load (09) All vehicle support stands shall be capable of per- 4-2 Design forming the proof load test of para. of maintenance or storage. position. CLASSIFICATION.5 Saddle Figure 4-1 shows typical vehicle support stands cov. in which the horizontal dimension is shown as H and the vertical vehicle support stands: devices for supporting a vehicle height as V.2 Classification and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch This Part applies to vehicle-support stands with or points. the pin or supplier. to house and guide the column or support the saddle 4-3.2 with a load 4-2. 16 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The stands shall be designed so that the minimum In the case of fixed height stands. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.4 Operating Controls auxiliary stands used as supports for vehicle compo- nents or other special usage. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. and follow all instructions separation of the column from the base. and retaining of the load. See Fig.2 Column of standards. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 4 Vehicle Support Stands 4-1 SCOPE.1 Base of 200% of rated capacity. 4-2) is considered equivalent to the above.com). to the nearest edge of the base shall be at least 8% of dle) is considered to be the base.2. Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series 4-2. 4-2. retracted position. labeling.3 Illustration 4-2. The saddle configuration shall be such as to aid in ered by this Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive. (d) Center load on saddle. but lacking the means for raising and lowering the vehicle. In the fully before operating this device.3 Locking Device 4-1. or combination thereof.6 Stability and holds the adjustable column in an upright position. A circular. the lower end of the column shall not (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. supporting. . A means shall be provided to prevent the inadvertent (a) Study. 4-2. used for support at one of controls should be clear to the operator either by end only.1. at fixed heights. sharp edges. The base may be of any configuration that provides the equivalent of three or more points of contact with 4-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES the ground. or polygonal base shape (see Fig.1 and 4-3.1 Scope The locking device shall prevent adjustment of the This Part applies to stands used for supporting types column height after the load has been applied. which do not have horizontal distance from the projected edge of the saddle adjustable columns.1 Safety Markings (09) in the case of fixed height stands. understand. triangular. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. If the of vehicles. This Part does not include 4-2. 4-4. 4-1. as recommended by the stand manufacturer column is supported by means of a locking pin. at predetermined heights for the purpose must be secured to the stand to prevent its loss.4 Definitions base: that portion of the stand that rests on the ground 4-2. the proper positioning. Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- The upper portion of the base structure shall be designed fied in paras. 4-1. 4-3. extend below the plane made where the base contacts the (c) Use only on hard level surface. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. the maximum extended vertical height when the column locking device: the mechanism used to hold the column is moved by hand to remove all slack in the direction in the selected height position. of the vertical measurement.

com).techstreet. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. Uncontrolled wh No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Fig. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 4-1 Typical Vehicle Support Stands ASME PALD-2009 17 .

Uncontrolled wh No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.techstreet. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.com). 4-2 .Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. ASME PALD-2009 18 Horizontal Dimensions and Vertical Heights for Stability Considerations Fig.

4-3 Application of Load for Off-Center Fig. strained vertical load equal to rated capacity shall be sonal injury and/or property damage. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. 4-4 specifications and no functional damage shall occur. . shall be applied centrally to the saddle.1 Off-Center Load Test.com). 4-4 shall not exceed 0. The saddle’s ability to retain Additional safety messages include the following: the load shall not be adversely affected by this test. A permanent reduction in height. The test (b) No alterations shall be made to this product.1. at the affected. point of load contact shall not exceed 0. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. at the point of load contact as shown port both ends of a vehicle. shall be repeated on all lugs and edges. A horizontally con. stand’s ability to meet this Standard. be applied to establish initial overall height. port both ends of a vehicle. (09) (f) Failure to heed these markings may result in per. ing devices within a single assembly. nor for at least 10 min. A proof load. For stands that incorporate multiple load hold. To conform retracted position.18 mm). No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. 19 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.techstreet.1 Proof Tests 4-4. 4-4 Application of Load for Centered Load Test Load Test (e) Use as a matched pair only. as defined For each design or design change that may affect the in para. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig.2 Safety Messages saddle as shown in Fig.18 mm). applied. The load shall be applied as shown in Fig. measured after the removal of the load. (3. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. all slack laterally toward the point of load application.7. in Fig. each device shall A preload of no more than 100% of rated capacity may be tested independently. the stands shall perform to design surface. with the base resting on a hard level with this Standard.125 in.2 Proof Load Test. (3.125 in.1. A preload of no more than 100% of rated capacity may be applied to 4-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING establish initial overall height. The column shall be moved by hand to remove (g) Stands are not to be used to simultaneously sup. 4-4. sample stands built with the column in both the fully extended and the fully to design specifications shall be proof tested. 4-3. (09) 4-4. measured after the (a) Stands are not to be used to simultaneously sup- removal of the load. A permanent reduction in overall shall operational characteristics be detrimentally height. 4-2. in both the fully extended position and fully retracted position for at least 10 min on the lug or edge of the (09) 4-3.

ing tire chains.1 Scope (c) Figure 5-3 shows a typical scissors jack covered This Part applies to self-contained. or a single screw. following: durability test: a test to verify the jack’s minimum cycle (a) mechanical screw jacks consisting of concentric life and its load lifting and sustaining capabilities. on passenger cars. 5 lbm (2. hydraulic or pneumatic (a) the vehicle weight actuation) consisting of linkages united by pivotal joints (b) all fluid weight for engaging a vehicle frame or unibody (c) the sum of the weights of all options weighing (d) mechanical frame jacks consisting of a lever actu. Fig. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. tire by this Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive. In (b) mechanical bumper jacks consisting of a lever addition.27 kg) or more ated ratchet for engaging a vehicle frame or unibody (d) the total luggage or cargo weight (e) the total passenger load 5-1.com). CLASSIFICATION. This rating is model specific. This is model specific.2 Classification the vehicle manufacturer’s specified lift point on the The classifications for which this Part applies are the bumper. emergency. AND ILLUSTRATION (b) Figure 5-2 shows a typical bumper jacks covered by this Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 5 Emergency Tire Changing Jacks 5-1 SCOPE. vans. bumper adapter: that portion of the jack that engages (09) 5-1. 5-1.techstreet. . telescoping screws. 5-1 Typical Screw Jack 20 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. for engaging a vehicle frame or unibody by the vehicle manufacturer. extended and retracted by a gear front and rear Gross Axle Weight Rating as supplied system.3 Illustrations front and rear GAWR (truck): the maximum load carrying (a) Figure 5-1 shows a typical screw jack covered by capacity of the front and rear axle systems as supplied by this Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive. for engaging reactions shared by the appropriate wheels of the a vehicle bumper system following: (c) scissors jacks (mechanical. and light duty 5-1. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. and for mount. the GAWR includes the sum of the weight actuated ratchet or a screw and nut system.4 Definitions trucks. the vehicle manufacturer. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. this Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive. changing jacks designed for lifting one wheel clear of (d) Figure 5-4 shows a typical frame jack covered by the ground for emergency tire changing. that actuate a front and rear GAWR (passenger car): the passenger car rocker panel adaptor.

Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.com). No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 5-2 Typical Bumper Jack Fig. .techstreet. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. 5-3 Typical Scissors Jack Saddle Screw Handle receptacle Base Jack handle 21 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

than the arithmetic sum of the front and rear GAWRs. Reciprocating handles shall require no more than (c) Use only on hard level surface. (g) The projected area of the base shall be sufficient to cle manufacturer. (a) the vehicle base weight (b) all fluid weight 5-2.1. The jack shall be lubricated by the manufacturer.1 Safety Markings points. This is predicated on the equipment result in a maximum bearing pressure of 50 psi (7. 22 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (09) 5-2 DESIGN 5-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES 5-2. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.5 Hinge Points that was assigned to either the front or rear to account All hinge points shall be designed and assembled to for the additive effect of small weight increases not antic. 5-2. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. not reuse. or combination thereof. but is always less when the jack is loaded to rated capacity.1 and 5-3. 5-3. discard jack. (d) Jack design shall accommodate the path of travel of the vehicle manufacturer ’s recommended jacking points throughout the full range of travel. This is model specific and usually prevent the load from being raised or lowered beyond includes the sum of the following: the designed limit of travel. resist lateral movement detrimental to the jack’s ipated during the model run performance. that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch 5-3. The operation Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series of controls should be clear to the operator either by of standards.3 Travel Limits mum Gross Vehicle Weight Rating as supplied by the Each jack shall be provided with a positive means to manufacturer. Rating of a fully loaded vehicle as supplied by the vehi.6 Lubrication rocker panel. rated capacity without sustaining functional damage. (c) The jack shall be capable of lifting and sustaining its rated capacity throughout its range of travel. 5-4.6 with a proof load of 200% of (d) the total luggage or cargo weight rated capacity. saddle or rocker panel adapter so configured to enable proper engagement with the vehicle frame or unibody at the lift points recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. and follow all instructions intentional positive action by the operator for lowering before operating this device. The The jack shall include marking to identify those vehi- handle shall be capable of being operated to the jack’s cles with which the jack must be used. maximum GVWR (passenger car): the passenger car maxi. rocker panel adapter: that portion of the jack that engages the vehicle manufacturer’s specified lift point on the 5-2. sharp edges. labeling. . Do to 50% of the GVWR of the intended vehicle.2.4 Proof Load (c) the sum of the weights of all options weighing Each jack shall be capable of performing the proof 5 lbm (2. (e) Never get beneath the vehicle when it is supported 5-2. function. (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. tire chains. (e) the total passenger load (f) the same “added factor” or similar fixed weight 5-2.25 kPa) ratings of the front and rear axles. (f) Each jack shall be provided with a positive means GVWR (truck): the maximum Gross Vehicle Weight to prevent inadvertent disassembly. understand. the load. (e) It shall not be possible to assemble the jack incorrectly. the jack shall require (a) Study.2 Design Requirement by the jack. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. or snagging hazards. position.techstreet.com). (a) The minimum jack rated capacity shall be equal (f) If vehicle is pushed off of jack. To prevent accidental lowering. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.27 kg) or more load test of para. 100 lbf (444 N) to operate and rotating handles shall (d) Use only for emergency tire changing or mounting require no more than 30 lbf (133 N) to operate.1 Operating Controls Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner fied in paras. 5-4 Typical Frame Jack (b) The jack may have a detachable handle.

This test shall be performed at each jacking point recommended by the vehicle manufac- turer. 30 sec and rearward for 30 sec. side of the vehicle. the rear axle shall be 5-3.0 in. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.3 Stability Test (Push Off). at least 30. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Inability of the jack to support the The test vehicle shall be raised on a hard level surface vehicle during this test constitutes failure. (51 mm) ground Repeat these tests with the front driver side parked clearance. The same force shall (c) Follow tire changing procedure or tire chain then be applied in the transverse direction to the raised mounting procedure specified in the vehicle manufac. forward for by the vehicle manufacturer. A force of 100 lbf (444 N) shall be applied in a longitu- dinal direction to the vehicle. bumper from a flat tire position to a 2. above the pavement near the jacking point.4 Stability Test (Compound Slope). inward for 30 sec and (d) No alterations shall be made to this product. the rear axle shall be 30 sec and outward for 30 sec. Additional weight shall be formed at each jacking point recommended by the vehi- added to the front of the vehicle to attain front GAWR.1 Laboratory Test. (51 mm) ground park position. For scissors jacks and mechanical the parking brake set and wheel chocks deployed. To conform passenger car in which the jack’s maximum rated capac- with this Standard. the parking brake released and wheel be chocked in both directions.techstreet. if frame jacks. This stability test shall then be repeated on the 5-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING same unloaded vehicle. 5-4.1.1 Proof Tests the vehicle during this test constitutes failure.5 Proof Load Test. For mended. 5-2. as defined bly shall be tested on an appropriately loaded passenger in para. this test. with an inflated maximum size tire/wheel downgrade at a 45 deg angle on a 7% grade. Inability of the jack to support 5-4. ity throughout 28 lifts.0 in. A new jack assembly shall be rearward for 30 sec. and mechanical bumper jacks. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 (g) Failure to heed these markings may result in per. 5-4. car in which the jack’s maximum rated capacity is equal sonal injury and/or property damage.com). turn off igni. pavement near the jacking point. vehicle manufacturer recom- a fixture simulating the vehicle jacking point.0 in. (762 mm) above the turer’s owner’s manual. in park or the manual transmission in the lowest gear. added to the front of the vehicle to attain front GAWR. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. sample jacks built assembly shall be tested on an appropriately loaded to design specifications shall be proof tested. A force of 50 lbf (222 N) shall be applied (b) Place jack only at points of the vehicle as specified in a longitudinal direction to the vehicle. This mechanical screw jacks and mechanical bumper jacks test shall be performed with the automatic transmission the load shall be equal to or greater than the rated capac. Park the test vehi- by the height-weight curve ±10% throughout 28 lifts. nor On vans and light duty trucks. specifications and no functional damage shall occur. the jacks shall perform to design ity is equal to 50% of the GVWR. In addition. 5-5 and 5-6. The test vehicle shall be raised on a hard level surface tion. Additional weight shall be Additional safety messages include the following: added to the front of the vehicle to attain front GAWR. . For mechanical screw jacks 5-4. with an inflated maximum size tire/wheel gear selector into reverse position. from a flat tire position to a 2. On vans and light duty trucks. at least 30. cle with the front driver side upgrade at a 45 deg angle The operating handle force shall be measured during on a 4 deg (7%) grade. set parking brake. See Figs. a proof load. cle manufacturer. to 50% of the GVWR.2 Safety Messages loaded to its rear GAWR.2 Vehicle Test.1. move clearance. (a) Activate the hazard warning flasher.0 in. A new jack (09) jack’s ability to meet this Standard. manufacturer.0 in.4. forward for 30 sec and 5-4. chocks stowed. outward for 30 sec. move automatic shift selector to from a flat tire position to a 2. with an equal number the jack to support the vehicle during this test constitutes of lifts at each jacking point recommended by the vehicle failure. (762 mm) which the jacks’s maximum rated capacity is equal to 50% of the GVWR. Additional weight shall be affected.1. shall be applied to the saddle.1.1. inward for On vans and light duty trucks. the rear axle shall be shall operational characteristics be detrimentally loaded to its rear GAWR. A new jack assem. for a total of 28 lifts. A new jack assembly shall The test vehicle shall be raised on a hard level surface be used to raise a load applied to the saddle. the load shall be equal to the load specified supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. maximum size tire/wheel combination. bumper 23 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Inability of combination. The same force shall then be applied tested on an appropriately loaded passenger car in to the raised side of the vehicle. the wheel combination. through contact with clearance. This test shall be per- loaded to its rear GAWR. This test shall be performed with the trans- diagonally opposite from the wheel being lifted shall mission in neutral. (51 mm) ground adapter or rocker panel adapter. with an inflated. For each design or design change that may affect the 5-4. In case of a manual transmission.

com). the jack sustained. (12. and lowered throughout the range of travel. to within 0. shall sustain a proof load. unloaded. For scissors jacks and mechanical frame jacks. The load shall be lifted. position at the completion of the fully raised.5 in. pretest. a substitute handle may height to weight curve at the following positions: 35%. position at the completion of this test constitutes failure.5 in.techstreet. this test constitute failure. applied to the saddle. to within 0.7 mm) of the fully raised. Inability of the jack to return. for Should the originally supplied handle not be capable of 10 min equal to 150% of the rated capacity based on the activating the jack mechanism. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 24 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 (09) Fig. (12. 5-5 Stability Test — Compound Slope (Down Grade) 4. pretest. be used for the performance of this test. 5-6 Stability Test — Compound Slope (Up Grade) 4. and 100% of the range of travel.00 deg (09) Fig. .00 deg adapter or rocker panel adapter. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.7 mm) of jack to return. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. Inability of the 60%. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. unloaded.

sharp edges. dynamic restraint: a device used to prevent the lifting member from extending to its full stroke in an unre.com). 6-2.3 Proof Load lift. or frame members for the purpose of raising the wheels of one end of the vehicle free of the ground.1. and are so arranged as to contact the vehicle at two points across its axis of symmetry on the bumper.2 Classification Hydraulic (with and without internal load limiting devices).6 with a proof load of load limiting device: device that limits the lifting capacity 150% of rated capacity. . bumper supports.techstreet. All upright mobile lifts shall be capable of performing the proof load test of para. source. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. labeling.1 Scope This Part applies to hydraulic.5 Saddles tor. function. on the leading and trailing edges to act as operation of controls should be clear to the operator a load restraint. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.4 Secondary Load Holding Means (09) 6-2 DESIGN Lifts shall be equipped with a device to prevent unrestricted lowering of the load in the event of loss of 6-2. 6-1 Typical Upright-Type Mobile Lift 6-1. 6-4. 6-2.2 Travel Limits strained manner if the load is suddenly removed from Each lift shall be provided with a positive means to the lift. such as a pinch points. Saddle 6-1. The release system shall require intentional posi- base: the stationary portion of a lift to which lifting mem.4 Definitions thereof. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. and so that the operator will not be subjected to The saddles shall have raised protrusions. tive action by the operator for release to prevent acciden- bers are attached. hydraulic: a lift that is actuated by a hydraulic power the design limit of travel. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. or combination outward lateral adjustment of the saddles. it is not intended to be all-inclusive. and Operating mechanical upright-type mobile lifts characterized by a controls pair of laterally spaced lifting members that raise and lower in unison.1 Operating Controls pressure. pneumatic: lift that is actuated by a pneumatic power source. pneumatic (with and without dynamic Saddle restraints).3 Illustration Base Figure 6-1 shows a typical upright-type mobile lift Lifting member covered by this Part. 6-2. tal lowering. 25 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The tang or rail. of the lift. 6-2. 6-1. CLASSIFICATION. prevent the load from being raised or moved beyond lift. or snagging hazards. Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner that they are readily visible and accessible to the opera. pneumatic. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 6 Upright-Type Mobile Lifts 6-1 SCOPE. 6-1. Means shall be incorporated to limit the either by position. and mechanical are the three classifications for which this Part applies. AND ILLUSTRATION Fig.

No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Lifts the manufacturer shall be used.125 in. at which time the lift must have been sup- (c) Use only on hard level surface. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.1. nor a total of 0. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. A load not less than port the vehicle with appropriate means. against a measured load until the load-limiting device (b) Do not exceed rated capacity.2. NOTE: In normal use. Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series of standards. Pneumatic para 6-2. shall be loaded to not less than rated capacity and oper- (b) Lift only on areas of the vehicle as specified by ated to raise the load. (4. sustained.2 Load-Limiting Device Test. nor shall (76 mm/s) is expected.1875 in.5 Release Test. The load shall 6-3. and attachments shall remain affixed to the lift assembly. is activated. matically stop the lift and hold the load within a descent of 7.4 Secondary Load Holding Means Test. 6-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING 6-4.4 shall be applied to the saddles. the lifts shall perform to design speci. Additional safety messages include the following: (a) Only attachments and/or adapters supplied by 6-4. the secondary load holding means shall auto- (c) No alterations shall be made to this product.3 Load-Sustaining Test. A load not less than the rated 6-4. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 6-4.0 ft 6-3. and lowered throughout the range member raised to a height determined to provide the of travel at full extension of all saddles./sec (76 mm/s). The load shall be removed in such a manner that the vertical height of the lifting member Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- shall not change until the load is completely removed. To conform with this Standard.1. Immediately after lifting. the rated capacity shall be applied to the lifting member (f) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- at approximately 100% of its lifting range with the sec- sonal injury and/or property damage.0 in. . operational characteristics be detrimentally affected. porting no less than 100% of its rated capacity and no (d) Load saddles equally. For purposes maximum momentum to the lifting member.1 Proof Tests capacity shall be applied to the lifting member at approx- imately 100% of its lifting range. The load shall lifts shall be loaded to rated capacity and the lifting be lifted. saddles. and follow all instructions with internal load-limiting devices shall be raised before operating this device.1 and 6-3. fied in paras. Lifts equipped (a) Study. sample lifts built to more than 3.76 mm) in 10 min. more than 125% of its rated capacity. sup- 6-4. The lift shall not leave the ground more than 1. A proof load as defined in 6-4.1./sec fications and no functional damage shall occur.1.6 Proof Load Test.1. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 6-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES load be removed. 26 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. any load-limiting device may be deactivated. The release mechanism For each design or design change that may affect the shall be operated to control the rate of descent to no lift’s ability to meet this Standard.1. 6-4.com). (3. The lifting member. When the internal pressure is the vehicle manufacturer.techstreet.1 Safety Markings (305 mm). should the of this test.18 mm) in the first minute. (178 mm). understand.1 Instantaneous Load Loss Test.0 in. (e) Lifting device only. 6-3.0 in. design specifications shall be proof tested. ondary load holding means deactivated. released.2 Safety Messages not lower more than 0. a rate of descent greater than 3.

1. The release system shall require intentional positive action Hydraulic. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 7 Service Jacks 7-1 SCOPE. or snagging hazards. AND 7-2 DESIGN ILLUSTRATIONS 7-2. and pawls. sharp edges. and follow all instructions is transferred from the power unit to the saddle. lift arm: the main lifting member through which the force (a) Study.com). pneumatic. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. labeling. lines of the front and rear wheels and/or caster pivot jack. 7-4.4) to the jack. The jack shall be designed to ensure that the saddle cables. of a frame with wheels and/or swivel casters supporting a mechanism that actuates a pivoting lift arm equipped 7-3. a partial vehicular load.2 Classification position. such as oil. Part applies. pneumatic/hydraulic service: a service jack in which surface that the jack is supported by throughout the the lift arm is actuated by a mechanism that utilizes a entire lifting range.1 Safety Markings with a saddle.1 and 7-3. as the force the entire lifting range.1 Operating Controls 7-1. Part and are not intended to be all-inclusive. (d) Lifting device only. points. jack. throughout relatively incompressible fluid.1. consisting fied in paras. 7-3. function.2 Travel Limits 7-1. mechanical service: a service jack in which the lift 7-2. sup- lips.techstreet.5 with a proof load of 150% jack. including any upward protrusion such as lugs. hydraulic service: a device in which the lift arm is of rated capacity. arm is actuated by a mechanism that utilizes compressed air as the force transmitting medium. port the vehicle with appropriate means.3 Illustrations Each jack shall be provided with a positive means to prevent the load from being raised or lowered beyond Figures 7-1 and 7-2 show typical jacks covered by this the designed limit of travel. The operation of controls should be clear to the operator either by 7-1. the saddle and the load on the outermost edge of the (c) Use only on hard level surface. and by the operator for release to prevent accidental mechanical are the four classifications for which this lowering. saddle. shall not move outside the imagi- transmitting means. 7-2. service: a self-contained device designed for lifting. pneumatic service: a service jack in which the lift points (see Fig. but not sustaining.3 Proof Load (09) 7-1. pneumatic/hydraulic. gears. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. remains within 3 deg parallel (before and after per- forming each saddle periphery test of 7-4. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. or combination thereof. understand. screws.1 Scope Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator This Part applies to self-contained service jacks used and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch for lifting. actuated by a hydraulic pump. 7-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES jack. ratchets. 7-3). . 27 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. before operating this device. saddle periphery: the highest points of contact between (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. The saddle periphery.4 Saddle Periphery arm is actuated by mechanical means such as levers.2. actuated by a pneumatic power nary perimeter established by lines connecting center- source. 7-2. a partial vehicular load. Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- but not sustaining. or tangs. CLASSIFICATION. Immediately after lifting. Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series of standards.4 Definitions All service jacks shall be capable of performing the proof load test of para. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.

7-1 Typical Hydraulic Service Jacks Saddle Actuating Lift arm handle Lift arm/frame axle Saddle Lift arm Actuating handle Lift arm/frame axle Operating control 28 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. . downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig.com). No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.techstreet. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.

Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.com). . downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.techstreet. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. 7-2 Typical Pneumatic/Hydraulic Service Jacks Release Actuating handle mechanism Pneumatic operation actuator Lift arm Saddle Lift arm/ frame axle Actuating handle Pneumatic operation actuator Saddle Lift arm 29 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

the jacks shall perform to design specifications and no functional damage shall occur. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. sample jacks built to design specifications shall be proof tested. (4. more than 1.4 Saddle Periphery Test. 7-3 Saddle Periphery Limits Fig. at which time the jack must have been (b) full extension supporting no less than 100% of the rated capacity nor (c) a position measured midway between points (a) more than 125% of rated capacity. The load shall be for determining when the lift arm is in the horizontal position shall be taken when the number one saddle lug is in its forward removed and the jack checked for compliance with para. the measurement throughout the range of the jack. most position.com). the load to be applied over a contact area not 1 greater than 1. The procedure shall be repeated until all remaining 30 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The jack shall be tested For jacks with arched or curved lifting arms.4. the jack shall be placed on a smooth. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. A load not less than The release mechanism shall be operated through 1 in.1.3 Release Mechanism Test./sec (25. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. the rated capacity shall be applied centrally to the saddle (25.18 mm) in point.76 mm) in 10 min. nor a total of 0. 7-3. the first minute. . nor shall operational characteristics be detrimentally affected. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. 7-4.0 in. Prior to each test below.1 Load-Limiting Device Test.4 mm/s) at each specified The load shall not lower more than 1⁄8 in. 7-4. (09) 7-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING 7-4. (f) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- sonal injury and/or property damage. 7-2.4 mm) of travel to control the rate of descent to no of the jack with the lift arm in the horizontal position.1. Lift point No. using imaginary 7-4. To conform with this Standard. flat surface with the rear wheels or casters in contact with the surface and loaded with sufficient force to remove all vertical play in the wheels or casters. into segments as shown in Fig.1 Proof Tests For each design or design change that may affect the jack’s ability to meet this Standard. (b) No alterations shall be made to this product.techstreet. A load not less lines. Service jacks equipped with internal load-limiting devices shall be pumped against a measured load with the lift arm in the horizontal position until the load-limiting device is activated. and (b) 7-4. than the jack’s rated capacity shall be applied centrally (b). 7-4.0 in. The lift point of the jack at the saddle shall be divided. (3.1875 in. sketches (a).1.1. 1 of the saddle periphery to the saddle and the test performed at three points: (see Definitions in Introduction) shall be loaded to rated (09) (a) lift arm horizontal1 capacity. 7-4 Saddle Periphery Test (e) Do not move or dolly the vehicle while on the jack. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.2 (645 mm2).2 Safety Messages Additional safety messages include the following: (a) Lift only on areas of the vehicle as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.2 Load-Sustaining Test. and (c).

. The orientation of the lift para.com).3 shall be applied centrally to the saddle of the points of saddles that are neither square nor circular jack. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. 31 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 lift points of the saddle periphery have been tested in 7-4.techstreet. with the adapter in place. 7-2. This test shall be repeated load point on the segment line. The load shall be lifted throughout the lifting range.5 Proof Load Test.1. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. This test shall be repeated with the extender in the fully extended position with with the extender in the fully extended position and/or the adapter in place. shall be rotated for each successive test to provide the For purposes of this test. 2 through 4. A proof load as defined in (09) lift point Nos. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. any internal load limiting maximum distance from the saddle centerline to the device may be deactivated.

Each wheel dolly shall be provided with a positive 8-1. 8-2. it shall be so assemblies. or snagging haz- 8-1. sharp edges. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 8 Wheel Dollies 8-1 SCOPE. remov- ing. and it shall require inten- wheel dolly.5 Rollers ground. designed to allow the lifting member to be adjusted relative to the horizontal plane. The load restraint shall be so designed and positioned rollers: mechanisms attached to the lifting member that as to prevent the inadvertent loss of the load during rotate about the lifting member. operation and movement of the wheel dolly. transporting. used to raise the wheels of one end of the vehicle free of the 8-2.2 Classification means to prevent the load from being raised or lowered beyond the design limit of travel. screws. Hydraulic and mechanical are the two classifications for which this Part applies. . remove. The release system shall require inten- members that raise and lower in unison and are so tional positive action by the operator for release to arranged as to contact the vehicle wheel(s) at two areas prevent accidental lowering.7 Tilt Mechanism spaced lifting members that are used to raise.4 Definitions Wheel dollies shall be capable of performing the proof load test of para.3 Overload Capacity 8-1.3 Illustration All wheel dollies shall be designed to meet the require- ments of para. gears. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.1 Safety Markings Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator of standards. and replace automotive wheel and tire When a tilt mechanism is provided. transport. CLASSIFICATION.1 and 8-3. of tilt. or chains as the force transmitting medium. load restraint: a device supplied by the manufacturer to 8-2. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. mechanical: a wheel dolly that employs mechanical means such as cables.2.1 Scope ards.1 Operating Controls 8-3. 8-2. wheel dolly: a PALD characterized by a pair of laterally 8-2.1. on its circumference for the purpose of raising. hydraulic: a wheel dolly that employs a tional positive action by the operator to change the angle hydraulic pump. 32 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. AND ILLUSTRATION and shall be designed so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch points.4 as minimum overload capacity.com). operates.2 with a proof load of 200% of lift: a PALD characterized by a pair of laterally spaced rated capacity. 8-4. 8-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES (09) Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- 8-2 DESIGN fied in paras.6 Load Restraint retain the load on the lift platform. function. and replacing wheel and tire 8-2. Figure 8-1 shows typical wheel dollies covered by this Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive. wheel dolly. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.2 Travel Limit assemblies. The operation of controls should be clear to the This Part applies to hydraulic and mechanical wheel operator either by position.techstreet. 8-2. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. The lifting member shall be equipped with rollers to lifting frame: the stationary portion of a wheel dolly to permit the rotation of wheel assemblies for the purpose which the lifting member is attached and on which it of aligning bolt holes to their mating wheel studs.4 Proof Load (09) 8-1. 8-2. or combi- dollies characterized by a pair of laterally spaced lifting nation thereof. labeling. lifting members that raise and lower in unison. 8-3.

Uncontrolled wh No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.com). 8-1 Typical Wheel Dollies ASME PALD-2009 33 . downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.techstreet. Fig. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.

8-4. sonal injury and/or property damage.1875 in. 8-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING and a 0.1. The load.1.1. (12. The load shall not lower more of travel.com).7 mm) drop to the floor. the wheel dolly shall loaded as defined in para.1. nor a total before operating this device. The wheel dolly. nor shall operational characteristics be a 2. (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. 8-4.2 Release Test. 8-4. wheel dolly’s ability to meet this Standard. The wheel dolly shall not centrally between the rollers with the load center of lose the load or tip over.1.7 mm) high.4 shall be applied to the lifting member. lower the load to the lowest possi- full height. of 0. while (c) No alterations shall be made to this product.1.5 Stability Test.1 Operational Test.1. as located midway between the front and rear of the lifting defined in para. The release mechanism shall be operated to ble point. shall be applied to the lifting member at (d) Before moving.0 in. loaded as defined in para. (51 mm) high vertical rise 90 deg to the direction detrimentally affected. (b) Before moving the load./sec (e) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- (76 mm/s).1 Additional safety messages include the following: and with the lift member at its maximum height. load shall be applied centrally between the rollers and (09) 8-4. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 (a) Study.1 Proof Tests angle that will bring only one caster or wheel at a time in contact with the rise and drop.1. range of adjustment. of movement at an approach angle that will bring one 8-4.5 ft/sec (457 mm/s) to 2. shall be applied to the lifting member. the tilt (a) Apply load as close to the vertical portion of the mechanism shall be manipulated throughout its entire lifting member as possible.5 in. (4.3 Tilt Mechanism Test (If So Equipped). 8-4. assure that the load is centered and secured with a load restraint device. The load shall be lifted throughout the range member at full height. shall be moved at 1.2 Proof Load Test. as defined in (09) (c) Use only on hard level surface. (12.1.1. (686 mm) from the floor. The load center of gravity para. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.0 ft/sec (610 mm/s) across a 0.techstreet.1. and follow all instructions than 0. 8-4.1 Load-Sustaining Test. The wheel dolly shall For each design or design change that may affect the not lose the load or tip over. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. A static load.1. understand.0 in.1. 8-3. 1. not less than or two wheels or casters in contact with the rise at the the rated capacity of the wheel dolly.1. 8-4.18 mm) in the first minute.1.1. 34 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. gravity approximately 1. para.2 Safety Messages With the wheel dolly loaded as defined in para. 15 deg slope rise in the floor. while To conform with this Standard. sample wheel dollies built to design specifications shall be proof tested.125 in.76 mm) in 10 min. The load.1. control the rate of descent to no more than 3.5 in. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. (3.0 in. A proof load as defined in portion of the lifting member. at an approach 8-4.1. .4 Mobility Test. 8-4.0 ft/sec (610 mm/s) against age shall occur. shall be applied point of greatest instability.1.1. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.5 ft/sec (457 mm/s) to 2. 8-4. The wheel dolly.0 ft (305 mm) from the vertical 8-4. shall be moved at perform to design specifications and no functional dam. 8-2.1. The shall be not less than 27. 8-4.

Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 9 Shop Cranes 9-1 SCOPE. of controls should be clear to the operator either by position.3 Overload Capacity base: the structure of a shop crane to which the upright All shop cranes shall be designed to meet the require- mast and leg extensions are attached. an upright mast. upright: the upright structure mounted to the base load hook shall be provided with a latching mechanism. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. understand.4 Proof Load (09) hydraulic unit is attached to raise and lower loads. hydraulic: a shop crane that is actuated by a 9-3.techstreet. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.1 and 9-3. points. trans. and a power unit to move the boom up and down at a 9-2.com). downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. beyond the design limit of travel.2. The operation ity or less. This and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch Part applies to shop cranes of 8. that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator bile engines/transmissions and other components. or combination thereof. 9-3.1.000 lbm (3 636 kg) capac. sharp edges. 9-4. The 9-1.3 Illustration Each shop crane shall be provided with a positive Figure 9-1 shows typical shop cranes covered by this means to prevent the load from being raised or lowered Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive. or snagging hazards. before operating this device. (a) Study.1 Scope supporting a load at the sling’s lower end. (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. pivoting boom with a boom extension. 9-2. by the operator for release to prevent accidental sifications for which this Part applies. pneumatic/hydraulic: a crane in which the of standards. shop crane. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.1 Operating Controls pivot point for the purpose of raising.6 with a proof load of 150% provides adjustment of the effective boom length. CLASSIFICATION.2 Travel Limit 9-1.2 Classification release system shall require intentional positive action Hydraulic and pneumatic/hydraulic are the two clas. pivoting boom with a boom extension and hook. boom is actuated by a mechanism that utilizes a rela. lowering. boom: the pivoting portion of the PALD to which the 9-2.1 Safety Markings hydraulic pump. Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner porting in the lowered position. This Part applies to self-contained shop cranes charac- terized by a pair of laterally spaced legs. . an upright 9-2 DESIGN mast. and follow all instructions tively incompressible fluid. of rated capacity. 9-2. such as oil. 35 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. actuated by a pneumatic power source.5 Load Hook load hook: a device at the end of the boom extension to The shop crane shall be provided with a load hook which the load is applied. mitting means. shop crane: a PALD characterized by a pair of laterally 9-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES spaced legs. to which the boom is attached. and/or chain at the end of the boom extension that is capable of sustaining the proof loads of the unit.4 as minimum overload capacity. fied in paras. The mast. 9-1. and replacing automo. as the force trans. labeling.4 Definitions 9-2. function. removing. Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series shop crane. 9-2. AND ILLUSTRATION sling: an assembly to be used for lifting when connected to a lifting mechanism at the sling’s upper end and when 9-1. leg extension: that integral portion of the leg that provides adjustment of the effective leg length. and hook which is used to raise and Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- remove automotive components for service. All shop cranes shall be capable of performing the boom extension: that integral portion of the boom that proof load test of para. ments of para.

No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.techstreet. 9-1 Typical Shop Cranes Boom Boom extension Load Actuating hook handle Hydraulic unit Base Boom Boom extension Hydraulic unit Load hook Base 36 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. .com). Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig.

com).7 mm) drop to the floor. sample shop 9-4. the boom at its maximum lifting height.76 mm) in 10 min.1875 in. lower the load to the lowest possi.5 Stability Test. equipped with internal load-limiting devices shall be ble point.techstreet. and a 0./sec (76 mm/s). contact with the vertical rise. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. nor a para. 1. load center of gravity 2. the rated capacity shall be applied to the hook with the boom in the horizontal position.4 shall be applied to the boom extension.0 in. For each design or design change that may affect the shop crane’s ability to meet this Standard. (3. detrimentally affected.0 in. crane shall have a rated capacity greater than the weight of the object being lifted. boom in the horizontal position.6 Proof Load Test./sec (178 mm/s) against a 2.3 Load-Limiting Device Test.1. The shop crane.2 Safety Messages 125% of its rated capacity.0 ft (610 mm) below the hook To conform with this Standard. shall be moved perform to design specification and no functional dam. horizontal position until the load-limiting device is acti- sonal injury and/or property damage. The release mechanism shall be operated to control the rate of descent to no more than 3. 9-4. The shop crane shall 9-4.0 ft (610 mm) off the floor and greater than the weight of the load being lifted. at an approach angle that will bring only one caster or wheel at a time 9-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING in contact with the rise and drop. A proof load as defined in more than 0. The load shall not lower 9-4. The test shall be repeated with 9-4. The shop crane. A load not less than the movement in the opposite direction. The tests below shall be per. Additional safety messages include the following: 9-4.0 in. A load not less extension. the shop crane shall and boom in the fully raised position.7 mm) high.0 ft/sec (610 mm/s) across (c) No alterations shall be made to this product. any internal load limiting device than the rated capacity shall be applied to the hook with may be deactivated.5 in. vated.4 Mobility Test./sec age shall occur. Shop cranes (d) Before moving. nor shall operational characteristics be (127 mm/s) to 7. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.18 mm) in the first minute.0 in. 9-2. (51 mm) high vertical rise 90 deg to the direction of formed with the boom at the fully extended and fully movement that will bring the front wheels or casters in retracted positions.1. forward in a direction parallel to the boom at 5.0 in. a rate of descent greater than 3./sec Slings and/or chains used in conjunction with a shop (76 mm/s) is expected. The shop crane shall not lose the load or tip over.1. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 37 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.1 Proof Tests traverse the rise and drop without loss of load or tip- ping over. The total of 0. pumped against a measured load with the boom in the (e) Failure to heed these markings may result in per.125 in.5 ft/sec (457 mm/s) to 2.2 Release Mechanism Test. with rated (a) Use only slings or chains with a rated capacity load center of gravity 2. a 0. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 (c) Use only on hard level surface.1. For this test. shall be moved forward (b) Do not allow load to swing or drop violently while in a direction parallel to the boom at a minimum of lowering or moving.1. (12. (4. with rated cranes built to design specifications shall be proof tested. 15 deg slope rise in the floor. at which time the jack must have been supporting no less than 100% of its rated capacity and no more than 9-3.5 in. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.1.1 Load-Sustaining Test. load shall be lifted throughout the range of travel with the load located on the hook at the end of the boom 9-4. 9-5 ATTACHMENT AND ADAPTERS NOTE: In normal use. (12. .

and are so arranged as to contact the vehicle at two points across its axis of symmetry on the bumper. 10-1.1 Safety Markings by the operator for release to prevent accidental lowering. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. load of 150% of rated capacity. 10-2.5 with a proof member from extending to its full stroke in an unre. 10-1. 10-2. 10-3. or snagging hazards.6 Saddles 10-2. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.4 Proof Load (09) bers are attached.2 Travel Limit (a) Study. unrestricted lowering of the load in the event of loss of air pressure. The fied in paras.2. All lifts shall be designed to meet the requirements of para.com). 10-2 DESIGN 10-2.1 Scope This Part applies to pneumatic swing-type mobile lifts characterized by a pair of laterally spaced lifting mem- bers that raise and lower in unison. or combination thereof. All swing type mobile lifts shall be capable of per- dynamic restraint: a device used to prevent the lifting forming the proof load test of para. or frame members for the purpose of raising the wheels of one end of a vehicle free of the ground. understand.techstreet.3 Illustration Figure 10-1 shows a typical swing-type mobile lift covered by this Part and is not intended to be all. that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch 10-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES points.3 Overload Capacity inclusive. function. axle.4 Definitions base: the stationary portion of a lift to which lifting mem. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. prevent the load from being raised or moved beyond (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. pneumatic: a lift that is actuated by a pneumatic Lifts shall be equipped with a device to prevent power source. (c) Use only on hard level surface. and follow all instructions Each lift shall be provided with a positive means to before operating this device.5 Secondary Load Holding Means lift. 10-1.1 Operating Controls The saddles shall have raised protrusions. the design limit of travel. 10-2.4 as minimum overload capacity. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 10 Swing-Type Mobile Lifts 10-1 SCOPE. AND Fig. labeling. bumper supports. 10-2. such as a Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner tang or rail. strained manner if the load is suddenly removed from the lift. release system shall require intentional positive action 10-3. CLASSIFICATION. 38 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 10-4. 10-1 Typical Swing-Type Mobile Lift ILLUSTRATION 10-1. 10-2.1. The operation of controls should be clear to the operator either by Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- position.2 Classification Pneumatic is the only classification for which this Part applies. Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series of standards.1 and 10-3. on the edges to act as a load restraint. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. . sharp edges.

4 Release Test. A proof load as defined member raised to a height determined to provide the in para.1. and attachments (f) Failure to heed these markings may result in per.2 Safety Messages the rated capacity shall be applied to the lifting member at approximately 100% of its lifting range with the sec- Additional safety messages include the following: ondary load holding means deactivated./sec (76 mm/s) is expected.0 ft port the vehicle with appropriate means.18 mm) in the first the manufacturer shall be used. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.1875 in.1. saddles. The lifting member. nor a total of 0. Pneumatic lifts shall be loaded to rated capacity and the lifting 10-4.1 Proof Tests the load within a descent of 7.76 mm) in 10 min. For each design or design change that may affect the 10-4. a rate of descent greater than 3 in. sample lifts built to capacity shall be applied to the lifting member at approx- design specifications shall be proof tested. (b) Lift only on areas of the vehicle as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.125 in. (e) Lifting device only. The load shall be removed in such a range of travel at full extension of all saddles. To conform imately 100% of its lifting range./sec (76 mm/s). The load shall (a) Only attachments and/or adapters supplied by not lower more than 0. the secondary load 10-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING holding means shall automatically stop the lift and hold 10-4. The lift shall not leave the ground more than 1. minute. The release mechanism with this Standard. (4.1.1. (3. A load not less than 10-3. (305 mm). shall not change until the load is completely removed.1.com). any load-limiting device may be deactivated.5 Proof Load Test. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. sustained.2 Load-Sustaining Test. sup. 10-2. shall remain affixed to the lift assembly. nor shall more than 3.4 shall be applied to the saddles. 10-4. The load maximum momentum to the lifting member. For this manner that the vertical height of the lifting member test. NOTE: In normal use. operational characteristics be detrimentally affected. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. and lowered throughout the load be removed. sonal injury and/or property damage.3 Secondary Load Holding Means to Test (c) No alterations shall be made to this product.0 in.techstreet. 10-4. 10-4. 39 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . A load not less than the rated lift’s ability to meet this Standard.0 in. Immediately after lifting. shall be operated to control the rate of descent to no fications and no functional damage shall occur. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. the lifts shall perform to design speci. Pneumatic Lifts. (178 mm). Lifts shall be loaded to not less than rated capacity and operated to raise the load. When the internal air pressure is released. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 (d) Load saddles equally. should the shall be lifted.1 Instantaneous Load Loss Test.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet.com), downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh
ASME PALD-2009

Part 11
Scissors-Type Mobile Lifts

11-1 SCOPE, CLASSIFICATION, AND Fig. 11-1 Typical Scissors-Type Mobile Lift
ILLUSTRATION
11-1.1 Scope
This Part applies to pneumatic and hydraulic scissors-
type mobile lifts characterized by a pair of laterally
spaced lifting members that raise and lower in a scissors
action and are so arranged as to contact the vehicle at
two points across its axis of symmetry on the bumper,
bumper supports, or frame members for the purpose of
raising the wheels of one end of a vehicle free of the
ground.

11-1.2 Classification
Pneumatic and hydraulic are the only classifications
for which this Part applies.

11-1.3 Illustration
Figure 11-1 shows a typical scissors-type mobile lift
covered by this Part and is not intended to be all- 11-2.2 Travel Limit
inclusive.
Each lift shall be provided with a positive means to
11-1.4 Definitions prevent the load from being raised or moved beyond
the design limit of travel.
base: the stationary portion of a lift to which lifting mem-
bers are attached. 11-2.3 Overload Capacity
dynamic restraint: a device used to prevent the lifting All lifts shall be designed to meet the requirements
member from extending to its full stroke in an unre- of para. 11-2.4 as minimum overload capacity.
strained manner if the load is suddenly removed from
11-2.4 Proof Load (09)
the lift.
All scissors-type mobile lifts shall be capable of per-
lift, hydraulic: a lift that is actuated by a hydraulic power
forming the proof load test of para. 11-4.1.6 with a proof
source.
load of 150% of rated capacity.
lift, pneumatic: a lift that is actuated by a pneumatic
power source. 11-2.5 Secondary Load Holding Means
Lifts shall be equipped with a device to prevent
unrestricted lowering of the load in the event of loss of
11-2 DESIGN air pressure.
11-2.1 Operating Controls 11-2.6 Saddles
Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner The saddles shall have raised protrusions, such as a
that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator tang or rail, on the edges to act as a load restraint.
and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch Means shall be incorporated to limit the outward lateral
points, sharp edges, or snagging hazards. The operation adjustment of the saddles.
of controls should be clear to the operator either by
position, function, labeling, or combination thereof. The
release system shall require intentional positive action
11-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES
by the operator for release to prevent accidental Examples of safety markings and messages are speci-
lowering. fied in paras. 11-3.1 and 11-3.2.

40
Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet.com), downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh
ASME PALD-2009

11-3.1 Safety Markings shall not change until the load is completely removed.
Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series The lift shall not leave the ground more than 1.0 ft
of standards. (305 mm). The lifting member, saddles, and attachments
(a) Study, understand, and follow all instructions shall remain affixed to the lift assembly.
before operating this device. 11-4.1.2 Load-Limiting Device Test. Lifts equipped
(b) Do not exceed rated capacity. with internal load-limiting devices shall be raised
(c) Use only on hard level surface. against a measured load until the load-limiting device
(d) Load saddles equally. is activated, at which time the jack must have been
(e) Lifting device only. Immediately after lifting, sup- supporting no less than 100% of its rated capacity and
port the vehicle with appropriate means. no more than 125% of its rated capacity.
(f) Failure to heed these markings may result in per-
11-4.1.3 Load-Sustaining Test. A load not less than
sonal injury and/or property damage.
the rated capacity shall be applied to the lifting member
11-3.2 Safety Messages at approximately 100% of its lifting range with the sec-
ondary load holding means deactivated. The load shall
Additional safety messages include the following: not lower more than 0.125 in. (3.18 mm) in the first
(a) Only attachments and/or adapters supplied by minute, nor a total of 0.1875 in. (4.76 mm) in 10 min.
the manufacturer shall be used.
(b) Lift only on areas of the vehicle as specified by 11-4.1.4 Secondary Load Holding Means to Test
the vehicle manufacturer. Pneumatic Lifts. Lifts shall be loaded to not less than
(c) No alterations shall be made to this product. rated capacity and operated to raise the load. When
the internal air pressure is released, the secondary load
holding means shall automatically stop the lift and hold
11-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING the load within a descent of 7.0 in. (178 mm).
11-4.1 Proof Tests 11-4.1.5 Release Test. A load not less than the rated
For each design or design change that may affect the capacity shall be applied to the lifting member at approx-
lift’s ability to meet this Standard, sample lifts built to imately 100% of its lifting range. The release mechanism
design specifications shall be proof tested. To conform shall be operated to control the rate of descent to no
with this Standard, the lifts shall perform to design speci- more than 3.0 in./sec (76 mm/s).
fications and no functional damage shall occur, nor shall NOTE: In normal use, a rate of descent greater than 3.0 in./sec
operational characteristics be detrimentally affected. (76 mm/s) is expected.

11-4.1.1 Instantaneous Load Loss Test. Pneumatic 11-4.1.6 Proof Load Test. A proof load as defined
lifts shall be loaded to rated capacity and the lifting in para. 11-2.4 shall be applied to the saddles. The load
member raised to a height determined to provide the shall be lifted, sustained, and lowered throughout the
maximum momentum to the lifting member, should the range of travel at full extension of all saddles. For pur-
load be removed. The load shall be removed in such a poses of this test, any internal load-limiting device may
manner that the vertical height of the lifting member be deactivated.

41
Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet.com), downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh
ASME PALD-2009

Part 12
Auxiliary Stands

12-1 SCOPE, CLASSIFICATION, AND base: that portion of the stand that rests on the ground
ILLUSTRATION and holds the adjustable column.
12-1.1 Scope freestanding: when initially positioned vertically, without
a load, able to stand in an upright position without the
This Part applies to self-contained auxiliary stands
application of external forces.
designed as a means of partial support for, and the
positioning of, vehicle components during their installa- locking device: the mechanism used to hold the column
tion/removal, but not for use in stabilizing or supporting in the selected height position.
vehicles. This Part does not apply to devices classified
as vehicle support stands (see Part 4), to units whose 12-2 DESIGN
rated capacity is more than 1,500 lbm (680 kg), or to
devices classified as stabilizing stands. 12-2.1 Base
The base may be of any configuration that provides
12-1.2 Classification for a freestanding unit which is capable of being rocked
Mechanical is the only classification to which this Part to assist in the positioning of vehicle components. The
applies, excluding units with a tripod, square, or other upper portion of the base shall be designed to house
base design configuration (e.g., stabilizing stands). and guide the column.

12-1.3 Illustration 12-2.2 Column
Figure 12-1 shows typical auxiliary stands and their A means shall be provided to prevent the inadvertent
components that are covered by this Part and is not separation of the column from the base. In the fully
intended to be all-inclusive. retracted position, the lower end of the column shall not
extend below the plane made where the base contacts the
12-1.4 Definitions ground.
auxiliary stands: self-contained devices designed to be
used as a means of partial support for vehicle compo- 12-2.3 Operating Controls
nents during their installation/removal, but not for use Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner
in supporting vehicles. that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator

Fig. 12-1 Typical Auxiliary Stands

42
Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.techstreet.com), downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh
ASME PALD-2009

and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch Fig. 12-2 Application of Load for Proof Load Test
points, sharp edges, or snagging hazards. The operation
of controls should be clear to the operator either by
position, function, labeling, or combination thereof. The
release system shall require intentional positive action
by the operator for release to prevent accidental
lowering.
12-2.4 Saddle
The saddle configuration shall be such as to aid in
the proper positioning and supporting of the load.
(09) 12-2.5 Proof Load
Auxiliary stands shall be capable of performing the
proof load test of para. 12-4.1.1 with a load of 110% of
rated capacity.
All auxiliary stands shall be capable of performing
the proof load test of para. 12-4.1.1 with a proof load of
200% of rated capacity.

12-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES
Examples of safety markings and messages are speci-
fied in paras. 12-3.1 and 12-3.2.
12-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING
12-3.1 Safety Markings
12-4.1 Proof Tests
Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series
For each design or design change that may affect the
of standards.
stand’s ability to meet this Standard, sample stands built
(a) Study, understand, and follow all instructions
to design specifications shall be tested. To conform with
before operating this device.
this Standard, the stands shall perform to design specifi-
(b) Do not exceed rated capacity.
cations and no functional damage shall occur, nor shall
(c) Use only on hard level surface.
operational characteristics be detrimentally affected.
(d) Adequately support the vehicle before starting
repairs. 12-4.1.1 Proof Load Test. A horizontally con- (09)
(e) Do not use to support or stabilize vehicle. strained vertical load of 200% of rated capacity shall be
(f) Center load on saddle. applied centrally to the saddle, with the column in both
(g) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- the fully extended and the fully retracted positions, with
sonal injury and/or property damage. the base resting on a hard level surface. The load shall
be applied as shown in Fig. 12-2 for at least 10 min.
12-3.2 Safety Messages A permanent reduction in height, measured after the
Additional safety messages include the following: removal of the load, at the point of load contact shall
(a) This stand is intended to provide partial support not exceed 0.125 in. (3.18 mm). A preload of no more
of vehicle components during removal and installation. than 100% of rated capacity may be applied to establish
(b) No alterations shall be made to this product. initial overall height.

43
Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

matched pairs to support one end (front or rear) of a vehicle. vehicle.techstreet.1 Scope device or configuration so that the vehicle operator or the observer will be able to ascertain that the wheel of This Part applies to automotive ramps to be used in the vehicle is in the correct location. The top surface of the inclined portion of the ramps (g) Never accelerate or apply brakes suddenly. . and follow all instructions matched pair: similar height. standing clear from vehicle path. understand. AND 13-2.3 Surfacing ascending and descending the ramps. used in matched pairs. before operating this device. ramp stability: a measure of resistance to tipping and (f) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- lateral movement while driving on the ramps. engine. ceed slowly and cautiously.2. They are not to be used to simultaneously sup. driving sonal injury and/or property damage. 13-3. CLASSIFICATION.1 Base port both ends or one side of a vehicle. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.5 Resistance to Roll-Off port both ends or one side of a vehicle. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. platform: the top section of the ramp that locates and (c) Use only on hard level surface. (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. off the ramps. universal joints. the base is equal to or greater than the height of the (e) Be sure the wheels to be driven on the ramps ramp platform. Each ramp shall have an inherent means of resisting 13-1. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 13 Automotive Ramps 13-1 SCOPE. with the ramps. (d) Center load between the sides of the ramp. 13-3. length. upon which two front or rear wheels of 13-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES a vehicle are driven to elevate either end of the vehicle. ramp height: the maximum vertical distance between the (e) Use as a matched pair to support one end of a platform and the base. Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- 13-1. and while supporting the load. or The ramps shall be designed such that the width of wheels while the vehicle is on the ramps. should observe and guide the vehicle operator when 13-2.1 Safety Markings ramps that are covered by this Part and are not intended to be all-inclusive. The base may be of any configuration that provides (b) Maximum allowable tire width is (manufacturer ramp stability under proof load and that resists parallel to specify for each set of ramps).2 Stability components. and lateral movement while a vehicle is being driven (c) Do not use other lifting equipment in conjunction onto and off the ramps. The projected edges of the incline and are positioned straight forward in alignment with the platform shall align with or be within the area of the ramps.2 Safety Messages 13-2 DESIGN Additional safety messages include the following: (a) Ramps are not to be used to simultaneously sup- 13-2. Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series of standards. 13-1. (d) Do not disconnect brakes.1 and 13-3. Figures 13-1.3 Illustrations fied in paras. supports the vehicle tire. Pro- shall be constructed to provide slip resistance. and capacity. drive train. Once the vehicle reaches 44 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. and 13-3 show typical automotive 13-3. base.com). 13-2. 13-2. transmission 13-2. drive shaft.2 Classification roll-off of a vehicle from the ramp. and center the two ramps against the tires.4 Locating Devices ILLUSTRATIONS The platform of the ramp shall be equipped with a 13-1. This Part applies to load sustaining devices. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.4 Definitions (a) Study. (f) Another person.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.com).techstreet. Uncontrolled wh No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. Fig. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 13-1 Typical Automotive Ramps ASME PALD-2009 45 .

Uncontrolled wh No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.techstreet.com). No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Fig. 13-2 Typical Test Area for Off-Center Load Test ASME PALD-2009 46 .

Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig.1. (152 mm) wheels on the ground. The load shall then be applied For each design or design change that may affect the for at least 10 min to the portion of the platform designed ramp’s ability to meet this Part. and endways to be sure that vehicle and ramps are stable. See Fig. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. first to the outside edge of the in the selection of appropriately rated ramps for different platform (one at a time) and second to the outside edges gross vehicle weights.1. 47 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. sample ramps built to to receive the tire footprint. 13-4. A horizontally con- bent during loading. resting on a hard level surface. strained vertical load equal to rated capacity shall be (j) Supplier may provide information to assist the user applied using the platen. 13-3 Typical Test Area for Proof Load Test the top of the ramps.1 Proof Tests incline using the platen.techstreet. (102 mm) long by 6. A park (or in reverse gear for manual transmission). A horizontally con. shake vehicle sideways surface and prevent slippage of the platen. vehicle cations and no functional damage shall occur.1 Off-Center Load Test. follow the assembly shown in Fig. . Set emergency brake. 13-3.0 in.2 Proof Load Test. apply brakes only to prevent design specifications shall be proof tested. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. 13-2. nor shall should not move. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. (l) No alterations shall be made to this product. Chock nominally 4. Check that ramps have not become damaged or 13-4. wide platen shall be used in conjunction with the follow- (i) Be sure that both tires are properly positioned on ing tests. of the inclined portion of the ramp (one at a time). downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. for a period of 10 min with the base instructions provided. with this Part. as (k) If assembly is required. Place vehicle in operational characteristics be detrimentally affected. the ramps shall perform to design specifi- (h) Place the vehicle in neutral.com).0 in. To conform overtravel. the ramp’s support platform. (09) strained vertical load of 200% of rated capacity shall be 13-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING applied for at least 10 min at the midpoint of the ramp 13-4. Release brakes. Using caution in position- NOTE: Material may be added to the platen to simulate a tire ing your body clear of danger.

This Part does not apply to devices classified as vehicle support stands (see Part 4) or devices classified as auxiliary stands (see Part 12). No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. .2 Classification High-reach supplementary stands with an adjustable column is the classification for which this Part applies. auxiliary stands). the equivalent of three or more points of contact with the ground. positioning. triangular. function. or polygonal base 14-2.5 Saddle shape (in plan view) is considered equivalent to the The saddle configuration shall be such as to aid in above. If the high-reach supplementary stands: self-contained devices to column is supported by means of a locking pin. tive lift by helping to prevent the tipping/rocking of the vehicle upon which work is being performed. A circular. and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch points. the pin be used to add to the stability of a vehicle on an automo. 14-1. extend below the plane made where the base contacts the column: that portion of the stand that can be extended ground. the load. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.. the lower end of the column shall not and holds the adjustable column. able to stand in an upright position without the The locking device shall prevent adjustment of the application of external forces. In the fully base: that portion of the stand that rests on the ground retracted position. or combination thereof. 48 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. freestanding: when initially positioned vertically. The upper portion of the base shall be designed the proper centering. Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner locking device: the mechanism used to hold the column that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator in the selected height position.1 Scope This Part applies to self-contained high-reach supple- mentary stands designed to help prevent the tipping/ rocking of a vehicle while the vehicle is engaged on an automotive lift. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. The 14-2. 14-1 Typical High-Reach Supplementary Stands ILLUSTRATION 14-1. must be secured to the stand to prevent its loss.g. without 14-2. but 14-2.2 Column 14-1.techstreet. 14-2. The operation of controls should be clear to the operator either by 14-2 DESIGN position. or retracted to vary the overall height. labeling. and stabilization of to house and guide the column.4 Operating Controls not to be used to support vehicles. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. column height after the load has been applied.4 Definitions A means shall be provided to prevent the inadvertent separation of the column from the base. 14-1. or snagging hazards. AND Fig.1 Base release system shall require positive action by the opera- The base may be of any configuration that provides tor for release to prevent accidental lowering.com). sharp edges. CLASSIFICATION.3 Illustration Figure 14-1 shows typical high-reach supplementary stands and their components that are covered by this Standard and is not intended to be all-inclusive. excluding products with a convex base configuration (e. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 14 High-Reach Supplementary Stands 14-1 SCOPE.3 Locking Device a load.

2. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. to the nearest edge of the base shall be at least 4% of (a) Study.1 Safety Markings The stands shall be designed so that the minimum Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series horizontal distance from the projected edge of the saddle of standards. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig.2 Safety Messages Examples of safety markings and messages are speci. See Fig.techstreet. ALTERATIONS SHALL BE MADE TO THIS PRODUCT. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. a load of 200% of rated capacity. 14-2 Stability 14-2.1 with starting repairs. and follow all instructions the maximum extended vertical height. (09) 14-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES 14-3. 14-3. Additional safety messages include the following: NO fied in paras. (09) 14-2.1 and 14-3.7 Proof Load (e) Center load on saddle. 14-2. All high-reach supplemental stands shall be capable (f) Use stands in pairs to stabilize the vehicle before of performing the proof load test of para. in before operating this device. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. . 49 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (c) Use only on hard level surface. (g) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- sonal injury and/or property damage.com). (d) Do not use the stand to support a vehicle. 14-4. understand. vertical height as V. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.6 Stability 14-3. which the horizontal dimension is shown as H and the (b) Do not exceed rated capacity.1.

sample stands built hard level surface. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.125 in. measured after the removal of the load.1 Proof Tests saddle. shall operational characteristics be detrimentally A preload of no more than 100% of rated capacity may affected. 14-3 for at least 10 min. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. To conform in Fig.techstreet. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. nor point of load contact shall not exceed 0. A permanent reduction with this Standard. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. 50 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The load shall be applied as shown to design specifications shall be proof tested.1. with the base resting on a stand’s ability to meet this Standard. . 14-3 Proof Load Test 14-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING 14-4. at the specifications and no functional damage shall occur. (3. be applied to establish initial overall height. the stands shall perform to design in height. with the column in both the fully extended and For each design or design change that may affect the the fully retracted positions.18 mm).1 Proof Load Test.com). A static vertical load of (09) 200% of rated capacity shall be applied centrally to the 14-4.

.3 Illustration points. Each jack shall be provided with a positive means to jack. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. integrated lift point: notch or other means integrated into 15-2. The release system shall require intentional positive action 15-1. or snagging hazards. on frame members for member. or combination thereof.techstreet.1 Scope follows a path (arc) similar to that of the path (arc) of the vehicle being lifted. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. AND of a frame with wheels supporting a mechanism that ILLUSTRATION actuates a pivoting lift arm equipped with a saddle that 15-1. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. consisting the design limit of travel.2 Travel Limit the lift member intended as a lift point. CLASSIFICATION.4 Definitions by the operator for release to prevent accidental base: the stationary portion of a jack to which lifting lowering. the purpose of raising the wheels of one end or one side of a vehicle free of the ground. prevent the load from being raised or moved beyond but not sustaining. a partial vehicular load. lowers in a scissors action and is so arranged as to contact secondary saddle: saddle not located on the lifting vehicles with low road clearance. 15-1 Typical Forklift Jack Release mechanism Actuating handle Lift arm Saddle(s) Front footpad 51 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. labeling. Some jack designs may incorporate an auxiliary saddle not located on the lift 15-2 DESIGN (09) member. The operation Figure 15-1 shows typical forklift jacks covered by this of controls should be clear to the operator either by Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive. sharp edges. This Part applies to hydraulic walking-beam-type jacks characterized by a lifting members that raises and primary saddle: saddle located on the lifting member. forklift: a self-contained device designed for lifting. members are attached. that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch 15-1. 15-2.2 Classification Hydraulic is the only classification for which this Part Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner applies. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 15 Forklift Jacks 15-1 SCOPE. function.com).1 Operating Controls 15-1. Fig. position.

1. (25. and follow all instructions (a) lift arm horizontal1 before operating this device. sup. 15-2. the jacks shall perform to design specifications and no functional damage shall occur. Jacks equipped as a tang.2 Safety Messages 15-4.5 Off-Center Load Test. on each outermost edge at full extension prior (b) Only attachments and/or adapters supplied by to lowering.1 Proof Tests 1 For jacks with arched or curved lifting arms. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. (c) a position measured midway between points (a) (c) Use only on hard level surfaces. 100% of rated capacity nor more than 125% of rated capacity. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 15-2.125 in. The load shall fied in paras. NOTE: In normal use. . nor shall opera- 15-2.1 Safety Markings minute. 15-4. Safety markings shall conform to the rated capacity shall be applied centrally to the saddle ANSI Z535 series of standards. (f) Failure to heed these markings may result in per.76 mm) in 10 min. sample jacks built to design speci- proof load test of para.4 mm) wide rectangular block (a) Ensure cylinder does not contact vehicle during through the entire lifting range and maintained for lifting. A proof load test as (09) in contact with surface. and lowered through- sonal injury and/or property damage.techstreet. 15-4. Primary saddles shall have raised protrusions.1875 in.1. defined in para. (d) Lifting device only. integrated lift points and auxiliary saddles for determining when the lift arm is in the horizontal position (if so equipped) shall be tested separately. nor a total of 0. (09) 15-3. Immediately after lifting. (3.4 with a proof load of fications shall be proof tested. A load not less than the rated capacity shall be applied to the lifting member Examples of safety markings and messages are speci- at approximately 100% of its lifting range. the measurement Primary. Only the attachments or adapters supplied by the manufacturer or supplier for this equipment shall be 15-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING used.1.4 Proof Load Test. such 15-4.1.18 mm) in the first 15-3. 15-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES 15-4. sustained. A vertical load equal (09) Additional safety messages include the following: to the rated capacity shall be applied and sustained by means of a 1 in. 10 min. 15-3. (c) Lift only on areas of the vehicle as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.4 mm/s) is expected. not lower more than 0. (b) full extension (b) Do not exceed rated capacity.1. To conform with this 150% of rated capacity. (4. out the range of travel. any internal load limiting device may be deactivated. and the test performed at three points: (a) Study.3 Release Test. Auxiliary saddles may be separately is activated. 52 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.3 shall be applied to the saddle. If so equipped.2 Load-Sustaining Test. a rate of descent greater than 1. the manufacturer shall be used.0 in.com). and (b). secondary saddles shall be separately 15-4. A load not less than the jack’s identified. The load shall be lifted. (e) Position this jack perpendicular to the vehicle such that the load is balanced by the remaining two wheels 15-4. (25.1 and 15-3. on the surface to act as a load restraint. The measured load shall be no less than rated.3 Proof Load design or design change that may affect the jack’s ability All forklift jacks shall be capable of performing the to meet this Standard.1. For purposes of this test./sec port the vehicle with appropriate means. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.4 Saddles tional characteristics be detrimentally affected. understand. if so equipped. For each shall be taken at the highest point of the lifting arm’s arch. and/ with internal load-limiting devices shall be raised or incorporate means intended to engage an edge on against a measured load until the load-limiting device the load to be lifted.2. 15-5 ATTACHMENTS AND ADAPTERS (d) No alterations shall be made to this product.1 Load-Limiting Device Test. Standard.

3 Locking Device devices classified as high-reach supplementary stands (see Part 14). A circular.6 Saddle a load. The stands shall be designed so that the minimum horizontal distance from the projected edge of the saddle locking device: the mechanism used to hold the column to the nearest edge of the base shall be at least 8% of in the selected height position. the pin High-reach fixed stands with or without an adjustable must be secured to the stand to prevent its loss. 16-2. between the base and the column when fully retracted. function. If the 16-1. The release system shall require positive action by the opera- column: that portion of the stand that can be either fixed tor for release to prevent accidental lowering.techstreet. positioning. the proper centering.. excluding products with a convex base 16-2. without 16-2. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. or 16-2. In the fully This Part applies to self-contained high-reach fixed retracted position. triangular. of 200% of rated capacity. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. See Fig. devices classified as auxiliary stands (see Part 12). auxiliary stands) and products that If wheels are provided on the base to facilitate reloca- are designed to be adjustable under load (e. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 16 High-Reach Fixed Stands 16-1 SCOPE. and stabilization of high-reach fixed stands: self-contained devices to be used the load. and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch 16-1. freestanding: when initially positioned vertically. or combination thereof. sharp edges.8 Proof Load (09) shape (see Fig. or polygonal base 16-2.g. the equivalent of three or more points of contact with the ground.3 Illustration 16-2.2 Classification column is supported by means of a locking pin. This Part does not apply to be configured to eliminate potential for a pinch point devices classified as vehicle support stands (see Part 4). CLASSIFICATION. to load when the stand is loaded. labeling. able to stand in an upright position without the The saddle configuration shall be such as to aid in application of external forces.2 with a load to house and guide the column.4 Definitions points. The upper portion of the base shall be designed forming the proof load test of para. the lower end of the column shall not stands designed to support a vehicle after the vehicle extend below the plane made where the base contacts has been raised by an automotive lift and the automotive the ground. 16-2) is considered equivalent to the All high-reach fixed stands shall be capable of per- above. the maximum extended vertical height when the column is moved by hand to remove all slack in the direction 16-2 DESIGN of the vertical measurement. in which the 16-2. . column or columns is the classification for which this Part applies. position.7 Stability by an automotive lift and the automotive lift has been removed. or extended/retracted to vary the overall height. AND 16-2. tion of the stand..1 Base horizontal dimension is shown as H and the vertical The base may be of any configuration that provides height is shown as V. 53 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. then the wheels shall not be subject reach supplementary stands).1.5 Operating Controls Figures 16-1 and 16-2 shows typical high-reach fixed Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner stands and their components that are covered by this that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator Standard and is not intended to be all-inclusive.com).2 Column ILLUSTRATION A means shall be provided to prevent the inadvertent 16-1. high. The column and the base juncture shall lift has been removed. 16-4. to support a vehicle after the vehicle has been raised 16-2. The operation base: that portion of the stand that rests on the ground of controls should be clear to the operator either by and holds the adjustable column.4 Wheels configuration (e. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. or snagging hazards.1 Scope separation of the column from the base. The locking device shall prevent adjustment of the column height after the load has been applied. 16-1.g.

16-1 Typical High-Reach Fixed Stand Saw Horse Type H Top View Saddle Column Locking pin V Base Side View End View 54 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. . Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig.com).techstreet. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.

1 Off-Center Load Test. To conform with this Standard. (g) Do not apply horizontal forces or large torque loads to the vehicle while supported by stands. (b) No alterations shall be made to this product. 16-3. (k) Failure to heed these markings may result in per- sonal injury and/or property damage. 16-3. (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. nor shall operational characteristics be detrimentally affected. Column (j) Carefully lower vehicle onto all stands simultaneously. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. and follow all instructions before operating this device. the stands shall perform to design specifications and no functional damage shall occur. . Locking pin 16-3. restraints or adapters supplied V by the manufacturer shall be used. (a) Study. (i) Ensure stands are stable and vehicle is balanced before lowering onto stands.1 Safety Markings Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series of standards. before starting repairs. The saddle’s ability to retain the load shall not be adversely affected by this test. Top View (e) Center load on saddle. with the column in the fully extended posi- Side View tion and fully retracted position for at least 10 min on the lug or edge of the saddle as shown in Fig. (d) Locate saddle at vehicle manufacturer designated support points. (h) Do not start engine while supported on stands. They need not be verbatim but shall convey the following. 16-4. sample stands built to design specifications shall be proof tested.com). downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. 16-2 Typical High-Reach Fixed Stand 16-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES Tripod Type Examples of required safety markings and messages are specified in paras.1.2 Safety Messages Additional safety messages include the following: (a) Only attachments.1 and 16-3. H (c) Use only on hard level surface. 16-3. (f) Use a minimum of four stands to support and stabilize a vehicle. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 55 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.techstreet. understand. 16-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING Base 16-4. and a minimum of two additional Saddle stands for each additional axle assembly.2. A permanent reduction in height. A horizontally unconstrained vertical load equal to rated capacity shall be applied.1 Proof Tests For each design or design change that may affect the stand’s ability to meet this Standard.

A static vertical load of be applied to establish initial overall height. A permanent reduction rated capacity may be applied to establish initial overall in height.125 in. measured after the removal of the load. The test shall be repeated on all hard level surface.1.18 mm).125 in. .com). at the point of saddle. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. point of load contact shall not exceed 0. 200% of rated capacity shall be applied centrally to the 56 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. with the base resting on a 0.2 Proof Load Test. A preload of not more than 100% of rated capacity may (09) 16-4. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Fig. 16-3 shall not exceed the fully retracted positions.techstreet. (3. 16-4 Application of Load for Centered Load Test Load Test measured after the removal of the load.18 mm). Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. 16-3 Application of Load for Off-Center Fig. with the column in both the fully extended and load contact as shown in Fig. A preload of not more than 100% of in Fig. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. (3. The load shall be applied as shown lugs and edges. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. 16-4 for at least 10 min. at the height.

17-2. A load restraint means shall be provided. or combination thereof. function. The lift platform shall be designed to minimize slipping or slid- ing of the load along the platform’s horizontal surface. It does not Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner include those devices which are designed to lift one that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator end or side of a vehicle. 17-1. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.1 Operating Controls the automotive vehicle clear off the floor. to be capable of sustaining a proof load placed across ered by this Part and is not intended to be all-inclusive.2 Lift Platform of these force transmitting means is used. or snagging hazards. Hydraulic. such as cables. pneumatic. Restraints restrain the load on the lift pad assembly. (09) 17-1.3 Illustration The lift platform shall be designed in such a manner as Figure 17-1 shows typical vehicle transport lifts cov.3 Mechanical Load Holding Means lift.1. ILLUSTRATIONS rollers. All adapters and restraints shall 57 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. and mechanical are the classifi- cations for which this Part applies. load of 200% of rated capacity. prevent the load from being raised or lowered beyond the design limit of travel.techstreet. screws. servicing. or adapter(s). including any bracket(s). Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 17 Vehicle Transport Lifts 17-1 SCOPE. All vehicle transport lifts shall be capable of per- lifting member: that portion of the lift that activates the forming the proof load test of para. . When a combination 17-2. of controls should be clear to the operator either by position. and storing of automotive vehicles. pneumatic: a movable device that utilizes compressed air as the force transmitting means to raise and lower 17-2. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. transporting.1 Scope This Part applies to vehicle transport lifts that are 17-2 DESIGN (09) used for lifting. AND vehicle transport lift: a lift that is equipped with wheels.5 Proof Load an automotive vehicle. its intended load contact member(s). The 17-1. lift. It includes only those lifts that raise 17-2. each system shall be tested to conform with this Part. after raising to any position at or above the lifting means. chains or lowest designated storage position. function with that lift.com). lower an automotive vehicle.3 with a proof lift platform. The operation ary when loaded. which render it capable of being moved while the load is in the raised position. Each lift shall be provided with a positive means to provided. gears.6 Adapters.4 Travel Limit lift platform: the portion of the lift that contacts the auto- motive vehicle. nor does it include stationary and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch automotive lifts or automotive lifts that become station. Such means shall the like as the force transmitting means to raise and automatically reset upon full descent. or slides. in the event of failure of the force transmitting means. 17-1. All adapters and restraints manufactured specifically mechanical load holding means: mechanical means of secur. Such means shall prevent inadvertent lowering of more lift. mechanical: a movable device that utilizes mechanical than 3 in. points. hydraulic: a movable device that utilizes a hydraulic The lift shall be provided with a self-acting mechanical pump as the force transmitting means to raise and lower means of preventing inadvertent lowering of the load an automotive vehicle.4 Definitions 17-2. labeling. for a lift shall be capable of performing their intended ing the lift platform in a raised position. sharp edges. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. 17-4. CLASSIFICATION. load restraint: a device supplied by the manufacturer to 17-2. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.2 Classification release system shall require intentional positive action by the operator to prevent accidental lowering.

Fig. 17-1 Typical Vehicle Transport Lifts ASME PALD-2009 58 .Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.techstreet. Uncontrolled wh No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.com).

means of the handle provided.1 and 17-3. in any direction over a (d) Center load on lift platform. around or under a load that is not direction both forward and rearward to the load for secured and stable. understand. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 be capable of supporting a proof load of 150% of the such that the entire load is upon and above the lift load they are designed to support.1 Safety Markings to control the initial rate of descent to no more than Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series 1. hands and be restrained for this test. and shall not lower more than 0.1.1.5 ft/sec (457 mm/s) to 2. A deadweight damage shall occur.4 mm/s). The lift. with the lift plat- (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.1.3 Stability Test. shall perform to design specifications and no functional 17-4. (12. The lift shall traverse the rise and drop (h) Secure load with appropriate restraint device. With the lift plat- (e) No alterations shall be made to this product.125 in. 17-4.5 Load-Sustaining Test. and storing in the lowered position. rise and drop. 15 deg slope rise in the floor. restraints.1. shall be moved at 1. of movement at an approach angle that will bring two transporting. 17-3. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. appears tip over.1875 in. nor shall operational characteristics load equal to the rated capacity of the lift and configured be detrimentally affected. before operating this device. loads wheels or casters in simultaneous contact (or the lift consisting of a single motor vehicle whose lift points base frame in contact) with the rise in the direction of are compatible with the lift platform.76 mm) in 17-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING 10 min.7 mm) high.1 Release Mechanism Test.2 Mobility Test. (f) Immediately after lifting load. The lift. (12.techstreet.5 in. level floor surface. The lift platform shall be raised with the mechanical For each design or design change that may affect the load holding means positioned to allow maximum dis- lift’s ability to meet this Standard.1. shall be applied centrally in the lateral and longitudinal (c) Never work on.5 ft/sec (457 mm/s) to specified by its manufacturer.1.0 ft/sec (610 mm/s) across a 0. . and follow all instructions 4 in.1 Proof Tests 17-4.7 mm) cal load holding means is engaged. and a 0./sec (25. 17-4. 17-4. smooth. (3. ensure lift mechani. The 17-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES mechanical load holding means may be deactivated to facilitate testing.0 in. The lift wheels may (d) Keep operator’s and bystander’s head. the lift shall perform to design speci- the maximum rate of descent of the lift. without loss of load or tipping over.0 in. each caster or wheel individually into contact with the ble point. nor shall be allowed to free-fall to the nearest engagement. The lift shall fications and no functional damage shall occur.com).1. and/or does not securely engage the lift platform. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. a force of 100 lbf (444 N) the load secure and may cause unexpected loss of load.1. (51 mm) high vertical rise 90 deg to the direction (a) Use of this product is limited to lifting. Incompatibility greatest instability. Examples of required safety markings and messages are specified in paras.1.1. form at the highest locked height. sample lifts built to engaged distance from the nearest downward engage- design specifications shall be proof tested. To conform ment. shall be moved by (c) Use only on hard. lowering. feet away from lift arms when raising and lowering. With the release mechanism of standards. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. while loaded as above at 1.1 Loaded Operational Test. The lift shall not tip over. lower the load to the lowest possi. 17-4. The lift operational characteristics be detrimentally affected. (i) Failure to heed these markings may result in per.1. form at the highest locked height. form at its maximum height. platform shall be centrally located and restrained and the following operational tests shall be conducted. or adapters supplied holding means disengaged. the average rate of descent shall not exceed (a) Study. the release mechanism shall be operated 17-3./sec (100 mm/s). at an approach angle that will bring (g) Before moving. fully open.5 in. The lift shall not lose the load or is evident when the loaded vehicle wobbles. shall be moved by 17-3. 17-4. drop to the floor. 10 sec. With the lift fully extended. with the lift plat- sonal injury and/or property damage. 2. (4.6 Mechanical Load Holding Means Test.2. level surfaces.18 mm) in the first minute nor a total of 0.0 ft/sec (610 mm/s) against Additional safety messages include the following: a 2. the lift shall sustain the load by the manufacturer shall be used.1. unstable. and the mechanical load (f) Only attachments. while loaded as (e) Lift only those areas of the automotive vehicle above. 59 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 17-4.2 Safety Messages means of the handle provided. With lift raised (b) Restraining an incompatible load will not make to its highest locked height. The lift.4 Horizontal Force Test. The release valve shall be fully opened to allow with this Standard.1.

No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.1. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.4 mm) to 2. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 17-4. load-limiting device is activated and the measured load 17-4. as defined (09) shall be no less than rated capacity and no more than in para.3 Proof Load Test. (25.4 mm) above its low height until the ity and no more than 125% of its rated capacity. platform.5. any inter- equipped with internal load-limiting devices shall be nal load-limiting device may be deactivated. The load shall be lifted and lowered through- (b) Hydraulic lifts with multiple stage hydraulics out the lifting range. (25. 17-2.2 Load-Limiting Device Test pumped against a measured load with final stage (a) Hydraulic lifts with a single stage hydraulic cylin.0 in. A proof load. shall be applied centrally across the lift 125% of its rated capacity.0 in.com). . For purposes of this test.0 in. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.1. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. 60 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.techstreet. (51 mm) above its der equipped with internal load-limiting devices shall be low height until the load-limiting device is activated pumped against a measured load with the lift platform and the measured load shall be no less than rated capac- within 1. extended 1.

The handle (if employed). a proof load of 150% of rated capacity. 18-3. To prevent accidental operation.techstreet. adapters. when used with a PALD. 18-1. or accessories: drum lift attach. labeling. 18-2 DESIGN 18-2.6 Lubrication 18-2. position. increase the rated capacity of the host PALD. Attachments. The operation Examples of required safety markings and messages of controls should be clear to the operator either by are specified in paras. shall meet the stability requirements of the host PALD. or supported. 61 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. the ILLUSTRATION handle (if employed). It is the responsibility of the manufac- this Standard that are specific to host PALDs. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.1 Safety Markings be capable of being operated to the rated capacity of Safety markings shall conform to the ANSI Z535 series the attachment. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.3 with PALD. adapters. moving. adapters. or other operating device. adapter: a device that. or accessory that the Representative devices covered by this Part include.3 Travel Limit 18-1. adapters. Adapters. CLASSIFICATION. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. adapters or accessories described elsewhere in its range of travel. . devices. adapter. use by stating the applicable make and model of the ments. vided with a positive means to prevent the load from out operating controls or adjustment capability are the being moved or repositioned beyond the design limit classifications covered by this Part. the attachment. Operating controls shall be designed in such a manner that they are readily visible and accessible to the operator and so that the operator will not be subjected to pinch 18-3 SAFETY MARKINGS AND MESSAGES points. pro. capacity. or accessories.com).2 Classification Each attachment. or snagging hazards. adapters. transmission host PALD. The attach- mance of the PALD to the load to be lifted. adapter. An attachments. or accessory shall be pro- Attachments.2 Design Requirement intended to be used in conjunction with one or more of Attachments. or accessories shall not attachment: a device that. adapters. or accessory shall be capable of holding. 18-4.4 Proof Load accessory: a device that. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. and accessories with or with. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 Part 18 Attachments. or accessory shall also designate the intended attachments. 18-2.1 Operating Controls If needed. or reposition the load. adapter. This Part does not apply to those attach. function.1 and 18-3. eral limits of the host device.1. turer of the attachment. or other operating device. adapters or accessories. jack attachments. adapters. or accessory loaded to its rated a load to shop crane. and Accessories 18-1 SCOPE. adapter. This Part applies to attachments. The host PALD with the below-the-hook device: an accessory that is used to connect attachment.2. have loading positions that extend beyond the periph- facilitates the intended purpose of the host PALD. and acces- sories (including below-the-hook devices) that are 18-2. or combination thereof.3 Definitions 18-2. or accessories shall not the PALDs described herein for the purpose of confor.5 Stability tates lifting by a PALD. 18-2. adapter. when connected to a PALD. shall 18-3. facili. or accessory without sustaining of standards. and load-positioning host PALD. or accessory shall be lubricated by the manufacturer. The manufacturer of the attachment. adapter. or repositioning its rated capacity throughout ments.1 Scope move. of travel in all possible directions. shop crane adapter. manipulated ment. AND functional damage. device does not compromise the design integrity of the but are not limited to: end lift attachments. or accessories shall be capable vides an alternative or supplementary function for the of performing the proof load test of para. when connected to a load. shall require intentional positive action by the operator to 18-1. sharp edges.

A proof load. adapter. Additional safety messages include the following: 18-4. moving. To conform with this Standard. nor shall operational characteristics be detrimen- (c) Assure load is secured to the device.2 Safety Messages nected load equal to the rated capacity.1 Operating Test. as defined 18-4 DESIGN QUALIFICATION TESTING in para. (e) Failure to heed these markings may result in per. or accessory shall be operated in the most adverse posi- sonal injury and/or property damage. a ries built to design specifications shall be proof tested substitute handle may be used for the performance of on the host PALD.com). adapter.4. in all possible directions with a connected load equal (b) No alterations shall be made to this product. adapter.1. adapter. adapters. and follow all instructions attachment. Should the attachment’s. or accessory’s ability to meet original operating handle (if supplied) not be capable this Standard. or accessory.techstreet. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 (a) Study. sample attachments. (d) To be used only with the following PALD (list). adapter’s. 62 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (a) Release load locking devices (if employed) slowly or accessory shall be operated to the full extent of travel and carefully. 18-4.1. tally affected. the this test. The attachment. understand. design specifications and no functional damage shall (b) Do not exceed rated capacity. adapter. 18-2. The attachment. Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.2 Travel Limit Test. tions. adapter. and reposition- For each design or design change that may affect the ing the load throughout the range of travel.1 Proof Tests sory shall be capable of holding.1. shall be connected to the attachment. or acces- 18-4.3 Proof Load Test. occur. of operating the attachment. . or accessory shall perform to before operating this device. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. to the rated capacity. throughout the full range of travel with a con- 18-3. The attachment. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. 18-4. or accessory. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. or accesso.

org) referenced within the Standard. It is Publisher: American National Standards Institute the intent of this Standard to refer to the standards and (ANSI). Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. 100 Barr Harbor Drive.astm. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. NY 10036 codes listed below in their latest editions when they are (www. Environmental and Facility Safety Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials Signs (ASTM International).1-1991.2-1991. Box C700.ansi.techstreet.org) 63 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 25 West 43rd Street. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.5-1991.O. ANSI Z535. . Product Safety Signs and Labels (www. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 MANDATORY APPENDIX I REFERENCES The following are safety standards and codes (unless ANSI Z535.com). downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. New York. Criteria for Safety Symbols P.4-1991.3-1991. Accident Prevention Tags otherwise noted) referenced within this Standard. PA 19428-2959 ANSI Z535. West Conshohocken. Safety Color Code Spray (Fog) Apparatus (not a safety standard) ANSI Z535. Standard Practice for Operating Salt ANSI Z535. ASTM B 117-95.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. p 25. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh ASME PALD-2009 NONMANDATORY APPENDIX A METRIC UNITS CONVERSIONS 1 in. .448 N 64 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.techstreet.45 kg 1 lbf p 4.com).4 mm 1 lbm p 0.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.com). phone. No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Simply mail. Information as to whether or not technical inquiries are issued to this code or standard is shown on the copyright page. New Jersey Mexico: 95-800-THE-ASME 07007-2900 (95-800-843-2763) Universal: 973-882-1167 * Information Central staff are not permitted to answer inquiries about the technical content of this code or standard. we make every effort to answer your questions and expedite your orders. Mail Call Toll Free Fax—24 hours E-Mail—24 hours ASME US & Canada: 800-THE-ASME 973-882-1717 Infocentral@asme. Our representatives are ready to assist you in the following areas: ASME Press Member Services & Benefits Public Information Codes & Standards Other ASME Programs Self-Study Courses Credit Card Orders Payment Inquiries Shipping Information IMechE Publications Professional Development Subscriptions/Journals/Magazines Meetings & Conferences Short Courses Symposia Volumes Member Dues Status Publications Technical Papers How can you reach us? It’s easier than ever! There are four options for making inquiries* or placing orders. . No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. or E-mail us and an Information Central representative will handle your request. Additional procedures for inquiries may be listed within.org 22 Law Drive. Box 2900 (800-843-2763) 973-882-5155 Fairfield. Uncontrolled wh ASME Services ASME is committed to developing and delivering technical information. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. All technical inquiries must be submitted in writing to the staff secretary.techstreet. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. fax. At ASME’s Information Central.

No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. Uncontrolled wh No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK .techstreet.Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.com). Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User.techstreet. Uncontrolled wh No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.com). No further reproduction or distribution is permitted. INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK .

No further reproduction or distribution is permitted.Copyrighted material licensed to Stanford University by Thomson Scientific (www.com). Uncontrolled wh J13509 No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.techstreet. downloaded on Oct-05-2010 by Stanford University User. ASME PALD-2009 .