Student A
GESS I&S Class 8A
Global Goals Report Michael Söldner, I&S Class 8B

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 2
2. BACKGROUND ON ISSUES .............................................................................................................. 3
3. GLOBAL GOAL 6 ............................................................................................................................. 4
Related Millennium Development Goal ............................................................................................. 5
4. TAKING ACTION ............................................................................................................................. 5
4.1 What action can I take? ........................................................................................................ 5
4.2 Sustainability Action Week ................................................................................................. 10
4.3 Reflecting on my experiences ............................................................................................. 11
5. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 12
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 13

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Global Goals Report Michael Söldner, I&S Class 8B

The Global Goals, formally known as the Sustainable Development Goals, are a series
of aims established in Rio de Janeiro in 2012 by the United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development. They were put into effect in January 2016. They provide a
set of guidelines and targets to help us, as individuals and as a society, to create a
better future for ourselves in a sustainable, safe manner. The goals encompass and
aim to meet challenges and problems that affect each and every living organism on
this planet, and make sure that no one is left behind in the fight for success. Each goal
focuses on its own individual topic, which, in it’s way, will help bring us onto a path that
is more sustainable. They go as follows:
1. No Poverty
2. Zero Hunger
3. Good Health and Well-Being
4. Quality Education
5. Gender Equality
6. Clean Water and Sanitation
7. Affordable and Clean Energy
8. Decent Work and Economic Growth
9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
10. Reduced inequalities
11. Sustainable Cities and Communities
12. Responsible Consumption and Production
13. Climate Action
14. Life below Water
15. Life on Land
16. Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
17. Partnership for the Goals
Although each goal is listed separately and seems to be completely different, content-
wise, to the other goals, they are all interconnected. This means that each goal is
somehow related to the next, and the success of each separate goal relies on small
achievements in each area.
Aside from setting guidelines for us to sustainably manage our lives, the Global Goals
are effectively also a commitment to finish what we started. They are, in fact, a
continuation of the Millennium Development Goals, a separate set of aims created in
2000 with similar aims as the current Goals. The SDGs have risen from the successes
of the Millennium Development Goals, with new areas added, to further improve our
By creating the Global Goals, the UN is reaching out to us in a call for action on our
behalf to ensure the well-being of our world.
In the following report, I will be focusing on Global Goal 15, Life on Land, which targets
the environmental sustainability of the earth. It is a very important Global Goal, as it
focuses on the balances in the natural world that keep our planet inhabitable.

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Global Goals Report Michael Söldner, I&S Class 8B

The environment is a vital part to human survival. Despite our reliance on the services
and materials provided to us by this natural source, we are shamelessly using it to our
advantage, ignoring the consequences. Everything we do could end up affecting
anything, due to the link between every living organism. These interconnections are
known as ecosystems. An ecosystem is a group of connected elements that
encompasses all living things. If one part of the ecosystem is removed or damaged,
the sudden imbalance will affect every other organism. So how are we harming our
There are two major issues, causes by us humans: Deforestation and Animal
Around 31% of our earth’s surface is covered by forests. Forests play a key role to
survival, as they provide a natural home for many living organisms, and provide them
with materials necessary to survival. In fact, alongside the many endangered species
living in forests, 1.6 billion people rely on forests, and the medicines, food, shelter,
etc… that is provided by them. Furthermore, trees are often described as the earth’s
lungs, as they take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen in return. However, humans
are using these benefits to their advantage. Every year,
around 45-58 thousand square miles of forest are
destroyed, adding up to the size of 48 football fields a
minute. At this rate, deforestation could destroy whole
forests/rainforests. For example, the Amazon rainforest
was reduced by 17% in the last 50 years and will continue
to decrease if we don’t change our actions. Deforestation
doesn’t only happen by logging though. Other techniques
may include fires, clear-cutting and degradation. As a
result, many species suffer from habitat loss, there is a decrease in the quality of
freshwater, and an increased erosion of soil, as well as land degradation and carbon
emissions released into the atmosphere. There is a way to stop this though! We must
all work together to control our habits and stop the loss of our forests.
Animal Extinction
Animals form a vital part of the world we live in. They serve as vital links in many
ecosystems and help keep our biodiversity thriving. However, us humans are ignoring
their obvious importance, and hunting them to
their deaths. In fact, of the 8,300 known animal
species, 8% are extinct, with 22% heavily
endangered and at the risk of extinction. 99% of
these threatened animals are at risk because of
activities undertaken by humans. So what are
we doing? First of all, animal poaching is very
popular. Species are hunted down and killed for
various valuable traits, such as the ivory of
elephant tusks and the skin of a snake. Habitat
loss is also a major contributor; as human

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dwellings expand in a process called urbanization, we take over and destroy natural
living spaces, leaving animals homeless and at risk. Furthermore, the introduction of
exotic species into nature has a huge effect on the local species; the resulting
imbalance of the ecosystem causes either one or the other species to become
dominant, killing of the other. If humans continue like this, an estimated amount of
300-50% of all known animal species will become extinct by the middle of the century.
All of these major issues end up targeting one point, the most important factor in our
environment; ecosystems. If we continue depleting natures inhabitants, we are
creating a very imbalanced ecosystem, which in future will affect us as well.

Global Goal #15 is a set of targets put in place to halt the damage we are doing to our
world, and make way for a sustainable future. A major point of Global Goal 15 is
sustainability, which basically means it aims to create a balanced environment for us
to live in.
The goal mainly focuses on conserving our ecosystems, by
addressing various topics that could affect these, e.g. land
degradation, animal extinction and deforestation. Another
important point, is the focus on collaboration between societies
to share resources sustainably and to work together to achieve
the goal. Many environmentalist organisations are working
together to promote a sustainable environment for both
animals and plants alike, however many people are still
sceptical to giving up their luxuries. The UN Forum on Forests Secretariat has
estimated that it would cost the world US$70-$160 billion each year to achieve a
sustainable forest management, while the Convention on Biological Diversity states
that the halting of global biodiversity loss would cost around US$150-$440 billion per
year to be achieved by the mid-century. These two achievements alone would be big
stepping stones for the for further successes (due to the interconnection between
various topics). In fact, while these may seem like large amounts of money, the
benefits that would arise from the achievements would be large. The protection of
living organisms would provide a much larger income: Biodiversity is a major service
provider to us a society. In fact, insects, such as bees are worth more than US$200
annually for the global food industry. Furthermore, we would be saving around US$300
billion each year from the prevention of natural disasters that would otherwise be
triggered by damaged ecosystems.
So, if we protected our environment and stopped its destruction, which is highly
possible, we would receive significant benefits in return. Not only would we be living
in a cleaner, safer and more sustainable world, we would also receive increased
services in returns.
So what can we, as individuals do to help achieve this goal?
A few simple steps:
Reduce your paper usage. Deforestation is one of the major obstacles in the way of
success. One major cause for logging is paper production. Humans nowadays use so
much paper, without regarding any guidelines laid out for sustainable usage. For this
reason, many trees are cut down needlessly. By reusing paper, and only using it when

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necessary, we could reduce deforestation.
Avoid endangered animal products. Many animals are hunted and killed for various
valuable properties. For example, around 35,000 elephants are killed annually for their
ivory tusks. By reducing your intake of animal products, their popularity will eventually
go down, eliminating animal poaching. This would positively impact animal
populations, end animal extinctions and therefore conserve our ecosystems and the
Don’t Litter. Litter has a huge effect on ecosystems. Our waste can be toxic or
dangerous to many living organisms, or serve as breeding grounds to pests such as
mosquitos. Each year, an individual litters around 1400 pounds of waste, severely
impacting the environment. By simply disposing of litter in bins, we would positively
help towards achieving complete sustainability.
For other ways to contribute, please refer to my call for action posters on OneNote.
Related Millennium Development Goal
Global Goal 15 is a continuation of the Millennium
Development Goal 7, “Ensure Environmental
Sustainability”. This goal focused on sustainably
developing country policies and reducing the loss
of our biodiversity, as well as providing safe
drinking water and sanitation to others and
improving the living conditions of people living in
slums. These topics were split among two
different SDGs (15 and 6), along with added
further goals. MDG 7 saw many achievements in
the environmental part of it; the rate of
afforestation (replanting of trees) was increased
slightly; substances harmful to the ozone were
basically depleted, with the ozone’s recovery expected by mid-century; around 15.2
per cent of land ecosystems are now protected. However, there are still many weak
points that caused the Global Goal 15 to be introduced: Forests are depleting quickly;
carbon dioxide emissions have increased by more than 50 per cent globally; and many
more. Therefore, Global Goal 15 was set into place, with a revised set of targets
combat more of the environments challenges.


4.1 What action can I take?
To take action for GG#15, there are various activities I could take part in, that would
benefit our environment. I could help out at an animal shelter or a rescue home. By
doing this, I would be supporting the fight against animal endangerment, as shelters
and rescues aim to bring in homeless or harmed animals to give them a better life.
This greatly helps the overall population of animal species. Furthermore, during my
research, I came across the following information:

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Stray dogs and cats are responsible for the death and extinction of many wildlife
species, in fact they are part of the top 4 most invasive mammals (Tim Doherty of
Deakin University in Australia ). Since they {dogs and cats} have no home to go to,
and no one to provide them with essential food and water, they feed on native animals.
• Stray dogs have caused around 10 extinctions and threaten another 156
• Cats and rodents are the worst, responsible for 63 and 75 extinctions,
respectively — mostly birds.
• From 2002 to 2011, the records showed that stray dogs killed an average of
33,000 wild animals each year, plus 280 or so livestock. That’s probably an
underestimate, though. (Poland)
Animal shelters take in stray dogs and cats and feed them there. This reduces the
number of strays and therefore the amount of deaths and extinctions due to them. By
helping at a rescue or a shelter, I could support these causes.
Another activity could be to clean up litter. Waste is a very common
contaminant/pollutant of our natural environment. First of all, many animals may
mistake the litter for food, or get tangled in it, resulting in deaths and extinctions. Litter
can also serve as breeding spots for bacteria or other pests. Such imbalances in our
ecosystems could greatly affect every single other living organism. By taking part in
litter clean-up activities, I would be supporting a cleaner environment.
I could also go on a tree-planting trip. Already around half of the world’s forests have
been cut down to create paper and wood products or make space for agriculture. Trees
are the worlds oxygen source, and they provide a home for many different animal
species. By supporting the reforestation of our world, I am standing up for the
sustainable use and management of forests.
And finally, I could go to one of the many conferences taking place around Singapore.
I could organize an interesting presentation or workshop to inform others of GG #15
and inform others of its importance.

Animal Shelter
For our first attempt at finding an action, we decided to contact an animal shelter.
Emma had previously met a volunteer working at “Purely Adoptions”, a local group
that targets finding fosterers and adopters for stray animals. We emailed them, but
were disappointed, as we received no reply.
After this, we decided to email another animal shelter “Mutts and Mittens”, which I
know about because my cat stayed at the cat-boarding in the facility. Mutts and Mittens
is a larger organization, with many more facilities, including the actual shelter, an
animal boarding home, a dog pool, etc… We sent them the same mail that we sent
Purely Adoptions, stating our interest. They answered after a few days:
Dear Bianca and Emma,

Thank you for your interest in helping out

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Global Goals Report Michael Söldner, I&S Class 8B

All our volunteers are required to complete a training programme of 4 weeks. We open up
for volunteer intakes a few times a year, so do follow our facebook page “Mutts & Mittens
Community” for updates on the next intake!

Best Regards,
Mutts & Mittens Pte Ltd
11 Pasir Ris Farmway 2
Singapore 519326
Tel: 6583 7371 / 72 Fax: 6583 8321
Website: www.muttsnmittens.com
Facebook Page: Mutts & Mittens Community

We have decided that we will observe their Facebook page and join their volunteer
program in future.

Clean-Up Activity
During the day that we were looking for a possible action, we received an email from
Miss Fryer, alerting us to an action for people doing GG#15 (Life on Land) and people
doing GG#12 (Responsible Consumption and Production). It was a clean-up activity
organized by Keep Clean, Singapore!

Keep Clean, Singapore!
Keep Clean, Singapore! is an environmental movement organized by the Public
Health Council. Their aim is to rally schools, individuals, institutions and
communities to influence others to keep Singapore clean in a month long series
of activities during May. To reinforce norms against littering, Keep Clean,
Singapore! organizes thousands of clean-ups all around Singapore.

What we did (1)
On the 13th of May (Sunday) at 7:30 am, we (Emma Dashorst, Nienke Hoomoedt,
Nicole Spiegelberg and I) met at the Cashew MRT station (downtown line). We were
greeted by various other volunteers of all ages, as well as members of the Cashew
Community Centre. Several organizers distributed metal tongs to each participant, as
well as a blue recycling bag and a black general waste bag for each group of people.
Then we set off. The goal: clean up the entire area around Cashew MRT, including
the park opposite, and meet at the pavilion at the end of the road. To begin with, we
separated from the other volunteers, crossed the road and stepped onto a large grassy
area opposite the MRT. Here, gardeners had planted small trees, as an act to make
Singapore greener. After we had cleared this space, we crossed the road again and
cleaned the area around the MRT, before heading off through the park. Towards the
end of the session, we walked up along Cashew Road, passing various construction
sites and housing areas to meet with the rest of the group at the Pavilion. By the end
of the action, both bags were full, although there was a lot more general waste than

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recyclable materials. We found that the most common littered articles were cigarette
butts and old tissues. Surprisingly, we only found 3 plastic bags. In several instances,
we had to retrieve litter from the strangest places; there was a large laminated poster
half buried under the grass and dirt; a tissue was stuck high up in a tree, impossible
to reach; many pieces of trash, such as the plastic bags and the cans were buried so
deep in the ground, that it was difficult to spot them. Apart from the usual waste, like
candy wrappers, plastic, etc… we found a few interesting pieces. Nicole discovered
an old bike tire in front of the MRT. Nienke retrieved a gardener’s glove. I found the
top plastic part of a Baby G watch in the park. And Emma found two cans that had
been moulded together. Overall, I thought this action was a great learning experience
and actually quite fun. As a group, many plastic bags were filled with recyclables and
even more were filled with general waste. I found it somewhat surprising that we
retrieved so much garbage in such a small area, and it makes me wonder how much
litter is spread all over Singapore, affecting ecosystems everywhere. I am glad that we
took part in this action, as it wasn’t only very enlightening, it also makes me feel a
sense of pride that we were able to do something to protect our environment. I will
definitely participate in future Clean-Up activities and I support their missions whole-
heartedly, as they strive to fix our world, step-by-step.

What we did (2)
On the 20th of May, we (Nicole, Emma, Nienke and I) met at Bukit Timah Nature
reserve for our second action. This was, once again, a clean-up action organized by
Keep Clean, Singapore!. There were a lot more people attending this session,
especially elderly walking groups. We were separated into two groups and given
coloured wristbands, as well as garbage bags and litter pick up tools. The group we
were in headed up part of the Bukit Timah hill, in the nature reserve. The hill was very
steep, so we made slow progress. However, there was close to no litter, save for the
occasional scrap of plastic. As soon as we reached a stop point, we turned around
and followed another route back down. There was no litter here either. The whole walk
took around an hour. I think the main reason for the sparse litter we found on the hill
is the fact that there are many park rangers roaming the area and picking up trash to
keep a clean environment for animals and people to spend time in. Also, there is a
strict law that there should be no food brought up the hill, due to the large abundance
of monkeys. I found this whole action very
motivation, as it shows us that we can actually
keep a clean environment – its already being
done. The fact that this is a public space in
nature makes the latter point even better,
because this means that the various species
found in the reserve are protected from
unwanted objects. All-in-all, I think this was the
most pointless action we took, although it
showed a different side of Singapore, which
should set an example to the rest of us.

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What we did (3)
On the 28th of May, we (Nicole, Emma, Nienke and I) took part in our last action. This
was another clean-up organized by Keep Clean, Singapore! We met at 8:30 at Boat
Quay. To start of the action, members of a Singpore NGO, Waterway Watch Society,
told us a bit about their work. Every week, members of the organization drive out onto
Singapore reservoirs to collect any litter that has accumulated there. It was actually
really interesting to see what kinds of items are thrown away by the people. One thing
that really stood out to me is that someone threw an old wicker chair and an electric
toy car into a reservoir. Although their talk was more related to GG#14, Life under
water, I found it very interesting. We learned that any litter that is dumped in any natural
water supply, or along the coastline, will eventually end up in one of our reservoirs.
This not only affects the aquatic life living there, but it could also harm us. This is
because, Singapore has a few main water supplies, one of them being the reservoirs.
As the water in the reservoirs is contaminated with litter, sea life dies, and our drinking
water is infected with bacteria or other harmful chemicals. I think Waterway Watch
Society’s work is great, and they are trying very hard to raise awareness of these
issues by partnering up with Keep Clean, Singapore. As the actual clean up started,
we were separated into two groups. Our group walked around the left side of the
waters, around the shop house and across the bridge. At the beginning, there was
only 1 type of litter; cigarette butts were strewn all along the paths and through the
bushes. Due to the large amounts of these, we were told to leave most of them as they
were, else the clean-up would have taken way too long. As we reached some of the
restaurants though, we came across a lot more litter. There were old cigarette packets
and food wrappers, and lots of tissues and plastic bottles. Emma and I collected these
bottles and kept them to wash out and create our recycled plant pots for our booth. It
was Sunday, and the night before, many people were hanging out in the restaurants,
drinking and talking. Because of this, the entire sidewalk and the adjacent bushes
were littered with beer bottles, cans, cups and most of all, beer caps. We were given
separate bags to dispose of the glass and by the end of the activity, our recycle bags
were fuller than the general waste bags. Our group leader gave us lots of interesting
pieces of information; the beer bottle caps are actually quite a dangerous form of litter.
Since everyone disposes of them in the bushes, they are left out in the open nature.
When it rains, the beer bottle caps fill with water. Water is a well-known breeding spot
for mosquitos, even if it is the smallest puddle. Therefore, the used bottle caps become
breeding spots for these insects, creating a large abundance of them around the Boat
Quay area, as well as other areas where they are littered. Our group leader also told
us, that restaurant owners and staff leave used plates, cups and utensils on the tables
outside overnight. This means that various birds come up to the tables to eat the
scraps, often contracting diseases and passing them on to other species. At the end
of the activity, we had 16.82kg of general waste, and 11.2kg of recyclable material.
Overall, I thought this clean-was the biggest success, not only because of the huge
amounts of litter we were able to pick up, but also because of the knowledge we

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How our actions impact Life on Land
Overall, I think our actions could have a very large and important impact on Life on
Land. By picking up litter, we are removing substances from nature that could be
harmful to species and possibly kill them. If species are killed or become
overpopulated (like in the case of the mosquitoes), there would be an unbalance in
our ecosystems, affecting every living organism on this earth. Furthermore, we learned
a lot and spread awareness, hopefully reaching out to more members of this
community. I believe this is a great way to help the environment, although it would be
even better if we stopped littering altogether. (Success: Our success rate could have
been better. We picked up a lot of litter, but were also told to let some stay as it was,
because we didn’t have enough time. If the action time was longer, I think we could
have an even bigger success)
4.2 Sustainability Action Week
Overall, I think Sustainability Action week was very successful. For our first event at
the primary school campus, we organized a few things to display at our booth. First,
we brought some of the awareness raising posters, the same that we had displayed
around school. I also created a large poster boasting the name of our goal, as well as
all of the sub-targets. Emma had created a great example of sustainably using
resources, that we could hand out; she cut used plastic bottles in half, filled each half
with soil and planted some plants from our garden. This supports our goal in two major
ways; by reusing the plastic bottles, which would have otherwise gone to a landfill, we
are supporting recycling, and making sure that our waste doesn’t affect the
environment. The plants were taken from her garden, where there was a slight
overpopulation in plants. This means that there weren’t enough nutrients and sunlight
for each of the plants and they would have died if we hadn’t replanted them. We had
also prepared some recycled booklets made from scrap paper. To do this, we stuck
two pieces of paper together, with the printed side facing in, and cut them to the right
size. Then we bound a specific number of them together and drew nice covers raising
awareness about our Goal. By doing this, we are supporting the decrease of
deforestation. Humans use so much paper nowadays, and as a result, so many trees
are cut down. By reusing paper, we could save thousands of trees. And finally, I
organized a hands-on activity; sunflower planting. I brought in some cupcake
wrappers, soil, sunflower seeds and spray bottles with water, with the aim of allowing
people visiting our booth to plant their own flowers and take them home. By planting,
we are supporting ecosystems around us, since we are increasing the biodiversity.
Flowers in particular are very important on the bee population, which many organisms,
including us humans, rely on for survival. I believe that this activity was a very smart
move, as it brought a lot of children to our booth.
During the actual presentation, we didn’t have to do much talking; the children were
much more interested in planting flowers or taking one of the potted plants or the
booklets home. However, as they were working, we were able to tell them a quick
summary of what the goal is about, and give them ideas of what they could do to help.
It was very interesting to hear about some of the things that they were already doing

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to support the environment. I had actually also brought some green ribbon to hand
out, but we got much too involved into what we were doing to remember it.

The presentation at the main campus was a lot more serious. Since we would be faced
with an older audience, I decided to come up with a set of information that they could
more easily relate too. I went on a quick trip to FairPrice to find produce with
sustainability labels. I found an orange juice carton with a Non-GMO label, a chocolate
bar with a FairTrade label, a can of tuna with a Dolphin Friendly label, a tissue box
with an FSC label and a pack of eggs with an AVA Singapore Egg Scheme label. All
of these labels have one thing in common; they show that the product follows
guidelines to support sustainable management and production of materials. I wrote a
short description of each of the labels (which can be found in the appendix at the end
of this report) and placed these on our booth along with the rest of our presentation
materials. This time around, we had to do a lot more talking, as the plants and other
materials weren’t as popular. Each time, I gave a brief summary of the goal and
explained our various actions and projects, before asking if the viewer had any specific
interests or questions. A lot of people asked me about the labels and seemed
especially surprised that FairTrade is related to Life on Land, just as I had been when
I first found out. I found this presentation quite a bit harder than at the junior campus,
because our audience here was far more interested in what we had to say and ask
many difficult questions, although I think I was able to answer them well. At one point,
Frau Verry came by our booth and asked me to do the whole presentation in German,
which I found really difficult because of the topic-related vocabulary. However, I think
it’s good to be able to spread the word to many different people, even if they don’t
speak English. All-in-all, I think our presentation went well, and we were able to spread
the word.
I have taken many things out of this week. The biggest, and most important is probably
the action that I know do every day to do my part in protecting our future: I dance every
day. Instead of taking the car, and risk polluting the environment even more, I walk or
take the scooter. I also have started being very careful about recycling my waste.
4.3 Reflecting on my experiences
Overall, I think Sustainability Action week was a great event. We were able to spread
awareness about the global goals and the issues they target, and inform others. I also
feel like I learnt a lot, not only about the goals, but also how to act sustainably. One

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thing I wish we could change is the length of the whole process. I think we put in way
too much effort for two days of presentation. Also, if it were longer, we would be able
to reach out to many more people over the course of the week. All-in-all though, I feel
these presentations and the projects associated with them were a great success.

All-in-all, I think Global Goal 15 could easily be achieved. If all humans did their part
to protect the environment, we could solve the problems ourselves. Many people may
believe that doing so will take away luxuries from their lives. However, by ensuring
environmental sustainability, we our doing ourselves and the rest of the world a favour,
by creating a safer, healthier world. Also, by continuously taking action, our tactics will
soon become habit. So do your part! Help save the planet.

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Works Cited
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2017, sciencing.com/human-activities-affect-ecosystem-9189.html. Accessed 7 June 2017.
Ayub, Naveed. “Littering Facts, Effects and Statistics.” Interesting Facts, NewInterestingFacts, 29
June 2016, www.newinterestingfacts.com/littering-facts/. Accessed 7 June 2017.
Blue, Jessica. “How Do We Affect the Ecosystem?” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 26 Apr. 2015,
www.livestrong.com/article/172789-how-do-we-affect-the-ecosystem/. Accessed 7 June
Cadiz, Gil. “10 Small Ways to Conserve and Protect Our Environment.” QBuzz | The Voice of QNET,
Qbuzz, 22 Mar. 2017, www.qbuzz.qnet.net/blog/2013/05/01/10-small-ways-to-conserve-and-
protect-our-environment/. Accessed 7 June 2017.
Carrington, Damian. “Elephant Poaching Archives.” Elephant Poaching - Facts, Havoscope, 2014,
www.havocscope.com/tag/elephant-poaching/. Accessed 7 June 2017.
Cesareo, Kerry. “Deforestation.” WWF, World Wildlife Fund, 15 Nov. 2016,
www.worldwildlife.org/threats/deforestation. Accessed 7 June 2017.
Endangered Species Coalition. “10 Easy Things You Can Do to Save Endangered
Species.” Endangered Species Coalition, Endangered.com, 2015, www.endangered.org/10-
easy-things-you-can-do-to-save-endangered-species/. Accessed 7 June 2017.
EnergyMarketAuthority. “Singapore Energy Statistics.” Energy Market Authority, 2016,
20Energy%20Statistics%202016.pdf. Accessed 8 June 2017.
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