Q. Explain and discuss research design.

Discuss various elements of research
design in detail

Ans

There are many definitions of research design, but no single definition imparts the
full range of important aspects.

A research design is the framework or guide used for the planning,
implementation, & analysis of a study. It is a systematic plan of what
is to be done, how it will be done, & how the data will be analyzed.
Research design is the plan and structure of investigation so
conceived as to obtain answers to research questions. The plan is
the overall scheme or program of the research. It includes an outline
of what the investigator will do from writing hypotheses and their
operational implications to the final analysis of data.
Research design aids the researchers in the allocation of limited
resources by posing crucial choices in methodology.
Research design expresses both the structure of the research
problem (the framework), organization, or configuration of the
relationships among the variables of study and the plan of
investigation used to obtain empirical evidence on those relationships.
Research design basically provides an outline of how the research
will be carried out & the methods that will be used. It includes the
descriptions of the research approaches, dependent & independent
variables, sampling design, & planning format for data collection,
analysis &presentation.
The research design is the master plan specifying the methods &
procedures for collecting & analyzing the needed information in a
research study. Research design can be defined as a blue print to
conduct a research study, which involves the description of research
approach, study setting, sampling size, sampling technique, tools &
method of data collection & analysis to answer a is specific research

A procedural outline for every research activity. The above mentioned definitions differ in detail. questions or for testing research hypothesis. research is a project and project management tools such as critical path method (CPM) can be used to depict sequential and simultaneous steps estimate scheduling and timetables for each activity or phase of the research. when & where data are to be collected & analyzed. At its core. There are two types of sampling design  Probability  Non-probability  Observational design: – In this design the researcher plans how to take data for research.  Statistical design: – In this design the statistical tools to use for research are planned by the researcher. A plan always based on the research question.  Operational design: – In this deign the researcher design how the research is going to be operated. Research design is the researcher’s overall plan for answering the research questions or testing the research hypothesis. Research design is of four types  Sampling design: – In this design the total population is census and a random sample is taken which denotes the entire population. A guide for selection sources and types of information. . A framework for specifying the relationships among the study’s variables. but together they give the essentials of research design: An activity and time based plan. Research design is a plan of how.

The key elements of good research design are  Clear statement of research design  Methods and techniques to be utilized for gathering information  Approach to be applied for processing and analyzing the data  Purpose of the study  Type of investigation  Researcher interference  Study setting  Time horizon  Unit of analysis .  Generalization: The information collected from given sample must be utilized for providing a general application to the large group of which the sample is drawn. It is possible by allowing more than one person to agree between the final scores/ conclusion of the research. So the researcher must frame the research questions to make it reliable and provide similar outcomes. The design which gives the smallest experimental error is reported to be the best design in scientific investigation  Objectivity: The findings obtained by the research should be objective.  Reliability: If the similar research is carried out time and again in a similar setting it must give similar result. Characteristics/Elements of research design Generally a good research design minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data collected and analyzed.  Validity: Any measuring device can be said to be valid if it measures what it is expected to measure and nothing else. To make a research valid the questionnaire framed before research must be framed accordingly.