Range-Bound Pricing of Channels Based on Demand and

Supply in Multichannel Multiuser Cognitive Radio
Networks

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted
in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

in

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

(EMBEDDED SYSTEMS)

By

G.D.S.BHAVANI
[Reg. No:151FB06022]
Under the esteemed guidance of

Ms.K.Annapurna

Assistant Professor, ECE

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN’S FOUNDATION FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND
RESEARCH UNIVERSITY

(NAAC ‘A’ Accredited)

VADLAMUDI, GUNTUR – 522213

INDIA

DECEMBER-2016

I

S. Signature of the Guide Signature of the HOD K. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project work entitled “ RANGE-BOUND PRICING OF CHANNELS BASED ON DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN MULTICHANNEL MULTIUSER COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS ” that is being submitted by Ms. Deemed University.BHAVANI bearing Regd.Annapurna.UshaRani Assistant Professor HOD of ECE II . Tech degree in Embedded Systems to the Vignan’s Foundation for Science. N. Technology and Research. G. is a record of bonafide work carried out by her under the guidance and supervision of Ms.K.D. No. The results embodied in this work have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.Annapurna Dr.151FB06022 in partial fulfillment for the award of M.

K.Annapurna and was not a duplication of work done by someone else. I hold the responsibility of the originality of the work incorporated into this thesis. The work was originally designed and executed by me under the guidance of my supervisor Ms. DECLARATION This is to certify that the project work entitled “RANGE-BOUND PRICING OF CHANNELS BASED ON DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN MULTICHANNEL MULTIUSER COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS” is being submitted to Vignan’s Foundation for Science. in partial fulfillment for the award of M. Technology and Research. Signature of the candidate Name: Date: III . Deemed University. Tech degree in Embedded Systems.

I express my sincere thanks to Dr.Annapurna. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT No task however small can be completed without proper guidance and encouragement. Finally I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to my beloved parents and friends whose blessings and encouragement were always there as a source of strength and inspiration. C. concern towards me and her readiness to share her ideas helped me to reach towards my goal. who encouraged me during the progress of my project. I would like to thank Dr. Dean of Engineering and Management for providing me the resources in carrying out the project work.K. G. V. I would like to express my heart full thanks to my guide Ms.S. ECE.Tech thesis work“RANGE-BOUND PRICING OF CHANNELS BASED ON DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN MULTICHANNEL MULTIUSER COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS”. Her pleasing nature.D. chairman of VFSTR University for providing me all the necessary facilities to complete my master’s degree project work. I express my sincere thanks toDr. Usha Rani.BHAVANI IV . Hence I would like to express my deep gratitude to all those people who are behind the scene and helped me in transforming the idea into implementation as my M. for her encouragement and support at all stages of the project work. Lavu Rathaiah. direction. Madhusudhan Rao. N. for her support and encouragement to carry out the project work successfully under her guidance. I express my sincere thanks to Vice-Chancellor Dr. Head of the Department.Thangaraj.

in supporting the Quality of Service (QoS) of cognitive radio users. based on the prevailing demand and supply of vacant channels. It also proposes to offer discounts in allocation prices. V . It is usually carried out through the auctions held by the spectrum licensees themselves or by the designated third parties that collect the vacant channel information from the licensed users. in which predefined maximum and minimum bid values can be used. at various times. range of bidding prices can be very wide. is proposed in this work. and in stabilizing the pricing of channels. ABSTRACT Appropriate pricing of channel bandwidths that are allotted to secondary users is an important and challenging task in cognitive radio networks. with no restriction on maximum and minimum bidding values. In most of the standard auction methods. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme offers better performance in comparison with other existing auction methods. An auction scheme. This situation can create instability in channel pricing that can lead to underutilization of vacant bandwidths.

ABBREVIATIONS CRN Cognitive Radio Network MATLAB Matrix Lab PU Primary User SU Secondary User PR Priority SDR Software Defined Radio FCC Federal Communication Commission QOS Quality of Service CCC Command Control Channel BW Bandwidth VCG Vickrey-Clarke-Groves GSP Generalized Second Prize Auction GBM Generalized Branco’s Mechanism SP spectrum provider PSD Power Spectral Density DSA Dynamic Spectrum Access IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers RF Radio Frequency PO Primary Owner VI .

20 COGNITIVE RADIO’S KEY BENEFITS CHAPTER 3 3.7 COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK 2. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 1.14 SPECTRUM MOBILITY 2.16 SPECTRUM SHARING TECHNIQUES 2.9 DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ACCESS (DSA) IN COGNITIVE NETWORKS 2.13 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 2.11 SPECTRUM SENSING 2.1 SPECTRUM SHARING TECHNIQUES 26 3. COGNITIVE RADIO 2.2 WORK DONE 3.1BACKGROUND 2.18 SECOND CLASSIFICATION 2.3 COGNITIVE RADIO-RELATED PROJECTS AND RESEARCH CHAPTER 4 35 4.2 SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO (SDR) 2.12 SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT 2.19 THIRD CLASSIFICATION 2.17 FIRST CLASSIFICATION 2.15 SPECTRUM DECISION 2.INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2 2.4 THE VISION OF COGNITIVE RADIO 2.SPECTRUM SHARING 3.6 PRIMARY NETWORK 2.10 COGNITIVE RADIO AND THE PHYSICAL LAYER 2.3 SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO AND COGNITIVE RADIO 2.8 COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY 2.5 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE OF COGNITIVE RADIO 2. CHANNEL AUCTION METHODS VII .

5 REVENUE OPTIMIZATION IN THE GENERALIZED SECOND-PRICE AUCTION 4.1 TYPES OF AUCTIONS 4.3 RESULTS CHAPTER 6 6. CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX VIII .2 SIMULATION EXAMINATION 5.4.3 SPECTRUM SHARING SCHEMES 4.6 AUCTION-BASED SPECTRUM SHARING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS WITH HETEROGENEOUS CHANNELS 4.1 SIMULATIONS 5.7 PROPOSED WORK CHAPTER 5 5.2 SPECTRUM SHARING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS: AN AUCTION BASED APPROACH 4. SIMULATION STUDY 5.4 GENERALIZED SECOND-PRICE 4.

2 Channel allocation cost to Secondary users.3 Measurements from the Berkeley Wireless Research Center show the allocated spectrum is vastly underutilized.1 Rapid Growth in the use of the Radio Spectrum 1.1 SDR in terms of the OSI Model 2.4 Cognitive Radio Network Example 2.2 Cognitive Radio Concepts 2. 5.1 System model for spectrum sharing 4. two primary users.2 Spectrum Utilization 1. for the case of 25% occupancy by primary users and 5 SUs seeking the channels 5. 1.3 Why Cognitive Radio 2. and four secondary users. 1.4. Channel allocation cost to Secondary users. for the case of 25% occupancy by primary users and 3 SUs seeking thechannels 5.3.2 A cognitive radio network with one primary owner.5 Cognitive Radio Cycle 4.4 ISM Bands 2.1. Name Page No. for the case of 25% occupancy by primary users and 8 SUs seeking the channels 5. Channel allocation cost to Secondary users. for the case of 25% occupancy by primary users and 10 SUs seeking the channels IX . Channel allocation cost to Secondary users. List of Figures Figure No.

for the case of 50% occupancy by primary users and 10 SUs seeking the channels X . Channel allocation cost to Secondary users.6. Channel allocation cost to Secondary users. 5. for the case of 50% occupancy by primary users and 3 SUs seeking the channels 5.5.

11 .