1.

Cane Supply & cane yard
1.1. Cane supply

Methods of cane harvesting and transport

In Tongaat Hulett - Açucareira de Moçambique SA the harvesting method is burning,
followed by cutting and loading into trailers of tractor or truck by backhoe. The practice of
burning the cane is an effective way to perform manual harvesting system. Some advantages
of burning are:

 Higher payload and therefore cheaper transport of cane
 Processing cane clean
 A cheap way of removing trash
 Fight against diseases and pests
 Promote new growth from the remain stalks of the ground

Some disadvantages are:

 Increase soil erosion
 Decrease extraction by 0.4%
 Poor payload if trash is not done well

Cane quality

Table below illustrates the most cane varieties types of cane used in Tongaat Hulett
Açucareira de Moçambique SA with their characteristics.

Type Purity Fibre content Non- Fibre: Sucrose Cane yield
sucrose ratio
N19 High Moderate Low Low Low to moderate
N25 High Very low Low Low High
N27 Moderate to Moderate to Low Low to moderate High
high high
Table 1: Cane quality

22 83.25 14.28 N27 13.76 N19 14. N27.10 N23 12.00 N21 12.27 14.75 15.18 85.86 15.38 N27 13.60 91.30 N27 13. N23 and N21.79 N25 12.18 N25 12.82 13.19 15.10 15.30 13.95 15.36 15.42 13.30 93.65 84.23 N23 12.59 14.11 13. compare in terms of pol and fibre the option to select variety follow this sequence: N14.14 13.26 15.72 N19 14.22 Table 3: Average of historical data from 2014 Variety Pol % Brix % Purity Fibre N14 14.20 15.26 85.60 13.70 86.26 15.90 15.15 12.77 13.20 84.18 N23 12.59 13. .10 90.51 15.77 14.29 85.47 13.61 13.74 90.99 13.28 86.03 13. N25.13 12.10 15.58 83.71 15. With this average of historical data. Variety Pol % Brix % Purity Fibre N14 12.46 85.96 N19 14.00 N25 12.22 15.24 88.20 Table 2: Average of historical data from 2013 Variety Pol % Brix % Purity Fibre N14 14.80 15.73 94. N19.15 91.32 15.93 N21 12.11 13.14 Table 4: Average of historical data from 2015 The objective to grow many varieties is to get higher pol to make sugar and fibre enough for produce steam on boilers.89 N21 13.29 83.71 12.

Cane preparation The devices are used in Tongaat Hulett . there are two types primary and secondary knives: .Deterioration and losses due to delays to process after burning Once sugarcane is cut it is subject to deterioration largely due to the activity of microorganisms. The knives reduce the length. Cane payment system For cane payment system in Tongaat Hulett SA is used Estimated Recoverable Crystal (ERC) formula: ERC %  aS  bN  cF Where : S = Sucrose% cane N = Non . fibre and Brix. Huge improvement was observed since the haulage of Lamego cane was shifted from rail to road in 2016/17 season. a burn to crush delay must be kept below 50hours. Sampling and evaluation of cane The method of evaluation cane used is from overall analysis in terms of pol. This gives an indication of how much sugar is present in the cane delivered.sucrose % cane F = Fibre% cane a = Undetermi ned loss sucrose from sugar production b = Loss of sucrose from sugar production per unit of N c = Loss of sucrose from sugar production per unit of F This formula is applied for normal out growers and Muda grower a payment is done through tonnage as it is under leasing process. 1.1 hours.Açucareira de Moçambique SA to prepare cane for milling is knives and shredder. Mafambisse BTC target is 48 hours and the actual until 31 July is 49. in order to control the deterioration.2. This results in the loss of sucrose inversion to form glucose and fructose. The speed of sucrose inversion is a function of time and temperature.

57 Table 5: relates the PI and extraction (historical data) In the table above PI and extraction increasefrom 2014 to 2015.30 95. This illustrate fibre is the factor important on preparation stage and extraction. it can be seen by measuring the Preparation Index (PI) achieves between 90 and 92 % rupture cells. 375 kW of power and 585 RPM and 6600V The shredder typically works like knives. speed of 988 RPM and 6600 V.  Primary knives have42 knives with 15 Kg each. Year P.70 2015 91.30 96. Below 90 becomes mush and above 92 becomes porridge. Factors affecting PI  Wear on hammers and knives  Number of knives and hammers fitted to the rotor  Fibre content of the cane . 1800 kW of power. Objectives of cane preparation  Reduce de size of the pieces to a size suitable for handling in the extraction process  To rupture all the plant fibre cell in the cane as possible to facilitate extraction of sugar through squeezing with application of imbibition water.94 2014 90. with differences in the instruments work he uses hammers of 15 kg each in order to shred the cane exposing the cells to facilitate the extraction process and has 160 hammers.77 95. I Extraction 2013 90. this show a fibre has contributed when analyzed in cane quality table data. Assessment of preparation From the objectives of cane preparation cannot be achieved perfectly.737 RPM and 6600 V  Secondary knives have80 knives with 15 Kg each. 800 kW of power.

3. This schedule of setting the washboard and the changing of knives and hammers get in action in 3 weeks after stop day during (planned maintenance) or when the factory is stopped due no cane or process full.To solve those problems should be adjusted washboard till zero clearance or replaceand verify wear on hammers. The profile of washboard 1. Cane Control feed Control of cane in yard A cane yard has followed operation: weighing and offloading cane on factory. .

clear juice and mixed juice due to non pol recirculation and gummy massecuite . To regulate the crush rate accordable the target we need is made by speed of turbine of number 1 mill in connection with chute level who is responsible to increase or decrease speed of conveyors. the truck pass again to register without cane to obtain how much cane was delivered. The capacity installed is 186 ton/h calculated according (Hugot.Control of cane feed To offload cane on the feeder table are installed spiller next from the table.06 * n * D) * D 2 * L * N A f A  Mill capacity n  number of rotation rpm  D  Diameter of roll (m) N  number of rollers on tan dem f  fiber content c  coefficient of preparation L  Length of roll Actual crush rate is 145 ton/h and it is caused by the follow factors: In Agriculture:  Wet fields  No cane cutters on end of months  Mist  EN6 road repair Back End:  High levels of syrups. When the trucks pass from weighbridge the operator register weights of truck with cane and after offloading on the table.8 * c * n * (1  0. Control of crushing rates The crushing rate is controlled by the weighbridge. 1969): 0.

Cane tracking and sampling This package has been designed as a total solution for tracking cane deliveries from the point where the cane enters the factory through the processing stage. Knives and shredder Knives may be driven by two different sources of power:  Electric Motor  Steam Turbine Under the drive transmission point of view differs from:  Drive by belt  The direct drive by coupling In Tongaat Hulett Açucareira de Moçambique SA knives are driven by electric motors. JAS and InfraCarna) as well as batch systems based on automatic POL and Brix analysis. The application consists of both hardware and software components. This drive is carried out by induction motors with coils of rotor rings with and without lifting brushes.4. 1. and can be provided as a standalone system. But in Tongaat Hulett Açucareira de Moçambique SA are not used this system and this can take place on the weighbridge for automatic cane analysis and juice analysis systems are currently supported. All of these results are stored in the Cane Analysis Database. Transmission is by direct drive coupling knives are directly connected to the motor shaft. or can be integrated with the existing systems. These include the Foss near Infrared Analysis Systems (CAS. Number of Knifes Power (KW) Speed (RPM) Voltage (V) Primary Knifes 42 800 737 6600 Secondary Knifes 80 375 585 6600 Shredder 160 1800 988 6600 Table 6: Cane preparation devices . to the online analysis that determines the product quality.

and if any one of them slows down due to overloading the speed of conveyors ahead are reduced  For protection all devices all trip and are used hydraulic system -control oil flow and electric system. so that the speed up and low down together  The speed of shredder and all knifes sets are measured. drum or shredder not running  All conveyors operate in a linked cascade system. .Amperage.Control philosophy of devices  All devices incorporate interlocks which will prevent them from running for reasons such as the following:  Conveyors ahead tripped  A mill as tripped  Cane knives.