Vol. 5 No.

5 September-October 2007

Exercise and activity for healthy aging

Periodize training for the
masters athlete
by Joseph F. Signorile, PhD
Periodize training for Periodization is now a mainstay of athletic
the masters athlete training. It is a method of cycling different
by Joseph F. Signorile, training variables (volume, intensity,
PhD frequency and type of exercise) in a specific
p. 1 pattern designed to maximize performance
and minimize fatigue. Put simply,
Masters athletes
pursue many sports periodization is a planning calendar to
p. 14 optimize the training responses.

Walking in the water The theories underlying the application of
by Jana Headrick periodization are sport-specific overload
p. 16 and recovery. Therefore, training cannot
simply be any exercise that will “get you in
Client Handout: shape.” Training must target the metabolic
Choose to be active systems and motor patterns that are The information in this article is applicable
p. 20 important to the sport. to everyone who trains for competition
or personal fitness. Of course, the intensity
Comment: Function
is the game Equally as important, a training scheme and frequency of training should be adjusted
p. 21 must offer days of higher and lower intensity for each individual’s personal goals and
exercises in a temporal (related to time) fitness levels. And when in doubt, err on
pattern that allows for recovery. Remember, the side of caution. Remember, an extra
it is during those shorter, lower intensity week or 2 spent gradually increasing training
recovery workouts that the body can loads is better than months spent recovering
replenish its energy supplies and re-engineer from an overuse injury!
its muscle and connective tissues. The
recovery periods allow the body to increase Applying the periodization
training overload and, therefore, principles
Periodization training is usually divided into
Periodization is as important to the 3 major chronological cycles:
recreational athlete as it is to the elite
competitor, and it becomes even more 1. microcycle (one week in length)
important as we put a few more years 2. mesocycle (typically 2 to 6 weeks,
under our belts. Remember, as we age our which encompasses 2 to 6 microcycles)
Published with recuperative powers are compromised, and 3. macrocycle (an entire training period
the support of properly designed training and recovery or phase, a number of mesocycles)
Philips Medical cycles are even more critical for maximizing
performance and decreasing the probability
of injury. Continued on page 3...

www.icaa.cc C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ®


How periodization works The basic periodization curve contains 3 stages. and adaptations are manifested during subsequent unloading periods. overuse injury. restitution (compensation or more simply. on the spot The shape of this curve has been Adaptation attributed to the interactions Physiological between 2 opposing factors.icaa. our to a competitive event willingness to incorporate lower intensity recovery periods into Temporal our training is often either ignored Relating to time or delayed until our visit to the sports medicine clinic due to Undulating Rise and fall in smooth. fatigue (depletion) Glossary 2. fatigue management tactics are integral to a sound Functional U ® program. as shown in Figure 1: 1. the improvements due to fatigue after-effect and the fitness the training program after-effect (see Figure 2) (1). wavelike motion Plisk and Stone have concisely Figure 2.” Sep-Oct 2007 www. especially with high-volume loads. zigzag. Quantity of exercise recovery in proper cycling of training in the following statement from their article “Periodization Strategies” (2): “Since fatigue is a natural consequence of training stress. curve (dashed line) indicative of overtraining. Overload Increase in training These 2 factors demonstrate the volume and/or intensity need for periodization if the to achieve a training effect is to be maximized physiological adaptation throughout the training process— Recovery and especially at the point of Period of low-intensity competition. Fartlek The fatigue after-effect Short high-intensity represents a drop in your intervals alternating performance because the acute with normal effort impact of exercise makes you tired. A classic periodization curve for performance a straight line session and following a prolonged showing the major cycles and a prolonged fatigue training cycle. recovery) 3. not in immediately after an exercise Figure 1. or alternate activity While we clearly understand the Taper need to overload our bodies to Reduced training prior force a training adaptation. Intensity Level of effort exerted The fitness after-affect means that you will derive a positive Nonlinear impact on performance both Changing. supercompensation (overcompensation or more simply improved performance) Acute Immediate.cc 2 . Fatigue and fitness after-effects as they relate Volume presented the importance of to a classic periodization curve.

remember.. since intensity A number of different names have been is the major factor that drives training assigned to these cycles depending on adaptations. But before we do.cc ® C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e 3 . Periodization training cycles PREPARATION COMPETITION EVENT TRANSITION General Specific Pre. and have found it article. competitive season. Speed and Taper: Recovery Competi- strength strength strategy plyometrics. intensity. interact in the sample periodization programs for marathon runners and tennis General preparation may be thought of as players that follow. and the characteristics therefore. Recovery Off-season Preparation Preparation competition tion MARATHON Base: Increased Long Short Taper: Fun Recovery Competi- Peak performance Long runs. as we age our systems are Continued on page 4. or if it is designed for Many masters athletes refer to this as a seasonal or year-round sports. whether the training is strength. competition and optimize training benefits. For this quality/quantity tradeoff. The preparatory are somewhat more descriptive in nature phase provides structural adaptations that and perhaps easier to understand (2. Points and tion break and and and tactics Match play imaging mechanics mechanics (skill) (application) Functional U ® Sep-Oct 2007 www. supra- intensity Fartlek Long maximal recovery intensity. adapting the body’s systems to training by developing to varying degrees (depending Let’s look at each phase. prepare the athlete for more intense and specific overloads. volume of work in favor of greater intensity during each of these phases. I have also included phases that are “nested” within these that Preparation phase..icaa. we will use Tudor Bompa’s model to be the most effective strategy to of 3 phases: preparation. point in time relative tissues are more susceptible to overuse to the competitive event or in the injury than those in younger athletes. it is advisable to reduce the of the person in training. 4). transition (3). Continued from page 1 These cycles vary in nature depending on slower to adapt to overloads and our the sport or activity.or endurance-based. Short recovery TENNIS Peak performance Base Max Power. speed: interval: interval: runs tion break low to Moderate Submaximal Maximal to to high moderate intensity. However. into 2 sub-phases: general and specific You will see how the cycles and phases preparation. Competi.This phase can be divided The training phases are presented below.

Fry and O’Toole in a strength background. intensity starts low and increases until close to the end of the cycle.cc C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® 4 . the skill component becomes a more dominant variable than for conditioning- However. This definition recognizes that overtraining Competition phase. volume and connotations in the vernacular of training. phase is well-defined by its name. increases and then decreases. Overtraining is the final term in our and then decreases. The taper is followed manipulated to affect sport-specific changes.. and then by a recovery period. This term can be confusing since component increases throughout the cycle it has both positive and negative (see Figure 3. technique on the next page). A primary goal is their text Overtraining in Sport (5) to describe to adapt the body’s muscles and connective this condition: tissues to the stresses of training. Let’s use a modification of the Continued on page 6. This nonlinear This phase usually ends with a taper. In the positive sense. www. Additionally. To the training should be performed using the accomplish this. such as tennis or softball. sport-specific training using activities designed to target performance at the Manipulate the variables competitive event. for sports that have a greater necessary to overload the systems and skill requirement. the skill vocabulary. The basic concept is to plan sufficient The competition phase continues this training. There are 2 nested sub-phases: precompetition and Now that we have established our competition. Mechanical specificity means that to overtraining or overuse injuries. vocabulary.icaa.” attuned to the specific sport. Conversely. cause a training adaptation.. many coaches and sports scientists feel that overtraining is Obviously. but increases the intensity and mechanical while avoiding levels of fatigue that can lead specificity. Changes in intensity. The competition also can negatively affect performance. In the case of seasonal sports. Functional U ® connotation describes the overtraining Sep-Oct 2007 syndrome. let’s look at how you can plan and apply a periodization plan to your The precompetition phase begins defined client’s training regimen. pattern involves the manipulation of 3 factors: A taper is a period of reduced training prior to a competitive event that is designed to · volume maximize performance by reducing the · intensity fatigue after-effect and increasing the fitness · skill after-effect. Finally. volume begins moderately activities to maintain some level of high. the more common negative dominated sports such as running or cycling. overload over time to produce change. most coaches and exercise muscles and movement patterns that reflect scientists agree that a nonlinear pattern of the sport in which the athlete competes. “Overtraining syndrome is an The specific preparation phase is a time to accumulation of training stress that transition to training techniques that are results in a decrement in more biomechanically (movement patterns) performance that even with recovery and bioenergetically (energy systems) may last weeks or even months. conditioning while providing recovery. training must be used (6-8). by the event. Continued from page 3 on the sport) an aerobic background and definition by Kreider. an off-season The general rule is that at the beginning of recovery period may feature recreational a training cycle. the type of exercise can be Transition phase.

Volume and intensity changes across a typical mesocycle. Volume and intensity changes across a muscular strength and a muscular endurance microcycle. Figure 3. volume and technique across the phases of a periodization cycle.icaa.cc C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® 5 . Functional U ® Sep-Oct 2007 www. Figure 5. Changes in intensity. Figures 4 a & b.

mesocycle and macrocycle. create a macrocycle. Patterns of taper (after Mujika I.You Finally. Inigo Mujika and Sabino Padilla showed that One final point of interest concerning taper. Functional U ® Sep-Oct 2007 www. physiological factors in distance runners (13) and strength athletes (14) alike. the decline is faster training levels. Continued from page 4 The above changes can be made across a For example. For those of us who are a bit older. below) was the most impact on performance when frequency of effective method of tapering (9). how hard and long the person trains per training status. to improve muscular endurance (7). duration can be affected by age. Figure 6. among 4 possible patterns. Scientific bases for precompetition tapering strategies. those who train at a more moderate level. then plateaus. During training is maintained at near 80% of normal exponential tapers. better conditioned athletes will typical pattern used by most athletes. This means that duration of the taper is about 2 weeks. The decline (especially in sports where technique researchers also noted that the optimal is a dominant factor [9]). which indicates the need for a typical mesocycle shows how microcycles a somewhat longer taper compared to may be manipulated across 4 weeks to younger athletes (11. exponential It appears that taper has its greatest positive decline (see Figure 6. In a summary paper on tapers.Volume and intensity changes intensities will require longer tapers than provide illustrations of intensity and volume.icaa. The first cycle shows a Additionally.. there is clear evidence that recovery takes a longer Figure 5. 12). requires longer durations or very high Figures 4a and 4b. the most effective pattern of taper will note the gradual undulating increase seems to be to maintain intensity at a high in intensity and decline in volume across level while decreasing volume. the respond more quickly to a taper than those second is usually isolated to cycles designed who are at a lower level of conditioning. while intensity and volume at the start of the taper. This strategy the first 2 microcycles (days 1 to 14) and has been shown to have the greatest positive then the exponential decline in both during impact on both performance and the last 2 microcycles (days 15 to 28). Volume and intensity changes across period of time. Padilla S.cc C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® 6 . The macrocycle presented typifies a competition phase. individuals whose training microcycle. Continued on page 7. athlete is training (10).. Drs. taper should rely on exponential drops in However. the fitness component you’re session and not the number of training targeting and also the sport for which the sessions performed per week. based microcycles. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2003.35:1182-7) By permission.

cc 7 . Although Remember. likely not designed specifically for an individual. Additionally. Feeling excessively tired training program.icaa. customized may set the stage for overtraining or possible injury. It is therefore important to have if the athlete is not sensitive to its onset.. you can customize the is performance. some sort of training “yardstick” to allow Even a periodization plan that has been you to modify the training to meet each designed specifically for a sport is most person’s specific pattern of adaptation. and those levels athletes commonly train in a “more is differ from individual to individual. environment. When you design a periodization The most important marker of overtraining plan for your client. these philosophies are an inability to and a periodization template that is not perform and a high probability of injury. we all have different genetic this might seem counterintuitive since capacities for adaptation. the consequence of following training status and competitive schedule. the difference between overtraining to Continued on page 8. Add to better” and “work through the pain” this the fact that people may differ in age.. Overtraining warning signs Strength or speed athlete Endurance athlete · Increased perceived exertion during a lifting · Reduced VO2max or sprinting set · Increased resting heart rate · Reduced HRmax and HR response at any level of exercise · Decreased muscular strength of movement · Elevated resting heart rate speed · Reduced coordination and increased · Reduced neuromuscular excitability performance errors · Reduced rate of lactic acid produced · Reduced rate of glycogen (stored sugar) and (suppressed anaerobic energy production) fat utilization · Reduced ability to perform a workout · Reduced rate of lactic acid produced (suppressed anaerobic energy production) · Reduce immune system response · Reduced immune system response · Disrupted sleep · Disrupted sleep · Amenorrhea (premenopausal female) ® Functional U Sep-Oct 2007 C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® www. even after a day or must be alert for signs of overtraining 2 of reduced work. are signals to consider syndrome. overtraining may still occur defined. but you and the client still and unable to perform. a “mini-taper” period to allow the body’s systems a chance to revitalize. Continued from page 6 Warning signs of overtraining stimulate change (often called over-reaching) and overtraining that causes prolonged Even when a person adopts the principles performance decrements is not clearly of periodization.

16). www.humankinetics. Continued from page 7 Other markers. Periodization is worth the planning Resources Periodization of training has been shown Periodization (article) to be more effective in improving Sara Quan performance.. many of the symptoms listed in considerable decline with age—must be this table also occur at different points in addressed during the training cycles. for a more Human Kinetics Publishers comprehensive picture of the topic. If your client mentions feeling more tired.com and sport sciences in the School of Education at the University of Miami—Coral Gables. Clearly other “Overtraining warning signs” on page 7..usms.com Stein Gerontological Institute in Miami.Theory and Methodology topic. sample periodization studies have shown a strong association programs for the marathoner (an example between changes in mood state and of the endurance athlete) and the tennis overtraining (15. 4th Edition (1999) resources. which are very simple to Sample periodization programs use and highly effective. you should use them in combination with Continued on page 9. the cycling only refers to the specific to detect overtraining in endurance and fitness factors directly associated with the strength athletes. Education and Clinical Center.humankinetics. A number of On the following pages.cc 8 .com Periodization Training for Sports 2nd Edition (2005) Joseph Signorile. There are a number of classic markers used Second.humankinetics. programs are offered as examples and may vary in effectiveness from person to person. for overuse injuries than standard programs php?a=24 using progressive increases. The major markers player (an example of a power/speed athlete) you should look for are a decrease in vigor show how the training cycles can be used and an increase in tension and depression. factors—especially flexibility. Periodization (article) YPI Training Planner While this article offers you a template www. Strength Training for Tennis (NTSC) (video.aball-ypi. such as those included at the Tudor Bompa end of this article.humankinetics. 1993) United States Tennis Association Functional U ® References are on page 13 www. performance decrements and mood changes for an accurate evaluation.com Sep-Oct 2007 C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® www. reducing the incidence of United States Masters Swimming overtraining and decreasing the potential www. consider Please recognize that these training that mini-taper.com/periodization. which are presented in sport-specific performance. are a person’s mood or attitude toward training. to schedules changes in the training variables. He Science and Practice of Strength Training also conducts research at the Geriatric 2nd Edition (2006) Research. is a professor of exercise Tudor Bompa and Michael Carrera www. Miami Vladimir Zatsiorsky and William Kraemer Veterans Affairs Medical Center and at the www. which shows However. tense and depressed than usual. PhD. it is by no means a complete review of the Periodization . therefore. the regular training cycle. I suggest that you examine other of Training.org/fitness/articleofthemonth.icaa.htm that you can use to design programs.

Preparation (General) – 6 weeks Distance and pace: Progress from about 12 to 18 miles with the majority of the work (approximately 75%) being slow. The remaining 25% should be work at approximately the current race pace. hypertrophy resistance training concentrating on lower body muscle and connective tissue strength is appropriate. Frequency: Approximately 3 to 4 days per week. Frequency: 3-4 days/week Strength training: Decrease resistance training from 2 to one day a week to allow tissue strength maintenance while reducing stresses on the musculo-skeletal and energy systems.. Strength training: On days when running is not performed. This speed work will comprise about 30% to 40% of the cycle with the percentage increasing throughout the cycle in an undulating pattern. controlled runs. Functional U ® Sep-Oct 2007 Continued on page 10. Low-intensity work will average between 18 and 25 miles.cc C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® 9 . The marathoner (intermediate to advanced) The majority of the work should be interval in nature since intervals have been shown to have a superior impact on improving aerobic power.icaa. Pre-competition – 4 weeks Distance and pace: This cycle becomes much more race-specific. www.. Faster speed work is incorporated. Preparation (Specific) – 4 weeks Distance and pace: Concentrate on distance and increased work pace with the inclusion of long intervals and some Fartlek (short speed intervals) training. Race pace and interval work now makes up approximately 50% to 65% of the work. The mileage for this phase fluctuates by week between 10 and 24 miles. with one distance day progressing from approximately 7 to 12 miles.

Sample periodization plan for a marathoner Phase PREPARATION COMPETITION EVENT TRANSITION General Specific Pre.. high-intensity work will now make up about 40% and 60% of the training for each week.cc C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® 10 . Mileages will be 10 and 8 miles. Recovery This is the phase to reduce specific training. The long run for week one will be approximately 20 miles. supra- intensity Fartlek long maximal recovery intensity. volume. for the final 2 weeks. respectively. while the one for week 2 will dramatically decrease to 10 miles.. short recovery Functional U ® Sep-Oct 2007 Continued on page11. intensity and frequency of training all drop exponentially. with no light runs occurring during the last week and no runs during the final 2 to 3 days before the race. Given the increase in distance during the first week and the approach of the taper during the second week. intensity. Continued from page 9 Pre-competition – 4 weeks (continued) Frequency: 3-4 days/week Strength training: Reduce resistance training to a maintenance program of one short workout per week. add cross-training and recreational activities in lieu of formalized training. respectively. www. Competi. Recovery Off-season Specific phase Preparation Preparation competition tion Mesocyle 6 weeks 4 weeks 4 weeks 2 weeks Microcycle 1 week 1 week Base: Increased Long Short Taper: Fun Recovery Competi- Long runs. Competition – 2 weeks Distance and pace: This phase is highly sport-specific. Frequency: 3-4 days/week Taper: During the taper. Mileage will be approximately 30 miles for week one and 23 miles for week 2. speed: interval: interval: runs tion break Moderate Peak performance low to Submaximal Maximal to to high moderate intensity.icaa.

A service-volley player needs a greater concentration on speed work. Since most points in tennis last about 6 to 10 seconds. Perform interval runs (forward.icaa. For the baseliner. concentrating on sport- specific higher velocity lifts. this program targets a club or league championship within the context of a season of league play. Preparation (Specific) – 3 weeks Conditioning: This phase continues with the background work designed to make the physiological changes associated with the high-intensity interval nature of the game of tennis. this sport-specific phase begins to incorporate high-speed intervals to train the body to adapt to the waste product build-up and high-energy use patterns associated with game situations. Preparation (General) – 3 weeks Conditioning: This phase is designed to develop the physiological qualities required for high- level competition. Duration starts at 5 minutes and progresses to 20 minutes by the end of the 3-week phase. The periodization plan is designed for an all-court player. Plan a gradually increasing program of interval work. the work:recovery duty cycle starts at 1:3 and progresses to 2:1 (for example 10s work: 30s recovery progressing to 10s work: 5s recovery). Once again. Functional U ® Sep-Oct 2007 Continued on page12.. Sport specific: Tennis training should be non-competitive drills. Remember to vary the volume/intensity patterns throughout the training week. shorter intervals and explosive movements.cc 11 .. Strength training: Continue resistance training twice per week. the pattern should vary across each week. gradually increasing from an average of 25 to 60 minutes. The tennis player (intermediate to advanced) Since many tennis players compete year- round. Strength training: Tennis-specific resistance training occurs 2 to 3 days per week. As with the interval aerobic training. Attempt to follow heavy aerobic days with lower resistance training days to allow optimal energy utilization. greater concentration on repeated sets of short (10 to 15 seconds) intervals with a limited rest (5 to 10 seconds) may best suit the game. In addition. Speed and plyometric drills can be added with proportional reductions in aerobically-based intervals. backward and side-to-side) 3 days a week. incorporate an increase across the time period. 3 days per week. C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® www.

Sample periodization plan for a tennis player Phase PREPARATION COMPETITION EVENT TRANSITION General Specific Pre. dropping to a single day of lightweight.icaa. The end of this week will be the competitive event. Sport specific: On-court work concentrates on strategy and execution. Continued from page 11 Sport specific: Play during this phase will most likely include some competitive matches. light recreational work should be used during these final days of taper. agility and quickness drills dominate fitness training and are limited to 15 to 20 minutes per day. Speed and Taper: Recovery Competi- strength strength strategy and plyometrics. Taper: All resistance training ends at this point.cc 12 . Recovery Off-season Specific phase Preparation Preparation competition tion Mesocyle 3 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks 2 weeks Base Maximum Power. Pre-competition – 2 weeks Conditioning: This phase features only speed and agility drills that are specific to on-court performance. mental imaging of points and play strategy is a strong tool during this period of reduced work. Taper: Slowly increase recovery periods and decrease volume of work across this 2-week cycle. Competi. Remember. explosive lifts. Strength training: Weight training volume continues to decline. Medicine ball and rubber tubing drills are good choices for biomechanically- specific speed/resistance work. Only light on-court work and limited points to hone skills are used. points and tion break Peak performance and and tactics Match play imaging mechanics mechanics (application) Functional U ® (skill) Sep-Oct 2007 C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® www. as well as play at a more competitive level. but concentrate on drills to address specific weaknesses in the client’s game. Recovery A day or 2 of full recovery may be advisable if the athlete is feeling any residual fatigue toward the end of the taper. Strength training: Resistance training declines from 2 to one day per week and is explosive in nature. At most. On-court points should concentrate on high-intensity points with limited formal play. Competition – 2 weeks Conditioning: Speed.

Hawkins SA. intensity. reserve to prevent decline. www. In: Kreider RB.25:42-51. Gibala M.cc C h a n g i n g t h e W a y W e A g e ® 13 .A comparison of the week for health and enjoyment. O'Toole ML. Fry AC. A and balance. Ergometric and psychological findings during Dimensions of Aging) overtraining: a long-term follow-up study in endurance Functional U ® athletes. Mujika I. independent 2002. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2001. MacDougall JD. O'Bryant HS. Bernain X. 4. EdD (Physical W. Plisk SS. Scientific bases for precompetition Needs activity that helps improve tapering strategies. Rhea MR. Jaque SV et al. L.26:52-5. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research of fitness to live an active. Circulation 2001. 7.56:M618-M626. eds. Engages in some physical activity and Periodization: Effects of manipulating volume and can perform activities of daily living. Active now 5. 8. Burkett LN et al. Sagnol M. Periodization (or Periodized Training). Stone MH. Definitions. II. YPI: Planning for Peak Performance. Physiological effects of tapering in highly trained athletes. Overtraining in Sport: Terms.17:82-7. improve function and 30-year follow-up of the Dallas bed rest and training mobility and improve medical study.16:250-5. Filaire E. Activity 2003. perform activities of daily living and 15. Relationship between physiological loss. Kindermann work of Waneen Spirduso. Tarnopolsky MA. Sale DG. 9. Gabriel HH. Phillips W. Preliminary results on mood state. Kreider RB. http://www. Cipriano N. 12. Williamson JW et al.86:179-84. of linear and daily undulating periodized programs Needs exercise that maintains the level with equated volume and intensity for strength. International Journal of Sports Medicine Sep-Oct 2007 1998. Periodization strategies.com/. Journal of Applied Needs on-going assistance Physiology 1992. ratio and team performance in a professional soccer team. Shepley B. Periodization Training for Sports. Medicine and Science in Sports physical function and develops physical and Exercise 2003. engages in physical activity most days 6. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal 2003. Needs a little help 11. salivary testosterone:cortisol manage illness. The effects of Does not engage in physical activity tapering on strength performance in trained athletes. Continued from page 8 ICAA Functional Levels References 1.25:19-37. goals are to maintain or improve fitness Champaign: Human Kinetics. Journal of have medical conditions and movement Gerontology A: Biological Science and Medical Science limitations. 2007. Burkett. Barnes JL. Urhausen A.aball-ypi. Sutton JR. 13. Part 1. Strength and Conditioning Journal but may have functional limitations.72:706-11. Rhea MR. performance Engages in limited physical activity.15:492-7. Lac G.and long- term training. Stone MH. Ball SD. 3. to exercise training.104:1358-66. and Prevalence.icaa.35:1182-7. McGuire DK. Overtraining in Sport. O'Toole ML. Oliveto N. Schilling BK et al. Wiswell RA. MacDougall JD. Fry AC. Exercises or participates in sports 2. A comparison of linear and daily undulating periodized programs with equated volume and intensity for local muscular Getting started endurance. 1999. 1999. Padilla S. The Fitness-Fatigue model Athlete revisited: Implications for planning short. Effect of age on cardiovascular adaptation conditions. May decrement. National activity almost every day or works at Strength and Conditioning Association Journal a physically demanding job.19:114-20. lifestyle and to manage weight. Exercises at least twice a week and Champaign: Human Kinetics 1998:vii-ix. Coates G. Establishing volume load parameters: A different look in designing a strength training periodization for throwing athletes. Chiu LZF. Phillip WT. ICAA Functional Levels are adapted from the 16. Goals are to regain strength 2001. Levine BD. Weiler B. 10. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2004.21:56-63. Bompa TO. 14. and needs to improve the ability to Int J Sports Med 1994. and age in master athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2003. level and succeed in sports.