Citrus Fruit Peels in

the Production of Bio-
Plastic As a Usable

Group 1 8-Darwin
Cassandra Dominguez
RATIONALE
The increase of waste in the Philippines is very alarming. It’s been a challenge for the people
to lessen the production of garbage but there is a problem in waste management. The garbage
were not disposed properly. We use the excess and skin of citrus fruits for making the eco-
friendly chair, because we think that it is a better replacement for 100% plastics chairs.
Plastics contribute higher amount of pollution when it is burnt. Instead of using pure plastics,
we use fruit peels to decrease the amount of pollution, also in order for our fellow
countrymen who can't afford to buy plastic chairs. As far as we know, in making this chair we
don't see any problem. In fact, fruit peels were easy to mold especially when it is heated into
a shaper. This chair also has benefits: It is affordable, recycling occurs, and easy to produce.
With this project we could see a positive result in our environment which would affect the
impact of making plastic chairs. Combining plastics and peels of citrus fruit can both benefit
the environment and the consumer.

More waste are being produced as time pass by so in order for us to maintain our ecosystem
we need to balance the production and decomposition of wastes. Although there are some
companies that have done the 'plastic-to-chair' campaign there are still some waste wandering
around our surrounding especially the fruit peels. And so we thought that maybe we can
combine both fruit peels and plastic together. This project can also help the trees from being
cut down. It isn't for the benefit of the earth only, it also for our own good. For example in
school, you don't have to replace it every year or two because it's already broken this project
can last a lifetime. When you decided to have your own shop (which includes the waiting
area), you don't have to worry about lifting heavy chairs because it's plastic and it can be as
light as a feather. There are more people who can benefit this project with such an affordable
price. It will help to reduce the plastic wastes and lessen the amount of plastics the cause
pollution in land and water.

PAGE 1
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Can citrus fruits and plastic combine to produce an arm chair?

What is/are the components of the citrus fruits to make it feasible in making chair?

Will the chair help in reducing the amount of waste produced?

What is/are the chemical property of the citrus fruit to help the plastic chair
strengthen?

How long will the chair last ?

HYPOTHESIS
If we can combine citrus fruit peels which is biodegradable with plastic with is non-
biodegradable then it is possible that combining the two can make a eco-friendly and strong
chair

PROCEDURES
Plastic Injection Molding Explained

Injection Molding is the process of forcing melted plastic in to a mold cavity. Once the plastic
has cooled, the part can be ejected. Injection molding is often used in mass-production and
prototyping. Injection molding is a relatively new way to manufacture parts. The first
injection molding machines were built in the 1930's.There are six major steps in the injection
molding process:

Clamping

An Injection

During the injection phase, plastic material, usually in the form of pellets, we can already add
the citrus fruit peelings, this mixture is loaded into a hopper on top of the injection unit. The
pellets and the fruit peels feed into the cylinder where they are heated until they reach molten
form (think of how a hot glue gun works here). Within the heating cylinder there is a
motorized screw that mixes the molten pellets and forces them to end of the cylinder. Once
enough material has accumulated in front of the screw, the injection process begins. The

PAGE 2
molten plastic is inserted into the mold through a sprue, while the pressure and speed are
controlled by the screw.

Note: some injection molding machines use a ram instead of a screw.

Dwelling

The dwelling phase consists of a pause in the injection process. The molten plastic has been
injected into the mold and the pressure is applied to make sure all of the mold cavities are
filled.

Cooling

The plastic is allowed to cool to its solid form within the mold.

Mold Opening

The clamping unit is opened, which separates the two halves of the mold.

Ejection

An ejecting rod and plate eject the finished piece from the mold. The un-used sprues and
runners can be recycled for use again in future molds.

PAGE 3
EXPECTED OUTCOME
Since there is a chemical in fruit peel (mainly oranges and lemons) called citric acid that has lots
of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen on it. We can get to meth acrylic acid by breaking some bonds
and removing carbon dioxide. Then, add on one more carbon (a methyl group) and got it the
building blocks for Perspex. Melting the Perspex and molding it makes a reusable and bio-
friendly armchair.

RISK AND SAFETY
Risks:

In addition to creating safety problems during production, many chemical additives
that give plastic products desirable performance properties also have negative
environmental and human health effects. These effects include:

Chemicals in Plastic Disfigure Genitals

Di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a phthalate commonly found in vinyl
products. It was actually a chemical chosen to replace a similar toxin, DEHP,
which was discovered to hinder genital development in baby boys. While less
is known about the reproductive risks of DiNP, a recent study suggests that it
can, in fact, affect male genital development. [1]This is worrisome because
these problems occur before birth. While many phthalates are banned from
children’s products, the pregnant mother can still be exposed.

Plastic Increases the Risk of Childhood Asthma

Carcinogens, as in the case of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)

Direct toxicity, as in the cases of lead, cadmium, and mercury

Plastic Destroys Hormonal Balance. Endocrine disruption, which can lead to cancers, birth
defects, immune system suppression and developmental problems in children.

Safety:

First, let us list all the possible reactions, including side reactions before
beginning. A lab coat or apron should be worn when working with hazardous
materials. Wash your hands often, always before eating or leaving the
laboratory. Follow all recognized safe practice procedures concerning the
handling of hazardous chemicals. And last avoid working alone especially in
this experiment when carrying out a new or unfamiliar reaction or operation

PAGE 4
DATA ANALYSIS
The efficiency of coupling internal cooling into the process has been studied and for part
thickness. The results show that the external-internal cooling reduces the cycle time
particularly for the thick fruit peels products. According to Chen's offline experimental
results, warpage starts from the crystalline melting temperature. An early separation might be
possible if an excess release agent used for rotational moulding process. The effect on the
cycle time like the onset of warpage at a different level of parts solidity, have been plotted.
The plot indicates that the cycle times due to warpage for thin part are independent of the
degree of solidified part, which the warpage begins. The effect only becomes evident when
the part thickness increases.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Planning and Carrying Out Experiments (n.d,)

Retrieved from https://chem.duke.edu/about/planning-and-carrying-out-experiments

Group, E (2015, January 17) 7 Dangers of Plastic

Retrieved from http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/7-dangers-of-plastic/

Retrieved from http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/6001/1/196442_492%20Ianakiev%20Publisher.pdf

How Do You Actually Make Plastic From Fruit Peel (2014)

Retrieved from http://spectron14.imascientist.org.uk/2014/11/07/how-do-you-actually-make-plastic-
from-fruit-peel/

Patterson & Rothwell (2015, July 22) Plastic Injection Moulding Explained

Retrieved from http://www.patterson-rothwell.co.uk/services/plastic-injection-moulding-
explained.htm

PAGE 5

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.