ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my most sincere appreciation and gratitude to Dr. Vipul Prakash,
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,
Roorkee, for his invaluable guidance and continuous encouragement during preparation of
this dissertation work.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all my dearest friends,Nikita Thangjam,Anuj
Saurabh,Mustesin Ali,Shreyans Kanswa,Teja Kumar Chandaluri,Varahala Babu,Saurabh
Tariyal and Sonu Rajak for the immeasurable amount of support and guidance they have
provided throughout this study .

Finally, I wish to record my sincere gratitude for the blessings of my parents for their
encouragement and moral support during this study.

Place: Roorkee

Date: (HEMAM PRASANTA SINGH)

1

for loadings that govern their design. the arch is being modelled as consisting of a large number of small straight beam segments arranged according to the shape of the arch. In reality a structure is in static equilibrium in the unmoving state attained after all deformations have occurred. However. Various design parameters are formulated in non-dimensional form so that the designer can design and analyse effortlessly and give them an intuitive understanding behaviour of the structure. The governing differential equation of a parabolic arch is derived and it is made linearized so that solutions can be obtain effortlessly.etc. the bending moment at the left-end of the arch and the bending moment at the right-end of the arch. and 2 . these programs will be able to cater to three-hinged. The live load will then be applied in small increments and the change in geometry of the arch will be computed after each increment and this change shall be considered for computing the values of the redundants.. because well-designed arches should largely be funicular for dead loads and shears and bending moments due to non-funicular loads should be small. and the axial deformations due to dead load are assumed to have been compensated by the designer during the construction process. these programs will use maximum of THREE unknown REDUNDANTS – the horizontal reaction. . because all the deformations that occur due to dead loads during construction of the arch bridge can largely be compensated by the designer by estimating them beforehand and incorporating the estimates in the construction process itself. circular. Thus. It will be assumed that the reference arch shape corresponds to its deformed state after dead loads have been applied. live loads are typically a small fraction in comparison to dead loads. two-hinged and fixed-fixed arches of parabolic. And further. For buckling analysis. circular. This model is like the finite element model that is created in modern computer analysis. instead of using nodal DDOFS as the unknowns. ABSTRACT This research effort is aimed at studying arches. It is proposed to consider change in geometry due to flexural deformations only. which also lack provision for curved beam elements. instead of using curved beam elements. Neglecting axial and shear deformations reduces the number of design parameters. their analysis and design. In this study small computer programs in MATLAB are being developed to obtain numerical solutions for arches of parabolic. It is proposed to neglect shear deformations and axial deformations and geometric stiffness effects of shears and bending moments. elliptical and catenary shapes.

loading and results of the analysis shall be presented in the form of non-dimensional charts.usually the axial and shear stiffness of arches should be quite large. which will be specially suited for preliminary design of the arch bridge. and our results will be compared with results reported therein. 3 . The analysis model. The form of these non-dimensional charts has been decided based on results reported in research literature.

4 Types of Arch Bridges 5 1.1 Pippard et al: Elastic theory for arch bridges 20 2.5 Choo and Gong: The MAFEA suite 22 4 .6.5 Structural Analysis of Arch Bridges 8 1.5.2 Robin Gurney Charlwood: Lateral stability of arches 21 2.4 Harvey & Smith: Mechanism method with program ARCHIE 22 2.2 Comparison of Arch Bridge with Other Bridge Types 3 1.2 Two hinged arch 1.7 Objectives and outline of the thesis 16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 20-25 2.1 What is an arch? 1 1.5.3 Hendry et al. Buckling of Arch Rib 13 1.3 Brief History of Arch Bridges 4 1.1 Three hinged arch 1.: Full scale and model arch tests 21 2. CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I ABSTRACT II CONTENT IV LIST OF FIGURES VI LIST OF TABLES VIII NOTATIONS & ABBREVIATIONS IX CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1-19 1.

Feng Jian.9 Cai JianGuo.10 Mario M. : Rigid-block analysis 23 2.4 Deflections of the stiffened girder 37 3.7 Heyman: The plastic method and mechanism approach 23 2. Kellermann 24 In-plane buckling of prismatic funicular arches 2.7 Mode shapes and Frequencies of vibration 47 CHAPTER 4: IN PLANE STABILITY OF ARCHES 55-63 4.1 Linear and Non linear elastic stability 55 4. Chen Yao & Huang LiFeng 24 2.6 Loo & Yang: Cracking and failure analysis 23 2. Attard · Jianbei Zhu · David C.11 Concluding remarks 25 CHAPTER 3: DEFLECTION THEORY ON ARCH 26 -54 3.2 Algorithm for Arch bridge analysis 31 3. 2.6 Influence lines of fixed parabolic arch 43 3.4 Unsymmetrical Loading 62 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 64 REFERENCES 66 5 .8 Melbourne et al.2 Numerical analysis using MATLAB programming 56 4.5 Influence lines for two-hinged arch 40 3.3 Symmetrical Loadings on Symmetrical Arches 60 4.3 Influence lines for supporting columns and horizontal reactions 35 3.1 Governing Differential Equation of arches 27 3.

9 (a) Symmetrical Snap through buckling mode .5 Influence line for supporting columns forces by MATLAB 35 3.11 Maximum Bending moment coefficients for moving point load P anywhere 41 on the span of arch for different G values by MATLAB Program 6 .6 (a) Analysis of two.2012) and (c)Maximum moment influences for different G values by Borgaonkar 3.1 Typical Stiffened Deck arch bridge 27 3.4 Influence line for hanger forces by KK borgaonkar 35 3. 3.(b) Antisymmetric 15 bifurcation buckling 1.3 Simple supported Beam with applied downward load vector 32 3.7 Maximum live load deflections due to moving point load P (elastic theory) 37 (a) MATLAB and (b) Borgaonkar.2 (a) Typical three-hinged arch .1 Arch components 5 1.8 Load vs deflection curve showing limit point 14 1.7 (a) Primary buckling load vs deflection 13 (b) Secondary buckling load vs deflection 1.8 Maximum live load deflections due to moving point load P 38 (a) MATLAB and (b) Borgaonkar.(b) Two hinged arch (c) hingeless arch 1. 3.3 Open spandrel deck arch bridge 7 1.5 Analysis of three -hinged arch 9 1. 3.2 Bending moment of simple supported beam due to live load P 31 3.2012).4 Godavari Bowstring or Tied arch bridge 7 1.hinged arch 10 1.10 (a) Bending moment influence for elastic condition by MATLAB 40-41 (b) Positive and negative moment envelope(Lily Beyer.11 Load vs Deflection curve showing bifurcation point 15 3.6 (a) Influence line for horizontal reaction of two hinged parabolic arch 36 (MATLAB) and (b) Influence line for horizontal reaction of two hinged parabolic arch (Lily Beyer.9 Maximum live load deflections of stiffened girder due to patch loads p 39 3. LIST OF FIGURES 1.hinged arch (b) Analysis of two.

18 Influence line for moments at the x/L=0. 45 (Richard Way Mah Lee.5 for elastic condition ie ¿ 0 .of a uniform parabolic arch 62 and (b) Antisymmetrical mode 7 .25 for elastic condition ie β=0 .22 Variation in mode shapes for different values of G 51 4.12 Influence lines for Shear force two hinged parabolic arch 42 3.1956) 3.3.1956).13 Influence line for supporting columns of a fixed arch 43 3.Elastic condition (MATLAB). 57 4.1956) 3.2 Vertical loads vs Horizontal reactions graph 58 4. 3.19 Stodola iteration technique.5 (a) Unsymmetrical loading over the span.dynamics of structures.2003). (b) first mode shape and (c) second mode shape 49-50 3.20 Elastic condition mode shapes comparison between MATLAB and Borgaonkar 48-49 results 3.17 Influence line for moments at the x/L=0 . (Clough & Penzien . 44 3.14 Influence line for shear forces of a fixed arch 43 3.15 Influence line for moments of a fixed arch .4 Symmetrical snap through mode in sequence for a uniform circular arches loaded 61 along the arch 4.3 Antisymmetrical snap through buckling in uniform parabolic arch under 59 uniformly distributed load along the horizontal projection 4.1 Model of an arch discretized into large number of straight segments. 47 3. 45 (Richard Way Mah Lee.16 Influence line for moments at the x/L=0 for elastic condition ie β=0 44 (Richard Way Mah Lee.21 (a) STAAD model of an Arch.

Title of Table Page No. I Comparison of co-efficient of natural frequencies 53 II Critical vertical load and critical horizontal reaction for a parabolic arch under pure compression (asymmetrical Snap through mode) 60 III Critical vertical and horizontal loads for a parabolic arch loaded along the arch axis. (antisymmetrical snap through buckling ) 60 IV Critical vertical and horizontal loads for for uniform circular arches loaded 61 along the arch V Critical vertical and horizontal loads values under 63 unsymmetrical loading for a uniform parabolic arches . LIST OF TABLES Table No. 8 .

G Geometric stiffness parameter h Step size H Horizontal reaction. Hb Horizontal reaction at B Ha Horizontal reaction at A . Hw . respectively L Span length of the arch M Bending moment Md Bending moment due to dead load which is taken by funicular shape of arch Mp Bending moment due to live load P Mh Bending moment of simply supported beam at x along the bridge due to supporting columns forces w i N Number of segments P Concentrated load q Uniformly distributed load intensity Q Shear forces Ra Vertical Reaction at support A Rb Vertical Reaction at support B U Strain energy wm Magnitude of column forces due to live load P y Longitudinal position of the arch rib at cross-section ‘x’ η Deflection of the stiffened girder and arch rib due to live load P 9 . NOTATIONS & ABBREVIATIONS b Height of the arch at an arbitrary section EI Flexural rigidity of the arch rib. H p Horizontal compression due to dead load and live load.

α Steinman parameter β Stiffness ratio k Stiffness matrix m Mass matrix η^ Unknown mode shape of unit magnitude ω Modal frequency k¿ Generalized bending stiffness k ¿G Generalized geometric stiffness 10 .