# Quartz School

8.2. Well for Well
Planning Site Supervisors
& Azimuth Corrections

Module – 8
Directional Drilling

Section – 2
Coordinate Systems
& Azimuth Corrections

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Contents

 Introduction
 The Well Plan / Maps of Well Trajectory
 Geographic Coordinates
 Projection Maps
 Coordinate Systems
 UTM Coordinates
 Lambert Coordinates
 Legal Coordinates
 Local Coordinates
 Magnetic Declination
 Grid Convergence

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Introduction

Well Planning is the first step in the construction of any directional well
from a surface location to a given down hole target.

Well planner must work coordinated with the Drilling Engineer,
Geologist and the Directional Driller assigned to the project.

The operator generally provides surface coordinates and one or more
down hole targets for well path control. Besides that, all relevant
information from offset wells and possible limitations or restrictions
that may affect the well trajectory design or execution

C. Alvarez

!) C. by using a given System of Coordinates.. Alvarez .2. Surface and subsurface locations of well must be represented on a MAP and located by means of their distances to the reference axis of a grid system superimposed over the Earth map. as well as the desired well path. respectively. One map is a flat projection of the Earth’s surface which in turn is an oblate spheroid (a squashed sphere. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps To design a well plan it is necessary to know the exact position of both the origin and the target on the earth surface and in the subsurface. among other geological & boundaries information. 8.

2. 8. Alvarez . Well Planning & Azimuth Corrections Maps of Well Trajectory C.

Well Planning & Azimuth Corrections Maps of Well Trajectory C. Alvarez . 8.2.

2. Alvarez them is analyzed . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Systems of Coordinates The System of Coordinates is a mathematical development that allows the location of a given point in the Earth on the flat map. It is obvious that any projection on a plane of the Earth’s spheroid surface will result in distortion. The solution to this problem is found in a special branch of Cartography called “Geodetics” In the next slides the problem of making Maps and the systems of Coordinates developed for locating points of Earth on C. 8. The grade of distortion depend on the selected projection map and the relative position of a given area in the projection.

2. Alvarez . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Coordinates for point A are: Latitude 6° 40' 30” N & Longitude 17° 58' 45” E C. 8.

Legal Coordinates 5.2. Lambert Conical Projection 4. 8. called Latitude and Longitude. The more known Coordinate Systems are: 1. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Several Coordinates systems have been proposed to locate a given position of the Earth’s surface on a grid map given the distances of its projection on the map to the Reference Lines selected. Universal Transverse Mercator. Local Coordinates C. Alvarez . UTM (Transverse Cylindrical Projector) 3. Geographical Coordinates (N-S & E-W axis) 2.

They are better known as “Meridian” lines. Longitude). simply known as “Parallel” lines. 8.2. Alvarez . They are equally distanced every grade from the Equator to the North and South poles Longitude lines are also circles around the Earth globe passing through both North and South poles and running perpendicular to the parallels. C. or “Geographical Coordinates” Latitude lines are circles around the Earth globe running parallel to the Equator. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Geographical Coordinates System based on imaginary lines of Latitude and Longitude drawn on the Earth’s surface intersecting among them at square angles to form a grid pattern that allows the location of any position on Earth by given its distances to the “reference lines” also known as the pair (Latitude.

Every grade is further C. Alvarez divided into 60 minutes and every minute in 60 seconds .2. 8. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Geographical Coordinates • Meridians: imaginary lines around the globe • 360 Meridians passing through both poles • Parallels: imaginary lines around the globe • Meridians are drawn every 1° to cover the sphere • 180 Parallel lines drawn every 1° starting at Equator • The Reference Meridian passes by Greenwich • 90 Parallels to the North and 90 Parallels lines to the South • Longitude at Greenwich Meridian = 0° • Equator is the Reference Line with Latitude = 0° Every Parallel & Meridian line represents 1 grade.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Geographical Coordinates C.2. Alvarez . 8.

8. They are based on Projection Maps that will be discussed in the following slides: C. Alvarez . other systems have been developed to increase the required grade of accuracy in directional drilling measurements.2.Limitations Geographical Coordinates are not accurate enough in reason that the real distances from one latitude or longitude grade to another depend on the position of the points under consideration on the Earth’s surface. the Earth itself is not a perfect sphere but an oblate spheroid. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Geographical Coordinates . Besides that. This means that relative distances in a given well or between wells cannot be exactly known by using the geographical coordinate system For that reason.

Alvarez . The projected map can be referred to a grid system superimposed that allows location of real points on the projected image. 8.2. as can be seen in the next slides The most common grid map positioning method is the “X”. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems A mathematical formula that convert the latitude- longitude position on the surface of a sphere into another method of positioning which can be plotted onto a flat map with some degree of controlled error and known accuracy. “Y” Cartesian Coordinates C.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Imagine a light inside the transparent Earth Globe projecting the image of Earth surface on a flat screen. C. the image was projected on a flat plane directly above the North pole which is located in the center of the projection. In this case. Alvarez .2. The resulting image depends the type of surface used for projecting the Earth spherical surface. 8.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems 1. Cylindrical Projection 2. Planar Projection C.2. Conical Projection 3. 8. Alvarez .

Alvarez Greenwich) . On the projection the Meridians are equidistant between them but not the parallels which seem closer toward the poles. Standard Mercator Map  Earth surface is projected on a tangent vertical cylinder producing an image that is distorted toward both poles and close to the real shape near the Equator. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Mercator Projections A.  Grid system is composed of Meridian and Parallel lines drawn on the Earth surface as explained above.2.  The scale is more exact for those areas close to the Reference Lines (Equator and C. 8.

On the projection Meridians and parallels are not equidistant. UTM  Earth surface is projected on a tangent horizontal cylinder producing an image that is more accurate near the poles and distorted as approaches to the Equator. Alvarez . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Mercator Projections B. 8.  Grid system is composed of Meridian and Parallel lines drawn on the Earth surface as explained above.  The scale is more exact along the areas closer to the tangent meridian and to the Equator C. Transverse Mercator Map.2.

8. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Mercator Projections 1. Alvarez .2. Central Line (for Latitude Reference): Ecuador 2. Central Line for Longitude Reference: Greenwich C.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Mercator Projections Properties: • Standard Mercator causes distortion towards the poles • Transverse Mercator minimizes distortion towards the poles • UTM is preferred in ~ 60 countries • Used in countries/areas that run primarily North . 8.2. Alvarez .South C.

Alvarez . 8.2.  Less distortion is found when moving from Equator toward both poles. Lambert Projection.  Parallels are equidistant while the meridian lines converge to the pole C.  Earth surface is projected on a tangent or secant cone with its axis aligned with the N-S axis of Earth. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Conical Projections C.

Alvarez .2. C. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Conical Projections C. 8. Lambert Projection.

The cone axis coincides with the geographic poles axis of the earth. Projection of the earth on to a cone. Introduced by Johann Heinrich Lambert 1772 C. 8.2. Alvarez . Lambert Projection. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Conical Projections C.

Lambert Projection. Alvarez .2. 8. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Conical Projections C. • Projects globe onto a cone • Used in countries / areas that run primarily from East → West • Uses feet instead of meters • Lambert Zone Number must be specified for proper location of a given point on Earth surface C.

2. Lambert Projection. 8. Alvarez . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Conical Projections C. • Lambert cone penetrates the earth along standard parallels • Scale exact along standard parallel • Scale constant E → W • Scale changes N → S C.

5% in Florida C.5°N and 47. 8.5% and 1% between 30. Lambert Projection for USA mapping • Has been used to map all mainland USA states • Standard parallels at 33°N and 45°N • Scale error of 0.5°N • Maximum error of 2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Conical Projections C.2. Alvarez .

Planar Projection  Also known as Azimuthal Projection  Earth surface is projected onto a tangent plan passing by the North pole  Is accurate for areas at or near the center (North Pole)  Distortion increases when moving to the edges of map  Commonly used to map North and South poles areas C. Alvarez . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Conical Projections D.2. 8.

Alvarez . 8.2. Planar Projection = Azimuthal Projection C. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Conical Projections D.

Ellipsoids adjusted to Earth surface are part of a mathematical development called Geodetic Datum C.2. Alvarez . but also in reason of the irregular shape of the Earth. There is not a unique ellipsoid used for map projections but there is a number of them applied to different regions of the Earth. several models of Ellipsoids have been proposed to represent the shape of Earth. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic The three projections discussed still present difficulties for the accurate location of a given point on the Earth surface in reason not only to the distortion resulting from the projection itself. 8. To solve this new problem.

2. Alvarez . C. 8. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic The Ellipsoid of Reference should have a surface close to sea level that mathematically fits well to the real surface of Earth in a given region.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic The Earth is not an exact ellipsoid For map projections. 8. Alvarez . a constant ellipsoidal shape and size is used for different region Different reference ellipsoids are used for different regions of the Earth Over 50 ellipsoids in use today Approximately 15 ellipsoids cover 98% of the “oil country” areas of interest C.2.

Alvarez . 8. It consists of : • An Ellipsoid of Reference • Orientation of the ellipsoid • Length unit • Region of the earth • Official Name C. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Ellipsoid and Datum Geodetic A geodetic datum is a mathematical surface that closely fits the mean sea level surface throughout the area of interest.2.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Examples of Datum Geodetic The table below show some of the most commonly used Geodeic Datum for mapping and reference of well trajectories in Directional Drilling operations. 8. covering almost all oil & gas regions: C. Alvarez .2.

8. Alvarez .2. UTM Grid System • Divides world into 60 equal longitudinal zones • Each zone is 6 deg wide • Distortion increases north & south of the equator 2. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection • Parallels of latitude that are unequally spaced arcs of concentric circles • Distortion increases toward the edges C. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Projection Models and Grid Systems The two projection models and its associated Grid Systems more commonly used are: 1.

2. As a result. 8. C. The projection has good accuracy along the central meridian tangent to the cylinder For that reason Coordinates UTM developed from the projection described are widely used for maps in areas having more North – South extension and less East – West extension. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System Widely used in Oil & Gas Industry. this Coordinates System is derived from the transversal projection of the Earth globe onto the surface of a horizontal cylinder tangent to the Earth in a given meridian. Alvarez . the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the Earth’s Equator.

9996 Scale Factor − Lines of true scale (1:1) lie ~180 km either side of central meridian Grid Distance Scale Factor (F) = C. 8. Alvarez True Distance . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System Characteristics: The world is divided into 60 UTM Zones Length is defined in meters UTM Grid Reference must include: − Zone Number − Hemisphere (N or S) Scale factor − Function of position in zone −Central Meridian has 0.2.

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
UTM Zones

• World is divide in 60 zones of projection
• Then each zone is 6° wide
• Earth Projection onto a • Due to the high distortion toward the poles,
horizontal Cylinder zones go from 84° N to 80° S

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
UTM Zones

Projection zones of UTM
system are numbered from 1
to 60, starting at the left side of
the map (Long 180° West).

Greenwich Meridian (Central
Meridian) is then located in the
zone number 31.

C. Alvarez

8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections
Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems
Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System
UTM Zones

 Each zone has its own central meridian which in turn the N-S
Reference Line for the zone.
 There is a transverse projection for each zone with the
tangent cylinder in contact with the central meridian of the
specific zone.
 As a result, each zone is 6° wide and the whole globe has 60
zones to cover the 360° of the sphere
 Projection of polar areas result with high distortion and are
consequently discarded from the UTM model
C. Alvarez

2. Alvarez . 8. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System C.

2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System UTM Zones UTM Zone C. Alvarez . 8.

commonly called “Easting”  Coordinate North or South. commonly called “Northing” C.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System UTM Zones  The origin of Coordinates for each UTM zone is the intersection between the central meridian of the zone and the Equator of Earth  On each zone the distortion increases when going away of the origin in any direction  The UTM Coordinates are given by:  The number of UTM zone  Coordinate East or West. Alvarez . 8.

Alvarez . 8. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System • Equator runs East → West • Central Meridian runs North → South • Rectangular Grid system superimposed on zone for mapping purposes • Allows UTM coordinates of points to be defined as “Northing” and “Easting” 3° 3° • Grid Sectors are divided into squares of 100 x 100 kilometers and then further divided into squares of 10 x 10 kilometers C.2.

000m → ~800.000m Range of Eastings is maximum at Equator and narrows towards the poles C. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System To avoid negative Eastings the Central Meridian is assigned a false Easting of 500.000m At the Equator the zone is ~600.000m wide Range of Eastings are: ~200. 8. Alvarez .2.

2. 8. Alvarez . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System •Northing Points North of Equator − Range from zero at the equator increasing to the north •Northing Points South of Equator − Just for SH:Range from 10.000m at the equator decreasing to the south −Just for NH:Range from Zero at the equator increasing to the North − avoids negative numbers similar to Eastings •UTM zone is cropped at 84°N and 80°S C.000.

000 meters to the East of reference line. East”  Location B is also on Zone 13.000 m.250 m.250 meters to the East of the reference line. Alvarez . the E-W Coordinate for point “A” or “Easting” is “704. It is 400. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Easting)  Location A is on Zone 13. It is 704. It is also valid to say that point A is to the East of central meridian of the zone Then. the E-W coordinate or “Easting” for location B is “400. which means that is to the left side of the central meridian which “Easting” is 500.000 as known. E” C. Then.2. 8.

8.391. The UTM North – South Coordinate for point A is 6.005. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Northing) Location A is inside zone 13.520 meters The point is located above the Equator Location B is also in zone 13 The UTM North – South Coordinate for B is: 5.000 meters N Point B is located above the Equator C.2. Alvarez .

2.000 – 5.999.000  The UTM Coordinate for the point C located to the South.100 = 4. the value of 10.000 meters is assigned as UTM Coordinate to the Equator  The UTM South Coordinate for a point in the South Hemisphere is calculated by subtracting its distance in meters to the Equator from 10. 8. Alvarez .000. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Universal Transverse Mercator System = UTM Coordinates System Example of Coordinates UTM for a given zone (Northing)  To avoid negative values for North Coordinate of a point located in the South hemisphere.900 meters to the South C.000.000.000. is 10.

8.  Longitude lines are represented by straight lines converging in the central point of map separated by equidistant radii intersecting the latitude lines C.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Lambert Coordinates System  Is derived from the Conical Projection of Earth onto a plane surface.  Latitude lines are arcs of concentric circles not evenly spaced. The systems works well in those areas with little distortion. Alvarez .

The pole in the same hemisphere of the Standard Parallel is one point. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Lambert Coordinates System  The scale works well inside two standard lines of latitude. Alvarez . 8. C.2. the other pole represents the infinitum  Lambert Coordinates are used in countries or regions where distances East – West are predominant In the USA the system has been used with a maximum error of 5%.

Alvarez . 8.2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems LEGAL Coordinates System  Legal Coordinates of a Directional Plan are based on a “Legal” Coordinate system defined by a national or regional authority with the objective that all local or regional coordinates have a unique National Geodetic Datum  The system divides the region or country in zones and can assign different coordinates systems to the different zones. depending on their N-S or E-W extension  In the USA some zones with predominant N-S extension use the UTM system while other rectangular zones with predominant E-W extension use the Lambert Coordinates system C.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems LOCAL Coordinates System  In well planning “Local” Coordinates are always used  Local Coordinates are derived from a Local System which. in turn.2. Alvarez . 8. is related to a “Legal” Coordinates system and also referred to an specific Geodetic Datum  The axis of a Local Coordinates system are parallel to the respective axis of the Legal Coordinates system of reference C.

Alvarez . C. 8. such as “Ground Level”. “Mud Line”. y)  The “origin” in the LOCAL system has coordinates (0. called “Vertical Reference Datum”.2.0)  To measure the well depth it is necessary to previously define one “Geodetic Datum”. etc. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems LOCAL Coordinates System  The coordinates in a LOCAL system are derived from distances measured to a point of “origin” located in the corresponding “Legal” Coordinates System of reference  The “origin” or reference point in the LOCAL system has its own coordinates in the LEGAL system (x. “Mean Sea Level”.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems LOCAL Coordinates System C. Alvarez .2. 8.

977° Survey Name / Date: Canon 10 Plan / November 12.039.110 ft relative to MSL UWI/API#: Magnetic Declination: 5. 2004 Survey / DLS Computation Method: Minimum Curvature / Lubinski Client: Pemex Exploracion y Produccion Vertical Section Azimuth: 16.89 ft / 4. 8.260° Field: Canon Field Vertical Section Origin: N 0.000° / 1575.1 ft relative to MSL Borehole: Canon 10 Sea Bed / Ground Level Elevation: 118.018 Magnetic Declination Model: BGGM 2004 Location Grid N/E Y/X: N 2891256.23265583° Total Corr Mag North -> True North: +5.99963440 Local Coordinates Referenced To: Well Head C.190 m North Reference: True North Grid Convergence Angle: +0.296° Grid Coordinate System: NAD27 UTM Zone 14N Declination Date: April 25.160 Magnetic Dip: 55.000 ft Structure / Slot: Canon 10 / Canon 10 TVD Reference Datum: RKB Well: Canon 10 TVD Reference Elevation: 133. 2004 Total Field Strength: 46224. E 552784.977° Grid Scale Factor: 0. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Example of Well Plan Proposal with Coordinates System used Canon 10 Plan Proposal Report Date: November 13.2.240 m.811 / 0.000 ft.017 nT Tort / AHD / DDI / ERD ratio: 40. 2002 Location Lat/Long: N 26 8 28. W 98 28 19. Alvarez . E 0.

4. UTM. Lambert’s Conical. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Summary: 1.2. 8. Lambert. There are available five well known Coordinates Systems: Geographic Coordinates. There are three Projection Methods widely used of the Earth onto plane surfaces: Mercator’s Cylinder. Alvarez . To locate a point of the Earth on a Map it is necessary one Coordinates System 2. and Planar. Each projection has areas with low and high distortion C. Legal and Local 3.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Projection Maps & Coordinates Systems Summary: 5. 6. 8.2. The use of a Geodetic Datum allows higher accuracy to the allocation of a given point on the Earth. Local system is the one used for well planning and is referred to a Legal system C. The UTM system is widely used in zones with predominant N-S extensions 7. Legal Coordinates are developed for regional control of maps. depending on the extension predominant 9. have their own Geodetic Datum and can use different projection / coordinates systems. Alvarez . Lambert’s Conical system of Coordinates is preferred in zones with predominant E-W extensions 8.

8.5N Longitude: 100. Alvarez .5W X X Location of Magnetic North changes over time Location of Magnetic North is updated often Can be displayed on maps or computer databases C. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Magnetic Declination “Magnetic” North and “True” North Locations True North Location Magnetic North Location: Latitude: 75.2.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Magnetic Declination Magnetic North and True North Locations C.2. 8. Alvarez .

8. the azimuth recorded with magnetic instruments must be corrected and referred to the “True” North by adding or subtracting the “magnetic declination” C. Surveys taken with magnetic measuring devices are referred to the “Magnetic” North of Earth 5.2. The Geographic North of the Earth is also called “True” North or “Grid” North 2. Alvarez . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Magnetic Declination Magnetic Survey Corrections 1. “Magnetic” North is the axis of the magnetic field of Earth or “Compass” North 4. The separation between the two axis is measured by an angle called “declination magnetic” 6. To have the right direction of a well at a given survey station. All Projection Maps are constructed referred to the Geographic North (axis of the Earth ellipsoid = “True’ North = “Map” North) 3.

the Magnetic Declination is to the East and is positive EAST 3. Alvarez . Magnetic Declination is added to Magnetic Azimuth C. 8. the Magnetic Declination is negative 4. MN 2. the movement from one North to the other is counterclockwise. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Magnetic Declination Definition: 1.2. If on the contrary. The angle between True North and Magnetic North as TN measured going from True North to Magnetic North. If that movement is clockwise.

If that movement is clockwise. 8. the movement from one North to the other is counterclockwise. The angle between True North and Grid North as GN measured going from True North to Grid North. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Grid Convergence Definition: 1. the Convergence is negative 4. If on the contrary. Convergence is subtracted from the Corrected Magnetic Azimuth C. TN 2.2. Alvarez . the Convergence is to the East and is positive WEST 3.

Grid Convergence C.2. Alvarez . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Total Correction (Declination and Convergence) TN MA MN -10° The total correction converts GN the magnetic azimuth into Grid Azimuth in two steps: +6° -4° • Apply Declination correction to the magnetic azimuth • Apply Convergence correction to the corrected azimuth Total Correction = Magnetic Declination . 8.

2. Alvarez . Grid North lines are parallel 2. Angle from True North (TN) to Grid North(GN). Grid Convergence: 1. True North lines converge on the Central Meridian 3. +ve to the East 3. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Grid North & Convergence Corrections due to Convergence 1. 8. 2. -ve to the West C. Grid North and True North are only identical along UTM zone Central Meridian and the equator 4.

1. At the equator Grid Convergence = 0° 2. Also varies with Longitudinal displacement from CM 1. Alvarez What is the biggest Grid Convergence you can have? . Grid Convergence = SinLat x ? 3. Theoretically at 90deg latitude North Grid Convergence = 90° 2. Grid Convergence = Sin Latitude x (Longitude – CM) 2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Grid Convergence Properties: 1. Varies as the sine of the Latitude. At the CM Grid Convergence = 0° 2. C. 1. 8. Standard formula.2. At the edge of the Zone. This will give an accurate answer by calculator 4.

2. Alvarez . 8. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections UTM Convergence & Hemispheres UTM Convergence and Hemispheres: − True North at any point aligns with the longitudinal line through that point − In the Northern Hemisphere – True North points inwards to the Central Meridian − In the Southern Hemisphere – True North points outward from the central Meridian C.

2.000m − Easting – 600. 8. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections UTM Zone Exercise Which quadrant contains the following point? 1 2 − Southern Hemisphere − Northing – 9.500.000m 3 4 Is the convergence +ve or -ve? C. Alvarez .

Declination West = -ve 5. 8. Declination East = +ve Grid Azimuth = True North . C. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Correction to Grid Azimuth Grid Convergence (Grid Con) 1. Correcting for Grid Con will correct True North to Grid North 3. Alvarez . Measured from True North to Grid North 4.Grid Con. ONLY use this angle if Surveys are to be referenced to Grid North 2.2.

= -1.5°E TN Az.Exercise What’s the North Reference? Grid Con. = 195° C. 8. = 90° Grid Con.2. Alvarez . Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Grid Convergence .7° TN Az. = 2.

Exercise West Declination East Declination True North True North Magnetic North Magnetic North D D h ut h ut im ATN AMN Az im Az le AMN e ho ATN hol re r e Bo Bo True North (ATn) = Magnetic Azimuth(AMn) + Magnetic Declination(D) C. 8. Alvarez .2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Magnetic Declination .

= 195° Mag Dec.2. = 90° Mag Dec.7°W Gyro Az. Alvarez . = 2. = 265° C. 8. = 6.7° MWD Az. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Magnetic Declination Practical North Reference Points Up Mag Dec. = -1.5°E MWD Az.

Alvarez .2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Total Correction: C. 8.

The graphic shows an example quadrant direction of S30°E. Alvarez . then move toward the east or west in a positive or increasing angle. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Compass Quadrant Direction The four quadrants are normally expressed as NE. SE. C.2. Originate the reading from north or south. 8. SW and NW.

Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Azimuth Direction The azimuth system uses directions ranging from 0° to 360°. The graphic shows an example azimuth direction of 150° AZM. The direction is reported from 0° in a positive or clockwise direction. 90° refers to east. Alvarez . 8. and 270° refers to west. A direction of 0° or 360° refers to north. 180° refers to south. C.2.

2. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Compass Quadrant and Azimuth Relationships C. Alvarez Quartz School. Module 8: Directional Drilling / Section 2 . 8.

Alvarez . C. Coordinates Systems & Azimuth Corrections Polar and Rectangular Coordinates The polar coordinate of a point is defined by a distance and a direction relative to North (azimuth).2. The rectangular coordinates of a point are given in feet or meters with a direction of North/South and East/West. 8.