An Assessment of the Impact Of Kwara Bridge Empowerment

Scheme (KWABES) On Youth Restiveness In Offa Local
Government Area, Kwara State


SHITTU, Olufunke Mercy


A Research Project Submitted to the Centre for Peace and Strategic Studies in
Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Award of Masters Degree (M.A)
in Peace and Development Studies of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.



.....A Adedimeji ............ S..................... approved and accepted as meeting the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Arts in Peace and Development Studies of the University of Ilorin.......................... Director Date External Examiner ............. Nigeria.... Date 2 ... CERTIFICATION This is to certify that this is an original research work by SHITTU.. Olufunke Mercy.... Dr...A Raji ............. M..... Project Supervisor Date Dr. Ilorin...... This research project has been read..............

To the blessed memory of my loving mother. Eternal rest.. Late Mrs. DEDICATION This research work is dedicated to the Almighty God.. my help in ages past and my hope for years to come. Leah Adenike Oderinde. grant her O Lord! 3 . And.

Ibrahim for his fatherly love and affection and words of courage that helped me through very challenging periods in time past. I am most grateful to my amiable Supervisor. My deep gratitude also goes to my brother. Shittu. A. I am eternally grateful. 4 . Raji. Daddy. Ahmed for always being there and for the precious time he spent in assisting me on the field work. I also acknowledge and appreciate my loving family's unrivalled support and understanding that I enjoyed when my research was eating into the "family time". ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My profound gratitude goes to the Chairman. A. T. Kwara State Civil Service Commission in the person of Alhaji S. my friend. A. Chief I. who has always been my strength in challenging situations. His unflinching support for my success in this programme is immeasurable. I also appreciate all the other Lecturers at the Centre for Peace and Strategic Studies for their resourcefulness in imparting the values of Peace to make me a better person and the world a better place. an erudite scholar who was never too busy to peruse my submissions with critical evaluation. A. with very special thanks to my husband. S. I sincerely appreciate all his efforts towards the success of this research work. Dr.

2 Statement of the Problem 4 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page i Certification ii Dedication iii Acknowledgement iv Table of Contents v List of Abbreviations ix List of Tables x List of Figures xi Abstract xii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.4 Research Questions 7 5 .3 Aims and Objectives of the Study 6 1.

3 Review of Related Literature 25 6 .8.1 Introduction 17 Conceptual Clarifications 17 2.2 Restiveness 10 1.1 Offa Local Government in Focus 12 1.1 Youth 10 1.8.9 The Study Area 12 1.5 Significance of the Study 8 1.9.10 Chapter Summary 15 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1.4 Impact 11 1.6 Scope of the Study 8 1.8 Definition of Terms 10 1.2 History of the Kwara Bridge Empowerment Scheme (KWABES) 13 1.7 Limitations of the Study 9 1.9.3 Empowerment 11 1.

1 Introduction 44 4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis 46 4.5 Chapter summary 38 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.2.6 Data Collection Procedure 41 3.3 Discussion of Research Findings 59 7 .4 Theoretical Framework 35 2.7 Validity of Research Instruments 42 3.2 Research Design 39 3.3 Study Population 40 3.5 Data Source 41 3.9 Chapter Summary 43 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.8 Analysis of Data 42 3.1 Introduction 39 3.4 Sampling Style and Sampling Techniques 40 3.

2 Summary of the Research Findings 70 5.1 Introduction 70 5.3 Conclusion 73 5.4 Chapter Summary 68 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY.4.4 Recommendation 73 References 76 Appendices 82 8 . CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.

Departments and Agencies NAPEP . National Poverty Eradication Programme NDE . LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CYP . Poverty Alleviation Programme SMEs . Senior Special Assistant to the Executive Governor of Kwara State SURE-P . Youth Empowerment Scheme 9 . Kwara State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy UNDP .G. National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy PAP . Small and Medium Scale Enterprises SSA . United Nations Development Programme USAID . United State Agency for International Development YES . Subsidy Re-Investment and Empowerment Programme KWA-SEEDS . Local Government Area MDAs . Commonwealth Youth Programme KWABES . National Directorate of Employment NEEDS . Kwara Bridge Empowerment Scheme L. Ministries.A .

LIST OF TABLES Table 1Distribution of Respondents by sex Table 2Marital Status of Respondents Table 3Respondents Academic Qualification 10 .

G.G.A Figure 2 Is there a connection between lack of empowerment and youth restiveness in Offa L.A? Figure 4 Do you consider yourself empowered through KWABES? Figure 5 To what extent do you consider yourself empowered through KWABES? Figure 6 What are the limitations that hindered your being empowered? 11 .G.LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 What are the causes of youth restiveness in Offa L.A? Figure 3 Do you agree that KWABES can improve frustrating situations of joblessness. thereby reducing youth restiveness in Offa L.

The study utilized a mixed method design of both primary and secondary data sources. different researchers agree that previous empowerment initiatives in Kwara State require improvement in the areas of implementation and financing. The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of KWABES on youth restiveness in Offa Local Government Area. because it makes them readily available for the use of unscrupulous elites. who activate violence for selfish reasons. while others view it as both a process and an outcome. There is massive unemployment of youths in Kwara State which led to the conception of the Kwara Bridge Empowerment Scheme (KWABES). The concept of empowerment is perceived as a process to some researchers.ABSTRACT Unemployment and lack of economic empowerment predisposes jobless and economically productive population to acts of violence and youth restiveness. 12 . while the research was undertaken using both quantitative and qualitative analyses. and gangs of unemployed youths extort money from motorists they consider as financially comfortable by terrorizing them. Further. Youth restiveness is on the rise in Offa Local Government Area.

A. political interference be discouraged and take-off grants be provided for participants.G. Keywords: Empowerment.G.A into the Civil Service amongst others while lack of policy framework for fund allocation and politicization of the Scheme were some of the major challenges of KWABES on youth restiveness in Offa L. 2014. Restiveness. and Impact.A.G. Youth. while the main policy thrust of the programme is to address youth restiveness through employment generation. The study recommended further that.Findings from the study confirmed that KWABES was established in September. The research concluded that the haphazard structuring and half hearted implementation of KWABES has done more harm than good to participants in Offa L. Financial support for the smooth take-off of SMEs for participants and implementation reappraisal were some of the suggested ways of bringing about more positive impact of KWABES in Offa Local Government. 13 . The achievements of KWABES in Offa Local Government include absorption of about 35 participants from Offa L. leading to their frustration.