MODULE 3

Topic : Passive Voice (PV)

Objective : Students are able to explain something made/done in a .

. workshop in PV.

Learning Outcomes: Having completed Module 3 students are able to

- comprehend the reading text on ‘Foundations’

- mention the grammar item of the text

- state the pattern of PV

- write a workshop report in PV

- make questions and answers about the workshop report with

his/her friend.
I. READING DEVELOPMENT

A. Before You Read :

 What must you construct before erecting a building?

 What is a foundation?

 What is the function of foundation?

 What types of foundation do you know? What are they?

 What is each type for?

B. Text

FOUNDATIONS

When a structure is to be erected, a foundation is needed to carry the

weight of the structure to the stratum of soil on which it rests, called the

foundation bed. Depending on the locality, one of several types of foundation beds

may be used. Although any kind of foundation will settle, rock is usually preferred

because it will support bearing pressures up to 15 tons per square foot. Gravel will

support loads of 4 tons per square foot. Sand will support an equal weight if the

lateral pressure can be held back. Clay, if it can be kept dry, will support 2 tons

per square foot

1
The foundation itself, which is usually made of reinforced concrete, may be

a single unit or a separate unit. A mat, or raft, which is a single slab over the entire

foundation bed, is often used. A bearing wall around the outer limits of the

structure is supported by a continuous footing. Separate footings may be used to

support columns.

When the surface soil stratum is too weak to support the structure, piles and

piers may be used to transfer the weight to stronger substrata. Concrete piles are

either pre-cast or cast-in-situ. The pre-cast type is formed of steel bars set in

concrete, which is then driven into the soil. To construct the cast-in-situ type, a

hole is first drilled into the soil at the desired location and then filled with

concrete. It may or may not be reinforced. This type is often preferred because it

takes less time and requires no molding.

(Civil and Mechanical Engineering)

2
C. Vocabulary Building

C.1 Open your dictionary. Look up the meaning of each word in A
by matching it with word/phrase in B.

A B

1. bearing - supporting

2. m a t - a box into which water cannot flow,

used during under water construction

3. footing - form by pouring into a molding

4. molding - a widening of a foundation or base to

spread the weight over a large area

5. cast - caisson

6. cast in situ - a structure to hold concrete to hold

until it has hardened

- a slab or a beam which resists upward

soil pressure

D. Comprehension

D.1. Check

1. What is the function of foundation?

2. What is the best of foundation bed? Why?

3. What weight will sand support?

4. What is a reinforced concrete?

5. What if the foundation bed is not strong enough to support a

….. structure?

3
D.2. Check whether the statement is TRUE or FALSE according to

the text.

1. Foundation supports the load of a construction.

2. Foundation bed is the soil stratum where a construction rests.

3. Several types of foundation beds may be used for a

construction.

4. Locality is important to choose the type of foundation bed.

5. Sand and gravel do not support loads of the same weight.

6. Dry clay supports the least load.

7. Footings lie after the bed.

8. Piles and piers are solutions to weak soil.

9. Stronger substrata are usually deeper than the weak strata.

10. Pre-cast type needs a mechanical hammer to drive it.

II. LANGUAGE PRACTICE

Study these sentences:

Subject to be V-3
A structure will be erected.
A foundation is needed.
Several types of foundation beds may be used.
The lateral pressure can be held back.

Passive Voice Pattern:

S + to be + V-3

 Kalimat Pasif dalam bahasa Inggris digunakan jika Subjek kalimat

aktifnya tidak penting atau tidak diketahui.

4
- The government built Brantas Bridge. (kalimat aktif)

- When was the bridge built? (kalimat pasif yang mengabaikan Subjek

kalimat aktif)

- It was built in 1930. (kalimat pasif yang mementingkan tahun daripada

Subjek kalimat aktif)

 Kalimat Pasif juga digunakan jika Objek kalimat aktifnya merupakan

topik yang dibicarakan.

- The bridge was built many years ago. (the bridge—bukan the

government—yang menjadi topik pembicaraan)

Active:

Subject Predicate Object
We will erect a structure.

Passive:

Subject Predicate Object
A structure will be erected by us.

 Find out some passive voices from the text then change them into

interrogative and negative statements.

Example:

 The lateral pressure can be held back.

 Can the lateral pressure be held back?

 The lateral pressure cannot be held back.

III. WRITING PRACTICE

5
Write about your workshop report when you practiced making/

doing something in the workshop. What was the practice? What did

you do? Don’t forget to use the Passive Voice wherever possible.

IV. SPEAKING PRACTICE

In pairs, change your workshop report into a dialogue and practice it

with your friend.

Checklist for Reflection

Check ( √ ) the box Yes or No. Do you feel you learn to . . .

Yes No
1. comprehend the reading text on

‘Foundations’?
2. state the grammar item of the text?
3. state the pattern of ‘Passive Voice’?
4. write the workshop report in Passive

Voice?
5. practice the workshop report in a dialogue?
Comments:

6
Supplementary Reading

SQUARES

A square is a figure with four sides of equal length. Each of its four sides

must form a right angle with two of the other sides.

There are three kinds of tools which are used to mark out squares. One is

used by stonemasons. It is made of steel and has arms about 45 cm long. Another

is used by carpenters. It is called a ‘try’ square and has a steel blade about 15 cm

long which is fixed to a wooden handle. The third kind of square which is used by

bricklayers, has one arm about 90 cm long and another about 6 cm. To use this

square for marking out a house or other buildings, put two pegs in the ground, one

for each of the front corners of the building. Join the two pegs with a string line

which is tied tightly between them. Place the square with one of its shorter sides

along the string line. The other short side of the square will point inwards to the

building. Now tie another string line to one of the corner pegs. Hold it along the

edge of the square. This line is now square with the front of the building.

7
There is another kind of square which is used for technical drawing. This is a

set square. Its shape is a triangle, but it is used for drawing right angles.

(Understanding Technical English 2)

Exercises

I. Comprehension

Choose the correct answer (a, b, c, d) to each of the following

questions.

1. Which of the following is true about a square?

a. A square must have four sides.

b. Each side of a square is a different length.

c. A square has more sides than a rectangle.

d. A square contains two right angles.

2. What is the difference between a stonemason’s square and a bricklayer’s

one?

a. The stonemason’s square has a smaller arm.

b. It is made of wood.

c. It does not have a wooden handle.

d. There is no difference.

3. Which kind of square is used for marking out a building?

a. the stonemason’s square

b. the bricklayer’s square

c. the carpenter’s ‘try’ square

d. any kind of square

8
4. When marking out a building, which side of the square is placed along the

line?

a. either side

b. the longer side

c. the shorter side

d. neither side

II. Vocabulary

1. How would you describe the shape of each picture?

9
2. Note the different forms of these words:

high—height—heighten long—length—lengthen

10
wide—width—widen deep—depth—deepen

broad—breadth—broaden

Write three sentences about the above groups of words.

Give the measurements of the objects you describe.

Example: - The city swimming pool is 2 meters deep.

- The depth of the city swimming pool is 2 meters.

- The stonemason used a shovel to deepen the pool.

11