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February 26, 2008

1 Introduction

Recall that a group G is said to be simple if

H / G =⇒ H = {e} or H = G.

That is, G has only the trivial normal subgroups {e} and G itself.

Clearly, Sn , n ≥ 3, is not simple, as

An / S n ;

**but for n ≥ 5 it turns out that An is simple. We will prove this here only for
**

the case n = 5.

To do this, we will assume knowledge of the following fact, which is an

assigned homework problem:

**Fact. An , n ≥ 3, is generated by the 3-cycles (a b c). That is to say, every
**

σ ∈ An , n ≥ 3, can be written as

σ = C 1 C2 · · · Ck ,

**where each Ci is one of these 3-cycles. Note that as a 3-cycle is an even
**

permutation (e.g. (1 2 3) = (1 3)(1 2) is the product of 2 transpositions),

any such product C1 · · · Ck is automatically even.

1

or. So.2 Look at cycle structure Suppose that N / A5 . it must also contain the product σσ 0 = (a b c d e)(a d c e b) = (a e c). N 6= {e}.1 What if σ = (a b c d e)? Let us consider the first case. which will prove that A5 is simple.1 But since N is a subgroup of A5 . 2 . We will show that N = A5 . σ 0 := ασα−1 = (a b)(c d)(a b c d e)(a b)(c d) = (a d c e b). Since N is assumed to be normal in A5 . • σ = (a b)(c d). from the facts that N 6= {e} and that N is a subset of A5 . the cycle structure is one of the following three types: • σ = (a b c d e). N contains a 3-cycle (a e c). which is where σ is the indicated 5-cycle. 2. 1 Because. or. we conclude that it contains a non-trivial even permutation σ. Consider now the disjoint cycle decomposition for σ. it must contain this element σ 0 . Then. • σ = (a b c). First. Let α = (a b)(c d) ∈ A5 . as N is arbitrary. and therefore we have reduced the first bullet above to the case of where N contains a 3-cycle. H / G ⇐⇒ for every h ∈ H and every g ∈ G we have that ghg −1 ∈ H. Clearly.

Again.5. n ≥ 3. for example.2.2 What if σ = (a b)(c d)? As in the case of when σ was a 5-cycle. then it contains all other 3-cycles. we let β = (a b e). we see that N contains a 3-cycle. furthermore. is generated by the 3-cycles. then σ 0 might look like σ 0 = (a c d) = (c d a). which therefore means that N contains σσ 0 = (a b)(c d)(b e)(c d) = (a b e). In this particular case. 2. and then define σ 0 := βσβ −1 = (a b e)(a b)(c d)(a e b) = (b e)(c d). 3 . σσ 0 ∈ N . this would mean that N contains all the elements of A5 . Suppose that σ 0 is any other 3-cycle.3.4. there must be at least one number in common in the cycles σ and σ 0 (both cycles “eat up” three numbers from the list 1. whence N = A5 . As before. then we need to show that there is a γ ∈ A5 such that σ 0 = γσγ −1 . γ = (a c)(b d) does the trick. Then. so they must contain a common number).3 What if σ = (a b c)? Our goal is to show that if N contains a single 3-cycle. we note that N / A5 implies σ 0 ∈ N . if a and c are common to the cycles. If this is the case.2. Since An .

A case where it has only one number in common would be σ 0 = (a d e). This σ 0 was a typical example of those cycles having two numbers in common with σ. 4 . perhaps you can see how to handle all three cases at once – one. in this case. with γ = (b d)(c e). I’ll leave it to you to see how to handle the case when σ and σ 0 have three numbers in common (or. σ 0 = γσγ −1 . if you are clever. two or three numbers in common). and.

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