An Overview of

(Integrated Modular
Avionics) IMA Concept
ATA - 42

ATA - 42

PART - A
Why IMA ?
What is IMA?

Why IMA?
 Since the A300
• Increasing number of software controlled systems
 New functionality for performance
• Flight management systems
• Fuel management systems
 New functionality for improved safety
• Flight envelope protection
• Ground proximity warning
• Traffic collision avoidance
 New functionality for improved maintenance
• Aircraft condition monitoring
 New functionality for improved passenger comfort
• Cabin environment control

NKA / 17 Nov 2016 3

Why IMA?  The Indirect Consequences • Every system = 1 or more computers / controllers • Every aircraft type = new computers • Every computer =  Airframe development and management costs • Part number costs • Documentation • More wires • More power • More sources of unreliability • Increased obsolescence risk  Airline impact • Spares • Tooling • Increased fault finding NKA / 17 Nov 2016 4 .

Why IMA? – Traditional LRU  This implies that quantities of maintenance spares be stored for each fleet at different places. including parts obsolescence mitigation and functional upgrades. becomes even more significant for the airlines. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 5 .  During the aircraft life cycle. the cost of modifications.

g. fuel control • Hardware PCBs • Operating System  Manufactured by system supplier • Dedicated wiring for each connection • 100s km cabling per aircraft NKA / 17 Nov 2016 6 .Why IMA? – Traditional LRU  Each computer type is uniquely designed for the system and aircraft • Application software e.

Why IMA? NKA / 17 Nov 2016 7 .

Why IMA?  The response • Integrated Modular Avionics  Concept  Not a specific set of technologies or components • Integration =  Multiple systems applications executed on the same computer  Data communications integrated onto a high speed multiplexed network • Modularity =  A set of standard non system specific computers  Computers that can be configured to provide part of their resources to a particular system application NKA / 17 Nov 2016 8 .

backplane. What is IMA?  IMA Variations / Proprietary Solutions ? • Avionics network  ARINC 429  ARINC 629  AFDX • Avionics computers  Cabinet of modules. gateways • Honeywell AIMS  Cabinet of cards • Honeywell Primus EPIC  Independent modules as LRUs • Honeywell VIA NKA / 17 Nov 2016 9 .

IO • Inter module communications backplane • ARINC 653 Operating System • Originally ARINC 629 • Single supplier …. Gateways. What is IMA?  Cabinet of Modules  Functionality split between Modules: • Power Supply Modules. Processing. for everything • Boeing 777 NKA / 17 Nov 2016 10 .

IO and gateway cards • Proprietary DEOS Operating System • Proprietary backplane • Business and Regional Jets • Embraer. Raytheon. What is IMA?  Card File • Semi open architecture – third party hardware • Processing. Dornier NKA / 17 Nov 2016 11 .

What is IMA?  Independent Modules as “LRU” • Derivative of AIMS – repackaging  Provides processing. IO and PSU in one package NKA / 17 Nov 2016 12 .

ATA .42 PART .B Introduction to IMA. Characteristics and Advantages of IMA .

Wiring.  IMA Concept: • Sharing of Hardware – Many applications sharing same Processing Unit  Reduces cost of Processors. • Critical Objectives of Aeronautics / Space industries are met:  Reduction of Weight. Energy consumption and Cost. Size. I/O etc. INTRODUCTION to IMA  Growing demand for Services and Products + More complex Systems’ Requirements + Larger capacity of Communication and Computation at smaller Costs  from Distributed Architectures to Integrated Architectures. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 14 .

Use of IMA on B777  B777 uses IMA Concept with its ‘Airplane Information Management System (AIMS)’. which combines: • Primary Flight Display • Navigation Display • EICAS (Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System) Display • Flight Planning • Navigation • Performance Management • Airplane and Engine Monitoring • Communication Management • Digital Flight Data Acquisition and Data Conversion Gateway NKA / 17 Nov 2016 15 .

 EXAMPLES: International Space Station (ISS) and B767 Avionics NKA / 17 Nov 2016 16 . Distributed Architectures  Distributed (also called Federated) Architectures: • Use dedicated Computational Modules or Processing Units for each Application.  Each Module hosts one single Application within the Avionics System.

 This breaks the Module into MULTIPLE VIRTUAL COMPUTERS – each one hosting an Application. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 17 . Integrated Architectures  One Module hosts a number of Applications of different criticality levels • Each Application is isolated by a robust Partitioning mechanism specified in ARINC 653 standard.

Integrated Architectures  Partitions working as Multiple Virtual Computers: ARINC 653 NKA / 17 Nov 2016 18 .

ARINC 653 for IMA  ARINC 653 is a Software specification for SPACE and TIME partitioning in the IMA Architecture.  ARINC 653 defines: • How an Operating System must guarantee a robust Spatial (Space) and Temporal (Time) Partitioning • Standardizes Application Programming Interface (API)  API defined by ARINC 653 is called APEX – Application Executive • ARINC 653 provides:  Benefit in terms of Modular Certification  Usage of Commercial Off-The-Shelf Components (COTS) NKA / 17 Nov 2016 19 .

 APEX provides: • Partition Management • Process Management • Memory Management • Time Management • Inter-partition / intra-partition Communication and diagnosis NKA / 17 Nov 2016 20 . APEX – Application Executive  APEX is a general purpose interface between: • Operating System and Application software  With APEX standardized interface: • Hardware platform and Software platform can evolve independently.  Leads to cost-effective upgrades over the life of the system.

Overview of ARINC 653 Architecture NKA / 17 Nov 2016 21 .

IMA Literature Overview  IMA Concept has reached its highest maturity in Aeronautics world. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 22 . • Boeing uses Common Core System (CCS) by GE Aviation.  Runs over 70 separate applications executing at separate SAFETY LEVELS  CCS has resulted in elimination over 100 discrete LRUs and saved approximately 2000 pounds.

airframe manufacturer have a wider range of options. IMA Characteristics  IMA Advantages: • Reduced Size. Power: Reduced Hardware means that the SIZE. Weight. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 23 . COST are reduced • Competitiveness:  Federated Architecture: Supplier of each LRU responsible for entire design (hardware and software). WEIGHT. testing and Certification of the Unit.  Base computing platform and Applications can be chosen from different suppliers. POWER and consequently. implementation. a complete re-certification of entire LRU must be done  IMA Concept: Applications are separated from the Base computing platform by the APEX.  If a NEW functionality is required OR simple change in a line of Software Code.

 Possible to modify a certified system by certifying g only the changes NKA / 17 Nov 2016 24 .  Modules could be produced in large scale. • Incremental Certification: ARINC 653 allows incremental Certification because hardware and software are truly isolated. thereby reducing the COST. IMA Characteristics  IMA Advantages: • Portability and Re-use: APEX intermediate applications and computing platforms. standard modules for common tasks (that could be reused by different functions running on different platforms) could be created.

 In Aviation. IMA Characteristics  IMA Advantages: • Resource Allocation: IMA concept utilize CONFIGURATION Tables to allocate the shared computing resources to the hosted functions. the System integrator has flexibility to dynamically manage Spare resources to each individual hosted function. the resource allocation is not made while system is utilized in service. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 25 . the resource allocation for a given hosted function in the future OR add new hosted functions without the necessity of adding new computing resources. within certain limits. However. because of Certification issues. it can be dynamically re-allocated through updated system configuration data.  By manipulating Configuration table.  System integrator is able to vary.

in the event of failures. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 26 . the system can re-configure its software functions in pre-determined ways.  Modules can adapt to changes in network functioning or operating modes so that. IMA Characteristics  IMA Advantages: • Reconfiguration and Robustness: Modules are Software configurable.

they can be provided by different suppliers. • Resource Allocation and Management • System Configuration Analysis & Generation. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 27 . • This aspect leads to more complex process of integration.  System Integrator must be confident in its ability to perform the integration process: • Increased Interface Definition and Management. IMA Characteristics  IMA Disadvantages • Complex Integration Process: Since base platform and applications are separated.

 IMA results in: • Reduction in Weight. Power consumption and Cost  IMA Architecture use ARINC 653 (Software application) for Partitioning: • Which makes a Processor Unit working as Multiple Virtual Computers – one for each application. Size. • In SPACE and TIME NKA / 17 Nov 2016 28 .  ARINC 653 Partition the Hardware resources. IMA Summary  IMA means: • Integrated Architecture where Processor is shared by many applications.

• Use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Applications / Components from different Suppliers (rather than dedicated designed applications / Components) NKA / 17 Nov 2016 29 . IMA Summary  IMA Concept provides: • Benefit of Modular Certification  Incremental certification of any Upgrade / Software code changes possible.

ARINC 429 b. ARINC 563 c. ARINC 653 NKA / 17 Nov 2016 30 . Integrated Modular Avionics use: a. IMA Review Q.

Have low reliability b. Provide weight saving NKA / 17 Nov 2016 31 . LRU using IMA concept: a. IMA Review Q. Cost more c.

LRU designed using IMA concept a. IMA Review Q. Base module and applications must be from the same manufacturer NKA / 17 Nov 2016 32 . Have dedicated computing and I/O hardware. All applications share the computing and other resources c. b.

Any combination of Aircraft systems NKA / 17 Nov 2016 33 . IMA Review Q. Only Cabin Systems c. IMA concept can be used for a. Only Navigation and Flight Management Systems. b.

Increased with passage of time. IMA Review Q. b. Number of Electronic equipment on board an aircraft: a. Reduced with passage of time c. Remained almost same with passage of time NKA / 17 Nov 2016 34 .

IMA Review Q. a failure in one application does not affect other applications c. In IMA based LRUs: a. There is very high degree of redundancy. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 35 . A fault in one application could adversely affect other applications. ARINC 653 provides software and hardware partitions. b.

Reduced Power (Energy Consumption) e. Reduced Weight d. Reduced Hardware. Advantages of IMA are: a. b. IMA Review Q. All above are correct. Reduced Size c. Reduced Cost f. NKA / 17 Nov 2016 36 .

Thanks for Your Attention !!! NKA / 17 Nov 2016 37 .