# Introduction to

Electrical Engineering

Partha Kumar Ganguly
Associate Professor

Department of Electrical Engineering
Shekhawati Engineering College

Dundlod, Jhunjhunu
Rajasthan

Delhi-110092

2014

wv- Contents Preface xix 1.7 Source Conversion 28 2.8 Connections of Capacitors 15 1.5 Resistance 4 1.2 Network Elements 24 2.1 Connection of Resistance 4 1.6 Division of Current in Parallel Circuits 1.1 Introduction 1 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY 1. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 2.3 Electrical Power and Electrical Energy 1.3 Classification of Network 25 2.1 Connections of Inductors 17 Key Points 19 Exercises 21 Numerical Problems 21 2.7 Capacitance 15 1.4 Electrical Circuit Elements 4 1.4 Source of Electrical Energy 26 2.1 Introduction 24 2.10 Nodal Analysis 54 vii .9 Cramer's Rule 33 2.5 Independent Source 26 2.9.5.8 Kirchhoff s Laws 30 2.2 Electric Current 1 1.6 Dependent Source 27 2.9 Inductance 16 1.

2 Magnetic Circuit and Its Analysis 776 5.8 Biot-Savart Law 164 4.1 Introduction 158 4.1 Effect of Electric Current 148 3.10 Magnitude of Mutual Force 170 Key Points 173 Exercises 174 Numerical Problems 175 5.4 Quantity of Electricity 151 3. Power and Energy 152 Key Points 156 Exercises 156 Numerical Problems 157 4.11.2 Magnetic Effect of Electric Current 755 4. POWER AND ENERGY 148-157 3. MAGNETIC CIRCUITS 176-191 5.15 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 104 2.14 Norton's Theorem 95 2.viii Contents 2.12 Superposition Theorem 71 2.1 Delta-Star Transformation 61 2.2 Joule's Law 148 3.1 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Networks 118 Key Points 125 Exercises 126 Numerical Problems 126 3.6 Current Carrying Conductor Placed in Magnetic Field 161 4.5 Electromagnet 160 4.6 Electric Energy 152 3.3 Direction of Magnetic Lines of Force 158 4. ELECTROMAGNETISM 158-175 4.13 Thevenin Theorem 82 2.4 Typical Electromagnetic Field 159 4.7 Work Law 163 4.11 Star-Delta and Delta-Star Transformation 60 2.7 Mechanical Unit of Work.11.3 Thermal Efficiency 149 3.3 Important Terms 777 .1 Introduction 776 5.2 Star-Delta Transformation 63 2.5 Electric Power 151 3.15. WORK.9 Force between Two Parallel Current Carrying Conductors 169 4.

1 Introduction 240 7.8.3 Direction of Induced Electromotive Force 194 6.5 Types of Magnetic Circuits 179 5.7.1 Introduction 192 6.1 Self-induced emf 207 6.16 Rise of Current in an Inductive Circuit 228 6.15 Closing and Opening of an Inductive Circuit 227 6.17 Decay of Current in an Inductive Circuit 229 6.3 Alternating Voltage and Current 241 7.1 Hysteresis Loss 184 5.14 Lifting Power of a Magnet 224 6.5.7.8 Statically Induced Electromotive Force 207 6.12 Energy Stored in Magnetic Field 222 6.5.10 Inductance in Series 214 6.7 Magnetic Hysteresis 182 5.18 Eddy Current Loss 231 Key Points 234 Exercises 236 Numerical Problems 237 7. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 192-239 6.4 Comparison between Magnetic and Electric Circuits 178 5.6 Equation of Alternating Electromotive Force and Current 198 6.4 Sinusoidal Alternating Quantity 242 .9 Coefficient of Coupling 213 6.11 Inductance in Parallel 215 6.7 Important Terms 200 6.2 Mutually Induced emf 210 6.2 Advantage of AC 240 7.4 Dynamically Induced Electromotive Force 196 6.13 Magnetic Energy Stored in Per Unit Volume 224 6.2 Importance of Hysteresis Loop 185 Key Points 189 Exercises 189 Numerical Problems 190 6.2 Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction 193 6.6 Magnetization or B-H Curve 182 5.1 Series Magnetic Circuit 179 5.5 Generation of Alternating Voltage and Current 197 6.2 Parallel Magnetic Circuit 180 5. SINGLE-PHASE AC CIRCUITS 240-333 7. Contents ix 5.8.

17 Parallel Resonance 316 7.5.2 Advantages Three-phase System over Single-phase System of 335 8.16.7.17.3 Effective Value or RMS Value 245 7.6 Form Factor and Peak Factor 248 7.7.1 Introduction 334 8.15.14.16.9.1 Phasor or Vector Method 309 7.11.1 Rectangular Form of Phasor Representation 270 7.5 Values of Alternating Voltage and Current 243 7. THREE-PHASE AC CIRCUITS 334-374 8.X Contents 7.3 Method of Phasor Algebra or Vector Algebra 313 7.3 AC Through Capacitance Only 264 7.2 Method of Components 255 7.14.1 Phasor Diagram Using RMS Value 252 7.2 Trignometrical Form of Phasor Representation 270 7.9 AC Circuits 259 7.11.11 Mathematical Representation of Phasors 270 7.7.3 Generation of Three-phase Voltages 335 8.2 AC Through Pure Inductance Only 262 7.16.11.10 Skin Effect 266 7.3 Phase and Phase Difference 253 7.13 Multiplication and Division of Phasors 274 7. Inductance and Capacitance in Series 300 7.1 Q-Factor of a Parallel Resonant Circuit 318 Key Points 326 Exercises 329 Numerical Problems 330 8.1 AC Through Only Pure Resistance 260 7.2 Average Value 243 7.12 Addition and Subtraction of Phasors 272 7.11.9.2 AC Through Resistance and Capacitance Series Circuit 292 7.1 Through Resistance and Inductance Series Circuit AC 280 7.1 Q-Factor of Series Resonant Circuit 304 7.14 AC Series Circuit 280 7.15 Series Resonance 302 7.5.3 Polar Form of Phasor Representation 270 7.8.2 Admittance Method 311 7.7 Phasor Representation of an Alternating Quantity 251 7.3 Resistance.8.16 Parallel AC Circuits 309 7.4 Phase Sequence 337 .9.4 Form of Phasor Representation 271 Exponential 7.8 Addition and Subtraction of Alternating Quantities 254 7.1 Parallelogram Method 254 7.14.5.2 Phasor Diagram of Sine Wave of Same Frequency 252 7.1 Peak Value 243 7.

6 Voltage Build-up of a Shunt Generator 416 10.7 Critical Field Resistance of a Shunt Generator 417 10.2.2 DC Generator: emf Equation 397 10.5.10.3.8.1 Introduction 397 10.1 Star orWye (Y) Connection 338 8.4 Winding Arrangements 380 9.2 Mesh or Delta (A) Connection 340 8.7 Wave Winding 388 9.6 Power in Three-phase Circuits 343 8.6 Lap Winding 385 9. DC MACHINES (GENERATORS AND MOTORS) 375-396 9.3.5 No Load Characteristic Curve for Self-excited Generator 415 10.5 Single-layer and Double-layer Winding 382 9.8 Balance Three-phase Circuit Analysis 345 8.3 Commutator and Brush Gear 378 9. Contents xi 8.3 Types of DC Generator 403 10.10.2.9 Armature Reaction 391 9. DC GENERATOR 397-444 10.2 Two-wattmeter Method: Balanced or Unbalanced Load 359 8.2 Armature 377 9.3 Equivalent Circuit of a DC Machine Armature 379 9.8 Load Characteristics of Shunt Generator 418 .2 Self-excited DC Generator 404 10.4 Characteristics of DC Generators 415 10.5.1 Methods of Improving Commutation 394 10.7 Balanced Star-Delta (Y-A) and Delta-Star (A-Y) Conversion 344 8.10.10 Power Measurement in Three-phase Circuits 357 8.8 emf or Voltage Equation of a DC Machine 391 9.10 Commutation 394 9.3 Three-wattmeter Method 365 Key Points 371 Exercises 372 Numerical Problems 373 9.10.1 Introduction 375 9.1 Magnetic Field System 376 9.2 Main Constructional Features 375 9.9 Comparison between Star and Delta Systems 345 8.2.5 Interconnection of Three-phases 337 8.1 Separately Excited DC Generator 403 10.1 Method of Converting Three-phase Network to Single-phase Network 345 8.1 One-wattmeter Method 358 8.

10 Load Characteristic of Compound Generator 420 10.16 Efficiency of a DC Generator 425 10.3 Parallel Operation of DC Compound Generators 433 Key Points 440 Exercises 442 Numerical Problems 443 11.1 Condition for Maximum Efficiency 426 10.7 Characteristics of DC Motors 457 11.1 Introduction 490 12.5.2 Working Principle of a Transformer 491 .9.7.5.7.3 Back emf 447 11.8 Applications of DC Motors 461 11. TRANSFORMER 490-553 12.10 Necessity of a Starter in DC Motor 484 11.7.2 Parallel Operation of DC Shunt Generators 432 10.xii Contents 10.10.3 Characteristics of DC Compound Motor 461 11.13 Losses in DC Generator 422 10.15 Power Flow Diagram 424 10.2 Working Principle of DC Motor 445 11.16.2 Speed Control of DC Series Motor 466 11.5 Types of DC Motors 450 11.6 Speed Equation and Speed Regulation 454 11.5. DC MOTOR 445-489 11.9 Speed Control of DC Motors 462 11.12 Applications of DC Generators 421 10.9.11 Causes of Failure to Build up Voltage in a Generator 420 10.17.4.2 Self-excited DC Motors 451 11.9 Load Characteristics of Series Generator 418 10.17.1 Parallel Operation of DC Series Generator 430 10.1 Speed Control of Shunt Motor 462 11.1 Introduction 445 11.1 Three Point DC Shunt Motor Starter 485 Key Points 486 Exercises 487 Numerical Problems 488 12.1 Shaft Torque 450 11.4 Determination of Electromagnetic Torque of a DC Motor 448 11.17.2 Characteristic of DC Series Motor 459 11.17 Parallel Operation of Generators 430 10.14 Other Types of Losses 424 10.1 Characteristics of DC Shunt Motor 457 11.1 Separately Excited DC Motor 451 11.3 Compound Motor 453 11.

2 Constructional Features of a Three-phase Induction Motor 554 13.1 Relation between Rotor Copper Losses.15 Equivalent Circuit of Rotor 564 13.12 Rotor Reactance 562 13.16 All-day Efficiency 515 12.14.10 Magnitude of Stator and Rotor emf 561 13.3 Transformer Construction 492 12. AC INDUCTION MOTOR 554-589 13.8 Stator Construction 559 13.13 Rotor Impedance 563 13.13 Voltage Regulation 511 12.1 Phasor Diagram of a Loaded Transformer 506 12.9 Transformer at Load 504 12.5 Transformer Based on DC 496 12.3 Production of Rotating Field and Rotation 555 13.5 Slip 556 13.14 Losses in a Transformer 512 12.4 Principle of Operation of a Three-phase Induction Motor 555 13.17 Power States in an Induction Motor 565 13.18 Three-phase Transformer 539 12.11 Rotor Resistance 562 13.7 Frequency of Rotor Current 558 13.17 Auto-transformer 535 12.16 Losses in an Induction Motor 565 13.9.6 Classification of Transformers 497 12.11 Actual Transformer 508 12.14 Rotor Current and Power Factor 563 13.12 Simplified Equivalent Circuit 509 12. Contents xiii 12.10 Mutual and Leakage Fluxes in a Transformer 506 12.7 Transformer: emf Equation 497 12.14.15 Efficiency of a Transformer 513 12.15.17. Slip and Rotor Input 566 .1 Core or Iron Losses 512 12.1 Condition for Maximum Efficiency 514 12.1 Three-phase Transformer Connections 540 Key Points 546 Exercises 548 Numerical Problems 550 13.1 Introduction 554 13.4 An Ideal Transformer 494 12.9 Rotor Construction 559 13.8 Transformer at No-load 503 12.18.6 Transformer Action 557 13.2 Copper Loss 513 12.

7 Speed and Frequency 596 14.1 Maximum Torque and Its Equation 568 13.1 Direct On Line (DOL) Starter 552 13.14 Phasor Diagram of a Loaded Alternator 606 14.17 Synchronous Impedance 609 14.13 Alternator at Load 606 14.5.11 Actual Voltage Generated 599 14.5.23 Starting Method of Slip Ring Induction Motor 585 Key Points 586 Exercises 587 Numerical Problems 588 14.4 Star-Delta Starter 584 13.1 Introduction 590 14.10 Alternator: emf Equation 599 14. ALTERNATOR OR SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR 590-621 14.7.16 Armature Reaction in Three-phase Alternator 608 14.xiv Contents 13.19 Parallel Operation of Alternator 617 .18.21 Necessity of a Starter 581 13.22.18 Voltage Regulation 610 14.15 Armature Leakage Reactance 608 14.1 Stator 592 14.2 Alternator 590 14.2 Stator Resistance Starter 583 13.3 Rotating Field 591 14.19 Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor 571 13.22 Starting Methods of Squirrel Cage Induction Motor 582 13.20 Phasor Diagram of Three-phase Motor 573 13.3 Torque-Slip Characteristics 569 13.6 AlternatorOperation 595 14.3 Auto Transformer Starter 583 13.2 Rotor 594 14.) 609 14.4 Starting Torque of Three-phase Induction Motor 570 13.1 Calculation of Synchronous Impedance (Z.1 Synchronous Speed 597 14.2 Starting Torque (Ts) 568 13.17.4 Advantages of Stationary Armature of Alternator 591 14.18.22.18.3 Miscellaneous 595 14.18.18 Torque Developed by an Induction Motor 566" 13.8 Pitch Factor and Distribution Factor 597 14.9 Excitation Systems for Synchronous Machines 598 14.22.5 Construction of Alternator 592 14.5.12 Alternator at No-load 605 14.22.

5.9 Applications of Synchronous Motors 631 15.1 Introduction 658 17.3 Classification of Electrical Instruments 658 17.4 Methods of Starting a Synchronous Motor 624 15.6 Power Factor Correction in Three-phase Systems 646 16.3 Causes of Low Power Factor 643 16A Power Factor Improvement 643 16.1 Most Economical Power Factor 652 Key Points 655 Exercises 656 Numerical Problems 656 17.2 Construction of Synchronous Motor a 622 15. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 622-640 15.1 Power Factor Correction by Synchronous Motor 645 16.2 Self-starting by the Use of Damper Winding 625 15.4. POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 641-657 16.1 By Means of an Auxiliary Motor 624 15.7 Effect of Changing Field Excitation 629 15.4.2 Power Factor Correction by Static Capacitors 645 16.1 Introduction 641 16. Contents XV Key Points 617 Exercises 618 Numerical Problems 618 15.1 Introduction 622 15.8 Economies of Power Factor Improvement 652 16.5 Equivalent Circuit and Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Motor 626 15.10 Comparison between Three-phase Synchronous and Induction Motors 632 Key Points 637 Exercises 637 Numerical Problems 638 16.4 Utilization of Effects in Analog Instruments 659 .6 Power Developed by a Synchronous Motor 628 15.8.5.5 Methods of Power Factor Improvement 644 16.7 Advantages and Limitation of StaticCapacitors 648 16.2 Disadvantages of Low Power Factor 642 16.2 Analog and Digital Instruments 658 17.8 Synchronous Condenser 630 15. ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS 658-699 17.3 Working Principle of a Synchronous Motor 623 15.

6.4.18 DC Potentiometer 694 17.2 Repulsion Type Moving Iron Instruments 665 17.1 Choice of Site for a Coal-fired Power Plant 704 18.xvi Contents 17.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Moving Iron Instruments 667 17.11.9 Dynamometer Type Wattmeter 672 17.1 Errors in an Induction Type Energy Meter and Their Adjustments 688 17.10 Rectifier Instruments 678 17.9.19 AC Bridge 695 Key Points 696 Exercises 697 Numerical Problems 698 18.13.15 Megger 690 17.3.2 Extension of Range of Moving Coil Voltmeter 681 17.1 Introduction 700 18.4.2 Superthermal Power Plants 705 18. GENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER 700-722 18.1 Limitations and Applications of Rectifier Instruments 679 17.1 Attraction Type Moving Iron Instruments 663 17.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Permanent Magnet Type Moving Coil Instruments 677 17.6.12 Sensitivity 683 17.4 Hydroelectric Power Plants 705 18.16 Wheatstone Bridge 692 17.7 Permanent Magnet Type Moving Coil Instruments 668 17.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Dynamometer Type Wattmeter 676 17.14 Induction Type Single-phase Energy Meter 685 17.8 Dynamometer Type Instruments 671 17.2 Sources of Energy 700 18.6.1 Main Advantages of Hydroelectric Power Station 705 18.14.3 Salient Features of a Modern Coal-fired Steam Power Plant 700 18.4 Classification of Hydroelectric Plant 708 18.4.3.5 Surge Tanks 711 18.6.1 Extension of Range of Moving Coil Ammeter 680 17.17 Slide Wire Bridge 693 17.3 Choice of Site for Hydroelectric Power Station 706 18.6 Hydro Potential in India 711 .13 Extension of Range of AC Instruments 683 17.2 Limitations of Hydroelectric Plants 706 18.10.6 Moving Iron Instrument 663 17.11.5 Indicating Instruments 660 17.4.4 Applications of Moving Iron Instruments 667 17.7.1 Advantages of Instrument Transformers 685 17.11 Extension of Range of Ammeters and Voltmeters 680 17.

10.9 Universal Motors 744 19.1 Introduction 723 19.7.4. FRACTIONAL HORSE POWER MOTOR 723-754 19.4.1 Torque Produced for Self-starting By Single-phase Induction Motor 725 19.5 Shaded Pole Motor 733 19.5.4.3 Merits of Nuclear Power Plant 714 18.5.5 Classification of Reactor 715 Key Points 721 Exercises 722 19.3 Split Phase Induction Motor 726 19 A Capacitor Motors 728 19.2 AC Servo Motors 742 19.2 Hysteresis Motor 740 19.1 Capacitor Start Motor 728 19.8.2 Capacitor Start Capacitor Run Motor 730 19.11 Permanent Magnet DC Motor 750 Key Points 751 Exercises 753 BIBLIOGRAPHY 755 INDEX 757-760 .5.5.4 Limitation of Nuclear Power Plants 714 18.3 Comparison of Servo Motors with Conventional Motors 744 19.2.2 Selection of Site for Nuclear Power Plants 713 18.10.7 Single-phase Synchronous Motor 738 19.10.1 Main Parts of a Reactor 712 18.10.1 Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor 747 19.8.10 Stepper Motors 746 19. Contents xvii 18.5.3 Hybrid Stepper Motor 749 19.5 Nuclear Power Plant 711 18.1 Reluctance Motor 738 19.8.3 Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) Single-phase Induction Motor 732 19.2 Single-phase Induction Motor 724 19.8 Servo Motor 741 19.4 Application of Stepper Motor 749 19.1 DC Servo Motor 742 19.2 Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor 748 19.7.6 AC Series Motor or Commutator Motor 735 19.